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Title: General Jackson's conduct in the Seminole war delineated in a history of that period
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Title: General Jackson's conduct in the Seminole war delineated in a history of that period
Series Title: General Jackson's conduct in the Seminole war delineated in a history of that period
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Publication Date: 1828
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Appendix
        Page 38
        Page 39
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E GlACTS FROM A HISTORY OF T i UNITED
STATES, FROM 1812, TO Ir~s, 'f
VoL. 2, CaaP. 5.






Co f Tr0s.-General Jachon's Division order of 1he 22nd. 4Jpri
7.-East Florida-Jfieckasuky efllage-Saney o -
Instructions to General Gaines-Destruction of Fbnd lown-
lassacre of Lieuteniant Scott's party-Instrctions to Gernral
Jackson. His proceedingi- Tennessee Volunteers raised and or,
ganized by him-Constittional objections-Fort GaisdesbuiA
in the Florida territory- lickasuky villages destroyed-&-.
,Marks taken---rbulhnot made- prisoner-Sawaney loans ae -
Vstroyed-.-mbrister taken-Character and conduct of ./rbutd t m
and .mnbrister-ThdP Tral---Charges-Defence-Sentimp--
AlsWCola and ht Barancas taken, and the SpaisA S~keWities
sent to Haeana- Geeral Jackson appoints a Goveror a d Col-
V etor of revenue for the Floridas- Orders issued for thU lia~~ r
oj St. .ugustine-Countermanded by the Presidenst-lma-a
strance of t. Spanish Government-Proceedings in 0'I to
Captain fW'rht-Correspondenve between General Jacks iand
Governor Rabun-Consequences of these proceedings-baserm k
-G-eneral Jackson's claims to the Presidency-His jffi nar
i history antecedent to the Seminole War-Defence qf A6t -Or-
kans-Proclamation of MaTrtial Law-Case of Latadlier--
.Dangir of Jlilitary power-Policy of cosdmaig the Presidency
f.two terms ex.amined-Appendir.
T '"irsi t volume of this work,, comprising the causes and
the events, political and militaoi, of the war of 1812, was
published A 1826. From tlo'fapable manner in which


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that was received the writer has been induced to continue the
history to the present time. The second volume, from which
these extracts pre taken, embracing the period from the treaty
of Ghent to the cominencment of the year 1827, is not yet
published The writer is induced to anticipate its publica-
tion by these extiaots, from a consideration that the facts re-
lated in the fifth chapter, comprising the period of the Semi-
nole war, place in a conspicuous point of view, and in itstrue
light, the character of a. prominent candidate for the next
presidency.
General order of tle 22nd. of April 1817.-Accordin to the
strict rules of military etiquette in ordinary cases, when- par-
ticular service is required of a subordinate officer, the &der
requiring suclrservice is to be communicated from the war
department to the commanding General of the district where
the service is to be performed, and through him to the officer of
whom it is required. To this general rule there are necessa-
~ ly many exceptions, as in all cases where the transmission of
order, through the commanding General would occasion a
uprejudiial to the service, but in such cases the General
in,:i aplaWrp expects immediate notice of the proceeding.
the war department was conducted by Mr. Graham,
pae t. A1 r. Calboun's entering on its duties, an order
h"d .~ either through inadvertence or for reasons which
S4hs. ident deemed sufficient, to a subordinate officer
ral Jackson's department wit hout being communicated
him. This step produced from the General, an or-
"VBK ahe s2nd. of April 1817, prohibiting all his subordinate
Sofobeying any order emanating from the war de-
partr sss coming through him as the proper organ of
comniulicat on., justification of a proceeding so extraor-
dinary, the Genem marks, that superior officers having
conimands assigned 'iin are responsible to the government
for the character and et of that command, and it might
as well be justified iaw' df eer senior in command, to give
orders to aguardon dutj wiqout passing that order through
the officer of that guair .E the department of war should
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co.ntermand the arrangements o6f comnanding Generals,
without giving their orders through their proper channel.
To acquiesce in such a course would be a tame surrender of
military rights, and etiquette, and at once subvertthe estab-
lished principle of subordination and good order. Obedience
to the lawful commands of superior officers is constitutionally
and morally required, but there is a chain of communication
binding the military compact, which if broken opens the door
to lisbeience and disrespect, and gives loose to the turbu-
Sleat sjpirits whih are ever ready to excite mutiny."* This
orddr, with these conztents was issued to General Jackson's
lsbordinate officers, and communicated through the medium
of the press to the public.
Whether General Jackson, or the war department were in
the right in relation to this measure, depended on circum-
stances which have not been disclosed, as it has never been
the subject of executive, or legislative enquiry. But there
was something novel, and something which had a tendency to
produce that very insubordination which the General so march
deprecates, for the commanding officer. of a district to pro-
hibit those under his command from yielding obedience to the
supreme military power of the nation. It placed them in a
situation peculiarly embarrassing; if, in compliance with the
General's mandate, they refused obedience to the order, they
were liable to immediate removal by the President, or* to be
arrested, triEd and punished by a court martial. If~tpy y
complied, they were liable to the same process by Gq%";al
Jackson. The subject became a matter of much animad4 rsion.
General Scott, the second in command in the no r divi-
sion, on a public occasion at New York, pronn'tced it an act
of mutiny. An angry correspondence uprtle occasion took
'pee between the Generals which redoinded to the honor of
ngh6er. As the event took place previous to Mr. Calhoun's
assuIng the duties of the war department, he did not think
property notice it in any other manner than by publishing an
A-
SDiviioan order 4322d. Apil,117.








loffcial declaration, that pn ordinary occasions orders from
that department would issue only to the commanding Generals
of the divisions, and ijcases where the service required a dif-
ferent coUrse, the General-in chief would be notified of the
order with as little delay as possible."*
EsA FAoida-The territory of East Florida, was during
the war of LSlfand continued to be after its close the recep-
tacle of a population of. the vilest character. The Spanish
authorities were overawed and scarcely felt beyond the limits
of one or two fortified positions. The most numerous occu-
pants of the interior were the Seminole Indians, originally
outcasts from the Creeks; associated with them were the Red-
sticks; indians who bad been expelled from their lands in
consequence of the Creek war of 1813, and the subsequent
treaty; and other fugitives from the more northern tribes.
They had erected a high pole at their principal village of
Mickasuky in imitation of American liberty poles, and paint-
ed it red to denote their thirst for the blood of the whites.
S atead, of stars and stripes their flag was ornamented with
i: sae.ips of Americarr citizens. Hence they were denomi-
fkted Red Sticks. To these were addei large assemblages of
eu~piay negroes from Georgia, who here found an asylum,
i 4iwere encouraged and assisted to rob and plunder their
fiatnmeramsters. The frontier inhabitants had every thing to
this population. Their numbers and strength were
-. ng. Their warriors were variously estimated from
St.to twenty five hundred, probably the least was the
estimate. Francis Hillishago the chief of the dis-
pos reeks had been to England, to claim a restoration
of their liti which they had been made to believe were guar-
anteed to thel e treaty of Ghent, and had received much,
attention and encou going talks, but no substantial aid from
the Brifsih authorities, Adventurers from New-Providence
came am6mdthem in .t character of traders, and military
leaders, supplied them withthe instruments of plunder, and
istor pfihe U O.iA.tates, chapter 4, 1817.






,* . .. .
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pomigd them in the belief that they would be supported
hI the Britih arms, in their attempts to repossess their lands.
The Spanish garrisons gave' them eveey encouragement, re-
'resented their government as their protectors, aiAbe Ame-
ricans as their enemies, having no other view-but' to seize
their lands and extinguish their race. These garrisons and
the British traders purchased their plunder. Thus support-
ed this banditti carried on a barbarous system of depredation.
4.4 murder oa the Georgia, and Alabama frontier.
.,p'lfwikay and S rwany villages-The Mickasuky villages
4 adjon the borders of a lake of the same name,' near the
northern boundary of East Florida, and the southwestern lim-
its of Georgia. From their situation in the midst of a wilder-
ness and surrounded with swamps, they were considered se-
ure from the attack of the whites. Another considerable
placq was the Sawaney villages, near the mouth of a river
from which they derived their appellation, emptying- into the
Gulph of Mexico. The principal occupants of these villages
were fugitive slaves from Georgia; and their chief employ-
meat, and the means of support, consisted in depredating on
their former masters.
ipatrSious to General Gaines.--his region lay within the
military department of General Jackson, and was under the
immediate command of General Gainet. The latter was or-
dered to concentrate the regular force in that quarter, estabs
lish the necessary posts, and protect the frontier. In pursue.
anoe of these orders, he built fort Scott, on the Flint river,.
near its junction with the Catahoochee; fort Gaines, lrth
latter river, on the line between Georgia and thdtississipi
prritory; and fort CraWford within that territory on the
icho branch of the Escambia. His'iistructions on the
get of the Seminole war, were contained in four orders
Pa war department. The firit, of the 30th 'f October
11,k directing a detachment of the Gai"tI militia to
be ed into service, states tat the apIarqene Of an ad.
ditiondafor ae 4 seident Ft, himlf, will at least have
the effect of restraining th ma holes from committing fur-







... -








their depredations, and perhaps of inducing them to make re-
paration for the murders which they have committed; should
they however perseve.e in their refusal to make such repara-
tion, it isthe wish of the President, that you should not on
that account pias the line, and make an attack upon them
within the limits of Florida, until you shall have received
further instructions from this department. You are author-
ised to remove the Indians still remaining on the lands ceded
by the treaty made by General Jackson with the Creeks."
The second, bearing date of the 2nd. of December re-
marks. "The state of our negotiations with Spain, and the
temper manifested by the principal European Powers, make
it impulitie in the opinion of the President, to move a force at
this time into the Spanish possessions, for the mere purpose
of chastising the Seminoles for depredations heretofore com-
mitted.by them. '
By the third, dated the 9th of December, General Gaines,
was instr.tcted, that should the Indians appear in force on
the Spanish side of the line, and persevere in committing
hJb i within the limits of the United States, to exercise
a sound discretion as to the propriety of crossing the line, for
the purpmQe of attacking them and breaking up their towns.
Theb~ fj bearing date the 16th of December, further
instructe4Bi, cPat should the Seminole Indians, still refuse
to ~ ake .rparation for their outrages and depredations on the
citizensqf the United States; to consider himself at liberty,
to march croas the Florida line and attack them within its
bi ui they should shelter themselves under a Spanish
fort, authat event immediately to notify the war depart-
ment.
Sesruction of Wl Town-On the 19th November General
Gaip"e'.head quarters 'ing at fort Scott, in pursuance of his
instruotiafto remove the remaining Creeks, from the terri-
tory cded t P hepnited States by Jackson's treaty'he dis-
patlced anoffcLi Fol To nn, an Indian settlement a few

SOrbi %tthe WW VM'irtM m to Genwal LWnw, 1817.







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mila.,Weldw him, whose inhabitants sELl lingered on the ced-
edlandsto require its chief to repair to his head quarters
ao.Muwcer for his conduct in not quitting the, territory.
Ti6.Indian returned haughty refusal. Major Twigs was
dtpatched the next day with two hundred and fifty men,
with orders to bring the chiefs and warriors of Fowl town to
Fort Scott. The MajOr arrived at the town early in the
morning, and waq attacked by the.Indians, his detachment re-
turned the fire, skilled. four warriors, wounded several, and
potrl grest to flight. Four days afterwards the same officer
i tet destroy %e town, which he theu found deserted,
and 2 tn aPir tfbe provisions.
JMa.f re of Lieutenant Scott andparty.-To supply Fort Scott,
MaSor Mpchlenburgh, had been ordered from Mobile, with
three stlh laden with military stores, and on the 30th of
NiwvbeahL P was at the mouth of the Apalachicola Bedqavoar-
ing to ascend. General.Gaines, dispatched Lieutenant Scott
down the river, with a boat and forty men to his assistance.
Major Muchlenbargh took out twenty of the men, and put on
board about the same number of his sick and invalids, an'd
te*n wpmen, and sent the boat thus laden back to the fort.
O morning the mouth of the Flint river, they were attacked
b^r tnaQmhucade of Indians from the. banks: and the whole
party killed, except six soldiers who escaped h1 swimming to
thN opposite shore, and one wpman taken priio&r. The wo-
men, and the sick were dashed to pieces on the sides of the
boat, and the scalps taken off and carried to Mickasuky, and
hoisted on their red pole, as trophies of their victory. The
Indians whose dwellings and provisions had been destroyed-
Fowl town with others collected by them, were 'gents
is attack, and continued to line the banks of the river op-
the vessels, and fire on them whenever a man appeared
o" Northerly wtijds, and a strong current prevented
t pw 1g, and detained them in this perilous situation
sev t i A another boat with a party wax sent down to
their aid, soteciJ from attack by bulwarks, and with their as.
2 .



,
;.;<"" 4 -








aintance and a favorable change of wind, Major Mudhlen-
burgh was enabled to reach the Fort.
Instructions to Gentil Jackson.-On receiving intelligence of
the destruction of Lieutenant Scott, and his party, the Execu-
tive deterinined on taking more vigorous measufbs, against
the hostile assemblages in East Florida; and on the 26th of
December, orders were transmitted to General Jackson, then
at hib residence in Nashville,'to repair without delay to Fort
Scott, and assume the immediate command of the forces ia
that quarter. After stating the amount of troops in service
and the estimated number of the enemyjhis instructions di-
rect him, that if, in his opinion, an additional force is neces-
sary; to c'all.pon the Executives of the adjacent States, for
such further detachments of militia as he might deem neces-
sry. He is then furnished with copies of the orders pre-
viously-given to General Gaines, as containing the rules by
which his conduct in the war should be governed.*
TenesWe Volunteers raised.-On the receipt of these orders
fte General iaMted to his quarters, a number- of men who
had served vlder him as officers in the campaign of 1813-14,
agaitp d the CreAks, and proposed totthem to raise a corps of a
AuMsid mounted volunteers for the expedition, to serve for
the t~ of six months, unless sooner discharged; and publish-
ed an aQdressjppealing to the patriotism of the volunteers of
West Ttnmesee, to engage in the service. Theygave himLs-
Ijrances that the requisite number should be raised. To those
with whom patriotic motives were a secondary consideration,
the prdtect of a military excursion on horseback into the Flo-
I g.al i an opportunity of exploring a territory which was
expec0 n to belong to the United States, at the expense of
Goverattent, .re powerful inducements. The formidable
irament to be aJyed against feeble bands of savages and ne-
groes pwtaside all idea of a serious 'ibnflict. General Jack-
son's name wps a bulwark against the Indians of the south.
The corps wet'Woon completed, placed under thE direction

SOrdem to Gewral Jackson, fsa the War department, December 1817.







44A"
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jp slaynes, Inspector-General of the department of
I Pth, ordered to rendezvous at Pavettville, and proceed
t ce to Fort Scott, by the way of Fort Gaines.
b iod Objectieam.-To a General more scrupulous in
iie tirqconstitutionl points, a question would have arisen
hriateher th) aode ofraising troops was in compliance with
*h imstrupti0mns; and a difficulty would also have presented it-
a~lSan f.jig igqthem, In what manner and by whom
etre the ofipqaJ; b1e pppointed and commissioned? The
4,W matlu.a'l.bqw two ecies of military officers;
.lltif; ~legul arrvic ,. pointed and commission-
4 1 i~itjenikts,^ writh the consent of the Senate; the
.itkpr,s f,thelw sliwtia appointed and commissioned under the
8tjpt aliqWe%., General Jackson however dt not permit
1ioaFlitW~iNal swruples.to prejudice the public service.
UICQoveraor of .Tennesse was said not to have beedPilt
fldtlille. this. time; the proposed volunteers would be a
muerh.aorm efficient corps than a militia draft; the officers
night be.designated by the men they were to command, and
approved by the G.enerq, and when once taken into service
iars .aaitiaI might settle all further difficulties. The prin-
$iai padW by the General was that his instructions ordered
JU th~if tk up the. hostile collections of Indians and negroes
.itetheflridAs, and secure the southern border, and that by
keiberl.construption they authorised every measure which in
,ij. opinion was conducive to that object.
Fort Gadsden built.-Having directed Colonel Gibson his
Quarter-Muater-General, to procure supplies at New Orleans,
and proceed with them to the mouth of the Apalachicola river,
SGeneral left Nashville, and arrived at Fort Scott on the
cof March, with nine hundred of the Georgia militia.
found the troops in a starving condition, with only
of aorn to a.8an, and few lean cattle; these he or-
pil atghtered, and the provisions distributed to the
,.tImnQ4 qeed the Flint river on the 10th. and took up
his line HBOofJal towards the mouth of the Apalachicola in
spectatioa of meeting the supplies from New Orleans. On





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the 16th. he arrived at Prospect BlDff, the site of the old n&
gro Fort, which had been blown up in 1816. This he or-
dered to be rebuilt, to furnish a depot for provisions expected
from New Orleans; and denominated it Fort Gadsden in hon-
or of one of his aids. The provisions not havingarrived his
troops were put on half allowance. On his march he was
joined by General Gaines, whose boat had been upset on the
Flint river, by means of which he lost his Adjutant-General,
Major Wright, two soldiers and all his baggage.
Provisions sent up the Escambia to Fort Crawford.-The most
convenient mode of provisioning the posts on the Florida
border was by means of the rivers which communicate with
the Gulph trough that territory; this it was manifest could
not be done against the will of the Spanish authorities, with-
jut violating 'the rights of that nation. There being no
Spanish Fortresses on the Apalachicola, that river was made
use of for this purpose with little ceremony. Fort Crawford
is situated on the head waters of the Escambia, which com-
mujsicates with the sea by Pensacola, and cannot be entered
'without passing the Fortress of Barancas. General Jackson,
ihding this the most convenient channel for supplying that
poet, wrote to the Governor of West Florida that he should
send'his provisions that way, and any interruption in their
passage would be considered as an act of hostility against the
United States. The Governor required that they should'be
Janded and the Spanish duties paid, the General however
without obtaining the Governor's assent or complying with
his terms, sent on his provisions, which were suffered to pass
without interruption.
JO*Y*tsh Indians, taken into service.-On the first appear-
ance of ptlian war in the south, General Mc'lntosh, a half
breed, and chief of the upper Creeks, had been taken into the
United States service, with fifteen hundred warriors. The
whole force sow arrayed against the Seminoles, consisted of
eight hundred regulars, one thousand Georgia militia, one
thousand Tennessee volunteers, and fifteen hundred Indians,
composing a formidable army of four thousand three hundred






IA ;a.






It
*4 E mep9y coheisted of a fer hundred Indians ani
.^H ihid in tie swamps and wilds of the Floridas, with no
i raising or subsisting a military force of any magni-

MkSI wy il ages dinropd..-.General Jackson, having made
,t. neSeamry sarranguents at Fort Gadsden set ou4 on the
36th..of March ,l qatps f his enemy. On the first of April,
nearf e Mickealky r iBages, he was joined by the main body
f!lmneea g ~ln T ern, who hearing of the starving con-
at I rt ,,'le and .ort Scott, had
lw0tIa!s rouk t rotgh Georgia to obtain subsistence.
4iiiilines from th' principal village, one of his spy
uptu.lsp.;, had a short conflict with a few Indians, who fled
at thepl dfe4 of thb'flanks. The azry found the villages
-l *baebitatiot n amosounting to three hundred awgre
e the adjacent country reconnoitered and an abundant
iwr iboe Maid cattle obtained. Evident indications of a
hbtigleuspirit towards the Americans were found at these vil-
imes. In the council house of the Kenhagues town, belong-
ing tow4e king of the Mickasukians, wer&r more than fifty
liedrAa6p sand in the centre.of the public square, stood the
*Sultsid standard, a red pole strung with scalps recog-
*'L by _ih air to have been taken from the head of the
Companions of Lieutenant Scott.
*& :.Jf&ar1bkwaikn.-Leaving Mc'Intosh and a portion of his
wmrriar to scour the country and hunt the straggling Semi-
aoles in the neighbourhood of Mickasuky, the General took
Sap his line of march for Fort St. Marks, a small Spanish post
'at the mouth of a river of the same name at the head of Apa-
y bay. Captain Mc'Keever, who brought the supplies
SNew Orleans with Colonel Gibson, had been sent round
bay with orders to cruise near the mouth of the riv-
Say Indiana iho might be endeavouring to escape
SBy hoisting an English flag be succeeded
..board two Indian chiefs; one, supposed to be
rm ra 'i who had been to E.gland to solicit aid
:ar thedispome1aw creeks, and who bad been the principal






Mr. r
-" .-

_.f0 ._ ,.;,^,T^"-,..* .







14

tAtigator of the war; th~ether, Hornottlewied an old rmc
stick chief who commanded the patty that massacred Lieu-
tenant Scott and his boaspations. '
At St. Marks, General Jackson found a feeble Spanish gar-
rison, bat no enemy. He demanded'of the commandant
that thtPortres, should be occupied by the American troops,
while the&paniart was deliberating ~o this demand, and re-
questing time to communicate with hissuperior, the General
entered the Port, took down the Spanish, and hoisted the
SAmerican flag, and shipped the Spanish authorities and troops
tb Pensacola.
Srbudinotg takle.-Near St. Marks he' found Alekander Ar-
'buthfot, a Scotch trader from New Providence, who was car-
rying on an extensive intercourse with the rndians and ne-
grod of East Florida. He had a store at the Sawaney vil-
lages, and' was the owner of a small schooner with which he
t'arried on hisAtradt between that place and the Bahamas, at
this time he.* ad left his store and vessel in charge of his son
a nd cami to St. Marks e the business of his occupation. The
G eherait eted Atlithnot and put him in close confinement;
iung the two Indian chiefs taken on board Mc'Reever's ves-
l; left 'small garrison in the Port, and on the 9th. of April
mArched fdr Bowlegg's town, and the riegro settlements on the
SaWarasy river. These were one hundred and aevert miles
from St: :darks, in an easterly direction, and were the prin-
S$'p a jende&rous of the parties committing depredations on
the' 1iebrgik frontier. On the 10th. he was joined by the rear
of tliWimeesee volunteers, and Mc'Intosh's Indians. On
the 1 th.A iriec&nnoitering party of six mounted Indians was
&isede'ikd, whd immediately fled to the' towns and gave te
i'lWarz:2 9T Amtliecan troops arrived at sunset, killed eleven
Ind"i ad ahdi mos and took two. prisoners. The next day
the tofih rdre destroyed, a considerable quantity of corn
and cattle ciUed and the adjacent country traversedin 'pur-
suit of straggle &Abuthnot's schooner was captured at the
loouth of the SawKpev river, and tiade use of to transport the
'ii and baggage of the army to St. Marks. Oj the 18th.





.
ind 'a ake o



_W lm








konized RIobert C.Aj~4~riterlrte a Lieutenant
gth Britis service under bSicholls.
the qArmy.tq .4 JWarkv.-The griceediags at Sa-
'to General cpqnidrs as having terno nated 4e Semi-
,whip aM aWsItWt 'had been rather a war of move-
mhWl otgIs. 'TI*povqrwheLoing force called into ser-
Tv pett llwatittr onspvqtd. the necessity of fighting;
igig~g~li )rqthin securing his safety by
S" I~~~sh ndians were di-~~~is-
~, :t, eral with the regu-
oh'wto. coacWqed4 his return to
,4th*t place on the 26th haring per-,
:<.I( IC|B'-'p-.age hundred and seven miles through the
i. i. l f East Florida in Ave days.
AqalfirbMSA .1 4 4nar sieri.-The net
SitpaQb twoprimeert Arbuthot, MIp4
4M*f, Asbifthnot had obtained b power
iri~I~ *~.'t.)w& Seminhoe chiefs, in very general
I a.lgi*ig him to act .in the affairs of their nation as he
Wlt 4 .-Be had represented-to the'red sticks or fu-
S pi :j imh-nduced them to believe, that they would&
bJ.the -British government in a war with the1
i i threcovery of their lands. He had writ-r
awaittiwMa uinist y, to their ambassador at Wdfhing-
tiiNl the Governor-Generat of the Bahamas, oliciting,
elalinel foijhidhet, NEa his capacity of trader, he had
M4b.Ijd.lain powder and ball which might be applied tot
i~e. L Taa sof itr.m well ks of hunting. He had induced
lqdiaUs to make prisoners of Hambly and Doyle.twr
E l aeifled o the Apalachicola, friendly to the Ameri-
)'te.iting, that they were instruments in bringing
Is k red, of the- United States. Whilethe. arm
f~* r Mickasaky to St. Marks, Ak wtti oi
plaWe wrote a letterto his som rng him
tb ht*.was probably. ditheA for Sawa.
to tt a the meaidb necessary to se*

.. the habitats

.. .









rt2them b kme~oi gt~rU Imkanwr"
hjt, to save th 4h ,n imaiiiWdight. In J uoi
ThIs, he irote overl 'ell ageut
JIdians V4Mba g tPaa1O1flt4SOsw~s a#Wut
Ilimin that 14t I 'ere not Ike
ig that thr 4 4 Nlictbhey hbA
1w i y~bie gerr ke8?-ui h* '' b uZIitieps 'f anin

4edor tWlE'~trthtC :th~se ~,tY~aea~tMIon, that, ~P
E*t~utyinstimisiV a&*.,m 116Vaqiiidy i
ts'686"e as t6 -the eC, Mllill b .tlW i warf i Wtited tha14

VhibA tog dnofti 64o*ibdUiab



40iijioikd WVaodbn*c Ukd hWd rei6hiSW4W


y i





cU




im,






I'I


jI*


iii -,Wfieh the stdar. &s ;kw eis-w



0ikisni-me a par# to f4t Iit Ahiiiwdea
4yzMpt in Wbitkh lioiveir h; &Widi Sawthlw
1had bore arm"n thYis eatest; or-igi~tte&
the Uniited ates, .
1e manndrin-wtkieh uw hO6d %;isa Y .
scrmiat zdrlir44i4&jVfi fail .'id
rllyCwA& W Allialia
,;proper "t"i t't*UnitbilWs
kit~6i~i~i 'iarrur~ d tho Alli~c~~i
roy t4''ifthstkioxisi
Ais ainsi*r, int Ma'.


... ,.
r


.7,.


,d '
i
.~ . a-


';,







oakPI-r ravagak,

b




...... e ns.. ..a ..r .. am-

At S -A- lu M ra ft
19#WJljb*UD ikar te tw G-Ie








SUPWCing an O ik
laccishigna 9('tatme* W,
Btwlmoiitea ntks atlal**t.







MM *a
a^(Opl yt>,Creek lding tS %
RQftiteSjfiaaS beot .oewt hritain
4^)^^j..1 to mur d4 y ro


f d i w A
W | *! J l1
iM U tedah.tdtifJmif S hi








property on account of e-active and vealbus exertions to
maintain peace, between miain, the Uiked States, and the In-
dians, they being itimats of the Spahnih government."
S Th faets in l aitto Arbuthnot's ~nnection, and inter-
course ith the Indians as before relatta,~i proved. Hanm-
bly-waadmitted to testify what the hUiatis had told him in
relatW&-t the prisoner's conduct, and Ambrister was reject-
eds are witnesss for the prisoner, on the gi-ound that he was
alde arrest for similar charges.
.The Court decided thlt the third charge was not within
their jurisdiction, that the first and second charges were
roved exBept actinges apy, and sentenced the prisoner to
bu hng.
Oh the 27th. the Court proceeded to the trial of Ambris-
ter on the following charges.
let. Aiding, abetting, and cmnfnrting thi erny, and sup-
plying them with the means~af war. And
2nd.-tleing and commanding the .leer Creeks in car-
rying on a war 'aitat the United. States.
.-"3i the erat- charge the prisoner plead not guilty; ol the
ecoa idi he admitted the fact, but denied that it was a crime
for which he was liable to be arraigned, and tried by a Court
4M tial. The facts as have been before related respecting
Ambrister's conduct were proved. The Court in the first
instanMe sentenced him to: be shot, but on reconsideration,
revoked that sentence, and ordered him to receive ffty
stripes, and be confined to hard labor with a bll and chain
for a year. On the 29th. General Jackson approved .the
sentene-4 dthe Court, in the case of Arbuthnot, and ap-
proved tfi fi rst sentence of the Court, in the cate of Am-
brist*e, end disapproved of their reconsideration, and ordered
both the prisoners to be executed the same day. In passing final
'jtuaee upon AzbLSpter, the General remarks, it: is an es-
tablished pAi eiple of t$e Law of Nations, that any irjividual
of a nation making war upon the citizens of another nation,
forfeits his allegiance, and becomes an out-law and pirate."*
hidingng of a general Court Martial 26th, 7th. of Apri 1818.







.. -., F.





I 4

f~~ of this Cqur proceedings, and res-l)t,
uangos ithe ,conn g General in relation
in ann iplig the first jpeuce of the Court,
Jiuting onejaiph they nevqr ad passed were
o much yBgy ersiop, However the victim's jight
,desertvd pl|,; a .though the United States
ibt e ba tntted by jijkg an example, thi was a
f.psr ubjat4 zQiq prtia fqr the.Government, And not
SLtorts 4 ittil.)i m;h.ip u. tir of great regret that a
h6-.- h r fr r iv ibrent purposes, and
S".A.-- Aeran citizens con-
'alyy ufi yl s d hb o ladi the .istrinnt of in-
*t .ApitaLs aisMameat upon persons, who could under an
praw obec 4sidire4 liable to such a sentence.
i apS.At 9.i t, M 4ark, ie General.learned that
' ,p .flive Rep~inoles hbd crosse the Apjlachicola,
ARe West Florala; adopting the principle that
n'iu*k4i" was to be tolerated in any part or the Flori-
daitabe oetermiped to pursue his search through that pro-
tlme.t .Having garrisoned St. Marks, withTwo hundred men
ipr FaWaigg, the army proceeded on the 29th. to
.arrived there on the 2nd. of May; and on the
..AlAacahicola; and after a march of twelve
i o ildt ing an enemy, arrived on the hanks of
t6.kApambia a short distance above Pensacola.' Here
t Goqeqral. received spirited remonstrance from the
arW of West Florida, against his entrance into the pro-
I3D Ag.4i pprovahing the town, as a violation of the rights
.p4amouating to .an act of direct war; and threatening
Switch all his ftoce.
pif taerl had undestood that some of the fugitives from
h passed through he town, obtained some fovil-
.*.scaped across the bay. crcustap3 ie
Opposition to diow t Foovernor, tb re-
pavailin duidiid him to mn ai into Pen-
S possession wi ut resistance,
Slliry force havingg taken refuge



S'* -


-p
A4 j








in the Fbrtress of the Baan et 4the ent .e of the bay six
milee lpidw the town. )Oate iec tiwkaeral invested the
Fort, and after a bombardminaiohich dbntinrLd with pomee
inteatuption until the e*tai of the 27th;;it WtisrrS ended
to the United States.,. t h Spanish civil and militiy author-
iiies were transpporA d Ai hvanna, the AzBsican flagjoistpd
at Penqcla 'ad t2i Rarancas, and the province occupied by
General Jack.on'6teops. Colonel King, of tthe7th infaqtr
was appoait evil and military Governor, and Captain
Gadsdea Cllector ofthe port of Pensacola. The subordinaM
offices were to be appointe'd, the revenue collected, and the
laws administered under the.direction of Colonel King.
Order to sci' St. -uwarB.-The General and his troops
ffectually soured the eastern part of the province; Captains
il'Girt and Boyle of the Alabama militia were directed to
taise a company of sixty mounted men each; and complete
the destruction of the Indiaasin the western. Raving made
these arranmments the General discharged his Tennessee vol,
unteers, and btuBg to-Nashville. On the 7th. of August he
issued a order to. ar a i r 'Gine, that in cas e could fin
proofs that'hoaje fidiansm had been entertained, and supplied
by the Spanihauthorittes.at St. Augustine, the only remain-
ing post in eir' of the Floridas unoccupied by American
troops to pqaril directly to that place. Before however any
measures w4' taken by virtue of this order, it was counter-
nianded by tie Prdsldet, the General's proceedings disap-
proved;, a"i & tloridi redored to the Spanish authorities.
Proceedi a~ngs an Wright.-During the period of these
operations ii.the PoidasGovernor Rabun, of Georgia, incon-
sequence of depredations recently committed on the frontier of
tha State, by a party ffadidans rom the town of Philimmees,
an a s on flint river, I~sued an order eo the 14th. of
Apil to .iht. of the Georgia Militia, then
stationed on tdat 'frA tl order of the Governor; to de-
stroy those towns. An oi q this desiption implies, that
all the fighting Indians t can bound should be slain,
property of every description carrAiv off or destroyed, the


;L-








"l ~opn-comp tants driven' ar j imP. Un-
Tight^w his march (C*. infqtwd that
g,~msw, were at the Chehasa iage,
laowns 4 the Mc'ntosh Indians,..4 the
g MPilqs Above. ~pt, prly, whose warrigo
l~ gq4rall Jajkoap*, i1q. lorida expedition.
cwtof4b,). ifSm ,a M %lAn Wright erected
A. ailb.ep,,adion the s4l .1( April, executed
,PMBy go.Oity9 and unof-


wtsh #,the- united .ae
|o th eaptupred propertyJ be
se "I e ) b .-r 'ayrer nt, that
ardt hbP ,6, under

rdGlwbuarnr BAbun.-
L4ew-yl iaojmna, 'on the
t to Pensaeola. He
4 Novir kabi, stating that it was
lbtht, (og n or of a State should
P%41aS Upon ah lotiaan tribe at per-
Rd lt:prteOtioa of the United Statet
1eral "m am the Governor of a State
0isio, have no right to give a military
ah is:te *ld. C- atA.i Wpight, must be
i t for this ptr4gequs mAurder, and ]
.sta4sted and confined in .irons until the
4MPItJrdlNRb of te Unite States shall be known

,,f .reply m sa wri, had you Sir beea in
i btp k Filproruea d the q*(p3r,it to.be
ulat 44bave i roa w iar
.tW. and contemptible ar
a Act as you states, hat
g ist to give a military order
as. i..i| .tWhi the liberties of the people


I.


'WI

' It


+,,


-K* . ...
,+.J+. ++:
l +- ++" :


''






A'1
of Georgia shall have beetA ostrated at the feet of a military
despotism, then and nottill lten will your imperious doc-
trine be submitted toy 'AWou may rest ,geared that i4 he sa-
vages continue the4dl-depredations on '&r unprotected frin-
tier, I shall think A6d act for myself in his respect. You de-
mand that 'sptan"Wright, be delivered to Major Davis, in
irois. t frou Sir are unacquainted with the fact I beg leave
to flwdvo you,'that Captain Wright, waraot under your.com-
mand. 'tH hit 4It$ 8dttMd itorders ha destroying the Che-
haa village in f the opornees, and Philemmees towns,
I had, pevofo eeeug ydur demand,-ordered him to be
arrestedgljt Z lefomte 1 ,aphinl0eaB l agreeable to uiy4br-
dars,,.ewf takenn ,1h. r atn ajierwards liberated
by h th cti4l&Mtj ttr4ti 'fl arresed.iued
confilnf j WlNivJPupJi APe wp le.transaction to 0
President of the Uaitd Staltb for 'IisB r'etsion together *irth
a cop'6f.ryuditt t.l'"v # '~ *a .. ?. ,.:.. .
IG g-- .,-l sth,.Governor to study
V eila entered'th6 $irts of contro-
Sl.&-'%'tYi. oti. relative powers aud
dItiesW.s, Tfq 4 AncatedAis advice by reom-
meaitd io thi Gaeral io dexainti the orders of his superiors
with d4restientionthi~s was tffal'fqr him, before he under-
t.a t6'prosecute iqthi- 'campaign; This terminated their
cogiesupu&nc u4bin ihe sutbjet.* Captain Wright was seiz-
ed and'ut cloAit*foiAne~eit'iy Majori Davis, under an or-
dler froi43G eral Jackson; and lbeMated by the civil author-
ititibilet ~f by a habeas corpus, on the ground,4hat, that
Gerfil 'hi no right tQ imprison one of their citizens who was
not in the military service under his command.
Q, con7 m of ih Sem inole Wjr.--The incidents of this Se-
hich has been dignldfd with the name
t of view are of very little conse-
quence; mi d unworthy ;itinute detail in a general history of
the times. It bvetuatUed in'tilu ghter of about eixty hos-

Correspondence of General Jackson and GoM BRabun, 1818.




.:` ~


P roe, ith tlh lgt. $twenty-of the Mc'-
Eji tite man was slain n theexpedition. Sev-
.were .wrt oyed, and they *mierable and de-
huuats dlAt iisto exile. Two.Indian Chiefs not
h3 e jjBS $rstratagem on board an Ameri-
.9 i.. ceremony or trial; two Eng-
q. .e .military execution; the
ll avqMB the banish authorities
and put under
l" peculiar
SJoCt of eep interest
'betof as a p~pomient
l t~Jt f 'e niD-E Jq le rpzionS
a C6nAtton framed
." .' ......ei ln .trom
e g .E .VoIp ion weakens its
Zeb may be perverted to
W.j In M tJon to
tY,|he person by wiwxu it
.i ntgr greater when 'done 9ya military
jP7IEffIcgk o4Ci esqity. nd. an ostenta-
b.'ge o g .adaxe.. eer wanting to justify the
S o r.." "Pha part oft the 'Alierican
i delegates the .power of the sword to the
u gaMdemd with peqaliar caution, and
gfwho Si~ied, and the people who adopt-
*6S1 .Of oaireuispection and jealousy on this
e to be trained and officered by State
i'.' L eatUed into the service of the United
ly ia specihed cases& C'bngress alone can
.~* a n support armies, and even tg, body
of money for thtb
ltwo yese, so tha ,
of $ppo.t Ai m iaitaryps
pre ntative qof the people
Goeemment.-When the Ten-







nessee vokimteers were called inSt' "i~e ws 9o Jaw an-
thorising such corps. The perlotts theiv command
having to legitimate comuelf*aiu from e4h dflial or State
Gotrrnments coustitutig them ffee odfh tk i could
have no lawful antho' tA'tt9hio-&wiadWaM W hold
Courts Martial for S(f tidal'ef capital tffences. Tiletr-, obn-
demnation and etetitth of the ito Englihminh, fitad in the
Floi4dia fr tht Aargts Olledged agzifst them drs withoe
authority either, 'ffom the 'i~ aBstituion tpd'atA of6 the
United Sta*s,ir ttle grioiples of Nationil kt.i Thb ete-
cutido of the two indian Oftis vipl tu utSt I&eed by any
principles ever nadeptdtAry tfialBitiBat asshat '4*'
pie. *Thbe bIhiaS Q<*fi l rt atiilr
qmtotual~aotof wa tqpa a'' t th6 AhL i d o* of'aV .
arithtdrityrA6m Cdnhgfl'd irtl e&t id noeh edat
United States in seri~ub: i~ti n' Oh re
ceiviqlg atlligekt hif s lis- *ICt ltii lr Gover niient
deihandedIhtt 1i66 thvltai ed IH
evee thia hotil 5, Ad s MBt r in
Gen-dral 3k rit"lflb a t ibttii, ~sl
be rmade frBidjtomB Aits i pah ti &d1e Beng r
puhdi4d; d eclhrAtba Pq5dn atbf all, diploia4d Inter-
cours intidftei detiakds 4ere dmplied with.*
UistWyftLb hi UntIs, Stael o. CIj. L. 1817 lIlz



S* .,
. .. e : :

......... .. .". .., ,




) rc" ,
* ,* .,. ,
x4' 9.
'. i f; fl





















,it we c ectly'qpde*aad
trriiiy~ncp afr~i~d
im is, that wlmn a youth offourteea
:At Rriti4, and pat t',~ouie mbni~il
~ck h.he very* p Trper!. refused io
! l6rl him al81ins'p, Qto ? a the
riaportant aNfK ,* Is' ed'hto his









ih '18 1 t*0prisep the. troops uv
d h)u .t ..... ..... a OPr ng.1he Indiaiqt
T aofjittle impop-
a th Gen~-
tt greatn-

ties, w O4p








-': v A
river, orb

rr h oNrder-


i t en-

e ar o h'of-the


'lii
'? idci2rsi~ x itla


a Yo ar6 i

i~Jackson,




46 o



soon.
all

rIhe store of the sii militia men, I lc a




41





aw.hby which
a r rkt military
cry of th ~ ja~a
cdner from thdC. my. 11i
riagsIn the pIcuio~e,
ut as VEk&grul and' arb
In needlemm. AW Of

Ave 4 'Newr




tid a:r r



A Llihertvrt to


nilitay e"dict, bearlsg datu i1m
peton;,%nirrivhg, i*ijj


Ufnbs of tdi e'nvh*ns, wmi
imafidilfg General.' ~w PS
Lt nie o'clock 1g&
h6 fhe streets &or that OA
e2 as a spy.*


of








vy a'r 6eremirI~q La. adopting Itaelf to qU
occasions, and 6r gpvery assumptjoqL
of power, u mu this measure
p taesiin it $riOW to which the
liberties of an ex of this tia-
ture.
.r;,%06U4ier, mefiber a~ the Leei~d" $f Lvlania
uf Ia ~strict of Opelousias, and in :j a gxi~ete4
earm, was therepdt ur &i~rti ifamorpPhs'
R4s'ibai in .& New Orleans peer,, mimanw4vrting 'uporr the
9 ",.* bconditet, aht wich 'hi-took olrneo v Here it may'
be pot I t f.9 i wJpea was cotso qelc~d-
*t4Qt~keh41Ia. IL AaC*EEbeg, dn the 27th. by th
tribeUCA01994ved ihn 0ffited'' State. oni the Ith. %f
S'Febrvsyr,,#d was ratified lb tl.4 President and Senate ow'
the l 7th-o (1twie 3d. of Mar&h thahaBlzinzzsa axf i t
p~sablu~rii;~ rd, lalnd c ~l the near. of peau.. hail
JW .6, 4everabialym, ane the

r A t F I Oie I.Wal i.
,OR*edcon*wtimi:cated2be injijli:
v g lo e nt he had left him dispatches on
wssaprreted fq. the supposed military of-
in ig-:pr 41s. respectfidi to the Gen-
3$, h~. of,.n #wrder iimatioi0 of Lnartial
,Jn a iuady for triJuSl.oe I y tribunal to
be kIytbe G eperatf ewnm aa19njisv 0, re. -A writ of
4 frozm4be Uivs~ i +.*.t top transfer him
Aitil tfbu~pi. Thiwr*'R.a disregard-
btb. .ad'both tue J~i~,b*o itnmed it, and thr
t tto ~ inmrepi in procuring it, were
itary~a L~. It'is difficult to de-
-1.'y to conjecture, what IA-
npt the official annunch-
ton fiilitvreeeding
Ma ainst him. otp
the last of ri 'J:~fJckson n'p-aplpe-!a r t e c


S-. .








as 9 MSenCti officer, was 5.. abOM efte ath" Florida, ia
tht yeak 18*1. His coddtel on se~ae oftasioni in that sta-
tisi, 'hif tinison withh'fi previous elaraMir atbroia it, hh
feltlb hizent may I~ that they are toiopees sbhod they
chiaee to fall under his displeasure while in power. 'The
Florida treaty, t~a~* 'wiivc he took poaessleat trovidtd
that all the vrcei i.dl pa' Ubie jter relating to the teri-
tory sho6id beArgeit' to ihe ttda authoritee. Four
papers cajed byt9G il t~i si iw teitatg within this de-
scipio, weis I*IId the ISpa isk Gonrjor OafflcArs
on the gr6tnd tbth i thryeb of pruit e tatai. 'Arr.Amed'.
force was eit to demand thiti with Asitet An tl'efte of
Their being refused, to seie-the papisr, and brirgCaafi les,
before the General te alVre-i fr a cobp tt f Ibl aathl ity.
This drder was executed in its fuAt extet, and QilallOs seo-
Utted to prhnr He imwaaJelt4appJ adtsplitfbJe
dtn, then feceufty appointed Chief Jditts oa tihF trritoryp
and obtained as Habeas ObrG s for hi release. Thirproces
was not suffered t6 be executed until th'papers of 1~h late 6-
ve)nqr had been eaniainedrt and the contested,ones secured,
thse prosegdings led, to a Apitlte controversy between thd
Ovetior -abi Judge, in which the former denied the right of
lie pfrop 1mdeitPii government 'to the benefits f thiW"lro
cess, and the latter elaiszrd tHb t by the treaty the iabMtati
of the territory bh. tteAmeriam citizens, and entitled td all
thlir privilege,, gabef lthe moot important of whieh was that
of being protected freom arlAtrary ard illegal imprisoaDn nt.
This conduct exttid aahri, laid became the'smlb Bl of
muclf animadversion among the inhabitants Of tfheffldtda,
tIho supposed they Lad acquired the immditlteta fre ditP
X.4ly the transfer. Seven of them who had been oi
irS the former Governor published aS et tmat
p' r edited at Persacola, contradicti
bet'aibtbiAed. under the directi*It


bent. This publication was an-
G6veMtdr fothlt obnoxious per-








abs to quit the territey B e daqo.* Comments are up-
necessary. If the peopeltae grownweary- of the liberty
eathe press% and Ab ir.t~terprivilegeo n opportunity is now
presented of surAeMaring them into t4iands of a military
'Chief. .
These traasctions, together with those detailed in the fore-
going extracts.complete the history of Ge'eralJackson'p mili-
tary career, abd form the basis of his pretensions to tke Presi-
dency. One thing issue noted, we find in it no personal ex-
posures to an enemy. No hairs-breadth escapes, except in
duels and personal reacontres with his fellow citizens.
With his private character the public haye less concern.
It.is one of the greatest evils of our ,political system, that in
canvassing the hearcters of candidates for office, the sanctu-
ary of private life is needlessly invaded. Many things which
have been alledagd a aioust. ilaneral.ase doubtless highly
coloured, and some unfounded. If oqly .a small Iportion of
them are true, they would forbe s seriousp objection to his
election. One duly wfl be noticed. It is said that while
bearing t highest military off&under the Goverpmnent, .he
threatened personal violence to one of the Senatdrs f6brtAe
p&At he took in the investigation of his conduct in relation to
the Seminole war. This accusation has been before the pub-
lie in vaiOdu shapes. In its unpt offensive form, it is denied
by the Gelmral; and ought not to be st down against hinr
without the oiost positive testimony. One, thing is certa,
for we have it under the General's hand, that he wrote and
published a vry improper and indecorous reply to the report
of the opnpit.e .of the senate on the sbject. If there is
any one pria,' scred in a republican'Government, and for
Pje preservatl eK. ich the people ought to rally round its
S freedom of debate in the hall of lqgis-
| ustatives meet for the purpose of a,
free in .ht on the great subjects of national
concern. Thai of k onge violated bei es

GOSmern Jaukson' Proeclsraiu4.*pal.


A,_


-. i








itU4oi Tle Chief MagistMfe closely lied as he is with
Ad Legislative'Iepartment, has already too many means of
influencing its decision. If in addition to these Ijere should
be an apprehension of personal violence, the worst is to be
fek-ed. If Historferrecttly informs us every republic which
has heretofore exited,' has after a given period wsrrendgred
its liberties into the iands of some successful military com-
m'ander. PlatSg a man at the head of Goveamment merely
for4-is ariievfment and rel*ttatiou a.a fortunate soldier, is
One of the st stages n the progress of nations from liberty
to despotism.. This done; the occupalofpovew will readily'
secret the rest. The Constitution of the United States is so
interwoven in the affections of the citizens; they Bave be long
and so eminently enjoyed its blessings, that even.a ttuggestio
that it is it danger may be treated g'chimericiL
ut ae thereno grounds of apprelension?.Ar *therb not
among- s nEsMaMy tlt y i aar-to whom a listless .state of
peace is irksome, and wh ut for war in expetation of ac-
quiring fame and honor., Many, who unsuccessful in their
pursuits, and having notBting to loose, ground all their hopes
on a change of times? Many disappointed office seekers, and
mal-eontents of every description, who would prefer almost
any f$'g to the present tranquil state of society ? Is there no-
thing to be feared from an assemblageof all those characters
united under a popular chief? Is there nothing in a splimdid.
'4nilitary personage calculated todazzle, confound and mislead.
What are the facts. which have recently occurred within
every one's observation?
Scarcely had the present administration commenced its
course, and withebt waiting to test its merits by it' measures,
a combination was formed for the professed purpose 6f itsde-
truction. This combinatDon is numerous, active and D r-
ful. It has at its head a military .pf cte.rias
h h, of.the highest grade andfl boitDA Di Y and
e6btaces in its rami4etrs the whole 4f tlarie. In
revie*w'f the fact6 ed in the precding page, for the
support of wM*public documents eoly arq appealed to, can







it he doubted thatothe heb wl e eQ mbination hkas tolt4
the Conetitition and I aw-gs his co y in their most esse
tial points? And is tho not reason to.gar that they will form
s' barrier agaist fi rpetwroachnqi..
It is said indeed,4ltf the instapcgs w~ i4o e has transeendr
edis orders, ad the boundaries of thq Eopsiotution, have
been emirl lyserviceabli to his cotiXtr3b g ted. The
proeidet.i for that reason not the. less, bpt the pre 'danger-
out. Had they been injurious they would bave met with
uativersal reprobation, and been a beacon, rather than a pre-
codent. No one would have dared to follow the eampap*.
The very ealat vhiskih atten ded thsm, i among their most
dangerowe ymvQtos. Time Americas people have arrived
setWl ait the point where.other rtion have lost their liber-
ties. They tre growirio~ ry of this constant cabaling for
the Presideney, and willing to rnm almost any hazard to rid
themselves of this in0remlian4"ilttry-appre nd 4it great
truth that their interests am lart Wgh of in the. tfggle be-
twien the ins, and auts of qffis. Tihy vow proppoq to place
Satk the aid of the onlbaial milits, consistiag of upwards .f
a malioindi me~s ambinf ag the Army, Navy and Militia of
the Unitd gates, a darig and popular Chief, Udeq such
. ciruaftanes. he may with amuh leas diffiulty tha~ ye! a
aware of, itmoodace a Presidency for ife, as bereditary Chief
Magi6tracy or any ether changes fvabli to the. increase of
power. Tv that portion of the Amearican peop, who holg
-to better themsefres by change, the prospect" i flattering.
To the great body of the nation, who enjoy tp. blesings gf
prosperity, p its highest degree; and espee, pothiog more
from the o ver mitn, than a perfect sedtty, in their per-
sons, property, pateM quisitions, d, dwp .onewaagement, *'
ev*y brach of thbire mdustry. it is urieosly enquired what I

Thf SWEA fta Authorities in their proper
dignity and s iaC hi..leM part of the Am"0n ,
system, mad as dear the people 6j. :Conatiutipq itpef.
Is no danger to be apprhea u d to thei fr ei~ idAcW""

4"



.< '








ohtPil heakisn? Suppose another tae like Itlat bf Go--
Shinor Rieun, should occur, would the people like-to see
theirgvtrnment treatbd in a manner, which such a spirit.
supported by the wh*ipower of the nation"woul' d dictate.
'A e'the Militia 4e lv6~ when acting unaer, their *6te
Officers, and hot id ithe a fj e fthe United States? The:;ol-
stitution indeedfrbt'te ~Rm 4n it very letter. And.here
we knuit again *o W40'the *aMne page'of history. Captain
Wight, was tnig eltogether "'ndbt the orders of the Go.
Sverautrdf Oergi, inanowl'subhje& to 3erierall'ackson's
aatli ?tkr we re "Wha, any other tifaila 'nan in ae .United
States tt Atis moment; yet we see hlin arrested by tie orders
of that General, and -closely confined in irons for trial'bdore
one of b4hiis iftary tribunals for a capital offence; and deliv-
ered from this perilous situation only by the spiiited interpo-
siAton bf te Statn authorities Is it fMr this that he is to be
iteartled Wit lnhe'Presidenc y?' -
Is there no-dangerthat 'the national peace wiI be tompro-
mitted by an aspiring chief? Facts must again be appealed to.
in the cqmmenceinent and progress of the Seminole war we
find the American Executive in all his orders scrupulously ob-
serving the principles of the Constitution and the rights, of
Spain. Application'was to be made to the State authorities, and
the necessaryy detachments of militia obtained through the .
agency. The Floridas, weretobeentered'only in case of abso-
lu*ecessity, and in no eveht were the Spanish 'ort resses to
be delsted. The General's condtl't forms a perfect coitrat
wiiIphis orders. A thousand mounted volunteers appear"at
his becl from the ranks of the militia, without any order
fripthe Governor of the State. The terriory of both the
F jdas, are overrun in pursuit of fugitive Indins. Spansk
SForftses invested, and taken, and American oneS erected i..
the'heart of the country. The provinces occupied.l b .
ricantroops, and the Spanish civil 'and 'min i'ti i R
tran i if tA To complete the farce; long 4U Wariad
closed n'd tra eitaeiksoa hjed rethine4 to NiAih tie, he bi-
dery hAiecond'inWbaii tenaach-id St. Augnakihe, sever-
5





,'








Il Iandred miles frep the ae af pion, in search of preof,
that the Spanish s l ditb itCtht qgion had given counr,
nance to the Indibot lpsa escar flornkiiiog the oply repala-
ing post In th 'Pll#lw. In this alnAr. war is ~ dqe.upon
SSpia not weady without, but agpint 4b wpnRes orders of
tiigqAeta w*at wander yhich he aaled, td; t king but the
eatWm. ireaknesM of t11 nutionAlhtb to{t mbgpnAumons
fdopla. ught to havq been :its protection, prwprted a rWi1oq
walesw. Prohathl as oppurmence similar iWl all ite circmar
Sanes will not 9aiq taku place during the four years for
whichit U p'r pao d 14 $vpst th e, enerpl with the.enprpen
po.4r of tLIs r*ijg o Wo, be p dcqleA r4pi apns o be
maiaineta with i~'tes who will Blt Wbsbmit tohnltar treat-
meat. Is there no danger that wd shaU be invohedin difi-
culties with thrmi
The Uqited Sttes bty#e a high chjracteJ for eleappcy to-
wards a fallen enemy. to be i wntqined, end ia4weeqr pide4
tbejwslvey Uai a hwuma Wor of ~fopduct tacr the on-
frTt9PtP n9tiv cif thp county, mw4 Ienont 9uple pf war-
*ge, basTevr wam~em teoa oesrysry 1How, its ivpquired ,
ifthe. ugip0 to deab of the tWQ L da.p Chiefs without a
i .apwl Qtl t twa gleluishmen, with bhe farce of a Court Mr-
,eqrt4int with th ee princip e? wl sher the wproeedings
.p9 Vh.i rwe aUu4e, enIpaLe4,.frop ig'orrqae and miscon-
4ppt. o~gl1 law,and order; wpaer ~phjth he acted, or froo*
. d&iqrgar44 tbeir provision, we stqp p t (o enquire, tjiey
rq. 4gjup qcpptonablp A cAief Sagisgrte should both
be Att L trderstand, and willing to dis~barge the high dw-
ie.s of il sts.ien. ,
Two iM~iptlt practical qumtlpnq.lp present themBslyep
,o the Eonp ejs p of the people q Ihe Unied Sattes. i'n
fm., 9jo9 tbo 406ig4 -by thgsp.
1 itf A *,eset to change the administration t the
8. hl i r t? om p tu. egomit their de.stiniw4b 1~4ph a
character p the qpthneai pubbi doctmness, a,1 tptlistory
9f the Uaiuo prIeS the preewt cMnlWte:n ff the lp4i14iopJ
to be










yftlw omta* plted change in thl~eiprdep officers neces-
l inty es, in the present case, a doespoe.ndenq change in
tl bimet and diplouiinooorps, The' Sggle id hot mere-
ly far the purpose apr4inutimg a single alWratiofh but draws
ifrl' it a gengaLi~hage at leat in the high deplrtBlets. Ad&
uirttang thapiwia4 6WsastLl tleatsy will be selectedio 1fal
plaeds tf the pteaLt tipmSbelftai t Al&a nnot hve the exllt-
ance. .4 Aar *4dgo(- the varieosi dtie of these offices, es-
pGeiliy i. thetrdetM 4,dnot lbeari d n a short period.
_Npjprjciple can be more detrimental, to the. piMblic se
vic.tha, ta the offitel&older, as oAre 'as he. i.a mai#ited
the ae dearfyqnalifcatiobs to render hini -useful, amu maefir
befate, a. wsuacsf uk compethor. It dseoy$: allU iotiteto
tbkidaobe exttoniabd latd tbereof ibduce -diosit on to
ake the meBtot his ofliu &flnvte-ieB nat. OFre aap aod
tcfli6n of tof. (cbetj essoffLiW vibw of the sabjedi, a 1sttice
has existed ciFrwe oda hoeemenA Af the GoT maht, 'itHi
only oM exception, of cohlibaing the saUe ps. in thef Pil
sidency fqr two terms. 'This has given stability abd charm.
ter to the executive. It affords an opporthihy to give h t i
seausres the test of aiair experiment; to correct therromnr
dos, andaconflwn the good. At the sa.e time it gives the
people an opportunity to bestow or withheld their approbMr
tion. A smcbesor Wthbdverutl-. private tiews ay. tbev *ill
hardly dare o.ladopt a cottge of measures different fot that
which has stood the test of etperidnce, aad obtaine&4acepeb
pie's isatilon.
SHistory fU niiuab no examsg of a GoverAmeft Wbit, ha
ben so uniform in is. leadingprinciptes and rae rdpr; aewb
which has quadrrpled in wefhh and populatibm ja the slmep
t( forty years., These flattering results may, in a gmeat mew.
Mtl ee ascribed to the stability given the Aeoutive by e"'
0 d4ig the principle of AIotatioc for a shorter t-rt than eight
yea. The letter of'the Constittiion,,,pe4ripwari mp has
giwj the-jeeple an e0pbotunity to chaStbd*f dhlistratioa
once in four years; its practical- eon trtctionhas been that it
showuL coltisa ferpight. Thejuople are now calledupon to
f %








change this important aid beneficial feature for no adequate
cau'e. No important *4miuze of the administration hV been
successfully assailed4 hotgh every on has been watched *ith
a Lynx-eyed vigiluace. The objection which has been most
frequently anm trenuously urged, and to .the.pirculation of
w'lhh th *ppoking candidate, has lent all hiseid,-is that they
oblwdaed power by intrijie and corruption. r'his. hL been
so often and so triumphantly refuted, that it can have no
influence with any who are disposed to give the subject a can-
did examination. .
Another important principle in the American Government,
and without which it cannot successfully progress, that the
perole, including fhat portion of them whose wishes have
been disappointed in the choice ofta chief magistrate, should
give the measures.of the administration a fair and candid trial
andunless found to beprejudicial, a unitedpupport. If all
its plan are liable to b*thwarted by the eAs of disappoint-
ed office seekers; andthe public feeling kept in a tah of per-
petual excitemiit by the conflicting "claims of opplsing can-
didate,.almost any rtte of things is to be preferred. The
people will soon be prepared to give up their liberties, the
preservation of which they find attended with so much
trouble, into the hands of some. successful aspirant.
The anwer to the other question isto be found only in Gen-
eral Jackson's military history. Having arrived to the age of
sisty years, he has given the public no evidence of talent as a
Statesman. He has had no'experience in political life calcu-
lated teoiuglify him for the high station to which he aspires.
Heretbfore, eminent abilities, long experience in political life,
and a thorough acquaintance with our foreign relations, and
the great interests of the country, have been deemed essen-
tial requisites in a chief magistrate. It is'now proposed to lay
these out of the question, and substitute in their stead a hiSg
military repvuatidn .ottomed upon a single achievement, ac-
companied with flagrant violations of the constitution. What
is to be gained by the change?
It is to be expected, perhaps not suddenly, but silently, and




I


gradually, that persons of the'same Leelings, views-and prin-
ciples.wlift the Chief Magistrate will bIe introduced into all
dhe important departments, and the ovwrnment ttus assume
a qisithary character. What General-Jackson has dQoe, in re-
ltim to the liberty of the press, and the righi of his fellow
citizens, wl)n clothq4 i'th V t hiylno subodinatl stations,
we have already seen; whatlhe will-Io when vested with the
supreme power;botacivil and military with a host of officers
at ihi iomgpm.nd, vecap nowpnlywCPejeeture- A hazardous ex-
pjpr P .perhaps may give us the certainty < be do btless
&aoei.some things, one at least, ad perhaps s9, for.
which lph deserves, wll of his country. It is painful 0 enu-
Btfe h.bis erroiti, r stcat his faults. It is to be IamenteAthat "
kis friends h4ve placed hil in a dtration, wheqp a- mutiny
a ust be Ahad pf his charaotors Ihkh brings to light sainany
Wl so great d *rtures fro*p he.lise 4f hid chstituti4du-
ty. Bul for this ahey would soon have been forrotteA; whi *
h. brilljMnt achievement at New Orlsans wuiild have re-
mained in the grateful recollection of his fellmv citizens,pnd
formed a conspicuous page in American history. It is how-
ever a sacred duty, critically to examine the character and-
qualifications of the persons offered to .op choice., On such
examination it it confidently believed that we shall find in
General Jacksan, any thing father than a safe depository of
the liberties, character, and destinies of the nation.












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-" ~ ~ t* S













APPENDIX,


THc Honorable Samuel D. bngham, a Rbpresentativ in
Congress fromn'leks ,County, Pennsylvania, at th'w roest
and uWdet t lpatrcsauge ot the'Phi~delphia con*Yap,
Sointd r aiM in effecting the" etttli of "qi &tifn.
as ptiblished, what he term, an fepr onaof the
character and-priieIples6b JOHNQtNCY ADAMS," witi
a vie. to show that he is ifot jualfied fof the Presidency. h
ThJe respectable soiztee fom wihch this 4 sac4 sppo6r
S by all the weight of MlWse. Horrn ald Difas, of thb Ph ta-
delphia commnittdv, title' the publicito consider *I as cot-
aid all the aiastobjectitons toSW I"Wro i1't
present inwcnbb;t:
They.'atr
1. That be is diedendeS from a frel*ctotle parent, one
among the first who took a decided stand agdai Great Brit-
ain, ip the cause of American fthd dienAaee, negotiated the
peace of 1783, and ever after unfil the year t801, sustained
the highest offices in the Government. That the father wrote
a treatise in defence of the American Constitution, extracts
4* from which' compose a considerable part of Mr:- nghaih's
book, abd which, for the firit time, he has discovered, to
contain some monarchical tendencies, which upon the princi-
ple of visiting the iniquities of the fathers upon the children;
he thinks ought to be ascribed to the son.
2. That he had an early education destined dt fit him for
public life, and has been employed in various high and im-
portant stations in every successive administration from the
days of Washington, to the period of his elevation to the
Presidency, the duties of which he his dispharged"with fide-







39
lity and lonor: The opposing candidate being remarkbly free
from ahly quch disqualification.
3. That, at an early period of the controversy with Great
'Brtain, which terminated iq the war of 1812, he left his po-
litial friends, with vlhom he had formerly acted, their opi-
nidis not coinOd ing with his, iipo that subject, took a de-
cided part in fa&vorof the government measures, and has been
an ab'l jd zealous supporter of thbm eytr since.
4. That, wh-a ecretarytof State. underr Mri Monroe, he
direct the taws eo the United Statem to -be polished in the
'Cdol.uila Centinet, a newspape. printed at oston, having
Wh'e jtst exiQensve circbtation .o.,any in the Stte of Massa-
chusett4, the editorpf which six or eight years before, had.
been guilty rf some political offences, which Mr. Ingh~m by
-a singu'lMarie of the doctrine of imputation, wod4d apqribe to
Sdr. Adam,, ... .
. 6. That, at the co nmmencement of his administration be so-
lecled Wnufus King, tbe of mest able ina experienced 4iplo-
matists in the United States, to represent'thim at the. Court
of St. JAes, without regard to party distinctions, 6r the
claims-of hungry expectants.
This pamphlet the offspring of the united efforts'of the
opposition, Ptplished at the seat of government, by a gentle-
man who boasts of his means of information, and by a liberal
use of the priti oef of asking, sent into every corner of.the
United States, is fcocma ended to the attentive perusal of all
who1ave' any doubts regarding the. qualitivationsbf tq ri-
spective candidates. Containing, as it undoubtedly doe, af '
the real objrctlons to Mr. Adams, it leaves hin as unexcep-
tionable a character, as can be presented to thq people's choice.


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