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Title: Facts and figures or, The A B C of Florida trucking
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Frontispiece
        Page 148
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Frontispiece
        Page 4
    Preface
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Main
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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< '- a'U G D Tfins BY EXCELLENT-
SREBJUI THEY HAVE OIBTAIPED.WIT;.
-I h itro Bordo-Pilp a concentrated Bordeaulmixture, fuse where fun-
Sgicide aldne is.requie.d.
Electro Borde-tc ad M ore combined insecticide .and Jungicia4ide ix-
.ture of Eleqtro Bordo-Pulp and
e tro Arsenate of Lead
"T: pftromiesCiad Safest #rsenate of Lead Male
tr y P idbSre AM nidte LEad i the only arsenate of lead in
house 4noo-Jrant )4arn. One 4eaon why it sticks so firmly to foeage.
ix4insanlly.with water or-can be used as a dust.. By mixing it with our
I Ground" Sutrui' di.r cotmbined ineclicie and fungicjdian ble b-
r tests by N.-J. and C. AXri. Ezper.. Stations, which prove the superiority ALlitro
to of Lead,+ AIs write for b.v fteiet
S.. : SPItAYNG SIMP Fl. "
the most oTprehesi te and complete tookibt on asrayvisever issued. -,,
e Vreelan iChemical Co., 54 huarch Street, New York
uaseern and ForiAt Distribators of the Trootman Orchok and Ground
Cro, Hester, for frost Preation

E TRUTH ABOUT LORIDA

to knbw ani wl]arto avoid. Cultural and ket. inforra-
>. aQuestiqfs. answered specifically aid ft thfully.
Silpi yAii e tit th 'gr-ower'or.the person .
S w t invest in P16rda.laqds.
J E .* -. .F.. ; A' *
STHE I FLOMIDA GROWER
,-'EEKC 100l A YEAR. MONTHLY, 50 CENTS A YEAR
THREE TRlAL ISSUES, 10 CENTS

Mr. C H. Kennery is a contributor to the Grower and
S. recommends it. Address


.:. o 407..Pala. Street, Tam ,. Fla.


LOIrrDA COLLECTOR







TAKE NOTICE!
S Be sure to address all Letters and Orders to
C. H. KENNERLY
(Seedsman) PALATKA, FLA.
Do not send them to Kennerly's Seed Co., or to Kennerly's
Seed Store, if you wish me to get them.
C. H. KENNERLY, The Seedsman
I "-







PACTS AHB RH URES

OR


The A B


C of


Florida Trucking






By C. H: KENNERLY



Price $1.00




THE RECORD COMPANY
St. Augustine, Fla.
1911











635;6o 7-e


LIBRARY
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


Copyright, 1911,
by
C. H, Kennerlv.


REVISED EDITION






TABLE OF CONTENTS.
CHAPTER. PAGE.
I. Soil ....................... .......... 9
II. Preparation of the Soil .......................... 12
III. Seed and General Direction for Planting........... 14
IV. Irrigation .............. ....... ............. 17
'V. Implements ..................................... 28
VI. Fertilizing ......................... ............ 35
VII. Seed Beds ............ ................. 38
VIII. Marketing Your Crops .................. ..... 42
IX. How to Grow Four Crops to the Acre............. 43
X. Culture of Lettuce ........................... .. 49
XI. Culture of Celery .............................. 57
XII. Culture of Tomatoes ............................ 64
XIII. Culture of Cabbage, Cauliflower and Collards..... 70
XIV. Culture of Irish Potatoes .... .............. 74
XV. Culture of Sweet Potatoes ...................... 80
XVI. Culture of Cucumbers ............................ 82
XVII. Culti.re of M elons ................... .. .... ... 88
XVIII. Culture of Squash .................. ....... ... 94
XIX. Culture of Carrots ............. ... .......... 95
XX. Culture of Peas ............................ 97
XXI. Culture of Beans ............. ............. 101
XXII. Culture of Okra ........... .. ............... 105
XXIII. Culture of Pepper ................ ............ 107
XXIV. Culture of Onions ..................... .. ..... 109
XXV. Culture of Sweet Corn .................. ........ 115
XXVI. Culture of Egg Plants ......................... 119
XXVII. Culture of Florida Cranberry ................... 123
XXVIII. T Culture of Strawberry .......................... 124
XXIX. Culture of Forage Crops ......................... 126
XXX. A Few Crops for the Home Garden...............133
XXXI. Formulas for Insecticides ........................ 135
XXXII. Useful Tables .......... .................138













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Ilymoe.-s on


mU. ItLluer y rt









PREFACE.


.There has hardly been a day during the past year that
I have not received two or three inquiries from parties who
have either just moved to Florida or anticipated moving,
each one desiring information on this subject, the majority
asking if there was not some authority which they could gpt
in book form that would help them with their trucking
problems. I endeavored in each case to give them the in-
formation asked for, but could not refer them to any work
on. this subject, as there had not been a book written at the
time which treated truck farming in all sections of the State.
It was mainly for the benefit of these new settlers that I
decided to write this book. I do not claim to know it all
about trucking, but, as the greater part of my life has been
spent in farming and in the seed business, I hope that I may
be able to give some information which will be of assistance
to them in making a success of their trucking venture. Let
me say right here, that if there is any point in this book
which is not plain to my readers, or any other information
they desire,: I want them to feel that they are privileged to
write me and I will cheerfully help them to the best of my
ability. When writing address me, care of Kennerly's Seed
Store, Palatka, Florida.
Wishing you the best of success, I am,
Yours very truly,

:.. . .. KNNERIY.












































A r..iti H-nlni Ck









INTRODUCTION.


The greatest opportunity in Florida is offered in the line
of agriculture or vegetable raising. You will find other
occupations filled to the limit. There is hardly a day during
the entire year that the Florida farmers cannot be growing
or harvesting some crop. As to the markets for this pro-
duce, there are hundreds, yes, thousands of cities through-
out the country that never see Florida produce on the
markets. The reason for this is that the larger markets
consume the entire output. The growers will find that as
the supply of Florida vegetables increase, new markets will
open up for them. The newcomer into Florida must realize
that the methods of planting and cultivation differ in this
State from any other section of the country, and to make
a success of trucking in Florida you will have to farm
according to the methods in vogue here. I will endeavor
to give you complete direction for each crop, will also give
you an idea of the different kinds of implements required.
The heavy teams and machinery used in the North and
West are worse than useless here. We use lighter and less
expensive tools, as the work is done on a smaller scale, and
is properly described as intensive farming. An acre in the
North which will yield $25.00 worth of produce may be
made to produce $150.00 worth of potatoes here, $300.00
in cabbage, or perhaps $500.00 in onions, cauliflower, or cu-
cumbers. The Sanford growers make as high as $1,000.00
per acre on celery and lettuce. I am inserting a clipping
taken from The Florida Times-Union, under date of Janu-
ary 1, 1911, showing what vegetables actually sold for in
Sanford this season:
"The growers of Sanford celery delta are very jubilant






over the continued high prices for lettuce, peppers and
English peas. Sanford lettuce is selling now for $5 per
hamper. Mr. Berry shipped some green peppers on which
he realized $12 per crate. English peas are now bringing
$15 per hamper. Single crops are now realizing from $500
to $1,500 per acre net to the growers. Mr. Hawkins sold
three acres of lettuce to a commission man for $1,800. The
last named party has sold $6,500 worth off the three acres
and has some $800 worth still to be harvested from this
small acreage."
The figures given in this book are conservative, as you
will find out by making inquiries in the different trucking
sections.
If you will come to Florida and give your farm the same
careful study and work you would have to give any other
business you are bound to succeed.









Facts and Figures or the A B C

of Florida Trucking


CHAPTER I.

SOIL.

To grow good vegetables, field crops or fruit in Florida
or anywhere else, you must have good soil, but it is not a
Shard matter to find this in all parts of the State.
I am going to divide Florida land, suitable for successful
truck growing into three classes-the pine land, the prairie
or muck land, and the hammock land. The principal thing
to watch in selecting your tract is to see that it is underlaid
with clay, marl or hard pan; clay or marl is preferred, but if
the hardpan is down about fourteen to eighteen inches, it will
work to perfection. The value of this bottom to the land
is to hold the moisture and keep the fertilizer from washing
down too deep, out of reach of.the plants' roots or feeders.
The prairie and hammock land are best, as they contain
some fertilizing elements, particularly nitrogen or ammonia,
from decayed vegetable matter. You will find some ham-
mock and muck land containing all the nitrogen your crops
will require for the first year or two, and if they do, all you
have to supply will be the potash and phosphoric acid that
the crops will need. One thing I want to impress upon
you is that no matter how rich your land is, if you keep
planting it, without putting back the elements the plants are
drawing out you will soon exhaust it.





FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


The pine land, you might say, does not contain anything
but acidity, but if you will pick pine land, with a good
bottom as described above, remove this acidity, as directed
in the chapter on preparation of land, irrigate, fertilize and
work it, you can raise excellent crops. I am speaking
from personal experience, as my own farm is all pine land,
underlaid with hardpan, and not extra select pine land at
that, and I have raised as good vegetables as were ever
shipped out of Florida. Another matter that it might be
well to speak of here, is that in a lot of Florida pine land
you find spots where the hard pan is very close to the sur-
face, and on this class of soil it will be impossible to raise
any crops until you build up the top-layer. This can be done
in different ways: You can haul muck or hammock soil and
put on it, or you can cover it with stable manure, putting
it on from two to four inches thick, and plowing in, but you
will have to be careful not to plow deep enough to turn up
the hard pan. Another good method to follow is to plant the
land in cowpeas or velvet beans and turn them under. After
you get this class of land built up, the chances are it will
be the best piece you have.

ROOT KNOT.
It might be a good idea to say a word here about this
disease. You will find it only on land that has been in
cultivation for several seasons. It is caused by a minute
in- 't which can only be seen with the aid of a microscope.
This insect causes small knots to form on the roots of the
plants, and in some cases ruins the crop, and in others it
keeps them from making as perfect specimens as they would
on land not infested with it. There are two exceptions
to this rule--they are carrots and crabgrass, which are
immune to its attack and are one of the remedies for getting
rid of the pest. If you will plant your land in these crops







A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING 11

for several seasons you will starve the insect out. The other
remedy is to leave the land idle for two or three years. The
following vegetables can be grown on infested land and
make fair crops: cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, tomatoes and
beets, but okra, cucumbers, cantaloupes and watermelons
cannot be grown on it. This disease is usually distributed
by plants grown on infested land, therefore, if the trucker
will be careful not to plant any diseased plants, he should
not be bothered with it. You will never find new land
infested with it, therefore 'it should not worry any one
clearing or planting this class of land, only using the pre-
cautions I have advised, to see that he does not bring it
from some infested tract.







FACTS AND FIGURES-OR THE


CHAPTER II.

PREPARATION OF THE SOIL.
This, I consider, the most important subject for the truck
farmer, as everything depends on having the land in a
perfect condition. You can have it irrigated, use all the
high grade fertilizer your crops can take up, have fine,
healthy plants, but if the land is not in the proper shape,
your time, labor and fertilizer will be lost.
The first thing to do after you have looked up the title
to your land is to put up a good hog and cattle-proof fence,
the American Steel and Wire Co. make an excellent one. If
the land has trees on it, you will have to cut these down, sav-
ing the best ones to make posts for the fence. Next, remove
the stumps, either by pulling them out with a stump puller,
blowing them out with dynamite, or burning them out.
After you have these removed, take out all the roots, as it
is from them, particularly the palmetto roots, that the land
is kept acid. When you have all the roots removed, it is
time to put in the tile for sub-irrigation, if you wish to
use this system (see chapter on Irrigation). Next, plow the
land several times, both ways, as deeply as the soil will
allow without turning up the subsoil. Now give the land
an application of lime or Canadian hardwood ashes, to
remove the acidity. Either one will answer, but I prefer
the ashes, as they seem to give better results, making up for
the difference in price in the quality and yield of the crop
raised. If you use lime, get the air-slacked, applying about
1,500 pounds to the acre; if you use ashes apply from a ton
to a ton and a half to the acre. Both are applied broadcast
and harrowed not plowed in. Do not use lime or ashes on
land you wish to plant in Irish potatoes, as the acidity in
the soil seems to keep the fungus in check that causes potato-






A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


scab. In a week or two after you have applied either the
lime or ashes, you are ready to put on the fertilizer, using
the kind suited to the particular crop you wish to plant,
either broadcasting or drilling it in furrows, as advised in the
directions for growing the crop you are planting. Always
harrow fertilizer in the ground, when it is broadcasted
instead of plowing it in, for if it is plowed in, it will be
down so deep the plant's roots or feeders cannot find it. If
the land is well drained and can be planted on the level, it
is a good idea to go over it with a board drag to level and
pack it before planting. If you are planting on beds or ridges
do not use the drag, unless they are three feet or more
wide, but level as best you can with rakes, and use a roller
on the seed drill to'pack the soil as the seed are planted.
These rollers come on all reliable makes of seed drills.
If you will prepare your land as directed here, plowing
it as much as possible-it will be impossible to plow and
harrow new land too much have it irrigated, give the
plants what work and careful treatment they require, you
will not have any trouble in making excellent crops.







FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


CHAPTER III.

SEED AND GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING.
To make a success of growing vegetables for shipment,
you must not only plant the varieties suited to the Florida
soil and climate, but you must know the kinds that sell best
on the markets you intend using, and plant accordingly.
I have tried to give you all of the leading varieties planted
for shipping to distant markets, also those for the home
garden and local markets.
Another point that truckers do not pay enough attention
to, is, be sure the seed you wish to plant is suited to this
part of the country. Some truckers think if they buy a
certain variety of seed that it will give the same results,
no matter where the seed is grown, but such is not the
case. Take, for instance, corn. If we are planting field corn
and should happen to buy seed that is grown in the North
or West, we will not get near the results that we would if
we had planted Southern grown stock. But sweet corn is
entirely different; if we want the finest sweet corn, plant
Connecticut grown stock. Then, again, take Bermuda onion
seed-a great many seed men tell us that California grown
Bermuda onion seed is equally as good for planting in this
part of the country as the genuine Teneriffe grown stock,
but such is not the case, as the California grown seed of this
variety will prove a complete failure, but if you wish to plant
the Australian Globe, Silver Skin or the Prizetaker, the
California grown seed is excellent. If you do not under-
stand the seed problem, buy from some good reliable South-
ern seed house which does.
In planting seed always plant about double the amount
you think you will need to produce the number of plants it
will require to plant your own acreage, for no matter how







A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


fine grade of seed you buy there are always conditions that
have to be met in growing the plants that may ruin half of
them, and you can usually buy three pounds of seed for
what several thousand plants would cost you, and then again
when you raise the plants yourself you know what stock you
have, and this is not always the case when you have to buy
them. If you do plant more seed than you will need for
your requirements, and have eight or ten thousand left over
you can, always sell them, and I have often paid for my
entire lot of seed from the surplus plants. If you are living
in a farming community, try raising a few plants for sale.
There is money in this business for you, as someone is
always needing plants. It is not only a clean, pretty busi-
ness, but you get your money out of it in one or two months.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING.

I have tried in each culture to give you the time for
planting the different crops, but it is impossible to give you
directions that will apply to your special case, as there are
some localities that have more natural protection than others,
and in these the farmers can plant at least two weeks
to a month earlier than their neighbors who are not so
fortunate. I doubt if there is a State in the Union where
the climate in the different parts of it vary as much'as it
does here. There is as much difference between the climate
of Northern and Southern Florida in the winter as there
is between North Florida and Virginia. Make inquiries
among the old truckers in your locality, and they will be
able to give you the exact time for planting the different
crops.





































Fig 1







A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


CHAPTER IV.

IRRIGATION.
The expression, "You never miss the water until the well
goes dry," certainly applies here, even though we have an
average rainfall of over fifty inches. The Florida farmer
who has not put in irrigation does not see the value of it
until he has a fine crop of vegetables dying from the want of
water; then he realizes too late that he could more than have
paid for an irrigation plant with this one crop.
It is only when crops are short that the growers realize
extra high prices, and the dry weather we sometimes have
is one of the causes of vegetables being scarce and high.
If you have; your land irrigated you profit by a drouth, if
not, you are the loser. So you can readily see it pays to
irrigate, for you are not only more certain of making a crop,
but you always get a larger yield and a better quality of
vegetables.
There are three systems of irrigation in use in Florida.
One, the sub-irrigation, which consists of carrying the water
under the surface of the ground, in parallel rows of 3-inch
tile. This tiling is laid in narrow ditches, sixteen to eighteen
inches deep, with a fall of about two inches to the hundred
feet. A cut of this tiling is shown in figure number one.
After the tiling is laid in these ditches, with the ends pressed
together as closely as possible, cover with about six inches
of wood cinders or sawdust; this will allow the water to
either come out of the joints, or go into them when the tile
acts as a drain, without the sand seeping in; cover the
cinders or sawdust with dirt, packing it down well. The
distance between the rows of tile varies according to the soil;
in sandy loam twenty-four foot rows give excellent results,







18 FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE







A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


but if the soil contains much clay, place them about twenty
feet apart.
If you will refer to figure number two, you will see I
have given you a rough sketch of how this system is put in.
The first thing to do is to lay the head row, which extends
from the water supply, on one end, which is usually an
artesian well, to a ditch on the other. This row is usually
made out.of 4- or 6-inch sewer pipe, the joints cemented
together. The irrigating ditches run in opposite directions
from the head row, between these and the head row we put
in a tiling box as shown in figure number one, only this
figure does not show the hole cut in the side of 'the box for
the sewer pipe to fit in. You can readily see: that water
going into the head row and running through 'these boxes
can be turned into as few or as many rows 'as desired, so
that you can either irrigate all of the field or a part of it at
a time. The lower end of these tiling rows empty into a
ditch which carries off the surplus water. Between the ditch
and the head'row are placed stop boxes. I have shown one of
these (figure number three), with the front out, so you can
see the partition which is used for damming~ the water up to
any required level. For instance, if we plug, up hole number
one, it dams the water up all along the row, of tiling from
this box to the head row as high as hole fiumber tivo; if we
plug holes numbered oneand two, it forces the water up
as high as hole number three. If we wish to overflood the
land, which is sometimes done in setting plants, plug up all
three of the holes, forcing the water up over the parti-
tion. You will note in row A and D we have a bucket box
in each, which is double the size of the ordinary stop boxes;
the reason for this is that when setting plants you will need
a great many buckets of water, and it is best to have these
boxes that are large enough to get a bucket into, scattered


_







FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE







A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


throughout the field, to keep from having to go back to the
well each time for the water. The head row should always
be run along the highest part of the field. This system is
used very extensively in the Sanford section and gives per-
fect satisfaction. It cost about $75 per-acre to install it.
Another system of irrigation consists, of running the
water on top of the ground along the side of the vegetable
rows, and last, but not least, the Skinner or overhead system.
I must confess that even though I use the sub-irrigation
on my own farm, that if I were to put in any more irriga-
tion, it would be the Skinner system. But I will leave the
explanation of this to Mr. T. F. Holdbrook, manager of
the Skinner Irrigation Company of Florida, who was kind
enough to write a special article on-it for use in this book.
If you cannot afford either the Skinner or sub-irrigation,
then run the water along the side-bf the rows, in a shallow
ditch or trench. This style of irrigation is practiced in the
Hastings section and the farmers are well pleased with it,
as they get perfect results from their crops. ,If you use this
system you should have a uniform fall of about three inches
to the.hundred feet, and you 'will find you get better results
if you turn the water into these trenches every five or six
days, then in two or three days after give the field a thorough
working.
SKINNER IRRIG.\TION.
The Skinner system of irrigation, which is so largely
used in Florida, has been developed to a point where it is
probably the most complete and perfect method of watering
yet devised.
The efforts of the Skinner Irrigation Company have been
directed toward developing an equipment which would prove
an absolute uniformity of distribution in a manner best
adapted to the fullest development of the crop and by such







FAC7S AND FIGURES OR THE


Skinner- Irrigation System







A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


a method that would place within the hands of the user an
absolute control of his water distribution. Not only has this
been accomplished, but the more recent installations of the
Skinner Irrigation System have entirely eliminated the labor
required in irrigation. Inasmuch as no other system has
ever been devised which has proved these essentials, a de-
scription of the Skinner system and the conditions which
demand such a method of watering are worthy of considera-
tion.
Probably few growers realize the importance of water-
ing; but scientific men, who have investigated.this problem,
are authority for the statement that from 80 to 95 per cent.
of every growing crop is water. This means that at least
four-fifths of every vegetable which is placed on the market
is simply water. It is also worthy of note that from 270 to
600 pounds of water is taken up by the plant and breathed
into the air for every pound of solid matter that is added to
the plant. These statements are surprising, but they have
been verified to a degree which removes all elements of
uncertainty regarding their proof. Inasmuch as this is true
it emphasizes the importance of the correct application and
distribution of water and explains the fact that the irrigated
crop yields returns from 200 to 500 per cent above the
returns which can be secured from crops which depend
solely upon rainfall.
The users of the Skinner system in Florida state that
on cabbage, which possibly is regarded as the least suscept-
ible to drought, the average unirrigated crop is possibly
worth $150.00 per acre, whereas the average crop irrigated
with the Skinner system is worth about $500 per acre. With
crops, such as celery and other valuable products, the com-
parison is even more forcible, and the experience of celery
growers of a year ago has brought out the fact that the







FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


celery crop grown under the Skinner system matured from
three to four weeks earlier and a proportionately larger
yield than the crops which were irrigated by sub-irrigation
methods, with the result that they brought a proportionately
higher price.
The Skinner system consists of a series of lateral pipes
approximately fifty feet 'apart extending over a field. In
these pipes are inserted nozzles from three to four feet apart,
the nozzles being arranged in a row with absolute uni-
formity, this work being accomplished by means of a drilling
machine designed and patented by the Skinner Irrigation
Company.
All special fittings required by this installation have been
developed and patented by the Skinner Irrigation Company,
and are devised in a manner to secure the best results aid
most permanent life. Recently there has been developed a
device for rotating these lines from a point in the field, oper-
ating them not only together, but in unison. This saves a
large amount of labor and secures a uniformity of water
distribution not obtainable when each line is operated in-
dependently.
One of the most recent developments brought out by the
Skinner Company is an automatic turning machine driving
the pumping engine, which rotates the pipes uniformly and
in unison, eliminating altogether the labor involved in irri-
gating. In some sections of the country, where the Skinner
system developed to meet special conditions, there has been
added an equipment for spraying the entire acreage with
fungicides, insecticides and commercial fertilizers. A plot
of ten acres can be sprayed in five minutes' time, and the
work is done better than is possible by hand. A heating
device has also been added for raising the temperature of
the water in order to secure the fullest degree of frost pro-



















































G 'o ,...g Celery with the Skinner System


~







FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


tection. This feature is especially valuable, and it has been
demonstrated that during the last winter, in Texas, crops
have been brought through a three days' freeze accompanied
by a high wind when the thermometer reached a point 16
below freezing.
The Skinner system costs $150 to $250 per acre to
install. It provides a means of water distribution whereby
every inch of soil receives the same amount of water. With
this system earlier maturity of the crop is secured; the labor
of irrigating is eliminated; frost protection is provided, and
every inch of soil can be made to produce the maximum
crops. Growers are beginning to realize the importance of
the correct water distribution, and it is needless to state
that in the growing sections, where high priced crops are
produced, as is thecase in Florida, there is not a crop or a
season when the increased returns, as the result of irrigation
bymeans of the Skinner system, will not pay the entire cost
of the system. Many growers who have irrigated only a
part of their acreage have reached the conclusion that it is
not profitable for them to grow crops outside of the irrigated
acreage.
The Skinner system can be seen in use throughout the
entire State of Florida, as well as in all truck-growing sec-
tions of the United States. Its practicability is demon-
strated, and although its use originally was intended simply
to protect against drought, yet, in more recent experience,
it has been shown. that the application of water in correct
amounts and at proper times, is a most essential factor in
producing the best crops with the earliest maturity, and
which will obtain the highest market prices.
T. F. HOLDBROOK.





A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


Li ~


-lw


N j0.







FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


CHAPTER V.

IMPLEMENTS.

As I have said in a previous chapter, the farming imple-
ments used in Florida differ from those used in other parts
of the country, therefore, I think, it a good plan to give
my readers some idea of the different implements they will
need.
The first one you will have to buy will be a good horse
plow, the style shown in cut number 1 works to perfection
in our sandy soil. Of course, you understand, a great deal
of the cultivation on the intensive truck farms is done with
hand plows, but you will have to prepare the land and lay
the furrows off with a horse plow.
Cut number 2 shows an Acme harrow. This I consider
the best harrow on the market for leveling and pulverizing
the land, also for harrowing fertilizer in after it is broad-
casted.
The Iron Age horse cultivator, as shown in cut number 3,
is one of the best implements for working the crops which
require being worked with a horse cultivator. The beauty
of this implement is you can use it in nearly any width row.
as the levers make the frame wider or narrower as you wish.
You can also regulate the depth the teeth go in the soil by
another lever.
Cut number 4 is one of the handiest tools on the market
for the Florida truck farmer. It is a fertilizer drill that not
only distributes the fertilizer in the row, but regulates the
quantity so you can apply any desired amount. If you wish
to plant any kind of small seed or peas and beans, get a
seed. drill or a combination seed drill and cultivator as
rhown in cut number 5. This combination tool can be used
.fther as a plow and cultivator, or as a seed drill.






A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


The hand plow, as shown in cut number 6, is an indis-
pensable tool to any truck grower, who is raising crops -


No. 4
which require being worked with a hand plow. This cut
shows a double wheel plow, but either a double or a single


No 5
wheel plow will give satisfaction. If I had only money
enough to buy three implements for my truck farm, the
first one would be a single horse plow, the second an Acme
harrow and the third a hand plow.
The cultivator, as shown in cut number 7, is a tool which
can be used in two ways. You can either remove the handle






FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


from it and bolt it onto a hand plow, or use it on the handle
as shown in the cut. In the Sanford section you will find


No. 6


al:out four out of every five growers using
attached to their hand plows.


this cultivator


No. 7


In cut numiiher 8 w'e have
a hand weeder which is
made on the same principle
as the hand cultivator o"ly
on a miniature scale. Tt
makes an excellent tool for
working small plants in the
home garden, or for use in
the seed bed.










A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


No. 9


No. 10


j.!



:







FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


I have recommended in nearly every culture in this book,
to spray the crop for either insects or fungous diseases. If
you are growing potatoes, beans, cabbage, cauliflower, etc.,
extensively, you should buy a Four Row sprayer as shown
in cut number 11. This particular make and style of machine
las been given a thorough test by leading Florida truckers,
and found to be an ideal one. If you are only planting on
a small scale the compressed air sprayer, as shown in cut
number 10, will answer all purposes.
The potato planter, as shown in cut number 9, is made
especially for planting in Florida, where ridges are used. It
is used extensively in the potato growing sections and gives
perfect satisfaction. If you are going to plant potatoes
extensively, one of these planters will soon pay for itself.


















1NO. 11
Cut number 12 shows a disc harrow, which should also
especially appeal to the potato grower, as it is this tool which
is used for making up the potato beds or ridges.




A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


The Cole corn planter, as shown in cut number 13, is
one which any farmer who plants a large acreage of corn
cannot well do without. It not only plants the corn more




FI4rI


No. 12
accurately than it can be done by hand, but in just half the
time. This planter is so arranged that by changing a disc
in the bottom of the seed can, you may plant the corn about


No. 13
any distance you desire. This machine can be bought with
or without a fertilizing attachment.
2-K.






FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


The double-row marker as shown in cut number 14, is
used to mark off the rows where seed or plants are to be
planted. One side of this marker makes rows one width, and


No. 14
the other side another width. For instance, if you are plant-
ing lettuce, and wish the rows eighteen inches apart, and
the plants set twelve inches apart in the row, make the
marker with the teeth on one side of it eighteen inches and
on the other twelve inches apart. Stretch a line tightly, the
length you wish the rows, the outside tooth of the marker
is set against it, and the marker drawn to the end of the row,
the other rows are marked from these." The distance in the
row is made by marking diagonally across these rows al-
ready made, using the twelve-inch side of the marker.






A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


CHAPTER VI.

FERTILIZING.

As this book is written more for the benefit of those not
experienced in Florida trucking, I am not going to recom-
mend your mixing the fertilizer for your crops, for even
after you have had experience in the business, unless you
plant A very large acreage, you will find it will pay you
better to buy ready mixed brands. I have tried to give you
an analysis suited to each vegetable which you will be able
to buy ready mixed from any of the large fertilizer factories
in the State, and their mixtures must be good, as a majority
of the most successful truckers in Florida are using them. I
have used fertilizer from the following firms, and found
their brands all they claimed them to be: The E. O. Painter
Fertilizer Co., Independent Fertilizer Co., Armour Fertilizer
Co., and Chas. Tyson & Co., all of Jacksonville, Florida,
and Ocala Fertilizer Co., Ocala, Florida. Any of these will
be glad to give you information concerning their goods and
assist you in any way possible with your fertilizing problems.
A large majority of the most successful growers in the
different trucking sections use at least a ton of fertilizer
to the acre for each crop, and in addition, a ton of Cana-
dian hardwood ashes, and they make it pay. If you are
stingy with your crops, they will be stingy with you in their
yield.
A complete fertilizer must contain the following ele-
ments: nitrogen or ammonia, phosphoric acid and potash.
For shipping crops you will find that you will get better
results if the fertilizer contains a good per cent. of potash,
as it is this element that gives the vegetables strength to
stand up under their long journey to market,






FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


When you decide what crop you wish to plaht, find what
kind of fertilizer is suited to make it to perfection, and give
it just what it needs.
Stable and barnyard fertilizers are excellent for most
crops, if mixed with sufficient potash and phosphoric acid,
as they are a little weak in these two important elements.
You cannot use too much of them, but it will not pay you to
buy stable fertilizer unless you can get it delivered at your
farm for $2 per double team load or less. If you save stable
fertilizer from your own yards, be sure to see that the
pen you store it in has a good cover, as the sun and rain
take all the strength out of it. If you can gather oak leaves
convenient to your place and compost them with the stable
manure, it makes an excellent fertilizer, but you cannot
afford to buy them.
Do not take vegetable matter of any kind off of your
land, but let it die and plow it under as it all helps to make
the soil rich. Cowpeas, velvet beans, rape, vetch and corn
stalks are all good. One thing that I should say right here
is that in plowing under vegetable matter do not turn any-
thing under that shows the least sign of disease, but pull
it up and burn it-the quicker the better.
I know many of my readers who are not experienced
in farming as practiced here, will think I recommend using
too much fertilizer, and in order to prove it will pay to feed
your crops well I will give a little example. Suppose we
plant an acre of lettuce, using 1,000 pounds of fertilizer
at a cost of $17.00, the labor and other expenses of raising
the crop amounts to $50.00; we get a yield of four hundred
crates that sell for $1 per crate f. o. b. our station; this
will net us a profit of $333.00. Now, if we plant the same
acre in lettuce and use a ton of fertilizer at a cost of $34,
under the same growing conditions, the yield will not be








A B C. OF FLORIDA TRUCKING 37

less than six hundred crates to the acre, and the cost of
labor and other expenses will be the same or even less; for
it is easier and cheaper to grow a well fertilized crop than
a poorly fertilized one. This lettuce sells for the same price
of $1 per crate, netting us a profit of $516.00. Now, we
have a profit from one acre of $333.00 and on the other of
$516.00, a difference of $183.00. If any of my readers can
tell me where I can exchange $17.00 for $183.00, I would
like to have them do so at once. Ask yourself if it pays to
fertilize.

"Feed your crops well and they will feed you well."

AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FARM
MANURES.
Phosphoric
FARM MANURES. Nitrogen Ammonia Potash Acid(P2Os)
(K20) Total
Cow manure (fresh).... 0.34 0.41 0.40 0.16
Horse manure fresh).... 0.58 0.70 0.53 0.28
Sheep manure (fresh).. 0.83 1.00 0.67 0.23
Hog manure (fresh).... 0.45 0.54 0.60 0.19
Hen dung (fresh)...... 1.63 1.98 0.85 1.54
Mixed stable manure.... 0.50 0.60 0.63 0.26





FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


CHAPTER VII.

SEED BEDS.
To raise good crops, you must have good plants. There-
fore, it is very important to prepare the seed bed land in
the best manner possible. They should be on land that has
not been in cultivation over two years or on new land. Of
course, you can raise plants on the same land for five or ten
years, but you will not get the results you can from one-
or two-year-old land. Try and have the beds close to the
house or barn, as plants demand constant attention, and if
left to themselves for any length of time are apt to ruin;
also have them convenient to the well, as they require plenty
of water. Give the seed bed tract from one to two tons of
Canadian hardwood ashes, and from 1,000 to 1,500 pounds
of fertilizer to the acre. The fertilizers should analyze
about as follows: Ammonia, 6%; available phosphoric acid,
8%; potash, 2%. Always have the fertilizer you use on the
seed bed containing a high per cent. of ammonia, as plants
should be grown in a hurry. You will find some plants
require more fertilizer than the amount just given; for
instance, celery, which needs at least a ton to the acre. A
good rule to follow is to decide just how much fertilizer you
expect to use in the field where the plants are to be set when
taken from the seed bed, and put about half this quantity
in the seed bed, as you must always have the field richer
than the bed you take the plants from or the crop will not
pay for transplanting, much less for the seed and fertilizer.
Make the beds just wide enough to reach across, and as
long as you wish. You will find some of the most progres-
sive truck growers using about 500 pounds of castor pomace
to the'acre, applying it as the beds are made up. This is
a cheap grade of fertilizer which is poison to the cut worms,







A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


and as they do more damage to young plants than all the
other insects put together, I really think it is a good idea to
use it. Another point I should add here is never use
cotton seed meal as a fertilizer on any land that you wish
to grow plants on, as there is nothing the cut worm likes
better than cotton seed meal. If you wish to protect the
plants in cold weather drive a row of stakes down the
middle of the bed about five feet apart, having one at each
end. Run a heavy wire on the top of these stakes, stretch-
ing it tight. Put up ten or twelve-inch boards, all round
the bed, standing them on edge, and drive 10d nails in them,
about every three feet. Stretch a cover of either canvas
or duck over the wire and fasten it to these nails by heavy
strings.
DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING A HOT BED.
The problem of raising plants in a hot bed need not
worry the trucker in the southern part of the State. In
the northern and central portions, such plants as tomatoes,
peppers and egg plants, when planted in November, Decem-
ber and January, will have to be grown in hot beds. To
grow these plants in the southern portion of the State
during the months named, all that is necessary is to protect
the beds as advised in the article on seed beds. In selecting
a place for the hot bed, try to get a piece of medium high
land as it is necessary to dig a pit nine inches deep under the
bed. If the land is very low, first make up a bed about eight
feet wide and four feet longer than you wish to make the
hot bed, building the frame on top of this. Sash make the
best covering for this purpose. The frame should be as
wide as the sash are long, which is six feet. The length
of the frame depends upon the quantity of seed that are to
be planted. Make the bed as air tight as possible, running
it from east to west, and sloping it towards the south. The





FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


back or northern side of the frame is usually about eighteen
inches high, and the south side from ten to twelve inches
high. Dig out three inches of the top soil, place this to one
side, next dig out six inches more, banking. it against the
frame around the outside. Put about six inches of fresh
stable fertilizer in the bottom of the pit, wet it thoroughly
and pack down. Over this spread the top soil, which you
first removed from the bed, leveling and pulverizing it with
a rake. Now the bed is ready for fertilizing and planting.
It is necessary to keep the hot bed thoroughly moist,' from
the time the seeds are planted until the plants are removed
from it. Try to keep the temperature about 80 degrees in
the bed. If you find it is getting too hot prop up some of
the sash.






4 B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


CHAPTER VIII.

MARKETING YOUR CROPS.

No matter how fine a crop you raise, unless you make
some money out of it, your time and labor are lost.
The principal thing it is to put your vegetables up in the
best shape possible. Grade them very carefully. Pack in
standard crates and be sure to have the crates clean. You
will find the most successful truckers put their produce up
in first-class shape. The majority have a trade mark for
their fancy stock, and you will find it advisable to do like-
wise; but under no conditions pack anything but extra fancy
stock under it. If you will do this, it will not be long before
-you will have a reputation worked up on your brand, and
can get a good price when other stock not so carefully grad-
ed is hardly bringing freight charges. Choice produce put
up in first-class shape will bring more money than extra
fancy stock that is put up in a shoddy manner. It is best
to try and plant enough of one kind of vegetable to be able
to load a car, for if you have good stock and can load cars,
straight or mixed, you can nearly always sell them f. o. b.
your station, which is much more satisfactory than consign-
ing your shipments. I always make it a point to sell f. o. b.
my station when possible, even taking twenty-five cents a
crate less than the market is offering, for if you take chances
and ship, you run the risk of your shipments going into
market in a poor condition, or having the market drop be-
fore they arrive. If you can not plant a large enough
acreage to ship this way, get several of your neighbors to
go in with you, each planting the same vegetable at the same
time, so that when they are matured you can pool the lot.
Find one or two good commission houses on each market,
and when you find a good one stick to it, no matter what kind





FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


of "hot air" some drummer tries to give you. Stick to the
people who have treated you right. Now, a word as to com-
mission men. Don't think all commission merchants are
rascals; of course, there are a great many in this business,
as it offers a fine field for the rascal, but you will find the
majority of them perfectly reliable. Don't take it for granted
because a house writes you on swell stationery, or their repre-
sentatives are nice fellows, and treat you fine, that they are
honest; look every house up before you deal with them; the
honest houses want to be looked up.
There are some vegetables you can ship by freight, such
as Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, melons, onions, tomatoes
and cabbage; but lettuce, celery, okra, cucumbers, egg
plants, cauliflower, pepper, cantaloupes, strawberries, sweet
corn and beets will either have to be shipped by refrigerator
cars or by express. It is always best to ship in refrigerator
cars, as your vegetables are sure to carry in perfect condition.
If possible, form an association at your point, elect your
most competent men officers, and let them ship or sell all
the produce raised there. If you will do this and get a repu-
tation of putting up first-class packages, you will soon have
the buyers hunting you instead of your having to hunt them.
Put up a good grade of produce, sell f. o. b. your station
is possible, if not, consign only to reputable houses, and you
will find at the end of the season, if you have had a good
crop and the markets were in any kind of shape, that you
have made money.
Make a study of marketing your crop and you will be
apt to make a success of your farming venture.







A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


CHAPTER IX.

HOW TO GROW FOUR CROPS TO THE ACRE IN ONE SEASON.
To the average farmer, in and out of Florida, the above
statement is apt to be doubted, but I have raised four crops
on the same acre of ground at Montrose Farm Trial Grounds
in one season, and if you will be a little patient, I will try
to prove to you that you can do likewise.
To start with, you should have the land in the best con-
dition possible, and it is better to have it sub-irrigated or
irrigated by the Skinner system, if you are going to make a
success of the crops.
The crops we will raise will be two of beets, one of sweet
corn, and one of cow peas. The last crop will pay best if
turned under for fertilizer, as you can use nothing better
for enriching the soil.
We will deal with each crop, in the order which it is
grown. The first thing that has to be done in raising a
crop of beets will be to make up the seed beds. These beds
can be made as long as convenient, and just wide enough to
reach across. They should be free from any sticks, weeds,
stones, or trash of any kind. The best fertilizer to use in the
seed beds is a good article of commercial fertilizer, as weeds
and grass do not grow as fast on it as on stable fertilizer.
It is a good idea to put some castor pomace in the beds.
This is a low grade of fertilizer, which is a preventive for
cut worms, and as they are the principal enemy of the beet,
it is best to use preventive to keep them from getting a
start. The seed should be in the ground not later than
September 1st. They should be planted in rows six inches
apart, and very thin in the rows. Keep them well worked
until they are about six inches high, when they can be trans-
planted to the field. One of the best varieties of beets to






































Planting Beets With a Seed Drill





A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


plant is KENNERLY'S IMPROVED TRUCKERS' PER-
FECTION. The Crimson Globe, Eclipse, Early Model and
Egyptian are all popular kinds.
Some of my readers will ask: "Why don't you plant the
seed where you want the plants to grow ?" I will admit it
does look like double work transplanting the plants, but it
is about as much work thinning them out. Replanted plants
make twice as quick, and we are after saving all the time
we can.
Now, while we are letting the plants grow, we will get
the field ready to set them in. As I have said above, you
must get the land in the best condition possible. For ferti-
lizer there is nothing better for beets in the field than good
well rotted stable manure, put on as heavy as you can. Let
me say right here, when growing a succession of crops,
what fertilizer one crop does not get the next one will, and
the succeeding ones will make twice as fast. Besides the
stable fertilizer you should use about a ton of kainit to the
acre, for it not only furnishes what potash the plants re-
quire but is a good cut worm preventive. After the field
is well fertilized and plowed, it should be gone over with
a home-made board drag to level and pack the ground.
When it is leveled and packed, we will proceed to lay it off
for planting. The first thing to do is to mark off the land
with a wooden rake marker, as advised for laying off the land
when setting lettuce plants. The rows should be eighteen
inches apart, and the plants set three or four inches apart
in the rows. There is one thing to remember in setting
any kind of a root plant, and that is, do not get the bulb
down too deep in the ground, or your labor will be lost. You
must be careful in watering the plant after setting. Do not
pour the water on the plant, but on the ground at the side of
it, packing the soil well around the roots. It is best to water







FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


them the afternoon they are set, and again early the follow-
ing morning.
After the plants are in the field, they should be left alone
for about two weeks until they are well rooted and have
started to grow. Then go through the middle of the rows
and give them a light application of nitrate of soda, about
150 pounds to the acre, being careful not to get it on the



















Truckers' Perfection Beet
plants. This makes the beets start off and keep on growing,
otherwise they will loaf for three or four weeks. The prin-
cipal thing now is to keep them well worked. There is
nothing better for this purpose than an Iron Age Wheel
plow. (See chapter on Implements.) It is equal to an extra
hand on the farm. About two months after planting in the
field the beets should be ready for shipment.


IIICI~ICCCI







A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


Beets should be packed with the tops on, as, these make
excellent greens. Some markets require the beets tied in
bunches of about four to the bunch; others prefer them
loose. The best crate for packing them in is the barrel,
cabbage crate or the lettuce hamper. The cabbage crate
holds about two hundred beets and the lettuce hamper half
as many. There is another flat crate that is used in the Cole-
man (Florida) section, but I do not like it as well as either
of the above named. Care must be taken in packing: shake
all the dirt and trash off the beets before they are put in
the crates, also pull off all the dead leaves. The best way
to pack them is in layers, and be sure to get the crate full,
as they will naturally shake down in transit.
Any of the Southern markets will use beets nearly the
whole season, paying good prices for them. Washington,
D. C., Baltimore, Md., and Philadelphia, Pa., are also good
markets for them.
Now that we have the first crop off, we must prepare
for the second. About a month before this crop was ready
to ship you should have made up the seed beds and sown
another lot of beet seed. You will, in all probability, have
to cover the young plants this time, in case of frost, as they
are very tender until they are about six inches high. This
covering can be easily made by putting a frame around the
bed and stretching a light quality of duck or canvas over
the frame. Treat the second lot of plants the same as you
did the first. Before setting them plow the field several
times, giving it 1,000-pounds of some good commercial ferti-
lizer that will analyze about as follows: Ammonia, 5%;
available phosphoric acid, 7%, and potash, 8%. Mark the
land off the same as you did before, only making the rows
twenty-four inches apart this time.







48 FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE

When the beets are about half grown, go through the
middle of every other row and plant sweet corn, Country
Gentlemen or Stowell's Evergreen preferred. Treat this
crop of sweet corn as advised in chapter on Sweet Corn.
Ship the second crop of beets the same as you did the first
crop.
Now that we have taken three crops off the land, we
are ready to plant the fourth. First turn the ground over
with a good turn plow and broadcast it in cow peas, either
harrowing or plowing them in. For further directions for
growing this crop, see chapter on Field Crops.
One suggestion I neglected to make in regard to the beet
crop is that in case of a freeze, do not get discouraged if
the plants are killed to the ground, as they will come out.
When they begin to show signs of coming to life, give them
about 150 pounds of nitrate of soda to the acre, and you
will lose but little time by this backset.








A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


CHAPTER X.

L.:1'rUCE.

This is a winter crop and nearly always a money-maker.
It is a quick one, being made in about ninety days from the
seed. It seems particularly adapted to our Florida soil and
climate. It is raised to perfection in all parts of the State
on most any kind of soil, but seems to do best on the gray
hammock land. An acre of good lettuce will usually yield


Big Boston Lettuce
from five hundred to seven hundred and fifty crates to the
acre. Lettuce like the heads in the picture will run at least
eight hundred crates to the acre, and you can nearly always
get from $1.00 to $2.00 per crate f. o. b. your station. It
is planted any time from the first of September until the
last of February in the central portion of the State; in the






FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


southern portion from October until January. It requires
an ounce of seed to make about three thousand plants, and it
takes from 25,000 to 30,000 plants to set an acre.

PLANTING.

Make up the seed beds as directed in Chapter VII, having
the rows across the beds six inches apart, and plant not over
one quarter of an inch deep, as the seed should be planted
very shallow. Some truckers prefer to sow the seed broad-
cast, claiming they get better plants, but if you will sow the
seed very thinly in the row you can make just as good
ones; and where you have them in the rows you can keep
the ground stirred, making them grow faster. I prefer to
soak lettuce seed over night before planting, then mix with
dry sand and sow. This method has two advantages-it
not only makes the seed germinate better and quicker, but
the ants won't bother seeds that have started to sprout;
and any one who has ever tried to raise lettuce in Florida
knows that unless something is done to stop them they
will carry off the seed as fast as you can put it in the
ground, and this is easier said than done. Another method
to keep ants from carrying off the seed is to make up the
seed beds close to the well, and have ditches all round them,
keeping these full of water. In this way you can keep
the ants off the beds entirely. Keep the plants growing
from the time they come through the ground until you
give them the last working in the field. This can be accom-
plished in the seed bed by constant working with a small
weeder. If the plants turn yellow or get a backset from
any cause, mix up a solution of nitrate of soda and water,
using one quart of soda to fifty gallons of water, and
sprinkle the plants with this mixture twice a week until
they turn green and start to growing. When the plants are







A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


about three inches high they are ready for setting in the
field.
FERTILIZING AND TRANSPLANTING.
Prepare the land as advised in Chapter II, being sure
to use not less than one ton of Canadian hardwood ashes
to the acre, as this vegetable is very fond of them. In about
a week after you have applied the ashes put on the fertilizer.
The following makes an excellent analysis for lettuce:
Ammonia, 5%; potash, 12%; available phosphoric acid,
9%, using about a ton to the acre, broadcasted and harrowed
in. The best way to lay the land off for planting is in checks.
Make a wooden rake as advised in the chapter on implements,
having the teeth the width you wish the rows apart, marking
the first row by a line and the remainder from this one, so as
to get them perfectly straight. These rows are usually from
twelve to eighteen inches apart. Then mark diagonally
across these rows with a similar marker with the teeth the
width you wish the plants apart in the row, which is from
twelve to sixteen inches.

SETTING THE PLANTS.
Set the plants in the row where the diagonal line crosses
it, grade them very carefully, and set only the ones that
are chunky and have a healthy supply of roots. The best
tool for this work is a plasterer's small pointing trowel or a
dibbler, which can be made from a broom handle about six
inches long, whittled to a point on one end. Most farmers
who plant lettuce very extensively have several men who
are expert plant setters. The plants are dropped by chil-
dren or women who keep about twelve feet in advance of the
setters. Following the men come children or women, whose
business it is to water the plants. One of them can water
as many plants as two men can plant. You will have to






FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


be careful to see that the plants are not put in the ground
below the bud, for if they are they can not grow. Make
the water carriers pour the water on the ground at the
root of the plant and not on the top of it. This not only
makes the plant live, but packs the dirt well around the
root. Of course, the setter is expected to pack the dirt
when he sets the plant, but as the old saying goes, "Every
little bit helps;" and it is impossible to do this work too
thoroughly.
CULTIVATION.
When the plants have been set about a week or ten days,
it is time to start working them. Stir the ground very shal-
low at first with the little hoes that come on your hand
plow, being careful not to cover them up. It is impossible
to work the lettuce too much, especially if you do not have
it planted on irrigated land. But let me say right here that
any farmer who attempts to grow lettuce without irriga-
tion will not have near the success with his crop that he
would have if he used it. It is a good idea to give the lettuce
a little fertilizer at each working or every other working,
using about 150 to 200 pounds of the same kind you used at
first, to the acre, each time. You will find that a large ma-
jority of the best lettuce growers in Florida give their lettuce
about 150 pounds of nitrate of soda to the acre just before
the last working. I have tried this and find that it works to
perfection, not only causing the lettuce to head up quicker,
but making it larger.
COVERED LETTUCE.
In the Gainesville section you will find quite a few grow-
ers raising their lettuce under cover. Of course, this costs
more money, but you run no chance of your crop freezing,
and when all of the outside lettuce is killed by a freeze, it
will be all right and will net the grower handsome returns.





A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


The beds are made up as shown in the picture. It is ad-
visable not to have the beds over twenty feet wide and
ninety feet long, for if wider and longer than this the covers
will be hard to handle. Light canvas or duck makes an ex-
cellent cover.


Covered Lettuce Beds
PACKING AND SHIPPING.
Cut the lettuce as soon as it has formed solid, hard heads,
as it goes to seed very quickly after maturing If the weather
is the least bit warm. In cutting leave the dirty yellow
leaves on the stalk; if there should be any left on the
lettuce, pull them off before it is packed. Shake the head
well to remove any sand sticking to the leaves. Do not cut
the lettuce immediately after a rain. In packing pull the
outside leaves over the head as much as possible. The one
and a half-bushel hamper is the best crate for shipping it in.
Pack the first layer in the crate with the heads up and the







FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


next with the butts up, and vice versa until the crate is
filled; the top layer should have the butts up. In packing
always jar the crate several times, as this packs the lettuce
down, so the crate will go into market full, which is a
very important thing, as any commission man will tell you
that a crate of lettuce three quarters full will not bring more
than half the price that a well packed, full crate will. You
should make two grades of the lettuce, packing the extra
fancy to itself and marking it either fancy or with your
trade mark.
INSECTS AND DISEASES.
The only insect that attacks lettuce in this State is the
green cabbage worm or looper, and a solution of arsenate
of lead and water, mixed as directed in the chapter on in-
secticides and applied with a spray pump will stop them.
The greatest drawback to lettuce growing in this sec-
tion of the country is a disease laown among the truckers
as "damping off." This is a kind of mold or fungus which
attacks the plant from the bottom, and is not particular
whether the lettuce is ready to be cut for shipping or half
grown, and it is very destructive. I have seen it destroy
several acres at a time, but I am thankful to say that there
is a remedy for it, which is nearly an absolute preventive.
Make the lettuce land up in ridges about one to one and a
half inches higfi, having these ridges the distance apart you
wish the rows, and set the plants on top of them, and in this
way you can keep the ground under the leaves well stirred
until the lettuce is cut, and as long as you keep the soil well
stirred under the leaves the fungus can not form under them.
VARIETIES.
There are several kinds of lettuce recommended for
planting in Florida for shipping to market, but the Big Bos-
ton, California Cream Butter and the Florida Perfect are the





A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING 55
leading varieties in all the trucking centers. They are large,
hard heading kinds, and make to perfection here. For the
home market and home garden the Hansen is the most
popular and can not be beaten.
REMAIN.
This is a tall, head lettuce, which resembles Chinese
cabbage. It is planted, worked and fertilized the same as


Romain Lettuce
other lettuce, but will give an immense yield to the acre. I
have grown it on my own place that only required eleven
heads to fill a bushel and a half hamper, and this is on an
average of over .1,500 crates to the acre, but I would not
recommend truckers planting it very extensively, as it is
not known on all markets and does not always sell well on
the markets where it is known. Plant the self-folding
varieties.






FACTS AND FIGURES OF THE


LMN

MI Smi


1
WEIIY


Grown on Ordinary Pine Land.






A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


CHAPTER XI.
CELERY.
Of all the vegetables that are grown for shipment there
is none that will give you the large returns that this one will;
but again there is none that requires the labor, ferti-
lizer and careful treatment that this crop does. The San-
ford growers are considered specialists in growing celery
and I doubt if you will find one of them who has made a
success of it who does not use at least two tons of high-
grade fertilizer to the acre, besides having his land irri-
gated and drained with the sub-irrigation system. I know
there are some of my readers who will say that the crop
will not pay for this expense, but from personal experience
I know that it will, anl I feel confident that any one visit-
ing Sanford during the shipping season and seeing the re-
turns which the growers are receiving for their crops will
agree with me. Two years ago I was in a ten-acre field
of celery at this point which sold in the field for $12,000.
I would not advise a person not thoroughly acquainted
with the culture of this vegetable to plant it extensively
until he has experimented with it on a small scale. You can
learn how to grow it by planting an eighth of an acre just
as well aS you can by planting ten acres, and if you make a
failure you will not be out much money.

PLANTING.
Sow the seed any time from the 1st of August until the
1st of November, using only the Golden Self-Blanching
variety, and make certain that the seed are French grown,
as the Americah-grown seeds are apt to give you a crop of
hollow stalk celery, which is absolutely worthless.
Make up the seed beds as advised in Chapter VII, having



















0


0
cF
C


r








Field of French Grown Golden Self- Blanching Celery





A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


the rows across the bed six inches apart. Sow the seed
thinly in these rows, but do not cover with sand. After the
bed is all planted cover with ordinary burlap bags, which
have been cut open. Wet this covering twice a day until
the seed has started to sprout, which is usually from ten to
fourteen days after planting. As soon as you notice the seed
putting on little white sprouts, remove the burlap bags and
cover the beds with a half shade made of laths or cheese
cloth put over it in tent shape. I would advise giving the
plants a little more sun each day until they become hardened
to it, when the shading can be entirely removed. Celery
plants are very hard to raise and the wise grower will plant
about three times as much seed as it takes to grow the
required number of plants. Under favorable conditions a
half pound of seed will make enough plants to set an acre.

REPLANTING OR PRICKING.
This is one subject which it seems impossible for celery
growers to agree upon. Some growers claim it does not pay
to prick plants, while others, just as successful, claim it is
the only method to follow. As for myself, I prefer to prick
out the plants. This is done when they are about two inches
high. Make the rows across the bed the same as you did
when you planted the seed, but set the plants about three-
quarters to one inch apart in the row. The best tool for
pricking is made from an ordinary piece of wood three or
four inches long, whittled round; drive a piece of stiff wire
about three inches long into this stick. With this tool in
one hand and a celery plant in the other, place the wire on
the root, pressing it in the ground as deep as you wish the
plant to be set, being careful not to cover the bud. Women
and children are more adapted to this work than men. Im-
mediately after you finish pricking them, they should be






FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


watered with a fine sprinkling pot. This kind of setting is
usually paid for by the thousand. In about three weeks'
time after the plants are pricked out they are ready to be
transferred to the field; that is if they have been watered
daily and well fertilized. If for any reason your plants do
not start growing as quickly as you think they should, make
up a solution of nitrate of soda and water, using one quart
of soda to fifty gallons of water, and apply to the plants
with a fine sprinkling pot twice a week. If you do not care
to prick the plants, you should cut them back several times
and in this way make them chunky. An ideal celery plant
when it is ready for the field should be the size of your little
finger and about five inches high, having plenty of white.
healthy roots.
FERTILIZING.
The first thing to do is to apply all the stable fertilizer
you can get on the land, or if you can not get the stable fer-
tilizer, give it a ton of pulverized sheep manure, plowing
it under well. Next lay the field off in furrows thirty
inches apart, and drill a ton of celery special fertilizer in
them, mixing thoroughly with the soil as you cover it. The
following is an excellent analysis for this vegetable: Am-
monia, 7%; available phosphoric acid, 5%; and potash,
10%. In about ten days' time you will be ready to set the
plants.
PLANTING.
Make two sizes of the plants, putting the large ones in
one row and the small ones in the next, and vice versa
through the field. To make the rows straight, stretch P
line from one end of the furrow to the other, then run a
wheel marker with plugs in the tire the width you wish the
plants apart, which is usually three to four inches, down the
line. The best tool for setting the plants is a plasterer's






A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


pointing trowel, as advised for setting lettuce plants. Pack
the dirt well around the roots. You should be careful to
see that the plant setters do not set them too deep in the
ground. Water immediately after setting. It requires about
60,000 plants to an acre. Lettuce is often raised between
the rows of celery, as it matures very quickly and will not
be in the way of the celery plants.

CULTIVATION.
The roots of the celery burn very easily, thus causing
the plant to blight; therefore this crop should be cultivated
and fertilized deeply to keep the roots from feeding close
to the surface. After the plants have been in the field about
four weeks give them a second application of fertilizer, us-
ing 1,000 pounds to the acre-the same kind as you used
before. Apply this fertilizer in a furrow from five to six
inches from the plant. The majority of growers give their
crops fertilizer every ten days, using one which contains a
high per cent of ammonia; some prefer nitrate of soda;
others dried blood or blood and bone. If you see any signs
of hollow stalk, give the field an application of high grade
potash.
BLANCHING.
When the celery is from ten to twelve inches high it
is ready to board, but before doing so I would advise going
through the patch and removing any suckers you find grow-
ing on the plants. Use pecky cypress boards about twelve
inches wide. It is best to have these boards in short
lengths standing them on each side of the rows, using stakes
to hold them up, or holding in position with cross strips
tacked on top of the boards. If you wish to blanch the crop
in a hurry, slant the boards toward each other at the top,
shutting out most of the light, being careful not to bruise the





A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKINh


BLOCK BED CELERY.
A few celery growers in different parts of the State pre-
fer to plant celery in block beds; but I cannot say that I
thoroughly approve of this method, although I have seen
extra fancy celery grown in this way. To grow block bed
celery, raise the plants the same as advised in the first part
of this article. Make up the beds four feet wide and as
long as you wish. Apply at least three tons of celery special
fertilizer to the acre, as they are made up. You will note
I am advising you to fertilize very heavily. My reason for
this is that you will plant over double the number of plants
to the acre; therefore, it is necessary to increase the fertilizer
in proportion. Another point I wish to bring to your atten-
tion is that it will be impossible to raise the celery in block
beds unless your land is irrigated. Make the rows six inches
apart, either running them lengthwise or across the bed.
Set the plants six inches apart in the rows. It is only when
the plants are small that you will be able to work them,
and -for that reason you will have to give them all the
cultivation possible at this stage. In blanching, it is only
necessary to board the outside rows on the beds. When the
crop is matured, pack and ship as already advised.





FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


CHAPTER XII.
TOMATOES.
While the tomato is grown very extensively in all parts
of Florida, the lower East Coast is what might be called the
tomato section. In this part of the State they can grow
tomatoes the entire winter, and make good money out of
them. Many a rich East Coast tomato grower came to Flor-
ida without a cent in his pockets, and had to get some one
to run him until he made his first crop. There is no other


A Field of Duke of York Tomatoes
Florida crop that will give you as generous returns for the
money and labor invested as this one will. Another thing
that should make the. tomato appeal to the new settler in
Florida is that it does fine on new land that has just been
cleared, and there are very few crops that can be grown
on this kind of land until the sourness is removed from it.






A BC OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


The secret of success in tomato growing is to have the plant
unchecked from the time it comes out of the ground until
it starts putting on fruit. A check to a tomato vine is never
fully overcome. The plants may seem to outgrow it but
you will find its productiveness has been lessened. No doubt
you have had tomato fields yourself that had fine, healthy
looking vines, but would not put on any fruit, and you
wondered what was the matter with them. Such conditions
are caused either by the plant being checked in its growth
or too much fertilizer in the seed bed, and not enough in the
field. Tomatoes do better on irrigated land, as there is some
time during its growth that it demands a great deal of water,
and then there are other times when water will ruin the crop.
where if the field is irrigated, you can furnish the water just
as it is needed.
SOIL.
The tomato is not particular as to the kind of land it is
planted on. It will thrive on land varying in every degree,
frdm the whitest sand to the blackest muck, provided you
have the land in perfect condition, and give it all the ferti-
lizer it requires. Of course, every one has his own idea as
to what kind of soil is best suited to this vegetable, but if
I were buying land to raise tomatoes on, I would choose a
piece with a sandy loam for a top soil, underlaid with a
subsoil at a depth of about eighteen inches.
PLANTING.
Sow the seed in beds, either broadcasting them or plant-
ing in rows across the beds about six inches apart, sowing
the seed very thinly in the row. It requires a quarter of a
pound of seed to produce enough plants to set an acre. If
you are farming in Southern Florida, you can plant any
time from September until January. In Middle and Northern
Florida make your fall planting in July and August, and
3-K.






FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


your spring planting from the middle of December until
February. You will have to raise the spring plants either in
hot beds or cold frames. When all danger of frost is over
transplant the plants to the field. They should be from six
to eight inches high and set in the ground nearly up to the
bud. Make the rows four or five feet apart, setting the plants
from two to three feet apart in the row.


Beauty Tomato
VARIETIES.
The Florida tomato growers are very progressive and
will only plant a variety as long as there is nothing better
to be had. At present the Livingston's New Globe seems
to be the favorite in all sections and I really think it de-
serves its popularity, as it certainly is a beautiful tomato,
stands shipment exceedingly well, and seems suited to all
sections of the State. The Livingston's Beauty, Redfield's





A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


Beauty, Acme, Stone, Matchless, Paragon, Duke of York,
Earliana, Kennerly's Florida Gold Mine, Dwarf Champion
and Early Detroit are all popular varieties.

FEl'TI LIZING.
You will find if you give the land where you wish to set
the plants a ton of Canadian hardwood ashes to the acre,
broadcasted and harrowed in, then lay it off in furrows the
width you wish the rows apart, and put about 1,200 pounds
of any good brand of tomato special fertilizer, that will an-
alyze about as follows: Ammonia, 5%; available phos-
phoric acid, 4%, and potash, 9%, in the furrows, mixing
the fertilizer and soil well together, that you will make an
excellent crop.
CULTIVATION.
Tomatoes do not require the work that some other crops
do; they need only shallow cultivation; keeping the weeds
down, and the surface of the soil open, is all that is necessary.

PRUNING.
While I can not say that I fully approve of pruning to-
matoes, never having been able to satisfy myself as to
whether it pays for the expense or not, I think it is a good
idea to give a short treatise on it, in case some of my read-
ers should care to try it. After the plants have recovered
from transplanting and started off to growing again, remove
all the suckers except the one which you will find just be-
low the first fruit stem. Watch your patch closely, re-
moving any other suckers you should find. As soon as four
or five hands of fruit have been set on the sucker and main
stalk, top the plant. This checks its growth, allowing all
the strength to go into the fruit, which will give you heavier
and more perfect specimens. While you will not make as
large a crop by pruning, you will find that two-thirds of it






FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


will be fancy stock. Another matter I might speak of here
is staking. If you desire to stake the plants, use sticks
about three feet long, driving them about four or five inches
from the plant and tying to it with soft twine. Staking
prevents the fruit from rotting and sun burning, also keeps
the cut worms from eating it.























Livingston's New Globe Tomato
GRADING.
Grade the tomatoes very carefully. Fruit that runs about
twenty-four to a four-quart basket or one hundred and
forty-four to the crate is classed as fancy, that is if they
are free from spots, cracks or blemishes of any kind. The
second grade should run about 180 to the six-basket carrier,






A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


and if you will be careful to pack nothing but smooth, choice
fruit, this grade should bring nearly as much as the fancy.
Always mark on the crates the number of tomatoes they
contain. I would not advise shipping culls unless tomatoes
are unusually scarce and bringing very high prices.
PICKING AND PACKING.
If you are shipping the fruit any distance, it should be
picked before it is fully ripe. During the cold weather leave
it on the vines until you notice a faint tint of red on it, but
in warm weather pick the fruit as soon as it turns white.
You will have to handle the fruit very carefully; if any are
bruised, throw them out. Wrap the tomatoes in paper and
pack in four-quart baskets, which in turn are packed in six-
basket carriers.
INSECTS AND DISEASES.
The principal disease that affects the tomato in Florida
is the blight. I do not believe there is any remedy for this
after it takes hold of a plant, but if you will spray the plants
with Bordeaux mixture from the time they are about four
inches high until they begin to form their fruit, after it is
formed use ammoniacal copper carbonate, as Bordeaux mix-
ture may stain the fruit, you should not have any trouble.
Smutty or black face is another fungous disease you have to
contend with in this section, but it is not nearly so common
as the other, and the same remedy will help it. Some
truckers recommend using as a source of potash fertilizer,
muriate of potash, claiming it prevents all kinds of fungous
diseases. Do not under any condition plant tomatoes on
land that has had a diseased crop on it. The tomato worm is
very troublesome some seasons, but if you will keep the
plants sprayed with a mixture of arsenate of lead and water.
as directed for spraying cabbage, you can keep them from
doing any harm.







FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


CHAPTER XIII.

CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER AND COLLARDS.
As these three vegetables require about the same soil,
fertilizer and general culture, I am going to treat them in
the same chapter.
Of the three, cauliflower is the most sensitive to bad
treatment, and while it is worked and fertilized the same as
the collard and cabbage, it takes more fertilizer and if given
any set back it is apt to yield a poor crop; and a poor crop
of cauliflower is as bad as no crop at all. To succeed it
should be planted on well prepared land with not less
than a ton of fertilizer to the acre. Another point in
which it differs from the cabbage is that when it begins to
head the leaves should be drawn over the head and fastened
with a small wooden pin (toothpicks are excellent for this
purpose), so as to protect it from the sun, while the cab-
bage head takes all the sun it can get-the more the better.
In shipping the cauliflower you should be very careful to
pull the leaves well over the heads, as it bruises and rots
quickly. Pack in lettuce hampers, as they make a nice size
package, which are not apt to tear up in transit.
The Old Georgia Collard will grow in all parts of Flor-
ida any time of the year, with scarcely, if any, fertilizer. It
does not pay to ship, but is known as the Colored Man's
Cabbage, and if tied in bunches, sells well on any of the
Florida markets. It also makes excellent greens for
chickens, and the beauty of the collard is that you don't
have to take the plant up to sell it; all that is necessary
is to pull or cut the leaves off and in a few weeks you can
come back to the same plant and pull the leaves aagin. It
comes in fine about the middle of the summer when all other
green vegetables are gone. You can hardly'find a home of







A B C OW P LORIDA TRUCKING


a colored man in Florida without seeing collards in the
yard. Any of the above named vegetables do better if the
plants are raised in seed beds and transplanted when they
are about four inches high. In the Northern and Central
portions of the State plant the cabbage and collard seed any
time from September 1st until February; the cauliflower for
a fall crop in September and October, for a spring crop in
December and January. In Southern Florida plant any of
them from September until January or February. Make the

















Charleston Wakefield Cabbage

seed bed as advised in Chapter VII. It requires about a
half-pound of seed, of each, to produce plants enough to
plant an acre.
Now, as to the best varieties, the Early Snowball seems
to be the most popular and makes fine size shipping cauli-
flower. The Jersey and Charleston Wakefield are the best
of the pointed head cabbages and seem to be the favorites
with many Florida truckers. If you prefer the flat head


.1~ _






FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


varieties, any of the following will make fine shippers: The
Early Flat Dutch, Early Summer, Kennerly's First Early,
Succession, Surehead, Large Flat Dutch, Danish Ballhead
and the large Late Drumhead. The Old Georgia Collard
is the leading variety.
When the plants are ready to set they should be put out
immediately, as a stunted plant is sure to make a poor crop.
The field where you are going to set the plants should be in
the best condition possible. (See chapter on Preparation of
the Land.) It should be plowed several times, then har-
rowed. If you wish to broadcast the fertilizer, it should
be applied before you harrow it; but I would advise putting
the fertilizer under the row where you set the plants. To do
this, lay the field off in furrows the width you wish the
rows; some prefer them two and a half feet apart, while
others prefer the three-foot rows. Apply the fertilizer in
these furrows, using about 1,000 pounds to the acre. Of
course, you could make a crop with less, but it does not pay
to be stingy with fertilizer, as both the cabbage and the
cauliflower are rank feeders. I prefer to put 1.000 pounds
in the furrows and then drill an equal quantity to them after
they start to grow. The following makes a fine fertilizer for
either the cabbage, cauliflower or collard: Ammonia from 4
to 5%; available phosphoric acid, 6 to 8%; and potash 8 to
10%. I always like to have plenty of potash in the fertilizer
for these crops. Apply it about two weeks before you are
ready to set the plants. If you will do this and give them all
the work and water they require, the chances are you will
be smiling when you figure up the profits on the crop.
In setting the plants it is well to get them down fairly
deep in the ground. I set them up to the first leaves. The
best tool for this purpose is a plasterer's small pointing
trowel or a round stick or dibbler. (See chapter on Lettuce.)







A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


Pack the dirt well around the roots and water the plants
immediately after setting, pouring it at the side of the
plant and not on it. The distance to set the plants de-
pends upon the variety of cabbage you are planting, the
early and small varieties only requiring about eighteen
inches between the plants. The cauliflower and collard are
set the same distance as the early cabbage. The other va-
rieties of cabbage require about two feet between the plants.
Start working the plants as soon as they take root and
do not stop until the heads are about formed. Ship both
the cabbage and cauliflower as soon as the heads are fully
grown, as you may lose the crop by leaving it in the field
after it matures.
If the crops do not grow fast enough to suit you or
start to turn yellow at any stage of their growth, give them
an application of nitrate of soda, about 150 or 200 pounds
to the acre, drilling it in the rows about six inches from the
plant, being careful not to get it on them, as it burns.
Ship the cabbage in barrels or, better still, barrel cab-
bage crates. You can get these from any Florida crate
manufacturer.
The only insect that will be apt to bother these vege-
tables is the green cabbage worm or looper, and a solution
of arsenate of lead sprayed on the plants will fix them, using
about one and a half pounds of arsenate of lead to 50 gallons
of water.







FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


CHAPTER XIV.
IRISH POTATOES.
If any one doubts that the Irish potato will grow to
perfection in Florida, let him visit the Hastings section
during the shipping season. The farmers at this point ship
from 200,000 to 250,000 barrels during this time, which
lasts about six weeks. Several years ago the majority of
the potatoes grown in Florida for shipment were raised in
this section, but the growers in different parts of the State
have found by experimenting that they can raise just as
fine quality of potatoes as.can be grown at Hastings, as they
seem to do well on most any kind of Florida soil. Of course,
like other vegetables, they will do better on soil particularly
adapted to their requirements, which, in this case, is a rich,
sandy loam.
TIME FOR PLANTING.
For a full crop in the Northern and Central portions of
the State plant in August and September; for a spring crop,
from January 1st until the middle of February. For a fall
crop in Southern Florida plant in October; for a spring crop
from December 1st until the middle of January. One point
to be remembered is that the seed you plant in the spring
will have to be Northern grown stock, New York and Maine
preferred. While in the fall, Florida-grown seed saved from
the Spring crop should be planted.
PREPARATION OF THE SOIL.
Plow the ground several times; and when I say plow, I
mean as deeply as the soil will allow. The potato roots deep
and wants the ground stirred to a depth of at least ten inches.
If the land is low, as is some of the best potato land in the
State, care should be taken to have a sufficient number of
ditches to carry off the surplus water in case of heavy rains.













V3


Harvesting the Crop


r* *






FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


While it is not absolutely necessary to have all the trash re-
moved from the land, the chances are the better you prepare
the soil the better success you will have with the crop.
Another matter which I might speak of here is irrigation.
Of course, a crop can be made without it, but it is best to
have potato land irrigated, for you will find it not only in-
creases the yield, but will make the crop more certain.
The Hastings farmers have irrigation ditches through
their fields; these answer for two purposes; they carry
off the surplus water in wet weather, and during the dry














Spaulding's Rose, No. 4
season, if the ends of the ditches are closed up, and the
well turned into them, they furnish a perfect irrigation sys-
tem. If the land is low I would advise planting on beds three
or three and a half feet apart. First, partially throw up the
beds with a disc harrow leaving a trench or hollow in the
top of them; apply the fertilizer, drilling it in this trench,
using a ton to the acre that will analyze about as follows:
Ammonia, 5%; available phosphoric acid, 8%; potash, 10%.
Next finish making up the beds with the disc, covering





























Cultivating the Crop






A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


working the potatoes always throw the dirt to them so that
at the last working they will have a good wide bed, as it is
in this bed the potatoes are made. In case of a freeze, if the
vines are not too large, plow dirt over them, removing it as
soon as the cold is over. DIGGING.
While there are several machines on the market for dig-
ging potatoes, there are none that give the results that you
can get from the colored man and the potato hoe. One of
the advantages in digging by hand is that you can grade
them as they are dug.
PACKING AND SHIPPING.
Have the potato barrels in the field, putting the potatoes
in them as soon as they come out of the ground. Cover
them with grass or potato vines until you are ready to put
the head in the barrel. This is done with the aid of a hand
barrel press. Be sure that you have the barrel well filled.
Make three grades of the spuds, fancy, number 2 and num-
ber 3, or culls. Ship only the fancy and number 2, saving
the number 3 for eating and fall seed.
SPRAYING.
Some very successful potato growers contend that it
does not pay to spray, but you will find a majority of the
most successful growers spraying their crops as regularly
as they work them, and their fields are always free from
blight, which is the greatest enemy of the potato in Flor-
ida. The best spray to use is the old reliable Bordeaux
mixture. If any eating insects attack the vines, spray with
arsenate of lead, but you will hardly have to do this, as the
potato has very few, if any, insect enemies in this section
of the country. Examine the potato seed very carefully and
if you find scabby stock among them, soak for two hours
in the following solution: formalin eight ounces, water fif-
teen gallons.





FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


CHAPTER XV.
SWEET POTATOES.
I cannot say that the sweet potato originated in Florida,
but I will say this, that there is no country in the world
where they produce better crops or grow them with less
work and fertilizer than they can in our own State. The
Florida farmer has not given this valuable vegetable the
attention as a shipping crop in the past that he will in the
future. The Hastings farmers ship them by the carload
every season, and many of them have assured the writer
that there is no crop they can plant that pays them as well
as this one does, taking into consideration that it requires
less work and fertilizer than other crops do, and is raised
at a time when they are through with their winter and
spring crops.
Plant the seed in hot beds, transplanting the draws to
the field when they are from twelve to fourteen inches long;
cutting the vines from these to plant the acreage.
DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING.
Plant about the first of January in Northern Florida, and
December first in Southern Florida. Dig a pit 14 inches
deep and as large as you wish, according to the number of
potatoes you intend to plant. Put about six inches of fresh
stable fertilizer in the bottom of this pit; cover with two
inches of sand; next comes the potato seed, with a cover-
ing of one and a half inches of sand; then two inches
of stable fertilizer on top of this. When they start to sprout
give them another layer of dirt one and a half or two inches
thick, thus completing the bed. As soon as all danger of
frost is over, which is about the first or middle of March
in the Central portion of the State, transplant these draws
to the field.






A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


CULTIVATING AND FERTILIZING.
Make up the field in beds about ten inches high and two
feet across, having them rounded from the crown; put
about 1,000 pounds of sweet potato special fertilizer in these
beds as they are made up, mixing well with the soil. In
about two weeks' time the field will be ready for planting.
The best way to do this is to drop the plants on the top of
the bed, leaving a distance of about eighteen inches between
each one, placing a forked stick on the middle of them, push-
ing them down deep, so as to leave about two inches of
each end of the vine sticking out of the ground. As soon
as these start to running, cut off slips fourteen inches long
and plant the balance of the patch the same as you did the
first part. Cultivate just enough to keep the weeds down
until the vines start to grow.
VARIETIES.
The Nancy Hall, Providence, and Norton Yam are the
most popular varieties.
SHIPPING.
Dig the potatoes when you are ready to ship them. They
can be allowed to remain in the ground for quite a while,
after they are matured, as they keep well. Ship in sacks or
barrels.






FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


CHAPTER XVI.
CUCUMBERS.
This has become one of the leading vegetables for
Florida growing. It stands shipment to distant markets
remarkably well. In the Central portion of the State, it is
one of the principal spring crops.
-The time for planting varies according to the section
of the State you are farming in. In the Northern and
Central portions for a'fall crop plant in August; for a spring
crop from January until March. In the Southern part of
the State from September until January. During the winter
months the truckers in this section supply the Northern
markets with nearly all the cucumbers used and realize
good profits. Of course there are quite a few hot house
cukes raised in different parts of the country during the
winter, but these never interfere with the sale of the Florida
open air grown cukes. Hardly a year goes by that you
will not find cucumbers bringing $6.00 or more per crate,
sometime during the season. Of course, you understand
this is only when they are very scarce. If a grower can
average even $1.00 a crate f. o. b. his shipping point, he can
make good quick money out of this crop, as 600 crates to
the acre is only an average yield, Some truckers go so
far as to claim they can raise 1,000 crates to the acre, but
to do this all conditions will have to be perfect and the
crop raised on irrigated land.
PREPARATION OF THE LAND.
Prepare the land as directed in Chapter II. As cucum-
bers are over 90 per cent. water, it is very essential that
the land be irrigated. The majority of large growers prefer
the Skinner Overhead system, but either this or sub-irriga-
tion will work to perfection. If your land is low, plant on






A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


beds eight feet wide; if not, plant on the level. If you
Prefer to use hills, do not make them very high. In plant-
ing cukes, whether on new land or old, or if following
another crop, always give the field an application of Cana-
dian hardwood ashes broadcasted and harrowed in, using
about 1,000 pounds to the acre. In about a week's time,
apply the cucumber special fertilizer. If you are planting on
beds, apply the fertilizer in rows where you expect to plant
the seed. If in hills, work the fertilizer in with the soil,
as the hill is being made up, using about 2 pounds to the
hill. Use any good make of cucumber special fertilizer,
that will analyze about as follows: Nitrogen, 6%; available
phosphoric acid, 7%; and potash, 8%.
PLANTING.
If planting on beds, make the rows four feet apart and
plant the seed three feet apart in the rows. If in hil1-, make
them three by four feet. You will note that I plant cucum-
bers closer than the majority of truckers. My reason for
this is that you do not get many pickings off a cucumber
vine in this State before it is apt to become affected with
either blight or mildew and then stops bearing, that is why
I prefer to get more vines to the acre, and be contented
with fewer pickings. Plant about eight seeds to a hill as
they rot very badly if the weather is not just to their liking.
If you should have too many plants, it is much easier and
better to thin them out than to replant; for a replanted
patch will start bearing at different times, making it hard
to get shipments. A good idea is to make three plantings,
making the first one the distance given above; the second,
which should be about fifteen days later, in the same row,
half way between the first plantings; the third planting ten
to fifteen days later, in the same row between the first and
second plantings. In this way you have three distinct






FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


crops of cucumbers coming on. If the first and second
should be killed, the third will be apt to come through all
right, and in this way much valuable time is saved. If
none of the plants are killed you are that much better off,
for when all danger of frost is over you can cut up all but
the oldest plants.
VARIETIES.


/ EXTRA-







Imp. Perfected White Spine
Cucumber Ready for Shipping


The Improved Perfected
White Spine is the most
popular variety. It has a
medium vine, fruit about six
inches long, and about two
and a half inches in diameter,
and spines white. It holds its
dark green color a long time
after shipping. The Early
Fortune is a very popular
kind, its color dark green, and
is an exceedingly heavy bear-
er, popular with both truckers
and consumers.
The Davis Perfect is an-
other excellent variety, being
long and slim. If wrapped
and packed in tomato crates


these will sell for very fancy prices, as they resemble the
hot-house grown stock.
CULTIVATION.
Keep the soil well stirred, working the plants both ways.
If you wish to hurry your crop, give it two applications of
nitrate of soda, 150 pounds to the acre at a time, fifteen
days between the applications.





A B C OF FLORIDA TRUCKING


PICKING AND PACKING.

One of the most important points in growing cucum-
bers is to keep the fruit picked as fast as it matures, for a
matured cucumber left on the vine takes as much strength
from it as four or five growing cukes would. Do not pull
the fruit but cut it from the vine with clippers. It is a
good idea to go over your patch daily, and do not under
any condition let it go longer than three days without pick-
ing.
Pack the fruit in bushel hampers, being sure to have
them well filled, but do not bruise the cukes. Make two
grades of them, fancy and choice. If you have a good home
market you should be able to dispose of the culls at a fair
price, but I would not advise shipping them under any con-
dition as they seldom bring freight charges.
INSECTS.
This vegetable has more than its share of trouble from
insects and fungous diseases. The aphis is the hardest of
the insects to fight, as it gets on the under side of the leaves,
where it is hard to reach with an insecticide, but if you
will keep the plants well dusted with tobacco dust from the
time they put on their third leaf, until they finish bearing
you should not have any trouble. Do not use tobacco dust
made for fertilizer, as it is too strong; get the kind prepared
especially for this purpose. If you have an exceptional
case which the tobacco dust will not remedy, spray with
whale oil soap solution (see chapter on Insecticides).
Should caterpillers or any kind of worms attack the vines,
spray with arsenate of lead and water, using about one and
a half pounds of lead to fifty gallons of water.
For fungous diseases keep the plants sprayed with
Bordeaux mixture, applying every ten days from the time





FACTS AND FIGURES OR THE


the plant puts on its third leaf until your last picking. You
will find it is much easier to prevent blight and mildew than
to cure them.
RAISING THE PLANTS UNDER COVER.
A great many truckers prefer to plant cucumber seed
in paper pots or quart strawberry baskets, putting these in
hot beds or cold frames, where they can be protected,
letting the plants grow there until all danger of cold is
over. If you start them in this manner you may plant the
seed at least six Weeks earlier than you can where you plant
them in the open ground, and by maturing the crop from a
month to six weeks earlier you are apt to increase your
returns from $200.00 to $500.00 per acre.
FORCING.
In case it is impossible to have the cucumber field
irrigated, buy a number of fifty-gallon barrels, oil barrels
are best for this purpose; scatter these through the patch,
four or five to the acre; fill them up with water, using one
and a half quarts of nitrate of soda to each barrel. Make a
slight depression in the ground about six inches from the
cucumber plants, and pour a small cup of liquid into it once
or twice a week. Several children with buckets and cups
can cover quite a bit of ground in an hour, but you must be
careful to see that the solution does not touch the vines. This
method will not only furnish the vines what water they
need, but will double the yield and make your crop from ten
days to two weeks earlier.



















0



0



czl




Ci









.7~.




XNje- nalde sNe', % hipper





1W'oAVING read carefully the contents of
This BOOK, you have probably reached
the conclusion that in order to make a success
of trucking in Florida, it is very essential and
absolutely necessary to use fertilizer, and also
to have at hand and apply at, the proper time
the necessary insecticides to save your crops.
For the BEST fertilizers and insecticides, and
instructions how to use them, you should write
for our 1912 Almanac. Our "Simon Pure"
and "Gem Brands" are the BEST on the market
and have proven so by actual tests in all parts
of the State. Tell us what section you are in-
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of references in your own town, if you desire it.
Please bear in mind that our brands have 35
years of experience in Florida back of them; that
we have done more actual experimental work in
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Write for ''ALMANAC today


E. O PAINTER FERTILIZER CO.
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If You Must Use a Hoe-
Why Not the Lightest and Strongest?
True Temper Special Hoes are self-sharpening, owing to the
Mild Steel Face, and only the finest Second Growth
White Ash Handles are used.



THE BLACKLAND OR MEADOW HOE
The wide, shallow blades cut down labor, but do not add weight.
Just the thing for Sandy or Loamy Soil.
WE ALSO MAKE THE INVINCIBLE CULTIVATOR AND
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FOR BUMPER Ck S


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