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Title: Leon County, Florida
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Title: Leon County, Florida
Series Title: Leon County, Florida
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Table of Contents
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    Main
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    Back Cover
        Page 35
        Page 36
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ROBERT MANNING
STROZIER LIBRARY


Tallahassee


51r~


-miffimmm Z m I






LEON COUNTY,



FLORIDA.






A DESCRIPTIVE PAMPHLET.







PUBLISHED FOR GEN ERAL CIRCULATION,


BY THB


LEON COUNTY FARMERS' CLUB.

C .


TALLAHASSEE, FLA.;
PBJEWTD AT THE OFFICE OF THE FLOIDIAN.
1883.


"^'.^







Florida Lands for Sale!




"Wr. a :BY:R ,.


County Judge, Attorney at Law and Real Estate Agent.


-U,..
I HAVE FOR SALE SOME OF THE FINEST PLANTATIONS,
Timbered tracts, and Stock and Vegetable. Arms in the Beautiful Hill Country of Middle F'orida,
and am prepared to furnish purchasers with lots of land in this picturesque and lertile
section of any size desired, ofom ten acres uo, as well as Orange Lands
in other parts of the State.
FARMS IN LEON COUNTY,
of all sizes, from 30 acres to 1,900 acres, adapted to the growth of the staple crops of the country
and for early fruits and vegetables tir shipment to Northern markets, as well as model
Stock and Dairy Farms, unsurpassed by hose of this or any other county, both
in point of locality and quality of .*oil. Many of these places have
BEAUTIFUL LAKE FRONTS,
and other magaiticet4uikling sites on high hils with lovely views. Fish and game in grea
abundance and variety; in many instances immediately on the premises. Prices reason- :
able and terms easy. Cheap for cash.
CITY LOTS,
imniproved and unimproved, and a number of nice dwelling houses in the city of Tallahasee~
ranging in price from $1,100 to $3,000.
FARMS OF VARIOUS SIZES
within three-quarters of a mile to twelve miles from the city limits, most of them with good red
clay sub-soihb Also,
VALUABLE PLANTATIONSj IN GADSDEN COUNTY,
sad a nice house and lot in the pleasant town of Qtincy. Farming lands and Uimbered tractA in tbe
counties of Wa kuHa Jefferson, Madson, Franklin and Calhoun,-and
SOR.tANGE T lANDS
in the counties of Orange, Volusia, Sumter, Clumibia, Hernando, Marion and Manatee.
CHOICE ORANGE TRACTS
on Lakes Apopka and Panasoffkee, some with t e wild orange already growing upon them.
(ga Correspondence especially solicited, and full descriptions and plats furnished upon ap-
plication. Address,
WM. P. BYRD, Real Estate Agent,
Tallahassee, Fla.

Wrefretece.-Wm. D. Bloxham, Governor; Geo. P. Raney, Attorney General; Jno, L. Craw-
ford Secretary of State; P. W. WhiLe, Comm tsioter of Lands d Innnigration ; Jas. D. sWt-
ott, Justice Supreme Court; B. C. Lewis & Sons, Baokers.














LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.


Introduction.
In the month of June, 1881, the members ot
the LEON COUNTY FARMERS' CLUB conceived
the idea of publishing some matter descriptive
of their county, its resources, industries, &c., and
distributing it in response to widespread inquiry
that was pouring in from all quarters, touching
this elevated section of Florida and its suitable-
ness to the varying wants of the thousand curi-
ous inquirers of Florida. Accordingly, a little
pamphlet of thirty-two pages was prepared, treat-
,ing of the several subjects of interest, and an
edition of 5,000 copies was printed and has
been distributed since that time in response to
letters asking information of Leon county. The
r4a,t completion and operation of the Pensa.
cola and Atlantic Railroad, connecting at Chat-
tahoochee wnh the Florida Central and Western
Railroad from Jacksonville, has given MiddUl
lorida, so long comparatively isolated, inti mate,
quipk and cheap connection with the Great
W,, and turned tide of travel immediately
through the beautiful hill country that formerly
passed into Florida over eastern lines through
Southeastern Georgia, seeing and even hearing
nothing at this exceedingly attractive portion of
Florida. This actc, together with that of the
thoroughly first-class hotels of ample propor*-
lions, and every toderu improvement, having
been built last summer, and opened and kept
full of delighted visitors during the past winter,
has brought the section ol Florida to which
Leon county belongs much more prominently
into notice with the traveling people, health and
Pleasure seekers, who make up the bulk of what
are termed winter visitors" to Florida.
The wonderful development in this part of
Florida within the last two years of the truck-,
farm" business, or production of early vegetas
bles for shipment to Northern markets, has be-
gun to advertise Middle Florida ir a way that
is attended with tangible and startling results.
Our farmers who have for some years desper-
ately wrestled with the one crop, cotton, and
been only able to keep barely alive by diversify-
ing their crops aml going in for vegetables as
well, have found the money beginning to jingle
in their pockets as early as April. No cropping
mortgages" and long store accounts to meet at
end of year. Real estate has suddenly grown
valuable, prices for improved land have ad-
wAneei 1 per cent in twelve, wnthb, and the
lad and the people seem awakeniag into e
lif The combined effect of these several changes


in the environment here has increased many
fold the amount of earnest inquiry being made
of this section, and has made the revision and
publication of the pamphlet of June, 1881, im-
peratively necessary.
As many of the articles in that edition are in
all respects as applicable to the condition of
things now as then, they are inserted in this
edition of 1883 intact, and much other matter
of interest and importance has bee substituted
thr some of the papers in lie old edition.
The expense attending the publication of a
map of the county precludes its accompaniment
of a pamphlet intended lor free distribution.
Such a map, however, on a scale sufficiently
large to identify the boundary lines ,of every
farm in the county is being prepared by Col.
John Bradford andl Major L. D. Ball, and will
soon be ready for sale. Parties desiring copies
ot such a map can procure them when com-
pleted by application to Messrs. Ball & Long,
4Tlalhlhasse,, Fla. Price,e "
History and Topographv.
The Commissioners appointed in 1821 by the
United States to locate the seat of government
of the Territory of Florida, which bad been
ceded by Spain to the United States in the year
1820, were men of intelligence, and after an ex-
amination of Florida from the Perdido river on
the west to the St. Marys river on the east,
then selected Leon county as being the most fer-
tile and beautiful part of the Territory for that
purpose, and laid the foundation of the town
where it now stands, on the sloping summits of
a series of high hills. To this, the future seat of
government, they gave the euphonious Indian
name of" Tallabassee." The surrounding coun-
try was emphatically one of much beauty, and
the rat section of the Territory to attract the
attention of the early settlers from the States,
It began to be tilled upby a class of citizens of
energy and enterprise, and some of large means,
chiefly from North Carolina, Virginia and Mary-
land, wen without the aid of railfb&ad It required
much resolution in men and women to fce the
terrors of a journey of several hundred miles, a
part of the distance being from the Ocmulgee to
Tallahassee, nearly two hundred miles, with
nothing but a dim trail to pursue and withoutt
any population.
Leon county ahotud have a bright future be-
fore her when we regard er paMt history. The
culture and refnemtent of her citizen* bae long


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4 LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.

been well known and generally acknowledged. Pensacola and Atlantic line, connects at Chatta-
She has given to the State a long list of distin- hoochee with the western terminus of the F1lor-
guished public men, including eight Governors. ida Central and Western Railroad to Jackson-
The general appearance of the country is attrac- .ille on the St. Johns. The completion and ope-
tive in the extreme. The common idea of Flor- nation of this great trunk line, giving through
ida, with those whor have never seen this portion p issenger and freight traffic to and from the
of it or studied its topography carefully, is that great Northwest was the one work Middle Flor-
it is composed of a succession of barren wastes ida awaited to feel her prosperity assured, and
of sand, interspersed with impenetrable swamps. :fe section is practically 500 miles nearer market
This arises from the fact that a very large ma- than before this outlet was given us, and makes
jority of those who have visited and described the commercial centres of the West the best and
.the State have seen only portions of it, and have most easily reached markets for the crops of
no conception whatever of the existence of such fruit and vegetables grown in such abundance on
.a region as Middle Florida, which is as different the rich uplands of Middle Florida. The man-
from other sections in its physical appearance agement of these two roads and their connec-
and characteristics H Massachusetts is different "o.s have at a late railroad convention held at
from Louisiana. Montgomery, Alabama, provided for a supply of
The northern tier of counties comprising Mid- tourist and excursion or return tickets, from all
idle Florida and enibracing all that portion of the points in the North and West to Florida, over
State lyinc between the Suwann'ee river on the this very attractive and expeditious route, which,
east and the Apalachicola fiveron the west, and out of compliment to the fame Tallahassee so
between the Georgia line on the north and the richly deserves for her incomparable gardens, is
Gulf coast on the south, is about one hundred known as the FKoral City Route. As this is the
and fifty miles in length, east and west, and only Railroad Route in Florida that can offer
varying in width from forty to ninety miles, other than flat monotonous pine woods in the
north and south. way of scenery to the curious traveller, who, in
a-- The topography of the country included in vain, stares into the gloom in search of some of
lte above boundaries is exceedingly varied and hbe flowers of the land, it may be reasona-
Interesting. Along the Gulf coast the surface bly expected to soon become the most popular;
Consists of almost continuous marshes, not dei- for in truth, the attractions of the picturesque
eterious to health, being salt, but forbidding rest region along the line of the 'lorida Central and
dence and cultivation within some miles of the -Western from the Apalachicola to the Suwannee
Gulf 'waters. Next 'me low table lands cov re substantial. The scenery is indeed beautiful
ered with pine antd cypress forests, ad known and bears some striking resemblances to the re-
as "the flat woods,' and the piney woods." izion of hills, valleys and plateaux of Northern
These extend to the foot of the hills, which Mexico before reaching the: rugged borders of
fbrp the third level of elevation, and, beginning the Sierra Madre. There is no grand water way
from ?'etve to twenty miles back from the coast, in Middle Florida, like the noble St. Johns, but
rise in successive gently undulating elevations to there are in every village in Middle Florida,
the height of three hundred feet above the level hard, smooth roads and excellent livery, and
S-of the sea. These hills, wi:h thb broad, fertile Athe winter visitor who stops off at any of the
valleys which lie between them and the high towns along the railroad between the Apalachi-
table lands which extend northward into Geor- cola and the Suwannee cab be sure of delightful
gia, were originally, and are yet partially cov- driving and riding over good roads and with
ed with a magnificent growth of live-oak, pine, 'ost beautiful country surroundings.
red bay or Florida mahogany, magnolia, water- Tb'e Tallahassee Country.
oak, hickory, black-oak, white oak, red-oak and
other haid woods, and are interspersed with n. The famous Wakulla Spring is about sixteen
merous water courses and lakes of pure fresh miles from Tallahassee, in a southwesterly di-
wter. reaction; and :this, with the Wonderful St. Marks
: I Florida Central and Western Railroad, river, with the numerous mineral springs abound-
extending with its coinections from Savannah ing along its banks, and its Natural Bridge twelve
and Jacksonville to tieApalachicola river, passes -miles from Tallahassee, the several lakes, the
'through the several counties of Middle Florida, old ciy of St. Marks, wth its ancient Spanisa
1 with a branch from Tallahassee 16 the port of fort, the old United States Armory and Barracks
%t. Marks, in Wakullas county, a distance of at Chattahoochee, now used as a State Insane
twenty-two miles, the latter place beingstuated Asylum, and maw other places of interest in
sone seven or ciht miles from the Gulf on a the vicinity, offer charming inducements to the
eautifl and navigable river of the name tIame, winter visitor in the way of sight-seeing excur-
ihdhving anuexceilent harbor. ios.
nd having anexcellet harbor. The country above described has been called.
Floral ity Route. bya brilliant and delightful writer "The Talla-
On the seventh day of April, 1888, the'great hassee Country, or. Piedmont Florid." and his
iwon drawbridge across the Apalachbiola .river descriptions are ao truthful and pleasant that we
waa completed and the Louisville an8 Nashville aiqsnot do better than to quote what he, says.
Railroad Company, with their newly completed He thus describes the view westward from the






LEO- J COUNTY, FLORIDA. 5

high hill on which the City of Tallahassee is sit- park-like and inviting. At one end of the city
uated. stands the State-house, a large and very plain
Toward every side the hills swelled up, col- brick structure, painted a light color; with a
oied with colors' that suggested fertility and front and rear portico, having each six great,
abiundance; their rounded brows, their slopes, two-story columns. It stands in a spacious
the valleys between them were full of green square on the crest of the hill, and can be seen
crops; comfortable homesteads and farm build- from a long distance. The grounds are laid out
ings reposed in the distance, each cluster pf with winding paths and lawns, shaded by grand
which had its own protecting grove of oaks old magnolias, oaks, and tle like, and the air is
standing about it in the benignant attitudes f redolent with perfume from the many flowers
outer lares and penates; it was that sort of pros- always blooming there. It isan unpretentious old
pect which the grave old English writers would city, with an air of village-like simplicity; no
have called "goodlye, pleasant and smylynge." factories (except one cotton-mill); all is quiet,
These hills carried with them no associations of country life. The residence avenues are mostly
hills. They did not in the least suggest agita-. lined with cozy little cottages, and comfortable,
tions or upheavals. They only seemed to be roomy, substantial mansions of the good old
great level uplands, distended like udders wita, style of architecture, and all are surrounded by
bounteous richness almost too large for thliel neatly fenced lawns and gardens almost all hav-
content. And this indeed has always been the ing quite ample grounds, well, kept-and flowers,
tone of things-not only of the hills, but of the flowers, flowers! Everywhere in the greatest
social life in Tallahassee. abundance, are flowers. A most creditable pride
Of the many beautiful lakes the same writer in their lovelyho magrounds is exhibited by the
says: citizens, who seem to have a friendly rivalry in
Lake LaFayette-so called from its situation these beautiful ornaments of nature, that is ex-
on the estate granted to the Marquis de La- pressive of culture and aJine taste for the beau-
Fayette by the United States-Lake Jackson, tiful. Tallahassee is truly a "floral city." The
Lake Bradford, Lake Miccosukie and Lake lamo- suburbs are everywhere lovely, and the views
" nia, (pronounced with the I long and the accent from the streets or house-tops-especially the
on the antepenult,) [all in Leon county,] all form roof the State-house-are exceedingly fine. The
charming objective points for excursions, and surrounding country is a vast range of hills, val-
offer substantial results of fine fish, as welleas leys, brooks, lakes, park-like clusters of large
lovely views by way of invitations. Wild duck, trees, broad, well-cultivated fields, large planta-
brent and. geese are also found, often in great tion dwellings and cotton gins, and distant for-
numbers. The environment of the* eats-in all, a remarkably beautifful natural pan-
lakes is varied and beautiful. The hills surround orama of nature, such as seen nowhere else in
them with gently receding curves, now with Florida. Here we reuaiwed several delightful
bolder bluffs, now with terraces rising one above days at the quaint, old, tavern-like City Hotel,"
another to the height of a hundred feet in all; enjoying numerous drives about the surroupglng
many growths of great, glossy-leaved magnolias, country. One beautiful day I rod out to
of water-oaks and live-oaks, of hickory, ash, Goodwood," the grand old estate otf M.;ior Ar-
wild cherry and mock orange, glorify the shores; vah Hopkins, several miles out ot town This
and between and around and over these hang residence was well worth visiting, because if
the clematis, the woodbine, the wild grape vines. was a striking evidence of how elegantly the
Tallahassee-The Capital, old time planters enjoyed life. Erected in 1844,
The fregoing description would be incomplete it comprises numerous buildings, ranged around
The rgoi description woultre square in te re, usedor landry, cook-
without the following extracts from MrI Geo a age r square in re rear, used or laundry, cook-
M. Barbour's charming new book, "Florida for house, milk-house, saddle and harness-house,
Tourists, Invalids and Settlers," lately issued etc., etc.; and the spacious surrounding grounds
from the press of D. Appleton & Co., New York: are laid out in park-like style, with paths, lawns
Tallahassee, the Capital of -the State, "the and innumerable strange plants, tferns and flow-
floral city of the flowery South," is one of the ers. Another day a party of, us went on a trip
loveliest places in all America. It is built upon to Lake Jackson, a large and long lake, four
the broad, gently rolling surface of a high hill, miles from the city. It closely resembles Cayuga
surrounded on all sides by other lovely hills end lake in New York, surrounded by high bluffs,
deep valleys, tor it is in a region of hills, valleys all cleared, and everywhere the broad fields
and lakes. It is laid out in squares,with Main (Mon- reaching down to the water's edge. *
roe) street-which is its principal business street-- The people of Tallahassee have a beautiful cus-
lined mostly on one side with plain, old-fashioned tom of holding a fair each spring, that probably
brick stores for a distance of four blocks. This differs from anything in the way of the fair ex-
street is fairly level and wide. All the other hibitions held elsewhere ina the South. It is a
streets are charmingly irregular and uneven-in floral fair, held at their spa ious fair grounds,
fact many are quite declivitous-and are lined open to all, but of course nearly or quite all the
with grand, old mammoth-sizes magnolias, live- exhibits are made by the Tallahasseeans. The
oaks and other.magnificent shade trees. Broad, exhibits are vegetables, fruits atid flowers, es-
roomy, open squares are frequent, all shady, specially flowers. As might be conjectured, the







LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.


managers, exhibitors and patrons generally, are
the ladies, who take great interest and pride in
this exhibition, so distinctively local, so pleasant
and so indicative of refined taste and culture. I
attended the fair of 1E80, held in March. Floral
Hall was a beautiful sight, with a profuse display
of flowers of all varieties, kinds, forms, colors
and perfumes, all artistically arranged, and ex-
hibited to the best advantage. Nowhere, it may
be said in conclusion, is there a more refined and
cultivated society than in Tallahassee. Among
them are many descendants of the most promi-
nent and aristocratic old families of America,
with names that recall old colonial, revolutionary
and 1812 days in the battle fields and in State
councils; and their large, well-attended schools,
numerous handsome churches, beautiful homes.
and surroundings, all attest to the high standard
of the best society of Tallahassee.
There are a number of towns, villages and set-
tlements scattered about the county, chief of
which are Miccosukie, near the lake of that
name, in the eastern part of the county; Cen-
treville, twelve miles north of Tallahassee, near
the centre of the county, and lamonia, near the
lake of that name, in the northern part of the
county. Bradfordville, ten miles from Tallahas-
see, is a most attractive and flourishing little
place.
Climate.
Whatever else may be said for or against Plor-
ida, the one subject upon which all minds har-
monize is the unsutpajsed equability and salu-
brity of the climate. There is to be found in
Florida the most uniformly delightful climate in
the world, with fewer extremes of heat or cold,
fewer excesses of dryness or moisture in the at-
mosphere, a greater regularity of rainfall, and
conseqtu;t certainty of seasons. Less variation
in the winds and aircurrents, and barring an oc-
casional cyclone, occurring about the time of the
autumnal equinox, a greater exemption from
storms, rude winds and nasty" weather. And
when to all these desirable features can. be added
the total absence in winter of slush and mud,
and in summer of the dust clouds that in some
sections of the United States are so trying to the
eyes, it can be accepted a a fact that in point of
climate no desirable feittire has been left out in
Florida. This is not the place to inquire into
and discuss hie causes of these grateful truths in
detail, but one or two prominent causes are to
be recognized in the fact that, unlike Italy or
Mexico, Florida has no towering Alps or Sierras
from whose snow caps cold winds can descend
in winter; nor is there in summer a dry waste
of Saharas or Llano Estaeado with scorching
breath adjacent. Almost surrounded by water,
and much of the land surface given to lakes and
rivers, a constant ealrpration lends to cool the
atmosphere in summer, and this, with the ever
present sea breezes, serves to make Florida, semi-
tropical as she is, decidedly the pleasantest cli-
mate for "summer wear" in the Union. We
confidently claim, however, that there are seve-


raM features natural to the region of Middle Floir
ida, or the Hill Country, that in connection with
clmatic conditions, common to the whole State'
lend to this especially favored region additional
charms and advantages that enter practically
into one's enjoyment of the climate. Chief
among these is the absence in Middle Florida of
the boundless waste of white sand that is so
prominentt a feature in some portions of the
S'ate, and instead of the glare and reflected heat
the eye is refreshed with green in the grass-
grown surfaces of the land, and instead of that
shadeless, tiresome sameness of pine-woods one
encounters here forest and groves of magnifi-
cent oaks, gums, maples, beeches, magnolias and
other beautiful trees that give a grace and cheer-
fiutess to the landscape, spreading their inviting
and refreshing shadow everywhere.
As simple matters as grass and shade are of vi
tal importance in this climate, and he who neg-
lects them as factors in selecting a semi tropical
home commits a grave error. Owing to the alti-
tude of the country around Tallahassee, and its
nearness to the Gulf of Mexico, the section is
subjected to the constant influence of the sea
breezes, which blow with great regularity and
tend to temper the summer heat; so much so,
indeed, that the state of the mercury in the tube
is rarely ever an indication of the sense of heat one
fets, since the steady breeze carries off the heated
particles from the surface of the body, and with
the thermometer at 90 degree. one finds it gener-
al& pleasant in the shade. Perhaps the feature
tiat tends more towards the perfection of Mid
dleFIlorida summer climate than any other is the
fact that really close, oppressive temperatures at
night are almost wholly unknown. We have no
twilight. So soon as the sun sinks below the
western horizon a marked and rapid change is
perceptible in the temperature; about dusk
comes the Gulf breeze, and by the time the hour
of retiring arrives everything has cooled off and
some covering is desirable every night.
The altitude of the section also relieves us of
thepresence of any swamp lands or low flat sec.-
tibos of standing water, and the absence of these,
elsewhere in Florida common features, frees us
from the mosquitoes and sandflies that make
life unendurable in some sections of the State.
WO do not wish t be understood as saying we
ha e no mosquitoes, but we do claim that, ex-
cept where they are bred on one's own premises
in :t carelessly-kept cistern or other artificial
bretding place, they are very rare. The writer
has not had a mosquito bar in his house for
years.
A very fair summing up in general terms of
the ialient features of climate is to say that there
is never a da( in summer or winter when it is
too hot or too cold for a white man, even a
Northern-raised man, to work freely in the open
farrp,and that, asgcompared with any part of the
cot*try of which we have reliable data, Middle
Flolida can boast a greater evenness of tempera-
turOd-e In support of this assertion we submit the







LtEON COUNTY, FLORIDA. T-

following tabulated statement of temperatures, carefully noted by Mr. W. A. Rawls, druggist and
pharmacist, of Tallahassee, from January 1st, 1881, to July 1st, 1888, a period of thirty months,
during which there have been as many marked extremes and erratic changes of weather through.
out the United States as at any like period in its history.


Pa

V41-Mo u. a


iS k Date Deg. b e Deg. Date Deg. Date Deg. Date Deg. Date Deg.
January.. ... 3 57.1 51.8 52.4 20 64 19th 73 17th 96 11I 32 let 39 2d 32
Pebruary..... 3. 58.56. .1 2th 70 lt 77 1st 68 14th 31 13th 37 13th 35
March........ 58.5 63.060 60. 5 29th 7 76 18th 71 'th 44. 22d 4 22d 45
April .......... 66.6 72.8 6 69.5 30th ) ,3'th 8 26th 87 2d 47 1st 54 li t 49
May...... 74.6 4 79.3 79.5 14th 1 1 4th1 86 12th 70 23d 75 2d 74
June......... 89.8 84.5 84.815th 86 9th 6 22d 92 6th 76 26th 79 8th 76
July.......... 81.2 89.484.7 8.1 9th 86 d 97 8th 92 th 73 2 1 2 76
August....... 7.3 86.8827 81.6 22 82 94 13th 90 17th 72 5th 77 6th 74
september ... 7.8 87.482.3 1.8 12th 82 3d 94 3d 90 21st 72 .1t 80 25th 75
October......71.0 82.8 76.8 76.819th 78 5th 87 10th 82 21st 66 25th 74 23 71
November.... 62 70.2 65.8 66.1 8th 72 2d 78 9th 76 25th 3' 25h 2a 12ah 46
December.... 56.367.0 59761.014th 68 3d 76 2d 74 16th 39 18th 52 |1th 42
SAverage daily mean temperature for the year. 71.2 degrees. Highest range of thermometer, 97
degrees, on the 23d of July, at 2 P.M. Lowe-t ra ng, ..n thermometer, 32 degrees, on the let and 2d
of January, at7 A. M. and 9 P.M.; the 4th or F~btnary, at 7 A. M., and 25th of November, at 7 A. M.





z z



Date. Deg Date. Deg Date. Deg Date. Deg Date. Deg bate. Deg
January ..... 58.768.6 62.43.2 18 70 17 77 17 73 2 32 I 4*
February.:. ... 69.562.262.6 21 72 18 80 16 72 1 38 1 5* 1 5
rch......... 63.0 7.670.069.5 21 74 21 83 20 70 23 'S 23 6 22 0
r8........... 6 7.372.97 10 76 10 86 22 78 14 61 13 68 13
...........7.0 .074.077.3 7 80 8 90 9 80 17 63 22 72 14 64
ne.........77.186.177.280.1 20 84 21 9 2? 86 6 70 8 75 7 70
July........... 73. 4.377.178. 17 80 90 27 88 22 72 22 76 23 ?7
Augst... .74.42.57.977.9 9 82 92 9 89 21 72 21 1 21 74
Sptember..... 75,080.579.478.3 7 80 6 90 4 84 11 70 26 78 26 72
ber...... 0.773.874.3' 11 76 13186 11 86 25 63 22 66 21 1
November...,... .2 66. 66.8 1 73 84 1 0 0 43 30 54 29 4
December...... 1.6 2.15.97.5 22 68 18 74 20 78 8 3 17 44 16
Average daly mean temperature for the year, 1.4 deg. Highest range of there 95 deg., on
the 2Sat of June at 2P. M. Lowest range of thermoeneter, 32 deg., on the 2d of January and 8th or De-
cember, at 7 A. M.




i188-MONlTH. | !


Dati Deg. Dte Deg. Datn Deg. Date De. Dawl le ; Date Deg
ia ,,i = =':"- -' ,,,, 4- ,
January... 54 6.1 6 ?. h h 6- 1Ith 38 lllb 54 11b 31
February .. 67 'j60 i 6Q. 1i 2 0 t 5h 0 5th 76 let 52 19th 60 'th 51
March. .. 41 0 6t.5 7th 7n 7 et 6 th 51 9th 52 10th
April... ..... b.6 5 178 8, Ith rI 19 d I 3d 81 41h 71 3d 0
4y. .... .. ; 1BI ;7&.2lth lb S l., 90 15th Mb NS 1st 72 id 60
one .... 9 ,; : 81 4i2d t 129 94 ll t. 18 Id sth 74 llth 71
Average daily mean temperature for 6 months, 71.2. Highest range of thermometer, 94 degrees,
at 2 P. M. 22d June. Lowest range of thermometer, 32 degrees at 7 A. M. 12th January.





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LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.


have often failed to discriminate between worthy
and unworthy objects of their generous atten-
tion, and have taken to their confidence and
companionship many who proved themselves
unworthy of them, simply because they were
strangers and possibly new citizens, until it
now seems strange that they can feel a wel-
come toward any.
Let no intending settler be fearful of failing to
find a hearty welcome, not only from the new
settlers already resident, but from those of the
older citizens whose welcome would be desirable.
. The trades are well represented, but good
workmen can almost always find employment
in any trade. Manufacturing interests are as
yet not large. There is a small cotton factory at
Tallahassee, also a planing mill and a tannerFy,
besides cabinet and wagon-maker's shops. Saw
mills and grist mills are to be found in different
sections of the county. Lumber is worth from
$12 to $17 per thousand; brick from $5 to $8
per thousand; shingles from $2 to $3 per thou-
sand; lime from $1 to $2.50 per barrel.
What Others Say.
Another recent settler says :
The climate is the most delightful in our coun-
try; land is cheap, and the owners of large prop-
erties are willing to sell. Northern people are
treated courteously, and sometimes better than
they deserve. It is strange what notions some
Northern people have of the state of society
here! Some even ask if a man is safe here.
The feeling of the people is decidedly friendiyt
and favorable to Northern immigration, and you
might live here for years without knowing your
neighbor's politics. We have many Northern
families here, and they mingle and associate with
the natives, ind are visited in turn as freely and
friendly as if they had never lived in any other
State. If you value good soil, climate, markets,
schools, churches, railroads, navigation, fruits
and7 fish, oysters, crabs, wild fowl in profusion,
and all other game, don't fail to visit Leon
county before you buy a home for your family.
You will find a welcome whether .you conm,
from the North, East or West. Our lands here
are mostly cleared and ready for the plow. You
can cultivate the soil and plant something for
family use or sale any day in the year.
And another furnishes, from experiiCece
and observation, the following excellent and
practical hints and advice:
1st. Be sure to bring a good supply of endu-
rance and staying qualities. The second year
in a new home is generally the trying one. If
you make a wise selection of location and land,
and reasonable improvements on your place for
three years, you could not be dragged away from
Florida.
2d. Bring as much cash as would be necessary
to make a start in the West. By all means, do
not pay all your money out for land. Buy no
land to speculate on, and no more than you can
make a good use of.
3d. By all means bring others with you. Came


in Colonies; if not more, three families will do.
4th. As to teams, don't over-do in this matter.
Horses and mules are about as cheap here as
with you. One good horse-or a mule is better
-is sufficient work-stock for a thirty-acre farm.
Don't bring any wagons or buggies. Ours here
are the "wide-tread." If you have first rate brood-
mares, bring them. You can go into the busi-
ness of colt or mule-raising, which will pay.
5th. Good milch-cows, Jerseys, or those espe-
cially noted for the production of butter, will
pay to bring.
6th. Bring a few good stock-sheep. We would
recommend the Spanish Merino, wool being the
object, and our pastures more suitable for them.
We can obtain good stock hogs and poultry here.
S7th. I would not advise the bringing of many
farm tools or machinery; can make or order
such as you will need, other than we already
have.
8th. In seeds, plants and trees we can get,
most of those we want here as cheap as else-
where.
9th. Bring all your clothing, heavy or ligh :
it will be useful.
10. Don't pay freight on furniture, except .t
be good cook-stoves.
Agricultural Products.
The interest in Florida, that has been awak-
ened and become so widespread of late years.
has been based rather upon the attractiveness
of the climate to invalids, and the popular craze
regarding the culture oforanges and semi-tropical
fruits, and the attention of immigrants has been
rather directed to the eastern and southernn sec-
tions of the State for that purpose. Agricultural
pursuits, by which is here meant. the productions
of the staple farm crops, have been but rarely con-
sidered by the great mass of those who have t:-
come citizens of Florida during the past ten years.
This is mainly owing to the fact that such pcr-
lions of the State as possessed a soil of sufficient"
fertility anl durability to make arming profita-
ble, are very limited, and were iaken up and de-
voted to the business long before the war, where
under the old slave system, every acre ot pr -
ductive land in the Southl was eagerly appropr";-
ted and turned to some iccwunt.
In the counties of Jackson, Gadsden, Leen.
Jefferson, Madison and Wakulla, in the northern
part of the -tate, there is an extensive belt o:
red hammock land that. is of excellent quality
and has for forty years or more supported a
comparatively dense population in great comfort
and luxury. For twenty miles east and north ct
Tallahassee is to be found one of the most attrac-
tive agricultural sections in the South. The
lands are red clay, containing just enough sand
to make them easy of cultivation and to prevent
them baking. Except about one-fourth of the
area of the county of Leon, lying towards the
southwest and constituting the "piney woods"
part of the county, the balance is admirably
adapted to, and has for years been profitably ap-
plied to the production of corn, hay, oats, rye,







LEOWN COUNTY F'L ORIDA.


-ice, potatoes, cotton and sugar-cane, pasturage,
etc. Cotton and sugar have been the principal
crops made for market, while the corn, grain and
grass has been used for home consumption and
:he raising of good live stock.
COTTON is still a staple crop, from which most
of the money of the farmers comes. The'county
produces about 12,000 bales, worth about half a
million dollars. This crop is susceptible of be-
ing made many fold more profitable than at
present, even should general prices decline, and
we apprehend it will always hold a prominent
place in the productions of the#unty.
CooN is easily and cheaply inde, and of a
very superior quality, often weighing 61'pounds to
the bushel. Twenty-five to thirty bushels per acre
on the best lands, but .without fertilizing, is con-
sidered an excellent yield; and the greater part
of.the open lands in tIe county will, with good
work,, perhaps average fifteen bushels without
thB use of fertilizers; but .itTs also.true that the
cotr crop of the county, one year with another,
does not average over twelve bushels to the
acre. Some farmers who rotate crops, apply
fertilizers and exercise skill and judgment in
,heir operations, triple this average, and be-
sides, haivng bacon, lard and hams to sell every
year, also have thoosando of surplus bushels of
coru, which they turn into money at good prices
during the year. Forty cents per bushel is about
tbe average price for corn in the county.
OATrs are a. rela~bla'd Isoportant crop inu
Leon county, and are coming -more exteusliveil
"nto use among the farmers each year. From
wenty to thirty u~j~*el per acre is considered
a fair crop on %ld laid p without fertilizing, but the
pp l.altion of fifty bushels of rotted cotton seed
w yr aetd, orA ing about $, puts the yield up to
forty to sixty bushels. At ihis time oats are
worth o ity to thirty-five cents per bushel;
during the winter they get up to 50 cents.
RYE is made use of extensively by farmers.as
winter peturace for.stock. For this purpose it
is a .cheap and -reliable crop, and after being
kept under foot all winter, if the stock a re e-
moved in March, a pretty.fair crop of eight to
ten bushels can gtfl, h ct per acre. To the
keeper of live stock, whether of horses, beef-
cattle, dairy-cows,. or even hogs, the pjssesudon.
of a few acres in rye, for green winter feed is a
grem item of economy,, and saves mcih. money.
RICE is a profitable crop on every farm. There
are generally an acre or two of meadow land that
can always be made to pay handsomely in rice.
From forty -to seventy bushels is a good crop,
and this commands generally $1 per bushel, in
the hull or rough.",
WHEAT is not among the commodiieo
commonly grown in Leon countY, from
no inability to'produce it piroftably, however,
for during tie civil war, when flour could not be
had from = other quarters, some planters grew
wheat very successfully, and made about four-
teen Io eighteen bushels per acre.


BARLEY grows well and is a very cheap and
sure crop.
RGERMAN MILLET AND HUNGARIAN GRASS
both are grown very profitably for forage crops.
PEARL MILLET or '"at Tail" is an indis-
pensable crop to the owner of live stock, espe-
cially dairymen, who use it for soiling. A very
small piece of ground furnishes a vast amount
of*green stuff, which can be cut four of five
times.
SORGHUM of many varieties is a popular and
profitable crop, and a few acres to be handled in
summer when there is little else to do on the
farh, insures handsome profit in syrup and su-
gar.
GRASS is a certain and abundant crop, of
'Waly valuable varieties. None of the popular
Northern grasses, such as orchard-grass, blue-
grass, red-top, timothy, &c., have been cultiva-
ted extensively in Leon county. Experiment
has demonstrated that the two first do admirably
in our climate and soil, and since a few farmers
have led off in that direction, there is reason to
expect a more general adoption of these grasses
in a few years. But we have in Leon several ex-
cellent hay grasses indigenous, that only require
the ground to be broken and harrowed to pro-
duce abundant crops, that can be cut twice,
Cielding from two to three tonsk f sweet, nutri-
tious hay that all oui stock prefr to any we can
procure from the North. The Bermuda grass
flourishes in Leon. Of late years it is rapidly as-
teing a supremacy as a pertaneylt pasture
grass, and where desirable is made into a hay of
a superior quality, yielding about two tons of
cured hay per acre at a cutting. This Bermuda
hay commands 25 per cent. more in the Savan-
ndih market than the best Northern -hay.
ALFALFA or "California Clover" seems spe-
cially adapted to the climate and soil of Leon.
AS yet it is not being generally planted, but in
such cases as it has been tried, has given most
uqualifed satisfaction. During the present
year the writer has cut four cross of Altfalfa from
iti same ground, between January 1st and June
lt, and the fifth crop is now in bloom. This
fact'of itself makes the matter of fat stock and
chieap meat a practical reality with every farmer
inithis section.
I WEmT POTATOr are'in Leon county farm
economy what beans are in the army-a sort of
st1nd-by. Everything eats them, and fattens
oN them. They can be planted anytime, from
April until August, and whenever there is noth-
ing. else to do on a farm, "slap in more potsa
toesv" The cost of making them is very insig-
niticant and the yield is about:300 'bushels per
acre as an average-often 500. One of the best'
farmers in Leon was heard to remark that he
"could make money here producing sweet potas.
toes at 15 cents per bushel. The varieties of
thflphut most popular in Florida do not seem
t. stilt the taste of Northern consumers, who
tikfer a dry, mealy root to the buttery,sugary sort.
But as the Jersey and Mancimon do quite as well







LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.


here as our native varieties they will probably,
in time, supersede the yams and thus add an-
other name to our already long list of truck
crops for shipment North..
UViPAS and pea-nuts also produce well in Leon
county, and are grown for stock. w,
CAssAVA is another root rapidly coming intoI
notice and favor. There is no question about,
the profitableness of producing cassava on Leonr
county lands for the manufacture of starch and
glucose, but as cassava will grow on sandy
land profitably, and few other things will, it is
probable that the settlers on the pine lands of
E'tt and South Florida will engage extensivelyr
in its cultivation, and it would be "sorter mean"
not to allow them to monopolize it.
SUGAR-CAKE is a sure and profitable crop in
Leof' county, and every farmer grows some.
About ten barrels of syrup, or six barrels of su-
gar peracre is a good crop, and a few acres o4.
each farm are not in the way of other things
and bring in ready money, and gives the thrifty,
provident farmer many tons of bagasse or refuse
stalk, that are rich in both nitrogen and potash,
and are a valuable addition to the compost heap.
To6Adco has always been a very piolflable nnd.
favorite crop in Leon. Since the war ii has boen
neglected, but is again coming into favor. Tlhe
Cuba seed are generally preferred, producing n
fuaef-avored article that commands top prices.
The recent establishment of a cigar factory in
Tallahassee, which is already over-stocked wiib.
orders from St. Louie and Chicago, has given a
new start to tobacco planting. About 600 to 700
pounds is considered a lair crop per acre ot>
Cubas tobacco, worth about fifty cents per, pound
in thfemarkel.
Cow-kas~ are another very ,general crop in
Leon county, and while their chief use is to plow
under as a fertilizer, still they will stand picking
first, and yield *bout 10 to 12 bushels per acre
(Dwarf or bush varieties more), and are worth
8 per bushel. The pea vine cures well and no
better winter forage can be had for stock cattle,
as they eat up the vines clean, and fatten readfl
on them. A amw. variety recently trdae
cale the "Ooneh" will produce and mature
three erops on the a'sme ground in one season,
and wit their aid old land is soon gotten late
good heart.
The foregoing list of crops comprise all of the
farm emps proper that are actually grown inr
Leomeiaml and for which there is an established
maket. There are a number of others that ei-
perimeat has shown might be as easly and prof
italy grown here, such as West India jute. ra-
mie, Bil liemp, fla, castor beans, indigo, hope
buckwheat, tea and poppies, but none of t
are now established cope.
| ietlkflMsar *
Thd following is contributed by.a native
the xatty who has long and successfully
SMlettlry a special matter of study and praCe
Stock.raising in Leon county liae, from i


earliest history, been an important and profitable
adjunct to the operations of every farmer. i,
ante-bellum times every planter raised his owg
supply of pork, and devoted considerable tread
of their large estates to sheep walks and ps.stuCH
fbr cattle; and quite a number of them bred
their entire supply,.6f work-stock, horses and'
mules Since the war this industry has been
much neglected. The decay of fences, and the
adoption generally of the tenant systeat on the
plantations, made the care of Aock quite iar-
practicable. At present ilere are very few In-
stances in the county where stock-raising a eon.
ducted as is undeilbod by that term among the
model farmers of the North and Northlwest; nor
are there any operations resembling the methods
'f the ranchmen and herders of the Western
prairies; but there does exia a cdeliderable and
rapidly incteannlg investment in raising stock
by what might be consfMcred a moFfied plan of
the Western herder, unproved bya method and
providence, borrowed fyro the mine economical
and scientific farmer of the north
So little care and protection are necessary to
insure comparative success in breeding and ras-
in stock of all kinds in a climate like ours, that
mo'r operAtIlrs are satisfied wth a degree ot
irofilable succe.- that more ambitiouss men can
greatly improve upon. Under the henefceet in-
fliene", 'however, of agricultural exhilitttia
competitive shoks, and a greet amount of eat~i
lent literature on the sbuiect o,' improviug anad
atM*ding stock. tiogeter Yth e fAct that we
have whotesomely administered laws tht gi~r
protection t, stock they dip pot enjoyfor tsin
years after the war, the mnaj of o uf or f&'mer
are recognizing the great value of stock as an 4W-
junct to their farm operatfonstnd are tiqgiga
to foster that branch of their b sinaes in a ty
that will soon place b ,on cqutiy i the front
rank of meat mad butter prodpers. Thorough
bred stallions, bulls, boarm and backs have bes
introduced to that extent that it will be a sft
esntiate to say that two-thirds of all live stock
1J1 the county are grades of some improved btbde
vor another. Several very fine bones have beer
brought to the county during the last ive yeft,
and on every farm are to be 4bad nd we-bet
colts. Durham, Devon, Ayraith. Jersey as&
Alderey eattte have been liberally intenrieed,
and several very respectable herat of Ithoteth--
breds and hTgl grades of these lsveral stoerkt i
Sb be found in the vicinity ot Talahbssee.
Of the healthlulnews of live stock in this aew.
'tin of Florida too favorable. a statement can
'scarcely be made. Horses occasonally are ad
dilted to what is known as "bhlind-taggers," sa
work horses and mules are frequently ktled f
,flatulent colic. Both diseases yield readily Wt
treatment, and the latter need ifter result fit
lally if properly attended to. Abotl tweMplta4
rs ago a plague called bl k taeng" rned
oag the castle and deer in FlW a it did
r bohout the South, and destroyed great ia-
'r'. With thi e'cepfbn Lthe writer knows of






LEON COUNTY', FLORIDA.


no serious malady that has ever affected cattle of little value, but kept well under foot it fur-
bere. It has been found that thoroughbred cattle nishes an inexhaustible supply of sweet and fat-
brought here from the North frequently die after tening food throughout the year, and is the main
a few months residence, but. just why I have chance for green stuff to cattle in the open range
heard no intelligent reason assigned. It was during January and February. For sheep it is
pronounced to be pleuro-pneumonia, but if so it equally good, but the latter'kind of stock get
never became contagious, for no native cattle are through January and February very well on a
ever affected similarly. Milk stock, sometimes succulent little weed or clover that covers all
"scour," but I never knew a case that was not laud cultivated the previous year, during these
oured at once. 'months. The name of this plant we are unfa-
. In addition to the general healthfulness there miliar with. There are also four other distinct
are no pests in the way of mosquitoes, buffalo- native grasses, the names of which we do not
gnats, screw-worms, horse-flies, deer-flies and know, that furnish a large percentage of our
heel-flies to torture and destroy cattle as in some permanent pasture, and sod closely, come early
parts of the South. and stay late; they are called by the country
SSheep do most excellently, and owing to the people carpet grass," velvet grass," sheep
absence of waxy mud to cake and harden bf-9 grass," &c.
tween their toes, foot-rot, that dreaded scourge, In the cultivated fields we have several excel-
is entirely unknown. It is never cold enough to lent hay grasses. Crab-grass and crow-foot, the
necessitate sheltering them. They lamb in the two most prominent, spring up wherever the
open fields in December and January with per- 'ibund is broken, yield as much as eighteen to
feet impunity. Hogs have several times been twenty-five hundred pounds of most excellent
seriously decimated by cholera." hay to the acre. Both of these grasses, when
Feed for stoek. properly harvested, are quite as good as timo-
As to what stock find to eat in Leon county we thy. A native white clover, one of the first
submit the following: Horses, cattle and sheep spring visitors, is abundant and universal. Blue-
have been successfully and profitably raised in ass from Kentucky seed, has been known to
Loon county, year after year, without being fed do well in shaded pastures.
at aH, but left entirely to subsist on the natural Beggar-weed is one of the greatest produc-
Ft wfld supply of food, and without being shel:- tions of this country. This is a plant that comes
tored one hour from their birth to their maturity. up wherever the land has been stirred, or on
In the cases of Mr. George A. Croom and Gover- stubble ground, in corn-fields, &c. It grows to
nor R. K. Call, om their -plantations on Lake ,se often ten feet high, completely covers the
Jackson,we know this to have been done. And ground, and yields more agree' forage than any
qfeourse this could only be possible where grass known plant. It is a cousin german of the pea
grows-good grads and plenty of it. The Ber- family; every leaf, twig and stem is sweet and
muda stands pre-eminent asa permanent pasture tender, and possesses greater fattening properties
gras. It sods close and solid on our stiff olay than any plant known to feeders. Stock of all
land, and affords an inexhaustible supply of ten- kinds devour it greedily. It is the freedman's
der, rich food, from the first 8f March until about crib from which Ole Mike and Jude draw
the first of December.. The testimony of a,large their rations from "laying-by-time" until frost;
battle and sheep-breeder near Corpus Christi, it is indeed the salvation of 90 per cent. of the
Texas, is, that it will keep more stock to the freedmen's mules, which, but for the rest and
acre than any gras in America, and he declres "beggar-lice" in the fall,, would never get
*&at ten acres of his Bermuda equals any one, through the winter. This, plant shades the
audred acres of his best "mesquite." It flour around completely during the-Augast and Sep-
Mshms with us in Leonp pupty better than at Gor- member beat, has a long tap-root, and brings up
p Chbristi, because of our having more rain and the salts and returns an astonishing amount ot
a morerporous soi vegetable matter to the land. The dead wood
sext. in order of excellence among our wild 'i brittle, pulverizes easily, and is far superior to
permanent pasture grssais what is pepularly clever or anything else to recuperate land. It
termed "black-top or "smut gras" This is can be cut tor winter forage at the time it begins
a coarser specimen than Berm ud does not run to bloom, and if properly cured does not throw
but stools well, and spreads until it becomes its leaves, and is the best winter feed for young
soid. When kept grazed it pts up tender stock we have.
sprouts from April until Dece r, nd 9quets As has been said elsewhere in discussing dairy-
with the warm daywall winter. %h writer win- ing, we have several excellent soiling crops; but
tted a lot of calves mainly on a mnill encl sure when it is remembered that stock of all kinds
ofthis grass during the winter of 18$ 9. It is can be kept here all winter, if desired, on grow-
exceedingly nutritious, *ad stock of all kindeat ing oats, rye or barley, we can easily understand
it greedily. We have, indigeau, severe varie- ow little care and expense attends the winter
ties of a rather oarge grqlstermpd itdiPrently keep of stock of any kind. We confidently ex-
I' broom sedwg." This very common growth pct before long to see Leon county, with her
a'bimgs up upepalkands turnedoot. If alowe two sisters, Gadsden and Jefferson, supplying al?
to grow to maturity it is tough and woody, an the butter and cheese used in the State.







LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.


8heep-aBisings .
'A successful sheep-farmer, living within two
miles of Tallahassee, furnishes the following;
SI began sheep-raising in 1874, by selecting
eight head out of a lot that I had bought for kill-
Sing and keeping them one year as an experi-
/ment. I raised eight lambs, (one pair twins,) and
/as they did well I decided, to increase my flock,.
and in January, 1876, I had sixty-six head of
grown sheep. I then began to keep an accurate
account with that branch of my business,. I
have bought some each year and killed off the
inferior ones, and kept the best only, until I have
now three hundred head. I take account of
stock each January, and charge myself with $2
per head for all of the grown sheep, and c:t:
the account with all sales of mutton or wool,
and have never failed to realize from the flock
the whole amount of the account, or $2 per
head, for the flock, nd leave the stock increased
each year and a small balance over.
.I have no pasturage except the native grasses
of the country for summer grazing. The pasture
lands are rather poor and sandy, and when I be-
gan raising it would require from two to three
acres to keep a sheep. Now, after five years of
constant grazing, I can keep on the same field
three to four head to the acre. I havesome nut-
_ras, and while I would not advise any one to
put it on their lands, as I deem it an awful pest,
it affords tolerably good pasturage. I have some
Burmuda gras. and think well of it. It tffonBg
.good pasturage, and I believe when I get mfy
land well set in it, it will keep from five to ten
head per acre, from April to September. This
grass will not only afford good grazing, but when
tip land is made rich it will. afford good m6w-
ngs, and make a good hay for winter feed. It
will also kill out nut-grass, I use verylittle long
feed for my sheep, as the grazing of cultivated
lands affords food during the winter; yet some
hay is very desirable to have and feed in wet,
cold, winter weather. ZCotton-seed, at the rate
of two to three bushels to the hundred aheep,
make a gQ aM.,I4 atgrplWj s,and W
Using movabl fences, can cut off small pieces of
the turnip land and let the sheep eat the turnips
out of the land, and while doing so they manure
the laud, and as soon as they eat out the turn~ps
I plant oals or rye on the lind for late winter fr
early spring grazing. Sweet potatoes are excel-
lent and cheap feed, two td three bushels to the
ufldriMd head.
I believe in the free use of salt, and always
kme it where the shedp can have free access to
it. 'use a box three feet long, four Inches
de~ ~ id wide, and from April to September
kp le inside edges of the box well and freely
wit? tar. The sheep in eating the 0All
the a on their flices and noses, and it keeps
flep.' I think it otherwise healthy 1
te lphur wrth the salt occasionally, ty
< Ykh Oonth,and particularly In winter- it kde
o lice. I sow oats in my cotton fields at tbl
last working, and find it makes good winterpar-


turage. I have no fine stock; only the best I
could select from the native stock of the country.
My sheep average me four to five pounds of
wool each year. I shear in April and Septem-
ber. The fall shearing is more to keep the sheep
from being laden with burs during the winter,
as our plantations are full of burs. I do not be-
lieve a sheep should be kept after it is five years
old. I kill off after they are five years old, and
all male lambs as early as they will dress twenty-
four to thirty pounds. By such a course I have no
very old sheep, and rarely ever lose one. As
for'dogs I keep a bell on every fifth sheep. It
makes considerable noise, but 1 like it and the
dogs tear it. I have lost but one sheep by dogs
in two years, although there are fully three hua-
-dred dogs within three miles of my flock.
The best natural grass that las made its ap-
pearance in my pastures is a grass called vel-
vet or carpet-grass." It completely covers the
ground where it takes hold, and affords good
grazing. In the fields on our best lands there is
a weed called "chick-weed" that grows all
winter and affords good pasturage, and sheep
are fond of it. Old sedge-fields afford good graz
ing all winter, as there is always a green crop
under the sedge. Sheep are ravenous feeders,
and eat almost anything green in winter. While
the present open mode of cultivation is contin-
ued, there need be no fears of sheep wff4etrt
for the want of feed in the- winter, as they will
travel three miles and return the same day; but
when the present murdeao q and wicked system
or botching up lands shall have come to..n end,
and we have a population of live men, our farms
will be enclosed and we shall grow rich by the
production of wool and mutton. Then it will
be necessary to look more after winter pasture.
DIary Farmang.
From two very full and excellent articles on
this subject are condensed the following:
What advantages are offered by Leon county
to the dairyman ? They are many and great,I
reply, whether to the possessor of many aces or
few. The first may, if hechoosas, devote' iit
dred acres or so to his herd; and they,talxig
their own sustenance and shelter, will thrive
and increase rapidly on the natural pasttrage,
with scarcely an expense to the owner, except
to keep'lrack of them. The second, on the
other hnau who may be obliged to count care-
fully the number of acres to be alloted to each
head of stock, may yet at comparative little6cost
make his cattle a source of steady profit. Tb
do this it is necessary first to consider the mat-
ter of pasturage.
On reasonably good ground, if plowed once a
year, crab-grass will grow -abundantly, and is
very sweet and succulent and highly relished
by stock. By dividing the pasture intUotwo
parts, so that the herd may be turned-lat each
alternately for a week or n 6rt at time, slacre
to an acre and' hallf to dach head of etoek,-large
and small," as been found to eary theib wougb
the summer vey 'comfortably. If, 'twever,






LEONV CJO UNTY, FLORIDA.


profit is desired through the yield of milk and
butter, the pasture must be supplemented by soil-
ing crops. Of these a large assortment is at the
service of the enterprising dairyman. Something
green can be kept growing during every month
ot the year.
Fodder-corn sowed in drills yields the earliest
crop tir summer use. This is followed by cat-
tail or pearl millet, which, though not so nutri-
tions as the corn, yet produces -such an immense
amount of forage no keeper of stock can afford
to do without it. At the same time come the
various kinds of -orghum, a much richer and
more palatable food. I am testing this year a
new variety of this, called the Rural Branching
Sorghum, introduced by the Rural New Yorker,
which promises to be ot immense value as a for-
age crop for milch cows. It is sweet, nutritious,
highly relished by all kinds of stock, like all the
sorghums. but differing from the other kinds in
throwing up a large number of shoots from the
same seed, which may be repeatedly cut through
the season, like the cat-tail millet. Thus far I
have found it a very vigorous grower, and ap-
parently well able to fulfill the large promises
made of it virtues. A little later come cow-pea
vines, producing an enormous amount of teed at
small cst ot cultivation, and carrying the cows
well through the fall.
lwr winter feeding nothing can surpass the
swet potato. A heaplbg peck given a cow each
day, in addition to her other rations, produces a
surprising effect, blah it thequantlty and quality
of milk and butter. The vines also furnish a
goed amount of fair fod. In addition to thapo-
tatoes should bitalsed a large patch of rata
bga turnips to be miaed with the potatoes, and
aVb to fraish green food in the ops. Pump-
kias also should bamied e laige quantities fbr
the winter, and cow-pea vines oured in the man.
A little later la the fall may be sown a feld of
mixed oats and ty, to furnish green grazing.
This, beginning in January, will continue alaoet
to the time of eutlng tbdder-corb again in the
ytibaaing tfhe nmanute and good cultiva-
tio, a fw acres may be made to yield asurprs
ins amount of the roepe above meyhmed. Iveo
or ax aseat.ave ben imund to produce enough.
for tea or twelve cowr, and cut d6ow the amount
of purobased feed, -,uch as coran-eal, wheat-
bran, ottoa-seed meal, &h., to very modmate
proprtiem. If the stock are turned out to
rang throub the orn and cotton AUid b om
December Ist to Mamch 1lt, the dr and yyb
stock will require but very little feedingthroug
the winter.
Tbe matter of ed settled. I.e taestlis na


I summer and winter, without using ice, and with
nothing colder than good well water. Very
likely the modern devices of "Cooley Creamers"
and Hardin Processes," with ice, might be an
advantage, but good butter can be made without
them.
SIn regard to improved breeds of cattle, we
have several of the finest. There are the Devon,
Durham, Ayrshire and Jersey or Alderney.
These are seldom found pure, but are more or
less mixed with each other. Some breeders have
lately procured thoroughbred bulls, and stock of
pure blood may soon be more common. Several
of these mixed breed, however, produce most ex-
cellent milkers.
Those in which the Alderney or Jersey pre-
. senate yield the richest milk and yellowest
Butter, while the Devon and Ayrshire excel in
large yields.
One of my best cows is mixed with Jersey and
Ayrshire. She combines the rich, yellow milk oi
the first, with the large size and full yield of the
latter. For butter-making a strong infusion of
the Jersey is desirable, while if a yield of milk
is wanted the Devon, perhaps, would be pre-
ferred.
'My experience as to the healthfulness of cattle
in this county shows them subject to very few
complaints. Occasionally one is attacked with
indigestion and bleating, or the scours, which
generally yields readily: to simple remedies, such
as a purge ft linseed oil, or weak lye from wood
or salt, and followed by a -few doses oftcoi-
ition powders.
,Very little shelter is required in this climate.
If the cattle can seek their own in a large range,
they will get along very comfortably without
any artificial aid. But if kept up they will ap-
preelate and pay for some additional shelter, All
they require, however, is sample shed to keep
off the eold rains of fall and winter; and if there
is no piece of woods or buildings as a wind-break
on the northwest side of'their lot, they need a
tikat hnce where they mhy flad retfge from the
Swinds.
&'no.w ofr moev.' eartam r,
Coa dairy-farming be made protble in Leon
tUnoubtedlv it can. nrmovided he who under-






LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.


oodland, from which stock las been kept.to
ome years, which has afforded grazing for fifteen
o eighteen head of cattle, keeping them in fine
condition. Even our old sedge-fields will, if
turnedd off in February, afford tolerable grazing.
ur cultivated lands, if used as pastures for a
umber of years, become set in a variety of
rasses which afford excellent grazing.
For winter grazing and soiling no country can,
grow a greater variety or more luxuriant crops.
SRye, oats, barley, orchard grass, angels, tur-
nips, carrots and cabbage grow all through
our winters. I have orchard grass sown last
fall now growing most luxuriantly.
For fall pasturage nothing can surpass our
beggar-weed, not even clover, either in the in-
creased flow of milk or the quantity and quaoi~
of butter from it. Springing up in our corn fields,
about the time of our last plowing, it will, by
the time we can gather our corn, say the last of
August or first of September, afford for stock of
all kinds-cows, horses and hogs-food of the
richest sort, on which they will fatten as if e4d
on grain, until it is killed by the frost, which
rarely occurs before November, and often not
until late in December. It gives us all we could
ask for stock of all kinds for three months, with-
oat sowing, cultivating or gathering.
For soiling there .is nothing -grown which we
cannot grow here, Nothing.can surpass for tris
purpose our Southern variety of Indian corn,
three crops of which may be grown on the same
land i oe yea4r beidesa crop of peas and'o
Half an acre well manured, thoroughly broken,
and well pulverized, sown in corn, will be amply
sutciet, .with the f1ll crop of peas and winter
osa, to teed a good cow through the year. After
'oqtmber begins it will not do to sow corn-
th'worms d4eteey it-but in our Southern bean
or" oew-pea" we have one of the best soiling
croe B Sown either broadcast or in drills, it
4mo'equally well, makes a rapid growth, and
a i a tempting and nutritious food for castle,
It gftr until checked by frost, and I know of,
no plant, save Indian corn, that produces more
wflgt to a given quantity of land. Properly
Scored, a hay equals it for cattle. Our"cat-
S-tall',tr e Pearl" rialet is still another valuable
lUeag p$at, requiring to be sown only once for'
SeP affording a vast amount of food frost
. :aee of land. It can becut in our
ueowfrem three to four times, and cattle,
it Uetb net at first particularly fond of it, soon
beaufen and the butter made from it rivait,
Sfl e of eotor that made ftom rye. Mr. R
P. Odl0d, of this county, last summer fed
bar fte cowm on three-fourths of an are of
eglM wtttout pasturage or other eed.
c'tihter ted nothing can ford a ric)
than our swe ptoes, and ao cp
elP n more eI ; .rm three to ty
I lraelkb can be acre, 4
h crop of lrl a i
Sme fr om the land. t du
a-p elaM three d and naey


two bushels, not including cut and small pota-
toes, from which I had in the spring marketed
thirty barrels of Irish potatoes. German millet
as well as Hungarian grass grows luxuriantly,
and the Johnson or Means grass promises to adi
to the list of our valuable grasses for soiling;
pasturage and for hay. Cotton-seed, the richest
of all food for stock, is cheap and abundant;
and we find a moderate quantity, soaked and fed
to milch-cows daily, adds to the flow of milk
and keeps them in flesh.
Turnips of all kinds, including Swedes, as
also angels, can be grown and fed to cows from
the field without the labor and expense of stor-
ing, as the Northern dairyman is compelled to
do. Only a few persons have tried dairying as
a business in our county; but there are to be
found here all the requisites to success, and there
is every reason to believe it can be made a suc-
scessful and profitable business. Mr. R. F. Brad-
ford has from four cows, two of them heifers
with their fist calves, sold butter to the amount
of $150.00, during the past nine months, besides
having an abundance of milk. and butter for his
family. His cows are Jersey and their grades,
and yield from two to four gallons of milk each
per day. The price he hasrealized from his but-
ter, five to ten .cents per pound above the mar-
ket price, speaks well for the. quality. The;e
are in our county many localities abouting I
fine springs, which could be utilized for d rymg,
and in out towns and near utii railroads ice cat
ways be had at reasonable rates.
SrVeetable Culture.
Truck-farming for Northern markets, at a tits
of the year when a monopoly of the markets can
be enjoyed, is rapidly becoming a prominent fea-
ture in lflorid farm economy, and In the strAtch
of country between the rivers Suwannaee and;
Apalachicola, where most of the soil is saffi-
eiently good to justify it, it promises in the near
tfture to assume gigantic proportions. The en.
terprise is too entirely new for ers to be able to
present much reliable data on the subject. Five
years ago nothing was being done in this bi,-
nes in Leon county. It is very diffloult to over-
throw old customs, aadt few men in Leon had an
idew of finding a market North for anything. but
cotton .ad sugar. The qotatiotu for early oeg-
tables received in New York from:Charleaton,
where mae -attention had been directed in .his
channel, first caught the attention of a few prac-
tical men, who experimented in a small way,
bad met with results that were altoge4ter asti.-
featory. This Induced others to embark in the
business, which has developed into somethdg.aof
moment. The shipments for the present sason,
now about closing, willagregate in Leon cauty
10,o00 packages, coi0it*m dely of ba alled
polttoes, and cabbage, d cated bete, bManw,
teaitees and onions, and will netJiMat)gM
to the prdues. As aemaster of om.ns, qbm
W many degrees of asucauMttb'g tUhehtes
9dieseat people 0 gad a&t h a .
mhave maoBy,,b daofa,,qerhp nd






LEON COUNTY, FLOBIDA.


more surely than in any enterprise they ever em-
barked in; others have realized total failures, and
feel disgusted. The writer of this article occu-
pies about a middle ground as to the results of
his experiences, and has reason to regard truck-
farming in Leon county as a very safe and certainly
lucrative business, provided the conditions are all
right. And these conditions can be grouped
under the five heads of-1st, good soil; 2d, sufl-
ciency of good fertilizers; 8d, thorough work;
4th, care and discretion in gathering, packing
and shipping; 5th, good fortune in not falling
into the hands of a roguish consignee. We can
safely say that in the degree in which all of these
five conditions have been realized by any one
man, have the dollars jingled in his pockets at
the end of the season. We confidently believe
that it is destined to become one of the leading
industries of this county, and that, in so short a
time as twenty-four months hence, there will be
ten to twenty acres in the county devoted to
truck-growing for every one of the present sea-
son. The old adage of the pudding bag has set-
tled the question, as far as claimed superiority of
the red lands of Middle Florida are concerned
over any other in the State for successful produc-
tion of first-class merchantable vegetables. The
dealers in Washington market, New York, as
well as in Baltimore and Philadelphia, unhesi-
tatingly declare that all articles of truck received
from Leon and Jefferson counties are vastly su-
perior to any from any part of the South, and
even recommend the adoption of a local trade,
mark to prevent the stuff .from this point being
depreciated by the inferior quality of East and
South Florida truck.
Now, we can confidently assert that whatever
superiority these Leon .county vegetables possess
is owing entirely to some nalur# advantage the
surroundings here lend them, since established
Standard of culture exists among the people en-
gaged in tlb business, and in most instances the
roughestand simplest modes have obtained.
Very extended inquiry is being made every
day by people all over the United States, and
Oanada, as to this section, with a desire'to get at
the tre-inwardness of this ".truck-farming," and
as this book is intended to answer them, we will
here say a few things covering -the main heads
,ot inquiry: A great. majority of the letters re-
oeived contain some such expression as-" I san
disposed to make a home in Florida for the pur-
.peoe of engaging in the culture of vegetables and
-semi-tropickl fruits; a healthful location particu-
larly;desiable. Where would you recommend
me to settle ?"
Now "semi-tropleal" fruit-culture-except in
the matter of oranges which may now be oonsid-
ered as an established business-is.a very lde-
Afld pursuit. Many vaswtes,,of smi-4repi sl
ftirto.gr;w in Florida, such as bananss, pine-
Sppl;lemons, guaras ad ADocosants, bat we do
onowt o f riaoasin Florid&,who has ade ai
i0lkmsof islf g aO of.these*rits ifr market
SWral people n Soith: lorida have met-~with


success with pine-apples, and along the keys of
the extreme south cocoanuts are being planted
extensively, but t'will be some years before mar-
ketable crops will be had. So that as yet the
cultivation ot "semi-tropical" fruits in Florida
exists principally tn newspaper talk of the possi-
bilties of certain sections. But assuming that all
that portion of the State lying tar enough down
the Peninsula of Florida to be never subjected to
a temperature of 32 degrees was really devoted
to semi-tropical fruit-culture, it is very question-
able whether truck-farming would be possible in
conjunction with it, because in that section the
lands are extremely light and sandy, and in plain
English, too poor to allow of profitable farming
of any kind. True it is, that this objection can
be overcome in some measure by the liberal ap-
plication of fertilizers, but where are fertilizers
to be obtained ? Every farmer knows that the
purchase of commercial fertilizers, except as an
assistance to the compost heap, and recupera-
tive crops of clover, peas or other substances, is
an impracticable method of putting a farm on a
paying basis. Live stock are an indispensable
adjunct to successful farming, even for ordinary
field crops, but when it comes to forcing tender
edible vegetables that must be grown quickly
every foot of-soil must Lave heart and be like a
garden spot, and without the barn-yard as the
main supply this becomes impossible short of an
expense that would take the profit off of any
business. Now in those parts of Florida where
sepfi-tropical fruits are an assured crop there is
no grass except the coarse wire grass of the pine
woods, and profitable Iterds cannot be supported
exceptof the kind of little ragged cattle common
in South Floridi and that roam the woods for
miles in search of something to eat, and besides
the sandy land is so porous that it will not retain
manure, and requires such quantities as to make
it far too expensive. Of course if a man has
really to herd a large herd of cattle, and can get
them fenced for any length of time on a piece. of
ground, he can make vegetables on thatground,
and it is a fact that some persons are doing this
in such parts of the peninsula as pnjoy transpor-
tation facilities. But it may be accepted as a fact,
for tHe, present at least, that thesotthern part
of Florida is not suited ;tA theT track business.
Exceptional cases veist where the peculiar sur-
.ounding of an individual who. has a lately
drained pond, or. well-trodden aow-pen, or some-
thing of that. sortt ,can aud has made "big"
money on an acrq or two of truck, but when you
talk of a truck-farm t s at least to be premed
that your farm aill produce corn, hay osW oats
enough to feed the team necessary to work it. Al-
most any land will support fruit trees, in some
sort of fashion they have years in which to
grow and ItUre, aId. the roots go down and
ttt and leed up.a Ui times the saate e that a
single annualp Il anust rely upon. A inut
trle Fl gro and make fruit where 4a0 bge
a'sd wonld Adt asroat.
So hat we are constrained to say that ,mi-






LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA. 1I

tropical fruit-culture and truck-farming are not from $3.50 to $4.00 per barrelor it will give the
compatible purposes, in Florida at any rate, farmer 5,000 large cabbages about 4,000 of which:
since the absence of a suitable soil for the latter, will head up in shape to justify shipping them,,
in those sections of the State where the climate and if he has average-luck, as the markets have
permits the former, is quite as insurmountable an been heretofore, he will net from eight to twelve
objection as the' unfitness of the climate of an- cents per head for them, or say from (300%to'$400
other section for tropical fruit where the soils tare per acre, and so in proportion to other vegetables,
adapted to vegetable making. In view of these although, to be candid, these two-cabbage and
facts, which, barring exceptional cases, we deem Irish potatoes-are the only vegetable crops that
to be fairly stated, we would advise parties Leon county farmers now know much abeut..
looking to Florida with the two-fold purpose of Beets, greenpeas;snapbeans,eucumbers,tomatoes,
tropical fruit and vegetable making to discard onions and egg plants, have been experimented
the one or the other. Both are practicable; and with some, and all have given general satisfac-
Florida has sections admirably suited to the one tion, but these latter have not been handled, as
or the other, but not for both together. yet, on a scale large enough to enable very much
Poor lands, or land that is subject to a suspi. to be said about them.
4ion of being poor, will not answer for truck," The strong recommendatory feature of truck
growing. There is no land to be found in Flor- Iinrming is the fact that land devoted to its uses
ida possessing natural fertility sufficient to enable is only occupied during the winter and spring
it successfully to grow truck. Perhaps in Leon season, and after these truck-crops are all har-
county, on every plantation,there are many acres vested and the cash results in hand, a farmer has
thatwill make from 15 to 20 barrels of Irish po- from four to seven months available for the pro-
tatoes to the acre without any fertilizing, but 15 duction of another crop on the same land. That
or 20 barrels to the acre won'tpay, for out of such is to say, ten acres can be pit to Irish potatoes
a crop not more perhaps than five barrels of about the first of January; by the first of May
primes could be selected, and practically these these can be shipped. The land can then make
are the marketable part of the crop. Then accept a crop of corn, millet, sweet potatoes, cotton, to-
it as a fact that the very best acre of laud in bacco, sorghum, hay, peas, or water melons, or
Florida requires manure, abundance of it, andof even two crops of peas can be matured on this
thL very best kind, to render it suitable for profit- land before frost, the first harvested andcured
abe trucking. And after the selection of a loca- for cow feed and the last turned under for fertil-
tion convenient to transportation, well drained, izing. In this connection we note what Mr.
with a good red clay sub-soil, and not too low John Bradford, of Lean county, had to say two
so as to be susceptible to late frost, the problem s ago, in his communic~afon to the Club :
for the intending truck-farmer to wrestle with is, There are many reasons why Leon county is
where and how to obtain that necessary, manure. well suited for raising potatoes for the early
Thisis not a question that money can settle. A Northern and Western markets; The soil is
man can't buy the-" heart" requisite in land to well adapted to this crop, particularly the light-
make marketable vegetables; he has to make it, est red lands, which, after once being brought to
and acid phosphates," "raw bone," "Peruvian a proper state of fertility, are easily kept ii that
guano," and such like ;condiments can only help condition.
do this; and by the way, they are'expensive sea- "As to time, we can usually place all our crop
soning. Rotted vegetable mold or humusis the in market before Charleston and Savannah be-
,vehicle that all other stimulants may be applied gin to ship, so that we have nothing to contend
through to plants. The dungheap is the farmer's with except Bermuda. The writer has shipped
best hold. In proportion to the facilities for in- potatoes every season since 1875, and has, with
creasing-this needed commodity, will be the oneexception, finished shipping every year be-
Sprofit on every truck-farm. Weare particularly fore any were sent from Charleston or Savannah,
fortunate in Leon county in having an abundant and even that year prices were remunerative.
supply of cotton seed, than which nothing is' bet- Potatoes rased.here, when properly matured and
ter in supplying several valuable elements to the handled with care, bring prices almost equal to
soil. These can be had at eight to ten cents per those from Bermuda, which always lead the
bushel. One hundred bushels to the acre will market.
make almost any of our Leon county land pro- "The usual time for planting is from the-middle
duce forty to fifty bushels of corn to the acre. of January to the middle of February, and ordi-
From 250 to 400 bushels, composted with about narily the crop can beshibped by May 10th, leav-
80 wagon loads of lot manure, and nicely sea- ing the ground on which it is grown in fine con-
soned with about 300 pounds of raw bone," or edition, and with abundance of time to make a
-guano, make a dressing that if applied per acre crop of some other kind. The writer in one in-
Sto good land for a year or two in succession, and stance has made a bale of cotton to the acre after
a heavy crop of cow-peas, beggar-weed, or some- taking off the potatoes; at another time forty-
K thing else turned under with it, puts things in five bushels of corn; and at still another more
Shape for about 75 or 100 barrels of potatoes per than four hundred bushels of sweet potatoes.
acre, that if carefully handled and fairly sold, The amount of crop of course varies with the
will net over cost of labor, freight and selling, season, and the quantity'and quality' of manure
2.







LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.


used. Generally from twenty to fifty barrels per
acre are raised, and more than one hundred have
been made.
"This has been an exceedingly unfavorable
year for potatoes, but notwithstanding this a
member of the Leon County Farmers' Club
reported to the Club'at a recent meeting that he
had shipped one hundred and forty-eight barrels
from seven acres (:bout half a crop); had sold
.them in New York and Baltimore at from $4 to
$8 per barrel, the lot netting $706.45, being an
average of $4.72 per barrel. Besides those
shipped, about seventy-five barrels were reserved
for family use, stock feed, &c., which will more
'than balance labor account, and after paying for
seed, fertilizers, cooperage and hauling to the
depot, he had cleared over $500.
Our facilities for shipping are good, and the
prospect is that another season they will be even
better."
Mr. John Bradford says that more than one
hundred" barrels of potatoes have been made to
the acre in Leon county. This is no doubt true
in many instances, or rather they have been pro-
duced at the rate of a hundred or more barrels to
the acre. But there is a great difference between
that'sort of thing on a well-kept garden spot of
a quarter or half acre, and accomplishing any-
thing like such results on five, ten or twenty
acres of farm crop. So far as we know, Mr.
Thomas J. Roberts, of the Centreville neighbor-
hood, ten miles northeast of Tallahassee, has,
during the spring fthe present year, 1883, read;
ized the best average results with potatoes of any
man engaged in the business. Mr. Roberts
shipped during the month of May 7.20 barrels .of
marketable potatoes from 20 acres, which netted
him $1,560 over all charges, or $78 net
per acre, and left his land in first-class
shape to make a crop of 40 or 50 bushels of corn
to the acre before September 1st, which at 40
cents per bushel will be for 800 bushels, $820
more, which will bring the result up to $94 per
acre, and then in September, at a cost of $2 per
acre for seed peas, and say $4 per acre for three.
plowings to plant, cultivate and turn under in
November this crop of pea vines, and he has for
$6 per acre applied a fertilizing crop estimated
to be equivalent to what would cost him for
commercial fertilizers, about $40 per acre, all
during the same year. And so it goes, one crop
follows another, no frost on the ground, no snow,
no mud, no cloddy baked crust from drouth, but
12 clear months in which to handle our lands,
with warm sunshine and refreshing rains always
at hand to encourage and stimulate us. This, at
least, is the premium the Middle Florida farmer
has over any one else-we have a climate and soil
that will almost induce -figs to grow on thistles.
There is no waste time, not a day in the year
when some crop cannot be planted, and no sea-
so that we must be idle and eat up the fruits of
the labor. We would say to all intending set-
tlers in Florida, who desire to become truck
raisers": Come to Leon county Where you will


find a climate, a soil, a people and their customs,
admirably suited to farming. Make of yourself
a careful producer of corn, oats, hay and root
crops, and feed the bulk of these commodities to
grade Jersey and Durham cattle, Berkshire pigs
and a good stock of medium wooled sheep. Ap-
ply the droppings of these animals, whose pro-
duce and increase is as valuable here as in any
country in the world, to the enriching of a pet
10, 20 or 40 acres of your best land, and on that
put in truck as an adjunct to your stock and pro-
duce farm, and if you'have taken the precaution
to devote ten acres to fruit trees, oranges, pears,
plums, peaches, nectarines, Japan persimmons,
pomegranates, grapes, figs, dwarf bananas, pe-
cans, almonds and English walnuts, you will in
a few years be possessed of a home, valuable
anywhere, but situated in the delightful climate
of Middle Florida, incomparably more desirable
than an investment of like value anywhere else
on the globe.
We think this a very good place to offer a sug.
gestion to persons looking to Florida with a view
to engaging in this truck business, with regard to
the amount of land required for the business. It
is very common forstrangers, and especially men
ii' the Northwest who are farmers, but of mod-
erate means, to ask what ten acres of land
suitable for truck, farming will cost," &c Now
in the experience of those here who are most
successful in this business ten acres of land only
is entirely too little to attempt the business with,
a.4d so we think is 20 or 40 or even, 60 acres.
To do the thing well a man must have a team.
One horse or mule, however good, will not do
the hauling, plowing and driving of a farm. If a
team is used they can cultivate 60 to 80 acres of
our friable soil with perfect ease, especially if, as
is most proper, ten or twenty acres are put in
grain. Then if live stock are made use of on
the farm, and remember that the profit of the truck
farm is with the man who has the most horns,
there must be pasturage, and not less than
twenty acres will do for this, even with a
mall herd, and so when things are all
counted the man who is best fixed has not
less than 100 acres. About forty acres kept
in pasture, twenty in oats and corn, twenty in
truck, ten in timber and ten in fruit trees and im-
=pCvements. "But,' say some of our correspon-
ents. a poor man can't afford to buy so much
land," &c. That may be true even with lands
as cheap as they are in Leon county, but the fact
remains the same, that he who can afford to buy
and handle 100 acres or even twice or three times
that amount makes a mistake not to do so.
There is mudh economy in a true farm of this
size over one of smaller dimensions.
Fruit Culture.
One of the most successful fruit growers in
this section of the State furnishes the following
exhaustive article:-
-Leon county, from its diversity of fertile soil,
undulating surface of hill and dale, interspersed
with clear-wate" lakes, and with a climate neither







LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.


too hot nor too'cold, is admirably adapted 16
the growth of a variety of fruits, not only em-
bracing those Of a semi-tropical nature, but those
that are grown in the Middle and Northerp
States. Having t fondness for horticultural pur-
suits, we will relate our experience in them,
with the limited time we have had to devote
while not engaged in other other business, (em-
bracing a period of over sixteen years.)
PEARs.--Pears we find to succeed well. Our
experience has been mostly confined to the
dwarfs. We have more recently planted stand-
ards, and are pleased with their growth. But
one variety, the Bartlett, of the standards, has
borne yet; trees six years old. In the dwarfs, we
have made a success of the varieties planted-
the Duchess, Louise, Bnnne de Jersey, Steven',
Genesee, Belle Lucrative, Bartlett, White Doy-
enne, Clap's Favorite, Howell and Dearborn's
Seedling, have been fruiting for some years,
while other varieties have been planted lately
and are doing well, among them the LeConte
and Kieffer, ion their own roots, grafted on the
common pear, and also on the quince. The Le-
Conte bids fair to he one, if not the most profita-
ble, of our fruits on account of its early bearing,
vigorous growth, and prolificyield, together with
the fine size and appearance of its fruit. A year
ago we placed some grafts. taken from one-year-
old trees, in five-year-old quince stocks, and this
spring we had from those grafts five feet trees,
well branched, and covered with bloom. We
have worked the Keiffer in the same manrif
this spring, and at the present time, two months
since the grafts were set, we have beautiful
branched trees from four to fivq feet high, and
which we expect to bloom next spring. These
pears as stocks, together with the Chinese Sand,
we think will work a revolution in pear culture,
by grafting and budding on them the finer and
choicest varieties. The pear blight we have
found to do but little damage here; what we
have had of it was arrested by cutting of the
small limbs below the diseased part. The Belle
Lucrative, several seasons, have born us twd
crops a year. After the growth of the first crop
to about the size of hickory-nuts, the trees bloom
again, which blooms mature in from three
weeks to a month after the first. If these two
crops are allowed to mature, the following sC
son the trees will produce but few pears, require.
-ing a rest of one season to recuperate after per-
forming extra duty. We find that thinning thg
fruit out each year will give us an annual aver-
agecrop, and therewill be noon and off year. We
prefer an annual yield of fine quality to a bien-
nial yield of quantity. The home demand takes
all we have had to dispose of at from forty cents to
$100 per dozen. We are confident that a good
shipping business can be done, especially with
the early varieties. The pear ripens in its per-
fection in the house, not on the trees, and should
be pulled as soon the stem parts readily from
the branch; it is then firm and hard and will


bear transportation well, ripening on its way to
market.
GRAPES -With this delicious fruit we have
experimented with some eighty varieties. At
present we grow for profit-Delaware, Concord
and Creveling for the table, and Ives and Scup-
pernong for wine. We are experimenting with
some nf the fine varieties by grafting them on
the wild vines indigenous to the country; this
Smay give them more vigor and stability, qualities
i in which some of the choice varieties are defi-
* cient. The above named five are hardy and vig-
orous with us. There are but few grapes that
equal the Delaware in flavor, and we consider its
Position with the grape, as the sickel to the pear,
Sat the head of the list. The most valuable arti-
cles are generally inclosed in small packages. As
this grape grows in comparatively few places to
i perfection, we are fortunate to have a climate
,and soil adapted to it, and as it brings a high price
in the market, and ships well, we should avail
Ourselves of its extensive production. We can
begin to put the Concord, Ives and Delaware on
the market from the -last week in June to the
first week in July. The Vitis Vinaferra or Eu-
ropean grape has not succeeded well with us so
far. The leaves of the varieties we have tried have
been too delicate and did not stand showers of
rain, followed by the hot sun. Several varieties
that we obtained from France last year are do-
ing well to the present time, and, and as they
have thicker foliage, may succeed. Two thousand
gallons of wine have been made from an acre of
Scuppernong, when in full bearing. An expe-
rienced grape grower and wine maker, who has
a vineyard in France, has purchased land from
us, and set out ten acres of grapes last fall. He
is pleased with the appearance and growth of
the vines, and will plant out fifty acres more in
the fall.
Cynthianna, Norton's Virginia and Elvira are
his principal grapes for wine. He will build a
wine cellar, and purchase all the grapes brought
to him, thus making a home market and encour-
Saging their production. Several other parties
have started and will start vineyards in the
neighborhood, and we will soon have a vine-
land.
ORANTGEs.-We have a grove around our
dwelling that is over thirty years old. These
trees when about five years old were killed to
the ground by a remarkably severe winter.
They put up from the roots again and made fine
trees. Some eight or ten years ago, owing
to a freeze, the tender branches were killed, and
we lost the crop for that year. The next year
they bore again, and continued to bear fuNl crops
until the winter of 1880, when, on the 80th of De-
cember, a hard freeze and sleet killed the trees
tb the ground, with a part ofthe crop on them.
In the spring of 1881 they put out vigorous
shoots from the roots, and one tree bore fruit
last year. This year they are nearly as high. $
I they were before, and a number of thear'are. in







LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.


bearing. The orange cannot be relied upon here
as an annual crop. Nevertheless, as our fruit is
of a superior quality, and as we have had from
ten to twelve years of good crops before we miss
a year or .two by the effects of an early cold snap
the orange is a very desirable tree to plant.
Many of our trees produced from 2,000 to 2,500
to the tree in-1880, and oranges were so plentiful
in Tallahassee at that time that they sold in our
home market at 75 cents per hundred. Our citi-
zens have not been discouraged, and a number
of fine groves have been set out in the last three
years. If we can get from ten to twelve crops
in fifteen years, and from experience we can cal-
culate on that number, we should be satisfied,
particularly as we have a soil and climate in
which all the other fruits can be raised, and arej
not confined to one variety as a source of in-
come. We possess another advantage over most
of the lands in some southern latitudes in our
State in the fertility of our soil. Our trees have
had but one fertilizing in fifteen years, then with
ashes; the fertility of the soil has been sufficient
to keep them in vigorous growth and in lull bear-
ing, while on most of the pine lands of the South
and East they have to be fertilized certainly
once, and more often twice a year, to keep them
in a vigorous condition, and the expense 'of fer-
tilizers detracts considerably from the profits.
As land is cheap and fertile, labor abundant, and
othtr crops can be planted in an orange grove,
while the trees are growing to a bearing age, we
advise by all means to plant a grove. ..;
A variety from Japan called the Satsumais now
being extensively planted. It is said to stand a
low degree of cold, and comes into bearing the
second year from the bud.
PEACHEs.-The tree in this climate begins to
bear at two years old, the growth is vigorous,
and when an orchard can be planted near the
residence, and the fowls and hogs are allowed to
run in it to consume the curcullo-stung fruit,
and proper attention is given to prevent the at-
tacks of the borer, the orchard will give as good
paying returns as an orange grove. The early
bearing of the trees and the high price the ruit
commands, when placed, early in the Northern
markets, will pay handsomely for the troublebeL
stowed on it. The early varieties, as the Ams-
den, Honey, Alexander, and Peen-to or Flat
Peach of China, should be planted for shipping:
Later varieties will always command good pri-
ces in our home markets. We have raised
peaches, of a variety originated by J. P. Berck-
mans, of Augusta, Georgia, called the Great
Eastern, that have averaged threwfo A 4't f a
pound to the peach. This sea'gtYiche'hbave
brought in New York 82 pet dozen, raised in
Floida. We have seen some magnificent speci-
mens of the fruit grown from our native seed-
lings. On one plantation, settled in 1889, there
was an Indian old field, on which peach trees
were growing of a large size ; these trees.con-
tinued to bear and grow without any cultiva-
tion or attention until 1855, when they grad-


ually died out, embracing a period of twenty-six
years within our knowledge, and were probably
over twenty years old when the plantation was
settled, showing the longevity of the tree in this
climate. From our experience we would ad-
vise in setting out an orchard to procure the
trees from our home nurseries, or not farther
North than our sister States of Georgia and
Alabama. The northern grown trees are some
month or six weekslater in blooming than ours,
and take several years to get acclimated. As a
general rule the nearer home we can procure
our trees, of most varieties, the better success we
meet with.
Fies.-The fig is a vigorous grower, early
bearer, and most prolific in its yield of fruit. We
hive a number of varieties. The Celeste or Su-
gar fig matures first, in June, followed by others,
which extend the season into October. This
fruit is a palatable and wholesome diet, eaten
from the tree or with cream and sugar. They
make a fine preserve, marmalade and pickle, and
would no doubt pay handsomely shipped North
in those forms. The main profit from this fruit
will be in drying it in a suitable dryer, when we
see no reason why it should not take the place
of the commercial article in our markets.
Florida could supply the Union with all it
would consume. The tree is propagated from
the cutting. Cuttings put in the ground during
the months of September knd October will make
rooted plants by spring, when they should be
transplanted, and will yield fruit in the sum-
mer. This tree requires no pruning, and but
very little cultivation after the first three years.
Trees said to be forty years old and upwards are
growing around Tallahassee, and bid fair from
their appearance to complete their one hundred
years.
APPLES.-The apple has had comparatively
so little attention or trial in this county that ve
cannot yet vouch for its success. We were told
that they would not succeed, by the old settlers,
as we were told concerning the grape. Having
found out from inquiries that the grapes planted
in former times were of the European varieties
which will not succeed, and having proved by
yearly crops of grapes that the Varieties originat-
ing in the United States will, we have come to
tlt conclusion that we will find varieties of the
apple that will suit our climate. To confirm us
in our opinion we have Shockley apples that
ore now bearingthe second year; trees vigorous
and hardy, making fine growth, and fruit smooth
and healthy. The age of the tree is six years.
Some of my neighbors have trees that have been
bearing for several years fine apples. They have
lost the names. As there is a "boom" in fruit
culture that has taken possession of our people,
among the variety of experiments we think we
will in a few years have a list of apples that we
can rely on to do well with us.
-JAPAX PBsRIMMONs.-The Japap persimmon
is being given a trial. We find the tree to grow
well, and have met with success in grafting it on







LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA. 21

our native variety. Should the graft continue the weeds, and pulling up their roots' thereby
to do well, we will soon have our native trees loosening the soil just before fertilizing for the:
crowned with heads of the Japan, and an abun- next year's crop, not disturbing the roots of the
dance of this fruit in a few years. plant by cultivation of any kind, at any season
JAPAN PLUMS.-The Loquat or Japan plum of the year. No mulching or watering, as.they
succeeds with us. It is an evergreen and highly are planted so closely that their foliage shades
ornamental tree. The fruit is sub-acid, grows in and mulches sufficiently. The proceeds from
clusters and of a creamy white color. It is par- one-eighth of an acre thus cultivated were four
ticularly to be desired, as it ripens in February, hundred quarts this year, and our season was
and commands from our winter visitors from the shortest, on account of the drouth and a
75 cents to $1 per quart. It is propagated from backward spring, known for some years. This
the seed. crop was sold from 75 cents per quart, down to
POMEGRANATES.-The pomegranates, both fifteen cents. At an average of twenty cents
sweet and acid, are cultivated to a small extent, per quart, this would be $640 per acre.
The acid variety, mixed with sugar and water Another cultivator raised from one-eighth of
as the lemon, makes a very pleasant and grate. an acre ofLongworth's Prolific three hundred
ful drink during the warm weather. The tree is and twenty quarts on sandy soil, using a com-
very ornamental and productive; easily grown, post of stable manure and cotton seed just before
and we believe there would be a demand for the the fruiting season as a top dressing. From
fruit were it shipped North and West as soon as 1,000 Wilson's Albany plants the writer gather-
it became generally known. ed ninety quarts of first-class fruit. There was
PLUMs.-This county is well dotted over with no fertilizer of any kind used. The average price
wild plum orchards; they yield so abundantly was eighteen cents per quart in the home mar-
that the curculio from lack of ability to destroy, ket. The cost of plants, planting, cultivating,
is forced to turn over to us a large proportion fertilizers, picking and marketing would not ex-
of the fruit. The Wild Goose, Newman, De ceed twenty per cent. of the gross proceeds.
Caradenc and other cultivated varieties succeed. Two of these parties have sent berries to their
BANANAs.-The banana, owing to its suscep- friends at the North, a distance of one thousand
tibility to be cut down by a slight freeze, is an miles or more, without the modern improve-
uncertain crop. We have seen them planted in ments of refrigerators, etc.; and the berries ar-
favorable, protected locations where they have rived at their destination in good order, thus
done well. proving that with our present facilities we can
BLACKBElRRIES,-The blackberry springs up thipthem to northern markets,
in every field that is allowed to lay out; they A neighbor of mine says that his plants, Nu-
yield enormously, and are called by the negroes nan, produced this year one quart to the single
the Commissary Department, where free rations plant, of the finest fruit, and that it will surely
are procured by the old and young. They make pay, if we engage in it extensively enough to
a fine wine and cordial, healthful and medicinal make it an object for the railroad company to
during the summer, and the dried fruit isof a give us the modern improvements, and dispatch
cWmercial value, enroute. There has been raised in the neighbor-
-ALMONDS AND OTHER NUTs.-The almond ing county of Gadsden, eight thousand quarts
grows here as wellas the peach. We have thtee per acre.
varieties, the Hardshell, Princess and Sultana, Proceeds of one shipment of berries from
The two latter are the varieties that produce the Jacksonville, 1,052 quarts, shipped to New
bulk of the almonds of commerce. We planted York, and sold tor $2,630, or $2.50 per quart.
the trees three years ago; the Hardshell has been Cost of packing and shipping, $288, leaving a
the only kind that has fruited yet. The trees net profit of $2,346. Who will say there is not
are vigorous, but it is too early yet for us to pre- money in the strawberry business ?
dict of their profitable culture. The pecan, Eng- The time required to reach New York is about
lish walnut, Spanish chestnut and other n # seventy hours; and by the use of refrigerator
bearing trees, are a success with us. boxes, we can put the fruit on the market in
STRAWBERRIEsB .-Another writer says of the good order, at an expense of from ten to twelve
strawberry : and a half cents per quart.
One of our most successful strawberry grow. Hunting aud Fishing.
ers, a lady, plants the Nunan or Charleston va- The reader will recognize in the following,
riety. They are planted during the latter part the work of an ardent sportsman, whose testi-
of the rainy season, after the hot weather is past. mony is well worthy ofconsideration by all who
The soil is a sandy loam. The plants are set seek in Florida the pleasures he describes :
about eighteen by eighteen inches apart, using Leon county affords a most excellent field for
a compost of cow lot manure, ashes and chip sportsmen. Our large plantations offer splendid
manure, broadcasted on them just before the cover and abundant food for that games of all
blossoming season. The ground is prepared as game birds, the American quail, which are to
for ordinary vegetables, and kept level, or be found more abundantly here, perhaps, than
nearly so. I anywhere in the South. The cold of winter is
The after cultivation consists ot mowing of never serious enough to affect them, and except







LEON COUNTY, FLqRIDA.


*the depredations of hawks they have no draw-
backs to their increase. The country is high and
Rolling; cover generally heavy; no timber or
thicket to interfere with marking the pitch of
scattered birds, and an average shot can count
on a stout bag in half a day's tramp.
Among our country gentlemen we have some
excellent shots, and much time is devoted to
this sport from the middle of October to first of
March. We think a bag of forty quail'to each
gui a fair day's work, over an average dog.
Many second rate dogs are to be had here, but
first-class workers are scarce; and visitors will
do well to bring their own dogs along.
Pointers are preferable to setters, as the win-
ter days are often warm for thick hair, and the
sand spurs in some covers put a woolly dog "off
his nut" in a short run.
Jack-snipe are quite abundant in some locali-
ties, but are not as plentiful as where more mud
and better boring is to be found.
Duck shooting in some of its phases is to be
had here in perfection. It is doubtful whether
any section offers superior facilities for wood-
duck.shooting. This commences about the mid-
dle of September, at which time the young ducks
are full fledged. About two hours before sun
down, from all parts of the country along the
rivers, lagoons, in the thick woods, where the
ducks repair' during the day to feed, the flight
begins toward 4fe lakes where they go to roost,
The duck flies fast, and generally in pairs or
triplets, so that a good stand secured near a,
roosting place, ntakes about three hoars of lively
work. Somewhat later the Winter ducks-
* Mallard, Teal, Spoonbill, Gray Shoveler4, Blue
bills and Black duck-come in great numbers
and cover the numerous lakes, ponds and feed-
ing places, and stay with us until February:
But the perfection of sport is. found in shoot-
ihg the Scaup' or Blue bills-called generally
Bull necks or Black heads. In our mind this
duck requires more skill to he brought to bag
than anything that flies. Alexander in his work
on game birds gels off some tall calculating on
the rapidity of flight, and difficulty of killing a
Teal which is going down wind. But a Black
head can give any Teal that ever flew the right
of way, stop at all way stations and then come
in ahead of time; and the man that gets the
"time allowance" business down fine enough to
"flag" these fellows on the down grade, knows
what he's about. They are shot entirely from
stands. They stool admirably, but that is rare-
ly necessary to secure good shooting. Sprig
tails, Red Heads and some Canvasback.
Deer are no longer numerous in the county. In
some localities a good drive or two remain, where
some sport can be had, but excellent hunting-
both still driving and with firepan-can be had
near the coast, say ten to twenty miles away;
and some of our citizens are in the habit of-goipg
there constantly for venison.
Wild turkeys are somewhat more numero,


but to take them successfully is an art that the
modern sportsman with his breech-loader, &c.,
seldom masters.
Black Bear and Panther are to be found along
the Ocklockonee and St. Marks rivers, and are
abundant in the swamps along the coast.
Squirrels, Rabbits, Red birds, Doves, and
such plunder as are not legitimately game, are
abundant.
The laws entitle land owners to post their
premises against hunters, and this is frequently
done; but it is more to protect loose stock from
a prowling musket in the hands of an idle negro
than any other purpose; and we have yet to
learn of a farmer's forbidding a gentleman to
shoot over his cover, when permission was po-
litely asked. The roads are hard and excellent
for driving, and generally one can drive a buggy
for miles through the open plantations, where
there are few fences or ditches to impede his
progress, which is a wonderful convenience in
transporting lunch, ammunition, tired dogs, and
"medicine," which it is always well to have
along in case of snake bites or fits.
Our lakes and rivers abound in fine Fish,
prominent among which are Lake Bass (called
Trout here), that sometimes weigh twelve
pounds, Jack. Pike, Bream, many varieties of
Perch. Catfish and Blackfish, besides both bard
and soft-shell Turtle, the former called "Cootah,"
and for cultivated tastes we have lie Alligator.
At St. Marks, twenty.one miles off by rail, all
the varieties of salt water Fish are abundant arid
cheap, ab are Oysters and Crabs. Our markets
are well supplied with them at all seasons.
The Oysters taken at Apalachicola, and Rio
C'rrabelle, on James Island, are pronounced by
sriei of'the best judges to be superior in size
and flavor to any on the Atlantic coast, except-
ing, possibly, the small, deep water Port Royal
Oyster, while those brought from the nearer
Gulf coast are, although smaller, of most excel-
lent quality.
Labor.
Our main resource for labor is the colored
race ; and up to this time we have had an ample
supply to meet the agricultural demand. A large
portion of these people, since the late war, have
cultivated the lands under the tenant system,
and by wasteful and injudicious farming, when
left to themselves, have found their operations
thus conducted unremunerative, and large num-
bers of them are now leaving the farms and
seeking a new field ot labor upon the various
railroads being constructed throughout the coun-
try. This will leave a large body of valuable
land vacant, and present to the enterprising im-
migrant a most inviting field for his energy and
capital. The prices of labor vary, as elsewhere,
with the capacity of the laborer. Ordinary col-
ored field hands get from fifty to sixty cents per
day, while an industrious and intelligent white
man, working the same time, would be worth,
and easily command, much higher wages.







LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.


Landa, Public and Private.
The area of Leon county embraces about 460,-
800 acres. About 180,000 acres of this territory
consists of pine lands, lying in the southern por-
tion of the county, extending northward to a
line running east and west across the county
through the second tier of sections in the town-
ships south of the base line.
The soil of these pine lands is light and sandy,
same depth, with clay subsoil of great thickness.
Both subsoil and top-soil contain great quan-
tities of lime and marine deposits that give to
them a source of fertility and lasting qualities
that make them valuable for farming purposes.
They are covered with a growth of yellow pine
that affords a supply of saw logs, and being tra-
versed by the Tallahassee and St. Marks Rail-
road, they invite investments in saw mills. The
Pine lands of Leon county are all high and dry.
No draining is necessary to bring them into use.
Small but deep pure water lakes are numerous
in the section, and many bold creeks afford good
water powers. This region is considered espe-
cially healthy, and the appearance of the farms
indicate thrift and prosperity.
The balance of the county, embracing about
280,800 acres, and occupying the area north of
an east and west line indicated above and ex-
tending to the Georgia line, is an entirely differ-
ent character, being of volcanic origin and of
much greater age than the pine section. This
is par excellence the agricultural section of the
county.
The soil is a deep, red clay, rich in mineral
salts, and is exceedingly fertile, and possessed of
astonishingly lasting properties. It is very high,
gently undulating, thoroughly drained, entirely
destitute of swamp or marsh lands, dotted with
lakes of great depth and considerable dimen-
sions, whose- banks rise from thirty to one hun-
dred and fifty feet above their surface. Excel-
lent springs of pure and cool water abound. The
timber, where left standing, consists of Red,
White, Post and Live Oaks, Hickory, Ash, Wild
Cherry, Dogwood, Sweetgum, Maple, Poplar,
Magnolia, Red bay, and many other less impor-
tant hard woods. Much the larger portion of
these rich lands are cleared, and have been un-
der cultivation for many years; some since
1825, though the greatest inroads were made on
the forests along about 1834 to 1844, by an in-
flux of large planters with their force of slaves
from Virginia, North and South Carolina, Geor-
gia and Alabama.
This section, combining as it does the quali-
ties of productiveness with perfect healthfulness
and picturesque beauty, especially recommend-
ed itself to the early settlers of the country, and
has been for forty years the source of wealth
and comfort for which Leon has been so long
noted.
All the cereals are grown with reasonable
success and profit. "Cotton, Tobacco and Sugar
have long been leading crops. Vegetables and
fruits of all kinds, except the tender semi-


tropical varieties, are produced cheaply and
abundantly. Grasses for both hay and pertma-
nent pasturage grow to great perfection. The
water is pure and good; the road-ways hard
and smooth ; the seasons regular and propitious,
and the climate as near an even thing" as it
can be anywhere.
There are no vacant public lands left in Leon
county worth entering, nor have there been for
many years. The great superiority of'the Red
Hammock lands over any others in the State
caused them to be taken up from thirty to forty
years ago.
The desirable lands of Leon being generally
in the hands of private owners, who, in most in-
stances, hold them by inheritance from their
gand-fathers who originally entered them,
could not have been purchased in ante-bellum
times except at enormous prices.
The very unreliable character of labor, as sup-
plied by the freedmen, has of late years made
the conduct of planting interests, on the exten-
sive scale once so general, unprofitable, and the
ownership of large tracts undesirable; and these
excellent farm lands, already cleared and ready
for the seed and plow, are coming, into market,
in large and small tracts, at prices and on terms
peculiarly attractive to immigrants; and when
this fact becomes known, together with the real
character of these lands, as imperfectly described
above, we confidently predict a "boom" for old
Leon. Then it will be that the orange-grower
of the East and South will turn over to us, his
nearest neighbors, a good slice of the profits of
his "grove" for meat, bread, hay, feed, butter
and work stock, that his sandy soil and tropical
sun precludes his making profitably for him-
self.
Prices of Land.
Real property of every character has consider-
ably enhanced in valtfe in Leon county during
the last fifteen months. The completion and
opening last winter of two excellent hotels, the
LEON and the ST. JAMES, filled the town with
visitors, many of whom were delighted with the
surroundings of Tallahassee and became pur-
chasers of attractive places. The great number
of the first edition of the pamphlet issued by the
Leon County Farmers' Club, that have been. dis-
tributed throughout the United States and Can-
ada, has brought scoresof prospectors among us,
some of whom have purchased small places to
improve, and some ot whom have purchased
large tracts with a view to speculative purposes.
The tendency has been father to purchase par-
cels of open land, possessing a grove or two
with an eligible building site, within a mile or
two of the city of Tallahassee. Very few of
the most attractive locations immediately around
town are still to be had, but along the line of the
F. C. and W. Railroad, and the Tallahassee and
St. Marks Railroad, broad acres of excellent farm
and truck lands are still to be had at figures
ranging from $5 to $15 per acre, owing to the
amount purchased, and the particular location


23







24 LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.

of a tract. Around the shore of Lakes La- are to be had ridiculously cheap. If the State
fayette, Jackson and Miccosukie, are as fine or General Government should give to a settler a
farm lands as exist in the South, and just now 160 acre homestead, and then give him a bounty
$7 to $9 per acre is the average price of such of $5 per acre, the grant would be intrin-
properties. Many of the owners of large plan- sically worth less than the privilege of buying a
stations have placed their property in the hands like amount of Leon farm land at $10 per acre,
of one or another of Real Estate Brokers in Tal- for public land of good quality is long since ex-
lahassee, with instructions to cut them up and hausted in the State, and net less than $20 and
sell them in parcels to suit purchasers, at prices more frequently $40, is necessary to get the
ranging from $6 to $12 per acre. Parties who timber and underbrush off an acre of wild land,
have money to invest can purchase in large and it takes many years and lots of money to
tracts of 2,000 to 4,000 acres, half or two-thirds turn a wild homestead entry in a timbered
improved, lying from five to ten- miles from town country into a farm that will pay expenses.
at from $5 to $8, properties that pay an annual Many people North and West have an idea that
rental of $1 to $2 per acre. These places par- they can sell the timber off for enough to pay
chased at prices for which they are now offe-, for the clearing. Let them learn that it is re-
ed, pay a good interest. Then let the purchAer' inarkably well timbered laud in Florida that
cut up one-third or half of his purchase into will furnish six trees to the acre of sufficient
forty, sixty, eighty, or one hundred acre farms size to be marketable, and that such trees are
and put upon such a cheap farm house and other worth to the owner about $1.00 a piece, provided
necessary improvements, 'and he is in a position he can gt them to a mill, which is generally im-
to sell them off rapidly at many fold their.orig- practicable, for the haul of a mile or two to a
inal cost, thus surrounding his property with railroad or stream soon eats up that $1.00. Clear-
neighbors of his own choosing-and greatly en- ed lands are what the settler wants; they are
hanced the value of so much of his original pur- ready for the seed, care, labor, and gradual en-
chase as he may see fit to retain. It may be per- riching is what the settler is expected to fur-
tinently asked why the present owners do not pur- nish.
sue so inviting a plan. We can't say why-but Titles to Teal property in Leon county are
only that they do not as a rule. Mr: John Craig, generally good. Great care should always be
the Messrs. Lewis, Mr. Porter and Capt. P. Hous- exercised by new settlers in determining the ti-
ton, have done so, and clearly showed the advan- ties to property offered them. It is a hard ex-
tages of it. perience for a poor man to pay out all his money
Along the St. Marks Railroad, lighter lana, Yor a piece of land that he may find involves
but such as are far superior to the so termed him or his children in a law suit. It is much
"first-class pine South n parts of the State, can be purchased at title than for the defense of it.
from $2 to $5 per acre for cleared land. For It is becoming customary for purchasers to be
fruits ani many of the-truck crops, these lands furnished by brokers or land agents with an ab-
are very desirable. But these prices are by no stract of title to property offered for sale by
means established, but are jumping upward all them, and the purchaser can readily compare
the time, and there is every reason to apprehend such abstract with the county records. There
their reaching double those values during the are very few opportunities offering in Leon
coming winter. It is common to exclaim that county of country places to rent or lease.
such a course will tend to retard immigration. Houses-homes, are what are lacking. The char-
We do not think so, but quite the contrary i' acter of tenament houses made use of on the
likely to be true. A demand always enhances -lands by the colored tenants are totally inade-
values. Men can't be blamed for asking as much quate to the wanls of a white family-and most
for their properly as other men are willing to of the plantations have no other sort of houses
pay for it. Lands in Leon county are going up- them. Fifty dollars will build a cabin that a
we don't see any way to prevent this, and cer- nan can live ,in comfortably; three hundred
mainly would not ifwe could, but those who buy dollars puts up a very snug home for
early will be fortunate. a poor man and his family; seven hun-
Durina the month of May, 1883, a gentleman died and fifty to one thousand will' build
from Wisconsin,, purchased near Tallahas- a house of five to seven 'rooms and finish it
see between 3,000 and 4,000 acres of excellent in a style satisfactory to a man of taste and cul-
open farm land, that he proposes to cut up and ture.
sell out in smaller parcels to settlers from his Mechanical labor is worth here about what it
own section of country. Improved, ready made is elsewhere. Good mechanics are very much
farms, with good houses and conveniences are not .needed. Lumber is worth from $7.50 to $17.00
to be had in Leon county. Owners of such prop- per thousand feet. Shingles $2.25 to $4.25 per
erty never dream of parting with them at any thousand. Hardware what it is in the North
price, but there are thousands of acres of first- I d East, freight added. Provision of all sorts
class, red clayey farm lands that are cleared, the cheap. Taxes, total county and State, six. mills
stumps and roots are out, that only require a- Jless than 2 per cent. ad valorem, and this in-
tention to make garden' spots of them, and they eludes school, railroad and tax of every kind.






LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.


Inducements Offered In Leon County to
Several Characters of Immlarants.
To that large class of persons who look to
some Southern place of resort in winter, solely
on the score of health, and to escape the rigors
of more northern latitudes, Leon county offers
many attractions, whether they be people of am-
ple means or persons of-more modest resources.
The winter climate is peculiarly delightful, as
may be seen from the meteorological tables in
another part of this book. There is an almost
total absence of cold winds. Frosts occur fre-
Squently during the. winter, which gives just
enough freshness and ch ek to the air to make it
pure and bracing, while it is balmy and soft.
here are apt to be about twe or three weeks in,
the latter part of December and first of January
when cloudy rainy weather prevails, and very
delicate people will find it advisable to be in-
doors. This "Christmas spell" of nasty weather
occurs pretty generally ever the State, north of
latitude 28. There is no slush or mud, how-
ever, nor is the temperature low, and persons
who are not very sick need not be specially In-
convenienced by it. At all other times, trom
November 1st to May. 1st, a cloudy day is thie
exception, and the delightful sunshine and air of
Leon county, taken together with its firm, hard
roads, pleasant drives and walks among the hills
and valleys, and the wonderful wealth of flow-
ers, both wild and domesticated, that greet the eye
on every hand, make the surroundings of Talla-
hassee more enjoyable than any place we knoir
of in Florida, unless it be her sister village of
Monticello, in the adjoining county of Jefferson.
People who have means can find excellent pro-
vision made for their comfort at the "Leon,"
"St. James" or "City Hotel," in Tallahassee.
The first mentioned of these houses is a large
modern structure of three stories, with 500 feet
of piazza, 12 feet wide, fronting south on a pretty
open park. The house is a very complete one.
and offers every inducement for permanent wiq-
ter visitors. The St. James, a three-story brick
structure, has nice, clean rooms and good fare,
and is located on main (Monroe) street. The City
Hotel fronts east, opposite the State-house, and is
an hostelry of old and established reputation,
with many pleasant rooms and superior cuisine.
Excellent private boarding, with large commo-
dious rooms and excellent fare, can be had of D.
B. Maxwell, Mrs. Brokaw, Mrs. E. T. Williams,
Mrs. Susan B. Hopkins, Mrs. Vining, Mrs. Wil-
son, Mrs. Townsend and Mrs. E. W. Gamble. '
Small cottages that can be rented by families
who wish to keep house during the winter are
scarce, and parties desiring them should secure
them early in the fall through some of the real
estate men.
Another class of people, who make extensive
inquiry of Florida, are those who desire a per-
manent change of rmwidmee, as.often as otherwise,
on the score of some delicate member of their
family. These are oftenest persons of moderate
means or very small resources, who cannot afford


the winter tour, and must when they move be-
come fixtures. We think our county offers such
persons decided advantages. To them the sum-
mer aspect of things is of quite as much im-
portance as that of the more generally discussed
winter features of the climate. Let them look
at the same table of temperatures, referred to
above, and compare them with like records of
their present surroundings; bearing in mind that
we have always cool nights, and generally good
breezes in the day time. But if strangers will
learn to dress and eat as Floridians do they will
have little to complain of on the score of sum-
mer heat.
Health they can enjoy if they know how to
keep well elsewhere. Imprudence in diet and
-egulation of bodily temperature are just as cer-
tain to induce sickness in Florida as anywhere
else, but we think all types of indisposition are
milder and more managable here than in other
latitudes.
A matter of quite as much importance to such
folk as that of health is the means of supporting
themselves in their new homes.
Most generally persons looking to Florida have
crammed a lot of the extravagant and deceptive
nonsense so lavishly published and distributed
by designing speculators as to the sure and lu-
crative results ot fruit and vegetable culture in
Frorida, and come here with very visionary ideas
of securing an easy competence by some sleight of
hand process on a .few acres of fruit trees and
twck. Such persons are sure to be disappointed..
This is a region of good soil, genial climate, pro-
pitious seasons, and all that sort of things, but
right there the easy part stops short, and the old
fashioned methods of care, attention, industry,
sound judgment, hard work, and plenty of it,
that obtain everywhere else in the world, must
be applied or success don't attend the undertak-
ing.
Money can be made in Leon county growing
peaches, pears, oranges, plums, Japan persim-
mons,.and grapes of almost all varieties. Many
other delightful fruits grow and are a source of
.enjoyment and profit, but the above are the mar-
ketable ones now, and if some good fellow would
learn to handle figs, these latter would discount
all the balance for a certain money crop. Then,
too, strawberries are a big thing here, and prob-
ably come nearer filling the idea of an easy Flor-
ida bonanza than anything else, but all these
things take time, labor and money to establish
them just as they do everywhere else.
In conjunction, however, with these industries
can be handled vegetable growing for shipment
North, and this is becoming gradually a fairly
established and reasonably certain method of
gathering in money in these parts, but not by
any-processes of blind luck, but only by the ex-
ercise of al the very best skill and industry that
experience and earnestness lend to such pursuits
elsewhere. The only advantage the business
has in Leon county, Florida, over the same pur-
suit farther north is that grown at a time of the






LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.


year when such stuff is among the luxuries of
life, it commands from double to ten times as
much money in the market. For instance:
Florida peaches often fetch $2.50 per dozen in
New York market; strawberries, $2 per quart;
Irish potatoes, from $6 to $9 per barrel, &c.
All to be done is to make them and get them
North, but let no enthusiast imagine that it is
going to be accomplished while he goes fishing.
Poultry, bees and dairy stuffs are all practica-
ble and profitable adjuncts to this feature of com-
fortable home making in the Sunny South, and
in no county we know of are these latter indus-
tries more easy of accomplishment than in Leon
county.
Mixed Farmers.
A class of people with agricultural taste ai
some experience are the folk to whom the sur-
roundings in Leon county will prove especially
inviting.
Lands here are good and cheap. They are gen-
erally ready cleared, have been in most instances
under cultivation for many years, are clear of
stumps, there is no rock or loose stones in them.
Sulkies, cultivators and other improved machin-
ery can be easily employed. The soil is gener-
ally composed of red clay with sand enough pres-
ent to scour a plow, prevent baking and avoid
mud. They are productive, will make corn, rye,
oats, rice, barley and wheat, if desired, in paying
quantities without the addition of fertilizers.
-All root crops grow readily, and last, but of most
consequence, these lands eail grow excellent graw
in abundance. The native varieties of Bermuda,
blacktop, sedge, crab, crowsfoot, carpet, velvet
and sheep grass have been alluded to elsewhere
in this book. But in addition to these recent ex-
periments demonstrate that clover, alfalfa, bur-
clpver, timothy, blue-grass, orchard-grass, red-
top and other domesticated grasses find a genial
l and climate, and can be quite as successfully
-grown here as anywhere. We want it clearly
understood that this assertion is not made at ran-
dom but authoritatively, and is demonstrable by
actual test around Tallahassee.
Time was when Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and
Illinois were without their grass pastures, and
that not very long ago, and in much shorter time
than has been necessary to establishing such
crops in those places, will see on the red uplands
of Middle Florida as rich and extensive pastures
of those hay and grazing crops as exist in
America.
Land can be had here suitable for such pur-
poses at from $5 to $20 per acre. The latterfig-
ure applying to such as lie immediately around
the railway stations, &c.
Now we think that a class of men with ready
money enough to buy tracts of from 320 to 640
acres of these old plantations will find the,most
enticing openings for the investment of their
money in Leon county with a view of engaging
in mixed farming. Growing staple crops of grain
and grass, feeding the bulk of such stuff to grade
or thoroughbred cattle, sheep and hogs, and in


conjunction with this leading feature direct
attention to forty or fifty.acres in early fruits
and vegetables for shipment North at fancy fig-
ures.
The rapid settlement of the thin barren lands
of East and South Florida by orange-growing
people has suddenly opened an eager market at
our very doors for every pound of beef, pork,
mutton and butter we can produce, and milk,
poultry, -eggs, and even corn are asked and paid
for in a way that promises a fat future to the
thrifty Middle Floridian who will produce the
stuff.
This home demand is calculated to grow lar-
ger every year. Every man now settling in
East and South Florida must expect as long as
-te stays there to buy his bread, meat and butter
from some other section. He can't raise it there,
and those people are now living out of tin cans and
paper bags from the town grocers. Middle Flor-
ida is the nearest and best source of supply and
can certainly compete with all other sections of
the South in supplying this demand. Nor is
there any danger ot our over-producing, since
the area in Leon, Gadsden, Jefferson and Madi-
son counties adapted to this industry is limited,
and if all of it was devoted exclusively to the
production of these crops and commodities it
would not be sufficient to glut the market.
Eastern and Northern markets will take every
potato, bean, beat, onion, pea, tomato, water-
melon or cucumber we can put into crates be-
fore the first of June, and Florida markets call
for all the hay,, butter, poultry, &c., we can
ship them during the summer months, and in the
fall all our beef, pork, lard, corn, oats, and such
stuff come along, and so we have an open mar-
ket for some production all the time.
This sounds mightily like all the balance of the
immigration racket to be found in books treating
of any other sections, and which so often proves
to be exaggerated twaddle when the real facts
are recognized, but all we ask of readers is that
they will take the trouble to examine the prem-
ises, and decide for themselves if the facts are
not as stated above.
A very pertinent question right here is, why
have not all the farmers in' this section awakened
to these facts and become model farmers, &c. ?
4He answer is, they are unfamiliar with any
other processes than those attending the produc-
tion of cotton with negro labor. Not one in ten
of them ever saw a sulky plow, a cultivator and
'eaper, until the introduction very recently of
such things in this section by a few of the most
-progressive.
SFour years ago three-fourths of the farmers in
Leon county had never seen a field of clover or
other cultivated grass, and knew little more of
"the process of fattening a hog, except in the
woods on mast, than they do now about electric
engineering.
I-Old customs have to be gotten rid of gradu-
ally, and in the history of all communities the
one influence that has ever accomplished such ef-






LEON COUNTY, FLORIDA.


fects, has been the introduction of new ideas by
the performances and example of new men. Im-
migration is the harbinger always of attrition
and progression of ideas.
-----^<-----
LIST OF ROUTES, &C., TO POINTS ON
THE FLORIDA CENTRAL AND
WESTERN RAILROAD.

The Floral City Route.
The cheapest and most expeditious routes for
- reaching Leon county from any points in Wis-
consin and Minnesota are by way of Chicago over
the Chicago and North Western Railroad, and the
Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway toCh
cage, thence via'Louisville, New Albany ana
Chicago Railroad to Louisville, thence via
Louisville and Nashville Railroad direct to
Pensacola, Florida, thence via Pensacola and
Atlantic Railroad to Chattahoochee, thence
over FLORAL CITY ROUTE, by Florida Cential
and Western to destination at Tallahassee, pr
by
ROUTE NO. 2,
From Chicago via Chicago and Eastern Ill-?
nois Railroad to Terre Haute, thence by
Evansville and Terre Haute Railroad to Evans-
ville thence by Louisville and Nashville Rail-
road to Pensacola, thence to Tallahassee as
per Route No. 1, or by
AOUTE NO. 3,'
From Chicago via Illinois Central direct to
New Orleans; thence by Louisville and Nash-
ville to Pensacola ; thence to Tallahassee as per
Routes Nos. 1 and 2, or by
ROUTE NO. 4,
From Chicago via Chicago and Alton Railroad
to St. Louis; thence via St. Louis and Iron
Mountain and the Mobile and Ohio' Railroad to
Mobile; thence to Tallahassee as per Routes Nos.
1, 2, and 3,
From Chicago, either via Cincinnati, Indian-,
apolis, St. Louis and Cincinnati to Indianapolis,
or via Pittsburg, Cincinnati and St. Louis to In-
dianapolis, thence to Louisville over Jefferson,
Madison and Indianapolis, thence via Louisville
and Nashville to Pensacola, thence via Pens4QplJ
and Atlantic and Florida Central and Western
to destination.
N. B.-In selecting any of these several
routes, ask of railroad agent at nearest coupon'
office to point of departure for 1st class, 2d class
or immigrant ticket to Tallahassee, Florida.
Reading via the Florida Central and Western
Railroad. Owing to the constantly fluctuating
rates- over Railroad lines generally, no fixed
rates of fare can be here quoted. Get this infor-
mation by letter or otherwise from the Railroad
agent at the depot nearest to you before starting.
To reach Leon county from any points in the'
States of Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, or points,
beyond, come by Way of St. Louis.


ROUTE NO. 1 A.
From St.. Louis over Louisville and Nash-
ville Railioad by way of Evansville and
Nashville to Pensacola, thence over Pen-
sacola and Atlantic, and Florida Central and
Western, to Tallahassee; or by
ROUTE NO. 2 A.
From St. Louis over Illinois Central Railroad
t'- New Orleans, thence Louisville and Nash-'
ville Railroad by way of Mobile to Pensacola,
and thence to Tallahassee as in Route No. 1 A;
or by
ROUTE NO. 3 A.
From St. Louis via St. Louis and Iron Moun-
tain Railroad to Columbus, Ky., thence via Mo-
.t sand Ohio to Mobile, thence to Tallahassee
as per Route No. 2 A. /
From all points in Arkansas and Texas, come
by rail or river lines to New Orleans, thence by
Louisville and Nashville by way of Mobile and
Pensacola to Tallahassee.
To reach Leon county from any points in the
States of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Ten-
nessee or Kentucky take such rail lines as connect
with Louisville and Nashville to Pensacola and
thence to Tallahassee.
To reach Leon county, Florida, from points in
States of Indiana, Ohio or Michigan, take short-
est line to Cincinnati and Louisville, thence by
Louisville and Nashville to Pensacola, and
thence to Tallahassee as above.
F-rom a!l points tributary to New York, ask
for tickets via Mallory Steamship Line from New
York to Fernandina, Florida, thence via Flori-
da Transit and Peninsula Railroad to Baldwin,
and thence to Tallahassee by Florida Central
and Western Railroad.
From Eastern and Middle States, all rail route
by way of Washington and Richmond over the
Atlantic Coast line to Savannah, Ga., thence via
Savannah, Florida and Western to Live Oak
Florida, or from Savannah to Waycrose and
Jacksonville, and thence to Tallahassee over
Florida Central and Western.
SRemember that through tickets and baggage
checks can be had from any of the above named
points to any points in Florida by way of Pen-
sacola, over the Pensacola and Atlantic Railroad,
connecting at Chattahoochee with the Florida
Central and Western, to Jacksonville, on the St.
Johns river, and connecting at Baldwin with
the Florida Transit and Peninsula Railroad for
all points in East and South Florida. This en-
ables a traveller to traverse the State of Florida
its entire length East and West, from the Per-
dido to the St. Johns, passing through the great
timber belt of West Florida, and the grass grown
and picturesque agricultural region of the Hill
Country of Middle Florida, with the stop-over
privilege at any depot on the line-from Pensa-
cola to Jacksonville.
The time to Jacksonville by this route from all
points west of Montgomery, Ala., is shorter than
by any other route, and the fare is as low.







LEQN COUNTY, FLORIDA.


Since the 18th of November, 1883, through
Pullman Buffet Sleeping Cars run without
change from New Orleans to Jacksonville, and
through sleepers from Louisville to Pensacola
Junction, connecting there with the New Orleans
sleeper to Jacksonville.
Conclusion.
The foregoing pages comprise a fair and hon-
est exhibit of some of the principal advantages
offered by Leon county to the intending settler
in Florida. It is the first thoroughly organized
effort to attract immigration to the county, and
has received, after mature deliberation, the uni-
versal approval of all classes of our citizens
who, seeing the advantages which have accrued
to other sections of the South and the State from
the influx of a new population, have r
nized the necessity of its encouragement, and
determined to open wide the doors of their be-
loved, rich and beautiful country, and invite
those of their fellow-countrymen from.all parts
of the Union who are contemplating a change of
residence to our delightful and health-giving
climate, to make new homes among us.


Middle Florida has taken a new lease of life ;
and instead of its former tendency to indiffer-
ence of the glorious consequences of progress
and advancement, evidences abound on every
side of improvement, energy and activity in the
important work of rehabilitation.
This tendency is not only manifested in Leon
county, where new residences, new fences, im-
proved farm machinery and implements, better
methods of cultivation and domestic economy
prevail, but is signally displayed in Tallahassee,
the county seat, where many improvements are
in progress; among them two large and hand-
some new hotels, and a new court-house, costing
$25,000.
The preparation of this pamphlet has been
accomplished by the many members of the Leon
County Farmers' Club. None of these gentle-
men are speculators, yet any and all of them will
cheerfully answer inquiries addressed to them
upon any subjects connected with matters dis-
cussed therein.


^**s



























































STATE CAPITOL, TALLAHASSEE.












SOME LEON COUNTY PROPERTIES

FOR SALE BY




Tallahassee, Florida.
_':0:o-

No. 7. One of the Handsomest old homes in the South, "GooDwooD," 160 acres,
excellent farm land. Fifty acres in wood; fine live oak grove, camelias, roses and
shrubbery, fruit trees, &c., surrounding a large two-story brick house with nine rooms,
slate roof and cellar, brick out buildings, &c., 1i miles from Tallahassee-a most
beautiful home.
No. 11. 110 acres; 20 acres wood; good farm land; new frame house, six rooms,
with good welt of water, kitchen, &c., three miles of Tallahassee. Price, $1,500.
No. 9. 160 acres of open land; red clay, commanding view, very high, in sight
of city, one-half mile from railroad depot, one-quarter mile of city limits. For sale
whole, or in 80 acre tracts; fronts on handsome park. $20 per acre.
No. 13. A seven-rodmed cottage, lot one-quarter of a block, two squares from State
House, fronts on beautifully shaded city park. $1,600.
No. 27. 2,727 acres in a fine plantation, five miles from Tallahassee, in a high state
of cultivation; forty tenants on property; timber, water, commanding views; now
paying good interest on investment. Price, $6 per acre. (A bargain.)
No. 40. 2,000 acres prime agricultural land, three-fourths in cultivation, timber,
water, &c., one and a half miles from Chaires," Station No. 1, F. C. & W. R. R. A
superb stock ranch. $6 per acre.
No. 16. 1,280 acres of finely located farm land on the shores of Lake Lafayette,
four miles of Tallahassee, bordering on.the F. C. & W. R. R., 120 acres in timber.
For sale entire, or 320 acre farms. $To*per acre.
No. 37. An exceptionally fertile tract of 1,800 acres of shell hammock in Wa-
kulla county, 20 miles from Tallahassee, in five miles of the Gulf beach, six miles from
St. Marks Railroad. 500 acres open land, 'An extensive open range for stock.
Price; $3 per acre. (Another bargain.)
Many other properties, large and small, improved and unimproved, in Leon and
Wakulla counties, at prices and on terms to suit any one.
Don't write too many inquiries, but come and look at them and judge for your-
self.
We specially invite communications from parties with a purpose of handling
live stock in conJunction with mixed farkaiWe.,,
BALL & LONG.





-THE-


Florida Annual,

FOR 1884.
_ A Two Hundred Page Periodical, devoted to Descriptive
Matter of Florida and its Resources.


PUBLISHED AND FOR SALE PY

C. K. MTUNROE,

140 Nassau Street, New York.


50 CENTS PTER COPY- 55 CENTS BY MAIL.


Send Amount in Stamps to
E. W. CLARK, Bookseller,
Tallahassee, Florida.






"THE


FLORIDIAN,"


- PUBLISHED AT -


TALLAHASSEE,


- FLORIDA.


DORR & BOWEN, Editors & Proprietors.

ESITA.BLISEEXED 1828.

Democratic and Progressive,

Circulates all through Florida, and has a growing Cir-
culation outside the State.

SIUBSeIPTION, 12.00 A YEAR.
M8 Specimen Coples sent on, Receipt of 2-Cent Stamp..Z-




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