Title: Florida and Texas. A series of letters comparing the soil, climate, and productions of these states, setting forth many advantages that east and south
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Title: Florida and Texas. A series of letters comparing the soil, climate, and productions of these states, setting forth many advantages that east and south
Series Title: Florida and Texas. A series of letters comparing the soil, climate, and productions of these states, setting forth many advantages that east and south
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FLORIDA AND TEXAS.





" A- SERIES OF LITERS

Comparing the b01 Ulimate, an roLaction oa ese ales,
MSETI l l' ADVA )ANiJ

EAST AND SOi tIIA.
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OCALA, FLORIDA :
PRINTED AT TTIE "EAST FLORIDA BANNER" OFFICE,
BY T F. SMITH.
1866. '


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FLORIDA AND TEXAS.


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A SERIES OF LETTERS

Comparing the Soil, Climate, and Productions of these States,

SETTING FORTH MANY ADVANTAGES THAT

EAST AND SOUTH FLORIDA
O P nnRS TO lIMZERA.nATTs.





OC'ALA, FLORIDA :
PRINTED AT THE "EAST FLORIDA BANNEI-" OFFICE.
IY T F. SMITH.
1 .66t".


















LIBRARY
LORODA STATE UNtVERI
TALI HASSEE. FLRI' A


SIR :-This pamphlet is sent that you and; your neighbors may see
the advantages of the soil, climate, and productions of East and South
Florida. If there is any family in your neighborhood who design seek-
ing a new home, please hand it over to them for perusal.









NO. 1.
GAINESVILLE, Fla., Ap'l 1, '60.
As a great deal of delusion pre-
vails, both North and South, re-
specting the relative advantages
which Florida and Texas present
to the emigrant, and as a long resi
dence in each of these States has
enabled me to derive correct infor-
mation on this subject, I propose
communicating through your wide-
ly circulated journal, in a series of
brief articles, such facts as I think
may be useful to those who desire
to emigrate to either of those coun-
-tries.
As the first consideration with
every emigrant should be the char-
acter of the climate in which he in-
tends to make a permanent resi-
dence, I shall commence by dis-
cussing first, the climate of Florida
and that of Texls.
The climate of Elorida and es-
pecially that of the Peninsular,
taking it the whole year around, is
much more agreeable than any other
in the United States; and indeed it
would be difficult to find a climate
in any part of the world so agreea-
ble as this. The winters are de-
lightful, five days out of six being
bright and cloudless, and, of the
most agreeable temperature. In
the Southern portion of the Penin-
sular frost is never felt, and even
far North as the Suwannee River
there are generally but two or three
nights in a whole winter that ice as
thick as a half dollar is found.-
Carver in discussing the winters of
the Peninsular, remarks : "So mild
are winters in East Florida that
the most delicate vegetables and
.plants of the Carrabce Islands ex-
I-.


114- / Z I


perience there not the least injury
from that season; the orange tree,
the bananna, the plantain, the
guava, the pineapple, &c., grow
luxurantly. Fogs are scarcely
known there, and no country can be
more salubrious."
The winter in Florida resembles
very much that season which in
the middle States is termed the
"Indian Summer," except that in
Florida the sky is perfectly clear,
and the atmosphere more dry and
elastic. Rain but rarely falls dur-
ing the winter months in Florida;
three, four, and not uufrequently
five weeks, of bright, clear and
cloudless days occur continuously.
This is one of the greatest charms
of the winter climate in Florida;
and in this respect it forms a strik-
ing contrast with almost every
State in the Union, and especially
with Texas, California and Oregon.
Contrary to what might be ex-
pected, the summer weather in
East Florido is much more agreea-
ble, and its heat less oppressive
thoughg its duration is much lon-
ger,) than that which is experienc-
ed in the Northern and Middle
States. This is attributable in a
great measure, to its peninsular
position, which causes it to be
fanned on the East by the Atlantic
breezes, and on the West by those
of the Gulf of Mexico, both of which
can be distinctly felt in the centre
of the State. Besides this, the
North-east trade winds play over
the whole Peninsula. Thesummeu.
nights are invariably cool-and
the even hottest days are seldom
oppressive in the shade. This is
more than any State North of Flor-


LIBRARl
ROlIDA STATE UNIVERSIbr
TALLALASSEE. FLORID'










Ida can bonst, and is probably owing
to her peninsular character. Para-
doxical as it may seem, the ther-
nometer ranges much higher dur-
ing the summer months in New
York, Boston and Montreal, than
in St. Augustine, Tampa, or Key
West. In the former cities, the
thermometer frequently ranges as
high as 100 and 105 in the shade
nnd that too, without any breeze to
relieve it, whereas, it but rarely
reaches as high as 90 at any of the
latter places. I am credibly in-
formed that a register kept at Key
West (the extreme South of Florida)
for foueteen years, exhibited but
three instances, during the whole
period, in which'the mercury rose
na high as 94 in the shade. But,
did it rise even to 104, such is the
constant prevalence of refreshing
sea-breezes, that less inconvenience
would be experienced from it than
when it was 85 in the humid and
stagnant atmospheres of other cli-
mates.
General La sarn Surgeon-General
of the Army, in his official report
on the climate, diseases, &ce., of
Flori in, remarks : "The climate of
Florida is remarkably equable and
agreeable, being subject to fewer
atmospheric variations, and its ther-
mometer ranges much less than any
other part of the United States
except a portion of the coast of Cal-
ifornia. For example, the Winter
at Fort Snelling, Minnesota Terri-
tory is 48 degrees colder than at
SFort Brooke, Florida; but the
Suimmner at Fort Brooke is only
.about 8 degrees. warmer. The
mean annual temperature of Au-
gusta, Georgia, is nearly S degrees,


and that of Fort Gibson, Arkainsa,
upwards of 10 degrees lower than
at Tampa ; yet in both these places,
the mean Summer Temperature is
higher than at Fort Brooke, Tampa
Bay. In the Summer season the
mercury rises higher in every part
of the United States, and even in
Canada, than it does along the coast
of Florida. This is shown by me-
terological statistics in this Bu-
reau.
The Summer in Floriai may be
said to be seven months long; so
that the duration of warm weather
is nearly .wice as long as in the
Middle States. The weather dur-
ing the whole of these seven months
is however, generally of a very
pleasant temperature, the nights
being uniformly cool and sultry
days of very rare occurrence. In-
deed so agreeable Ire the summers
in East Florida, there is -little
choice between them and the win-
ters; and many of the oldest in-
habitants say that they prefer the
former.
The seasons in Florida are prob-
ably as favorable as in any other
State in the Union. There occur
there, as in every other State, oc-
casional droughts of two long du-
ration, and there is sometimes a
superabundance of rain; but, as a
general rule the seasons are rega-
lar and well adapted to all the val-
uable staples ot that country.-
Frequent showers occur the during
the months of March. April, May
and June, and about the first of
July what is termed "the rainy
season" commences and continue
till about the middle of September.
Although it raiiis about every day


(it isk~ \










Ruling this season it scarcely rains
ill day. These. rains fill in very
heavy showers, accompanied by
thunder and lightning, and seldom
last longer than four hours each
day. They generallylcommence at
1 o'clock, P. T., and are entirely
over by 5 o'clock, P. M., leaving
lbr the 'remaining twenty hours of
the day a. cloudless sky and a de-
lightfully cool atmosphere." One
of the great virtues of the Florida
climate is, that nearly all the rains
falls daring the productive season
of the year; and that during the
winter months, when rains are but
little required they seldom fall.-
The reverse of this occurs in Texas,
California, Oregon, and in nearly
all the Mexican States.
As respects health, the climate
of Florida stands pre-eminent.-
That the peninsular climate of
Florida is much more salubrious
than that of any other State in the
Union, is clearly established by the
medical statistics of the army, as
well as by the last census returns.
In froof of this the most conclusive
evidence can be presented ; but it
will be sufficient here to quote a
few remarks from the official Report
of the Surgeon-General on this sub-
ject. General Lawson states.-
"Indeed, the statistics in this Bu-
reau demonstrate the fact that the
disease which result from malaria
are a much milder type in the Pe-
ninsula of Florida than in any other
State in the Union. These records
show that the ratio of deaths to the
number of cases of remittent fever
has been much less among the
1 lc e a i'rgr here is too high. I%'" dre
nphtreil they di) not average io.re tlan
on0 .n lio-r i-r l1.v.-- l:. UBNNfa.


troops serving in any olter portion
of the United States. In the Mid-
die Division of the United *Stitea
the proportion is one death to thir-
ty-six cases of remittent faver; has
in the Northern Division. one to
fifty-two: in the Southern Division,
one to fifty-four; in Texas, one to
seventy-eight; in California, one to
one hundred and twenty-two; in
New Mexico, one to one hundred
and forty eight; while in Florda it
is but one to tlo hundred and
eighty-seren.
"The general heathfulness of
many'parts of Florida, particularly
on its coast, is proverbial.' The-
average annual mortality of the
whole Peninsula, from returns in
this office. is found to be 2.06 per
cent., while the other portions of
the United States (previous to the
war with Mexico) it is 3 05 per
cent.
In short, it may be asserted.
without fear of refutation, that
. lorida possess a much more
agreeable and salubrious climate
than any other State or Territory
in the Union, and that her sea-
sons are more favorable to the pro-
duction of Cotton and S-gar than
any Southern State.
How does the climatenfTexas
compare with that of Florida!
Extensive as Texas is, there is no
portion of that vast State, between
the Sabine and Rio Grande, that
possesses a climate at all compara-
table to that of Florida. The ex-
tremes of temperature are much''
greater in every portion of Texas
than in any portion of Florida. As
far Noith as tlb Sabina the mercu-
ry frequently rises as high as 14M


t/~, Ph










in the shade; and as far South as
Aransas Bay' it frequently falls so
low as to freeze salt water and kill
the fish This latter phenomenon
I witnessed myself in the winter of
1S45-0, at Corpus Christi, when
the whole margin of Aransas Bby
was fringed with thick ice.
But it is not merely as respects
the extremes of temperature that
the climate of Texas is so much
less dersirable than that of Florila.
Texas is, by the regular and fre-
quent prevalence of "Northers,"
afflicted with a climatic curse which
is entirely unknown in Florida.-
* These "Northers" which may be
regarded as a Texas "institution,"
nre tremendous. North-west gales
which suddenly spring up, and
sweep with unbroken fury over
vast praires of the West, then over
Texas, and finally exhaust them-
selves in the Gulf of Mexico. They
last on the average about eixteen
hours, and recur on the average
twice a week. They prevail at all
seasons of the year, so that they
are an everlasting affliction. In
winter they are felt as cold gales,
which not unfrequently cause the
mercury to fall forty degrees in
half an h6ur. In summer they are
strong blustering, dry, hot winds,
which "parch and destroy," after
the fashion of a "sirocco." In
short, these "Northers," as I said
before, are the curse of Texas ; for
were it not for these, she would not-
withstanding the great and sudden
extremes of temperature, have an
agreeable climate during the sum-
mer season, when, for about six
months in succession, there falls no
rain, and in the days are bright and


cloudless.
As respects health the climate of
Texas, though far inferior to that
of Florida, is probably on the whole
much better thin the climate of
several of the other Southern
States. The malaria diseases are
not generally of so grave a type as
those which prevail in Arkansas,
Mississippi and Louisiana.
It is scarcely necessary to say,
that a climate which is character-
ized, and afflicted by such frequent
6"Northers," cannot be favorable to
invalids, who labor under chest
affections ; a class of diseases to
the cure of which the mild, balmly,
equable climate of Florida, aided
by the aroma of her pine forests, is
so well adapted.
As regards the season, there is
probably no State in the Union in
which they are so unfavorable to
agriculture, and when crops are so
precarious as in Texas, and espec-
ially in the Western portion of it.
The rains fall uniformly, during
the winter season, when rains are
but little required ; and during the
productive season of the year there
generally prevails an uninterrupted
drought of many months. The
lands being generally very fertile,
whenever the "seasons happens to
hit" an enormous crop can be made.
But, so generally do the seasons
miss, that one good crop outgffour
is about the average result. Hence
although we sometimes hear of very
large crops being made in Texas,
these are only exceptions to the
rule of their failure, and it is noto-
rious that stock raising is much
mure profitable than planting in
nearly every portion of Texas.-


B.
**










Indeed the Mexicans were from
long experience, so well convinced
of the unreliable character of the
seasons in Texas that they resorted
to irrigation as the only means of
obviating the evil.
If the statements which I have
here made be correct-and I chal-
lenge their refutation-it must be
admitted that Florida presents to
the emigrant three cardinal advan-
tages over Texas, viz : A much
more salubrious and a much more
agreeable climate, and seasons
much more favorable to agriculture.
In my next I shall discuss some
other matters relating to those two
States, which I trust will prove
useful to those who intend to emi-
grate from their present homes.
VERDAD.

NO. II.
GAINESVILLE, Fla., Ap'l 6, '60
Having, in my former letter, ad-
duced facts to prove that the cli-
mate of Florida is much more salu-
brious and agreeable than that of
Texas, and the reasons in the for-
mer are much more favorable to ag-
riculturure than in the latter coun-
try. I shall next proceed to dis-
cuss the soils and productions of
those two States respectively.
There is in every State and Ter-
ritory in the Union, a very large
proportion of barren and poor lands;
but that the ratio of these lands dif-
fer. greatly in different States,
Florida has a due proportion of
poor lands; but, compared with
other States, the ratio of her barren
and worthless lands is very small.
With the exception of the Ever-
glades, (which though at present


unavailable, are capable of being
reclaimed at a moderate expense,)
and her irreclaimable swamp lands,
there is scarcely an acre in the
whole State of Florida that's entire,
ly worthless, or which cannot be
made under her tropical climate,
tributary to some agricultural pro-
duction. Lands which in a more
Northern climate would be utterly
worthless, will, in Florida, owing to
her tropical character, yield valua-
ble productions. For example, the
poorest pine barren landsof Florida,
will produce without manure, a lux-
uriant crop of Sisal Hemp, .which
yields more profit to the acre than
the richest land will when oultiva-
ted in sugar, cotton or tobacco. So
it is with numerous other valuable
tropical products that are adapted
to the lands, that in more Northern
climates, would yield nothing to
agriculture. Besides this, there
are in;Florida no mountain wastes
-no barren praires-and there are
but few acres in the whole State
not under cultivation, that are not
covered with valuable timber.
I shall here give a brief sketch.
of the differently descriptions of the
lands in Florida.
Pine lands (pitch and yellow pine)
form the basis of Florida. These
lands are usually divided; into three
classes, denoting first, second and
third rate pinejands.
That which is denominated "first
rate pine land" in Florida has noth-
ing analogous to it in any of the
other States. Its surface is covered,"'
for several inches deep; with a dark
vegetable mould, beneath which, to
the deph of several feet, is a choco-
late colored sandly loam, mixed with


r *'









the most part, with limestone peb-
bles, and resting on a substratum
of marl, clay or limestone rock. The
fertility and durability of this de-
scription of land may be estimated
from the well-known fact that it
has, on the Upper Suwannee and
in several other districts, yielded,'
during fourteen years of successive
cultivation, without the aid of
manure, four hundred pounds of
Sea Island Cotton to the acre.-
These lands are still as productive
as ever,-so that the limit of their
durability is still unknown.'
The "second- rate pine" land,
which form the largest proportion of
Florida, are all productive, and can,
by a proper system of cultivation,
be rendered much more valuable
than the best lands in Texas. These
lands afford fine natural pasturage,
they are heavily timbered with the
best species of pitch and yellow
pine; they are, for the most part,
high, rolling, healthy and well-wa-
tered. They are generally based
upon marl, clay or limestone. They
will produce for-several years with-
out the aid of manure, and when cow-
penned, they will yield, two thou-
.sand pounds of the best quality
sugar to the acre, or about three
hundred pounds of Sea Island Cot-
ton. They will besides, when
properly cultivated, produce the
finest Cuba tobacco, oranges, lemons,
limes, and various other tropical
productions, which must in many
instances, render them more valua-
- ble than the best bottom lands in
more Northern States.
*ThIey produce on an average about
two hundred pounds of lnt cotin per
arOe.--Baanes


Eren the lands of tlie "third
rate,' or most inferior class, are by
no means worthless under the cli-
mate of Florida. This class of
lands may be divided into two
orders; the one comprising high
rolling sandy districts, which are
sparsely cuvered with; p stunted
growth of "blackjack" and pine;
the other embracing low, flat,
swampy regions, which are fre-
quently studded with "bay-galls,"
and are occasionally inundated, but
which are covered with luxuriant
vegetation, and very generally
with valuable timber. The former
of those, it is now ascertained
owing to their calcareous soil, well
adapted to the growth of the Sisal
Hemp, which is a valuable tropical
production. This plant (the Agave
Sisiliana) and the Agave Mexicans
Hemp, also known as the Maguay,
the Pulke Plant, the Century Plant,
&c., have both been introduced
into Florida, and they both grow
in great perfection on the poorest
lands of the country. As these
plants derive their chief support
from the atmosphere, they will, like
the common air plant, preserve
their vitality for many months
when left out of the ground.
It is scarcely necessary too add;
that the second order of the third
rate pine lands, as here described,
is far from worthless. These lands
afford a most excellent range for
cattle, besides being valuable for
their timber and the naval stores
which they will produce.
There is one general feature in
the topography of Florida, which
no other country in the United
States possesses, and which afford









great security to the health of its billious fever.
inhabitants. It is this, that the The topographical feature here
pine lands which form the basis of noted, namely, a genteel intersper-
the country, and which are almost sion of rich hammocks. surrounded
universally healthy, are nearly by high dry rolling, healthy pine
everywhere studded at intervals of woods, is an advantage which no
a few miles, with hammock lands other State in the Union enjoys;
of the richest quality. These ham. and Florida forms in this respect,
mocks are not, as is generally sup- a striking contrast with Louisiana,
posed, low wet lands, they never Mississippi and Texas, whose Su-
require either ditching or draining. gar and Cotton lands are generally
They vary in extent from twenty surrounded by vast alluvial regions,
acres to forty thousand acres, and subject to frequent innndations, so
will probably average about 500 that it is impossible to obtain with-
acres each. Hence the inhabitants in many miles of them a healthy
have it everywhere in their power residence.
to select residences in the pine It would seem paradoxical that
lands, at such convenient distances the malaria diseases of East Flori-
from the hammocks as will enable da (abundingas it doesin rich ham-
them to cultivate the latter without mock lands, and exposed to a tropi-
endangering their health, if it cal sun,) should generally be of a
should so happen' that any of the much miller form than those which
hammocks proved to be less healthy prevail in more Northern latitudes.
than the pine woods. That such, however, is the fact,
Experience in Florida has satis- there can be no doubt; for this fact
factorily shownthat residences only is proved by an aggregate of evi-
halfa mile distant from cultivated dence (extending over more than
hammocks are entirely exempt twenty years,) which it is impossi-
from malaria diseases, and that the ble to resist. It is suggested, in
negroes who cultivate those ham- explanation of this fact, that the
mocks, and retire at night to pine luxuriant vegetation, which in"
land residences, maintain perfect the Southern and Middle .States,
health. Indeed it is found that possess through all the stages qf
residerlecs in.the hammocks them- decomposition, is, in East Flpridq,
'selves are generally perfectly generally dried up before it reaches
healthy after they have been a few the putrefactive stages offermenti-
-years cleared. Newly cleared lands tion, and that consequently the
are sometimes attended with the quantity of malaria generated is
development of more or less malaria, much less than in climates more
In Florida the diseases which re- favorable to decomposition. This
suit from those clearings are, as I view is strengthened by facts that.
stated in my former letter, general- the soil of Florida is almost every-
ly of the mildest type (simple inter- where of so porous and absorbent
mittent eventt) while in nearly all a character that moisture is seldom
the Southern States they are most long retained on its surface; that
frequently of a severe grarle of its atmosphere is in constant mo-









tion, and that there is more clear
sunshine than in the more Northern
States. It is further suggested
that the uniform prevalence of sea
breezes, and the constant motion
of the atmosphere in the Peninsula,
tend so tuch to diffuse and attenu-
ate whatsoever poision is genera-
ted, that 'it will genrally produce
but the inildeat forms of malaria
disease, such as intermittent fever.
The lands which in Florida, are
par excellence, denominated "rich
and'," are first, the "swamp lands;"
second, the "low hammnck lands;"
third, the "high hammocks," and
fourth, the "first-rate pine, oik and
hickory lands."
The swamplands are, unquestion-
ably, the most durably rich lands
in the country. They are the most
recently 'rmed lands, and are still
annually receivingadditions to their
surface. They are intrinsically the
most valuable lands in Florida, be-
ing as fertile in the beginning as
the hammocks, and more durable.
They are evidently, alluvial and of
recent formation. They dccupy
natural depressions of basins, which
have been gradually filled up by
deosits, of vegetable debris, &c..
Washed in from the adjacent and
'higher lands. Ditching is indis-
pensiblo to all of them in their
preparation for successful cultiva-
tion. Properly prepared, however,
their inexhaustible fertilitysustains
a'iiccesdion of the most exhausting
crops with' astonishing vigor. The
greatest yield of sugar ever realized
in Florida, wra produced on this
description of land, viz : four hogs-
heads par acre. That this quanti-
ty was produced on Dummitt's plan-


station near New Smyrna, is a fact
well known to those conversant with
sugar planting in East Florida.-
Sugar cane is here instanced as a
measure of the fertility of soil, be-
cause it is one of the most exhaust-
ing crops known, and is generally
grown without rest or relation. It
is not however, a fair criterion by
which to judge ofbthe relative-fertil-
ity of lands situated in different
climates, for we find on the richest
lands in Louisiana of sugar pet
acre, is not more than one hogs-
head, or about half that of East
Florida.
This great disparity in the pro-
dtret of those counties is accounted
for not by any inferiority in the
lands of Louisiana or Texas, but
by the'fact that the early incur-
sions of frost in both these States
renders it necessary to cat the cane
in October which is long before it
-has reached'maturity, while in East
Florida it is permitted to stlnd,
without fear of frost, till-December,
or till such time as it is folly ma-
tured. It is well known tbat 'it
"tassels" in East Fidrida, and It
nevor does -so in either Louisiana
or Texas. 'When efc e "tassels" it
is evidence 'of'its'having reached
'full maturity. In consequence 'ef
the hefty outlay of capital reqtretl
in the preparation eflthis 'descrlp-
tion of land fir cultivation, and
from the facility of obtaining ham-
'mock land,-which requiresno ditch-
ing nor draiinng, swamp land has
been but little sought alter by per-
Sons engagediin planting in Flori-
da, and there is now at least a mil-
lion of acres of the best description
of this land vacant in -the country.










and which can be secured at less
than two dollars per acre. Vast
bodies of it lie convenient to navi-
gation and railways; and doubtless
will be sought after with avidity as
soon as the sugar planters of Lou-
isiana and Texas becomes apprized
of its character, and of the many
advantages which sugar planting in
Florida presents over any other
State in the Union.
Lmeo-ammocks, which from the
fact of their participating of the
nature of hammocks and swampsy
are sometimes termed Soammnock,
are not inferior to swamps lands in
fertility but perhaps are not quite
as durable. They are nearly al-
ways level, or nearly so, and have
a soil of greater tenacity than that
of the high hammocks. Some
ditching is necessary in many of
them. The soil in them is always
deep. These lands are also ex-
tremey welliadapted to the growth
of the cane, as has been well attest
ted by the many plantations which
were formerly in operation here on
this description of land. There is
not nearly so large a proportion of
low hammock as there is of swamp
lands.
High Hammocks are the lands
in the greatest repute in Florida.
These differ from low hammocks in
occupying higher ground, and in
generally presenting an undulating
surface. They are formed of a fine
vegetable niould, mixed with a sandy
loam in many places two feet deep,
and resting, in most cases on a
substratum of clay, marl of lime-
stone. It will readily be under-
stood by any one at all acquainted
with agriculture, that such a soil,


in such a climate as .Florida, must
be extremely productive. This
soil scarcely ever suffers from too
much wet; nor does drought affect
it in the same degree as other lands.
High hammock lands produce with
but little labor of cultivation, all
the crops of the country in an emi.
nent degree. Such lands have no
tendency to break up in heavy
masses, nor are they infested with
pernicious weeds or grasses. Their
extraordinary fertility and produc-
tiveness may be estimated by the
fact in several well known instances,
in Marion county, (Clinch's Mc-
Intosh's &c.,) three hogsheads of
sugar have been made per acre on
this description -of land, after it
had been in cultivation six years in
successive crops of corn, without
the aid of manure.
To sum up its advantages, it re-
quires no other preparation than
clearing and plowing to fit it at
once for the greatest possible pro-
duction of any kind of crop adapted
to the climate. In unfavorable
seasons it's much more certain to
produce a good crop than any other
kind of land, from the fact that it
is less affected by exclusive dry or
wet weather. It can be cultivated
with much less labor than any other
lands, being remarkably mellow,
and its vicinity is generally high
and healthy. These reasons are
sufficient to entitle it to the eattra-
tion in, which it is held over al
other lands. The only objections
that can be brought against it i1
lhat, when subjected to the injwdi-
cious and impoverishing mode bf
culture pursued in the Sosth, it
may not be quite as durable as the









The first-rate pine, ok and hick-
.ory lands are found in pretty ex-
tensive bodies in many parts of
the Sate, particularly in Marion,
Alachua and Hernando counties.
From the face that those lands can
be cleared at Imuch less expense
than the swamp and hammock
lands,.. they have heretofore been
preferred by the small planters,
and have. proved remarkably pro-
duotive.
There are, besides the lands al-
ready noticed, extensive tracts of
Savanna lands, which approximate
in character, texture of the soil, and
period and mode of formation, to the
swamp lands, differing only in being
destitute of timber. Some of these
lands, are however, extremely poor.
: I shall resume, the subject of
lands in my next letter.
VERDAD.

NO. III.
GAINEsvILr, Fla, Ap'l 12, '60.
' It will-be seen, by reference to the
brief and imperfect sketch of lands.
given in my last letter, that Florida'
possesses at least a due proportion of.
soils of the most fertile and desirable
character, and moreover, that there is
probably po Southern State that con
tains so small a proportion ef unavaila-
ble lands.
SProbably the largest bodies of rich
hammock land in East Florida are to
be found in Levy, Alachua, Marion,
Heftando and Sumpter counties. There
are in Levy county alone not less than
ie'i~ hundred thousand acres of the
best description of sugar lands; and
there is but a'small proportion in any
of the five counties here cited, that will
not produce renumrrative crops of Sea
Island and Short Staple Ootton, without


the aid of manure,
But, ,whenever manure is required,
the facilities of obtaining the materials
for it are, in every part of the Penin-
sula, exceedingly great. The marshes
along the sea-coast, and the extensive
savannas of the interior present thou-
sands of acres of the most luxuriant
grass, which only requires t be mown
and carted in, either to be uied as ma-
nure, or to be converted into a compost.
Besides this, marl of the richest kind
is to be found in nearly every part of
the Peninsula.
As regards timber it can be asserted
with confidence, that there is no other
State in the Union, over which valua-
ble timber is so extensively and so uni-
formerly distributed as over the whole
State of Florida. With the exception
of the Everglades, there cannot be found
in any part of this extensive State an
area of ten miles square that is not
covered with valuable timber. The
best Bpecies of yellow pine is every-
where at hatid, and the hammocks,
with which the State is so regularly
interspersed, abound in live oak, hick-
ory, sweet gum, red cedar, red bay,
wild cherry, magnolia, mulberry, and
various other species of valuable tim-
her, all of which grows to a very large
size, and may be found in the same
hammock. The most remarkablecharac-
teristic of the Florida hammocks is the
great variety of its timber. It is not
uncommon to find all the different spe-
cies of timber above enumerated on a
single acre of hammock land. Ham-
mocks, according to my observation,
are no where to be found in the United
States, except in Florida; and I doubt
very much if precisely the same descrip-
tion of land is to be found in any other
part of the world.
The first rate swamp and low ham-
mock lands are covered with cypress of
enormous size, and red cedar, sweet










Igmg and cabbage trees, of large growth,
also abound in them.
The Florida Keys in the extreme
South of the Peninsula, produce ma-
hogony, lignum vital, rose-wood, ebony,
and various other species of valuable
.hard woods. In short, there is no
other State in the Union that can com-
pare with Florida in the value, in the
variety, and the universal distribution
of its timber.
As respects water there are few
countries in any part of the' world,
through' which so ample a supply of
good and wholesome water is distribu-
ted as through the State of Florida.-
The very large number of rivers, creeks
and lakes which may be seen so regu-
larly distributed over the map of the
country, afford of themselves sufficient
evidence that there can be no scarcity
of water; and no one who has traveled
much through that country will deny
that the quality of the water which is
found in the lakes, rivers and creeks of
the country is generally good.
Having now made what I believe
to be a faithful sketch of the land, tim-
ber and water of Florida, I shall next
proceed to the the consideration of the
lands, timber and water of Texas.
The quantity of rich lands in Texas
is very great; for the State is a very
large one, and it possesses, probably, as
large a proportion of fertile lands as
any other State in the Union. The
alluvial lands, on the water courses of
Texas are not surpassed in depth of
soil an& in fertility by any lands on this
continent. Her extensive prairies and
her "muskite" lands are also, with but
fewrexceptions, extremely rich. With-
out entering into a detailed description
of those lands, it will be enough to
state that immigrants into Texas will
find but little difficulty in procuring
lands of the richest and most durable
quality, at very moderate prices. In-


deed, if the rich and cheap lands pre-
sent, preponderated over all other con-
siderations, with emigrants, Texas
would command a preference over
every other new State. But as abun-
dance of rich and durable lands can be
procured in Florida, and in'other new
States, on such moderate terms as bring
them within the reach of nearly every
emigrant, the important question to be
determined is, which country presents
to the emigrant, besides rich and cheap
lands, the greatest amount of other ad-
vantages? When.fairly estimated by
this test, it will be clearly seen that the
inducements which the rich and cheap
lands of Texas offer to the emigrant,
fall very far short of these which the
rich and cheap lands of Florida present.
I have already shown, that in point
of climate, which is a paramount con-
sideration, the advantages are altogether
on the side of Florida. The same is
true as regards timber and water; ob-
jects which next to climate, are of the
most serious consideration to emigrants.
While the fact is indisputable that
Florida is the best timbered State in
the Union, it is equally certain that
Texas is one of the worst. Texas is a
prairie State, and with the exceptions
of some post-oaks, (a stunted and infe-
rior species of oak,) which covers some
districts in the Eastern portion of the
State, a'few very limited pine districts
some narrow strips of large timber on
the banks of the rivers, and the small
bush like-trees which grow on the mus-
taine lands, there is nothing which re-
sembles timber in any portion of Texas
between the Sabine and Rio Grande.
This it must be admitted, forms a se-
rious drawback to the rich and cheap
lands of Texas, and adds greatly to -
their price too, when every pine plank
has to be imported from Florida and
Alabama.
This great scarcity of timber in Texas










is only equalled by the great scarcity
of water, especially during the sum-
mer months. Cattle in Texas often
perish for want of wi1er, and not un-
frequently they are necessitated to travel
fifty miles before they can reach it.-
In the prairie lands of Texas, (which
form about nine-tenths of the State)
water can only be found by digging
wells some seventy feet deep.
What a contrast Texas forms in this
respect with Florida. Although the
State of Florida is about four hundred
,niles long, and about one hundred and
forty miles wide, there is no extent that
is so fdr as thirty miles distant from
ateamboats or keel navigation. Be-
sides the ample supply of water which
the numerous rivers, creeks, and small
runnrig streams afford, the State of
of Florida abounds in beautiful fresh
water hakes, in natural wells and never
Ailiiag Rprings.
Sarcity of timber and scarcity of
water form two very serious and in-
Rsrnnountable objections to Texas, as
thiy render her rich lands, to a great
extent unavailable. Indeed it is diffi-
iult to find anywhere in Texas, except
on the banks or in the vicinity of her
rivers, good land which combines the
indispensable requisites of timber andz
water. And when' it is understood
that the rivers of Texas nearly every
year overflow their banks, frequently
to the extent of several miles, some es-
timarte may be formed to the very
small proportion even of these lands that
can be profitably cultivated by the
planter. It is scarcely necessary to say
that these extensive overflows occasion
severe forms of malarial diseases to
prevail in the vicinity of those rivers,
id that notwithstahding the great
amemnt of rich lands which Texas
seitais, it is a most difficult matter to
rocure a plantation any where wilbin
er tenushe boundary, which comr


bines the essential requisites of good
land, good water, good timber and
good health. In the prairie districts
the lands are rich, but timber and water
are very scarce, if not entirely absent.
In the river bottoms the lands are
very rich, and the timber good and
abundant, but overflows are frequent
and the health and navigation very
bad.
Here, agair., the contrasts which
Florida and Texas presents are very
striking. The hammocks of Florida,
on the river banks as well es elsewhere,
combine every essential requisite that
the planter can desire. The soil is
rich and durable, the timber is in great
variety, very large and far apart, so
that they are easily cleared, water is
always convenient to them if not within
then; they are neatly if not quite as
healthy as pine woods by which they
are surrounded, and which offer choice
of residence. The rivers of Florida are,
with rare exceptions, all navigable, and
that too at at all seasons of the year,
and as they run but very short courses,
and are not affected by melting snows,
they never overflow.
So it is with the rich pine lands,
with the "pine, oak and hickory" lands;
an'l, in short with every description of
good lands in Florida. They all com-
bine good timber, good water, good
health, and facile means of transporta-
tion to market, all of which requisites
are important, if not indispensable to
to the prosperity and comfort and hap-
piness of the immigrant, and all of
which are rarely, if ever found com-
bined in any portion of the State of
Texas.
So tar, then, as my discussion of
Florida and Texas has extended, it'is
apparent that the former State presents
to the emigrant the following advanta-
ges over the latter, viz : First, a much
more salubrious climate. Second, a











more agreeable climate. Third, much must be considered, too, that the
better seasons. Fourth, a much greater Island of Cuba is only partially culti-
abundance, a much greater variety,anl vated. That the Southern portion of
a much more general distribution of Florida is well adapted to the culture
timber. And, fifhb, a much more of coffee, sugar, cocoa, indigo, and, in
abundant supply, and a more general short, of all tropical staples and fruits,
distribution of wholesome water, is, I believe, admitted by all who have
But the important advantages al- informed themselveson the subject.
ready 4t forth are not the only ones Peter S Chazotte, who had for sev-
which the State of Florida praents to enteen years been engaged in St. Do-
the emigrant over Texas. I shall, in nmingo and elsewhere, in the cultivaters
my next communication, commence ofcoffee,cocoa,&c., petitioned Congress
the productions of these two States, in 1822, fur peamission to purchase
and in the discussion it will be seen about twenty-five thousand acres of
that Florida, in the valuable character land in East Florida, at the Govern-
and great variety of her agricultural month minimum price, with a view to
productions, not only surpasses Texas, the cultivation of tropical plants. As
but far excels every other State in the Mr. Chazotte was a gentleman of
Union. great intelligence and long practical
E'ERDAD. experience as a tropical planter, and
as he had spent some time in investi-
NO Iv. gating the capabilities of East Florida,
GINESILLE, Fla., ApI 18, '6. I shall here present a few extracts from
GANILLE, Fl, Apl h. is statement to Congress respecting
It is not alone to the great superiori- the productions of that Peninsula. In
ty of her climate that the richness and speaking of the production of Coffee,
variety of her soils that Florida will he remarks:
owe her future importance. Rich ''In East Florida the land is neither
lands and healthy climates are to be too dry or too wet, nor is the climate
found, to a certain extent, in every too hot or too cold. This narrow neck
State in the Union but no other por- of land being washed by the sea on
tion of the iUnited Stated except the the South, East ajd West posesaes all
Peninsular of Florida, can boastof trop- the advantages which an island enjoys.
ical productions. In.this respect, Flori- The sea breezes modify the scorching
da enjoys a vast monopoly over her vertical rays of the sun, and waftaway
sister States, which must when fairly the approaching Northern frost. Two
developed, and superadded to her opposite opinions have been espreased
grort, staples of sugar, cotton, tobacco, and frequently repeated with respect
be., bestow on her a degree of wealth to this country. some assert it -to be
and importance which it would be a dry, sand land, and others flat mud-
difficult to exaggerate. dy, unformed rising ground. These
The very high value of tropical over assertions are altogether unfounded,
other productions may be estimated as may be demonstrated by merely re-
by the fact the exports fr,.m the Island curring to its topography. We see a
of Cuba alone, during the year 1841,' neck of land four hundred miles long,
amounted to but a small fraction leas' and about one hundred and thirty
-than one-half of the exports of all the broad, from the opposite beaches of
United States for the same year. It which the land rime genily and grad-









iaNyy towards the centre, where are
lakes connected with each other from
South to North, a distance about one
hundred and fifty miles, without re-
ceiving any supply of water from any
large foreign river; and about forty
small rivers, whose sources are at from
thirty to forty miles distant from both
shores, and whose waters empty them-
selves into the opposite sea. Now it
is impossible for these great sinews of
nature to exist fn a flat muddy ground,
which could at best produce reeds, and
not the stately trees which luxuriantly
grow and cover its surface. On the
other hand, if it be called a dry and
sandy desert, the very existence of
these lakes and numerous rivers belies
those assertions; for rivers and lakes
are never found to spring and exist in
an entirely sandy country; and such
is the narrowness of this long neck of
land, that it must have a deep mould
and prolific bosom to produce, as it is
known to do, stately forests of the most
luxriant mixture, which are constantly
in bloom, even in January and Februa-
ry, and the most beautiful flowers,
whose floral appearance made the dis-
coveries of it award to that country
the significant and appropriate name of
Florida.
"In all cases the climate is not visi-
ted by black frost, the land either dry
or wet, will produce coffee, Cayenne,
lying under the fourth .degree of lati
'tede, North of the Equator, where the
heat is intense, no mountains'but at
five hundred miles off, a flat level and
drowned country, and where, as in
European Holland, the surrounding
seas are striving to overwhelm the ris-
ing earth-even in thisswampy coun-
try, drained by ditches as reservoirs for
the water, the coffee plant grows luxu-
riantly, even to the size of a palm tree.
"At Rio Janeiro, the present seat of
the King of Porltual's American Em-


pire, being under the twenty-third de
gree of latitude, South of the Equator,
and as far as the Province of Parana
or Assumption which reaches the
thirteenth degree of South latitude,
the coffee is found to grow. Why then
should we not cultivate it between the
twenty-fifty and twenty-seventh degrees
of North latitude, that is to say in East
Florida! Will it be said that under
the twenty-seventh degree of latitude,
to the south of the Equatol, it is hotter
than under its opposite degree of
North of it. This will be contradicted
by those navigators and persons who
have visited the country.
"About 1765, an English gentleman
of fortune went to establish himself
in East Florida. His labors were
crowned with success, both in the cul-
ture of Coffee and sugarcanes. And
his establishments were already con-
siderable, when the American Revolu-
tion, in its effects made Florida to pass
into the hands of Spain. The British
Government, finding that this gentle-
man had so far succeeded, would not
allow him to remain, there. They
carried him off with his slaves, and de-
stroyed everything that he had planted;
for which loss and damages the British
Government awarded to him a consid-
erable sum. Besides this, travellers
who have visited the country assert
that they have seen coffee plants in
several places, not cultivated for profit
and revenue, but as a curiosity, the
intrinsic value of which seems to have
been unknown to those who'planted
them."
Mr. William Stork, in his descrip-
tion of East Florida, gives the following
*account of it: The productions of the
!North and Southern latitudes grow
and blossom by the side of each other,
and there is scarcely climate in the
world that can vie with this in display-
ing such an agreeable and luxuriant









mixture o(f trrc~, Il.int-, srubs and thIlt below "28 degrees, Southern Flori-
flowers. The red and white pine and da, enjoys the dry warm winter the
the ever-green oak marry their boughs wet refreshing summer, the breeze by
with the chestnut and mahogany trees, day from the sea, and by night from
the walnut with the cherry, the maple the land, and the trade winds from the
with the campeach, and the hnziletto East, which are common to tropical
with the sassafras tree, which together, countries in general ; but I have proved
covers a vgqjagated and rich soil. The by its narrow level surface, Southeast-
wax-myrtle tree grows everywhere.- hardly, by the hot ocean river running
Oranges are larger, more aromatic Northwestwardly along its Eastern
and succulent than in Portugal. Plums shores, and by the greater steadiness
naturally grow fine, and of a quality of the westwardly wind in those lati-
snperior to those gathered in the or- tudes, that tropical Florida is even
chards of Spain. The wild vine ser- superior to the elevated Islands of the
pentine on the ground or climb up to West Indies and to the broad Penin-
the tops of the troes. Indigo and coch- sula of Yucatae, in that uniformity of
ineal were advantageously cultivated temperature which is must favorable
there, and in the year. 1777 produced for vegetable growths, animal health
a revenue of two hundred thousand and physical enjoyments.
dollars. In fine, I shall add that this "I have, however, not merely shown
country will produce all the tropical that in this superior climate of the
fruits and staples by those belonging to tropics are already growing various
a Northern climate." common vegetables of the tropics, but
The practicability of culti'-ating I have further announced the flousiab-
tropical production successfully in ing condition of the tenderest and most
East Florida, is further attested by the productive plants of the torrid zone-
late Dr. Perrine, our former Consul at the banana plant and the cocoa palm
Campeachy, who in a letter to the -which are universally pronounced to
Secretary of the Treasury, makes the be the greatest blessings of Providence
following observations: / to man. And it may hence be consid-
"I wish to show, not merely that the ered experimentally demonstrated that
cultivation of the tropical staples is it is practicable to cultivate all the
practicable in our Territory, but that it tropical productions in the soil of the
is necessary for home consumption, is Southern portion of the Peninsula of
positively profitable for the foreign East Florida.
market, and is highly desirable in It is quite innessary to adduce furth-
other respects, to promote the peace er evidence of the tropical character of
and happiness of the Union. East Florida, as all who may be scept-
"The practicability of cultivating ical on this subject can be readily con-
tropical productions in general, I have rinced by a visit to the Southerm por-
made manifest, with the fact that the tion of the Peninsula, where they can
peculiar climate of tropics extends be- see the coaco tree, the banana, the
yond the astronomical boundary several plantain, the pine-apple, the orange,
degrees North, into our Peninsula ter- the lemon, the lime, arrowroot, the
ritory ; and that the best plants of the guava, &c., growing as luxuariantly
tropics are actually flourishing in the as they do in anyof the West India
Southern portion of that Peninsula at Islands. There is certainly no portion
Cape Florida. I have not only shown of the United States--North, South,







18


East or West-that compare with
East Florida in the variety and value
of its agricultural productions. It pro-
duces well all the root and grain crops
of the Northern States, and All the
great staples of the Southern ,States, in
addition to the still more valuable pro-
duction. which belong exclusively to
tropical latitudes.
It is owing to the latter production
that even the inferior lands, in that
Peninsula, can be rendered much more
valuable than the best lands in any
other portion of the United States.-
Oranges, lemons, pine-apples, cocoa-
nuts, and various other tropical fruits,
will yield an average profit of at least
one thousand dollars per acre, per an-
num. Sisal Hemp, it is said by the
beat informed, will pay two thousand
dollars to the acre. indeed it would
be tedious, to discuss the great variety
of tropical fruits and staples, the culti-
vation of which would render the com-
mon pine lands of East Florida far
more valuable than the best agricultu-
ral lands in any other portion of the
United States.
In my next communication I shall
discuss still farther the productions of
Florida.
VERDAD.

NO. V.
GAINESVILLE, Fla. Ap'l 30, '60.
In my last communication I ad-
duced evidence to prove that all the trop-
ical productionswhich growinthe West
India Islands can be successfully cul-
tivated in the Peninsula of Florida,
and that Florida enjoys, in this wide
range of valuable productions, a vast
knonopoly over her sister States.
Besides this monopoly of produc-
tions, there is another very important
staple-Sea Island and Long Staple
Cotton-which can be cultivated to a
greater extent and more profitably in


the Peninsula of Florida, than in any
other Southern State, or indeed, than
in any other part of the world. It is
now established by extensive practical
proof that this valuable staple can be
produced in greater perfection, even
in the very centre of the Peninsula.
This fact, is. no doubt, attributable
to the almost insular position of East
Florida. The importance which the
production of this valuable staple must
give to Florida will be duly estimated
when it is considered that there are
many millions of acres in that State
that will yield it in luxuriant crops,
and that it can be cultivated there
without the fear of serious competi-
tion.
The small islands on the coast of
South Carolina and Georgia, to which
the production of this staple has been
so long confined, are now so nearly
worn out that the average product,
per acre, does not exceed one hundred
and twenty pounds (which is less than
half of the average amount which the
good lands of the Peninsula will yield,
without manure,) and there is no
other portion of the United States,
with the exception of East Florida,
where this cotton can be produced as
a staple.
Numerous attempts have been made
within the last fifteen years, to culti-
vate Sea Island Cotton on the coast
of Texas, but without success. Al-
though the Sea Island Cotton of a
good texture, can be produced on
some of the Islands along the coast of
Texas, the very frequent occurrence of
violent gales, and other casualties,
have always prevented it, and always
will prevent it from becoming a staple
of that State.
The great efforts which the French
Government made for many years to
produce this staple in Algeria, have-
all failed. Neither can it be produced
in Egypt nor India ; so it is more than









probable that "there is, in no part of
the world, a country of so much ex-
tent so well adapted, both in climate
and soil. to the production of this sta-
ple as East Florida.
It is not more than fifteen years since
Florida may be said to have commenc-
ed the cultivation of Long Cotton, and
yet the the quantity annually produced
there already amounts to about one
third of the united crops ofSouth Car-
olina and Georgia. It is true that
the average quality of Florida Cotton
is not rated so high as that of the Sea
Island; 'ut the difference in this re-
spect is chiefly, if not entirely, attribn-
table to the defective manner of pre-
paring the former for market. It is
a notorious fact that some of the Flori-
da Cotton has commanded the highest
market price of the Long Staple Cot.
tons, and it, therefore a fair inference
that it is6owing more to a deficiency of
skill, or of care in its preparation for
market, than to an inferiority of tex-
ture, that the Long Cottons of Florida
are rated lower than the Sea Islands.
When the Florida Planter finds that
he can make an average crop of three
hundred pounds of this Cotton to the
acre, he is not likely to bestow as
much care on its preparation for mar-
ket as the planter will on the Sea
Islands, where one hundred and twen-
ty pounds is a good average crop. It
is in the quantity, rather than in the
quality, that the Florida planter finds
his best remuneration.
But even should it prove true that
the Long Cotton of Florida is in tex-
ture somewhat inferior to that of the
Sea Ilands, this fact will detract bnt
little from the vast wealth which this
valuable staple is going to bestow
upon Florida. There are rany mil.
lions of acres in the Peninsula, that
will yield from two to four hundred
pounds of this Cotton per acre, and


as the demand for this species of Cot-
ton is steadily on the increase, and
will, soon as sufficient machinery shall
have been adapted to its manufacture,
call for an immense supply, it is evi-
dent that if Florida possessed nb other
staple than the Long Cotton, this val-
uable product would, of itself, make
her a very rich State.
should the time arrive, (and that
it will arrive at no distant day is
probable) that the production of at
least two million of bales of Loig Cot-
ton will be required to meet the an-
nual consumption of this staple
throughout the world, it will be to
East Florida that the world must
look for the production of this largo
supply-and even should a much larger
supply than this be required, the Long
Staple Cotton lands of the Peninsula
will be sufficient to meet the demand.
The value of two millions of bales
of Long Staple Cotton, allowing 350
pounds to a bale, and 25 cents per
pound as the price, (this is a low'v-
erage even for the inferior grades.)
would be one hundred and seventy-fire
millions of dollars-an export about
equal to the present total annual ex-
ports of the United States.
This is an immense sum to set
down as the probable export resulting
from a single staple, and produced by
a single State. But if there be any
fallacy in calculation that fallacy will
not be found in the capacity of Florida
to produce the amount of Long Staple
Cotton above stated. Florida contains,
at least, four millions of acres of good
Long Staple Cotton lands; and if we
allow two hundred pounds as the av-
erage product per acre, which is not
more then half what her best lands
will produce, we shall have more than
two millions of bales; and as there is,
as I have already stated, no country
at present known, that is likely to










eompete with her in the extensive pro-
duct of this staple, it follows that if
there be any fallacy in the above cal.
culation it must be found in the large
estimate which I have made of what
-yrill probably be the future consump-
tion of Long Staple Cotton. It is of
course impossible to make a positive
estimate of this. I may have overra-
ted, and I may have underrated the
true amount. In stating the two mil-
lions of bales as the probable quantity,
I based this assumption on the follow-
ing facts:
The demand for American Short
Staple Cotton has increased within a
few years from one million to four and
a half millions of bales, and the de-
mand is steadily increasing. Fifteen
years ago the Sea Islands of South
Carolina and Georgia supplied the en-
tire demand ; but now we find that in
addition to this, the market for this
staple requires the whole of the Flori.
da.crop, which increases extensively
every year.
It is well known that the machinery
required for the manufacture of Long
Cotton is very different from that em-
ployed in the manufacture of Short
Cotton, and the capacity of the Sea
Islands for the production of Long
Cotton was necessarily very limited,
so was the construction of machinery
fir its manufacture proportionately re-
stricted. But now that the manufac-
turers have assurance that there can
be un unlimited supply of this staple
produced in Florida, they have already
began to adapt machinery on an ex
tensive scale, to suit it manufacture
And as this Cotton is preferable to
the common Cotton in the manufac-
ture of all fine fabrics, and especially
in such as are composed in part of
silk, it is but ressonalle to infer that
as soon as sufficient machinery shall
have been constructed, there wil! be a


great and steady increase in the con-
sumption of this material.
These considerations when added
to the vast progress which the world
is stilled destined to make in material
wealth and luxury, the now and exten-
siie fields of commerce recently open-
ed in the East, and others yet to be
opened, lead me to believe that I am
not extratpgant in my estimate when
I assume tha at t o very distant day,
two millions of bales of the best spo-
cies of Cotton will be required to
meets the world's demands. But even
should I reduce my estimate one-half,
it would still leave Florida with a fu.
ture export of some eighty millions of
dollars annually (more than that of
the "Golden State" of California) de-
rived from but one of her numerous
staples.
Besides Long and Short Staple
Cottons, Sugar, Cuba Tobacco, Indigo,
Rice, Cochineal, Silk, Sisal Hemp,
New Zealand Flax, Arrowroot,
Oranges, Lemons, Limes, Pine Ap-
ples, Olives, Grapes, Guaves, and
pther fruits and staples too numerous
too detail, East Florida produces
Corn, Potatoes, Turnips, Cabbages,
and, in short, all the vegetables that
are known in the Northern States.
The climate of Florida does not
allow Corn to be planted so close as
in the Northern States, and there are
not therefore, so many bushels pro-
duced to the acre. The good lands in
the interior ordinarily produce from
thirty to forty bushels per acre, with-
out the aid of man we of any kind,
and it is doubtful whether the best
Corn lands in the State of New York
would produce more under similar cul-
ture. Much more might be accom-
plished by the people of Florida with
the aid of manure, rotation of crops,
and judicious culture, and it is to be
hoped that they will resorts to these









21

expedients to preserve the tfrtility of, thing that grows upon viues, Cbdt
their lands from deterioration. to great perfection in Eaat Florida.
With regard to roots it requires Every one knows that in the North.
the wholo of their Summer in she tenacious clayey soils bake or oonsoli-
Northbrn and Middle States to pro- date, from the drying effects of a Sum-
duce a single crop. In Florida, on mer's sun, or the beating of heavy
the contrary, a crop of Irish potatoes Winter rains to such a degree as to
and a crop of sweet potatoes or yams, constitute the principal annual labor
can with great facility, be produced of the cultivator to restore.them to a
on the same land within the year. If fine tilth again for the reception of
Florida cannot rival tho North in the seed. This never occurs in Florida.
anlount of the production of Irish po- principally the most ulayey soils in
tatos in a single crop, she accomplishes the State contain an intermixture of a
at leadt as much by producing two large proportion of organic matter in
crops within the year on the same a state of decomposition, which with a
land-one crop being planted in Jar- due proportion of very fine sand, im-
uary and the other in July. But ad- parts to them a porous character, not
miitting that Florida is infsrior to the very susceptible of induration or ag-
North in the production of Irish po- glatination. Indeed, so easily is land
tatos, she has yet the sweet potato or in Florida annually reduced to the
yam (a more valuable root.) which or finest tilth, that it is not an unusual
dinarily produces as much per acre as thing for such as will produce three
the Irish potato yields in the North. hogsheads of sugar to the acre, to be
There is no climate in the world, broken up by a single horse and plow,
soils and climate better adapted to to the depth of six inches or more.-
the production of turnips and rntaba- This is therefore, an important advan-
gas than those of Florida. It is corn- tage enjoyed by Florida land in its
uon to see turnips of eight pounds preparation and culture over most of
weight growing in what would appear the lands in Texas, and in nearly all
to be puor sandy soil, and I have my- the other States-and it leads to the
self seen turnips that weighed four- inevitable conclusion that less labor is
teen pounds each, and heads of cab requisite in Florida ro produce similar
bage which weighed twenty-eight crops, than is irdispensibly necessary
pounds each, produced in a sandy soil in nearly every other State in the
near St. Augustine East Florida Union ; for it will readily be perceiv-
certainly surpasses the North iu the ed that the same cause that saves I-l-
production of turnips and rutabagas, bor in the preparation of the soil, also
both as to the amount per acre and saves labor in its culture. There -is
the quality of the roots. no description of soil in Florida which
With very little care and attention requires more than one ploughing to
East Florida enjoys every delicacy of prepare it fully for the reception of
vegetable culture at all seasons of the any crop which it produces; and but
year Beets, onions, egg-plants, car- few crops receive but one ploughing
rots, lettuce, celery, oauli-fluwers, &c., in their culture. Many crops of (Jor
of superior size and quality, are pro- in Alachua county, from thirty to
duced with the most indidifferert cul- forty bushels per acre, have beou
ture. Watoruelous, canteloups, pump- made withe single hoeing ind tlhinmreg,
kings, cucumbers, and in short, every- and a single ploughing subtcqu'ily.










Sweet potaps are always made with
a single ploTghing and a few pickings
over, to free them from weeds, &a-
Turnips, rutabagas, sugar-beets, &c., if
sown as they should be, in August
and September, require no subsequent
etltune to produce as large crops of
either qf them, as can be grown in
New York or Pennsylvania. Even
Sugar, Cotton and Tobacco receives
less labor in the preparation of the
soil for their reception, and much
less after culture than is given to a
crop in New York. There can, in
abort, be no doubt of the fact that
similar drops require much less labor
for their production in Florida, than
is generally demanded in nearly every
other State in the Union.
The general topography of Florida
may be characterized as that of a low
country; so thatthe surface, in most of
the level pine lands, is placed within
the reach of a constant supply of
moisture, derived from the sub-soil by
solar influence. This, together with
the heavy dews which generally pre-
vail, accounts for the luxuriant cover-
ing of grass and constant verdure
which the whole face of the country
presents, even in the dry seasons
A large proportion of a Northern
farm is necessarily appropriated to the
production of hay to sustain the stock
during the dreary winter of half a
years duration. This is entirely un-
necessary in East Florida, when pe-
rennial pastures. sufficient to feed any
number of cattle o" horses. exist natu-
rally, or may be formed artificially
with but little labor, by making the
necessary enclosure; and where the
winters are so mild that there is never
any .necessity for housing stock.-
Stook rearing has proved to be a very
profitable business in Florida. In-
deed. it would be strange if it had
not, when we consider toat there is in

a


that State an unlimited extent of fine
natural pasturage the whole year
round, that cattle are never housed
there, and that herding them and ex-
porting them to market are the only
expense attending them.
In most parts of Florida hogs thrive
well, and fatten without any other
support than that which they derive
from the abundant roots and mast of
the country.
There is certainly no portion of the
United states where game and fish
are so abundant as in East. Florida.
The fact that a large body of Indians
supported themselves well. and re-
mained fat for the space of seven
years, while hunted themselves by a
large enemy, is some evidence in proof
of this assertion. It was common be-
fore the war. for a good hunter to kill
seven deer of a day| and thousands of
these animals were slaughtered mere.
ly for their skins The country
abounds in turkeys, partridges, geese,
ducks. curlews and various other spe-
aoes of small game.
The coast of Florida, to the extent
of at least six hundred miles, abounds
in the finest fish. Pompino, sheeps-
head, grouper, red-fish, kingfish, Span-
ish mackerel, green turtle, mullet, etc,
are to be found ta exhaustible quanti-
ties at almost every point, both on
the Eastern and Western coast. Oys-
ters, which are not surpassed, equalled
in size and flavor by any in the world,
are to be found in almost every cove.
and the numerous lakes, rivers and
creeks of the interior teem with deli-
cious fresh-water fish, such as trout,
bnas and soft shell turtle.
But these are objects of minor con-
sideration which serve to convey but
a feeble idea of the importance which
its geographical position, its climate
and its soils, give in Florida. The
vast amount of rice and durable land










in the Peninsula which is capable of
producing Sugar Cane, Sea Island
and Short, Staple Cottons, Cuba To.
bacco and the numerous and very val-
uable tropical productions, (all objects
of human consumption, of the utmost
importance, not only to the consumer
but to.the whole country.) and its fine
adaptationn of climate to these success-
ful predqqtiois, must form the basis of
a degree'of prosperity far surpassing
that enjoyed by any of the States.
VEItDAD.

S O. V1.
(GINElsvILLE, Fla., May 7, '60.
There are numerous tropical produc-
tions by the cultivation of any one of
bhich, a poor man of intelligence, en-
terprise and industry, can, in East
Florida, make himself independent in
a few years. To fully discuss these
various productions would require a
very extended space, and I shall there-
fore confine myself to a few remarks on
the orange.
Thu great advantages to be derived
from the culture of the orange, the.
lemon and the lime in East. Florida,
is a subject little known or apprecia-
ted out of the State. It presents a
field for profitable enterprise unequalled
in the united States. There is no cul-
ture in the world by which the founda-
tion of an independent income can be
laid at the expens, of so small an ont-
lay, as by that of the orange and lemon
in East Florida.
The method of establishing groves,
by transplanting the sour orange trees
from the hammucks where they abound
in the wild state, and which has been
so successfully practised for several
year-, is'of great importance; in the
first place, because it does away with
the difficulty and expense of procuring
sweet trees, and in tho -econd place-,


becausitlle siour trees planted and bud-
ded, will boar sooner than sweet trees
from a nursery.
The sour trees may be dug up, care-
fully, in the hammock, at any time
from October till June. They should
be topped about four feet from tie
ground, and carefully planted and
watered. In about three months,
shoots, large enough to be budded, will
grow out. The buds are taken from
sweet trees and carefully inserted into
the young trees, just as peach trees
are budded at the North. It is com-
mon for trees to bear the sweet orange,
in eighteen months from the budding.
If the sour trees be selected from the
hammock, of good size, (and they can
be found of all sizes) in three years
they will be competent to bear a thou-
sand oranges each,*and will go on in-
creasing in size and production. Some
of the large old trees in St. Augustine
bore as many as eight thousand an-
nually.
This culture is well adapted to per-
sons of small capital, whose health re-
quire a residence in Florida. A suita-
ble piece of land is easily obtained on
which provisions can be raised, and an
extensive grove established at a very
moderate expense. But to farmersand
planters this culture presents also ad-
vantages over those of any other South
ern State ; for, without interfering at
all with their agricultural operations,
they can gradually, and without the
outlay of a dollar, plant an orange
grove that may ultimately yield a
larger income than all their other pro-
ductions. I have seen myself a small
grove, on the St. Johns River occupy-
ing less than an acre, the annual in-
come from which was a thousand dol-
lars. One very great advantage in the
cultivation of oranges is, that the fruit
may be preserved for several monrbhs
on the ties after it has reached ma-










turty pnd be all dispe.*ed of leisurely,
without the loss of a single orange.
The grant, longevity of the orange
tree is another that invests it with a
mor permanent character than com-
mon fruit trees It lives and flourisheP
to a very advanced age. There are
orange trees now liviug':in the City of,
Home, that are known to be three hun-
dred years old I So that an orange
when once established, will not only
last a man's life time, in progressive
improwment, but become a valuable
inheritance to his descendants for many
generations.
The oranges of Florida have been
always celebrated for their superior
quality. There are certain tropical
productions, and the orange is one of
them, whcoh comes to a greater perfec-
tion, a degree outside of the tropic
than within it. It is from this cause
that the oranges of Florida are much
more aromatic and succulent than
those of Cuba.
The orange tree in Florida, as well
as in Cuba, and many other countries,
has been for some eighteen years, seri-
ously affected by an insect (Coccus
Hesperiduim) which, on its first incur-
sion destroyed whole groves, and when
it did not kill the trees, it debilitated
them so much as to prevent them
fsom bearing fruit. Although this in-
sect is still present in many of the
orange groves of Florida, it seems of
late years to have become much less
mischievous in its effects. Whether
this fortunate change is to be attribu-
ted to a decay of power in the insect,
6r to thi means of resisting it which
have been generally adopted, I am una-
ble to decide. Certain it is, however,
thht trees which grow in very rich
soil, or which are strongly manured,
are scarcely, if at all affected by it
and groves which were formerly rar-
aged by it to a great extent, and ihilih


had ceased to prodir'ce -fruit now tlolu-
rish, and bear large crops. The infer-
ence is, that wh'n the tree is vigorous
it is capable of sustaining both the in-
sect and the fruit.
Had it not been for this discourage-
ment which the ravages of this vegeta-
ble epidemic gave to the orange plan-
ters of Florida, and the fear of Indian
incursions in the Southern portion of
the Peninsula, there would be tong be-
fore this, a very extensive cultfiation
of this fruit in East Florida, and espe-
cially in the Southern portion of it,
where the trees are entirely beydftd the
reach of frost. Now that the insect is
no longer formidable, and the Southern
portion of the Peninsula is perfectly
secure against all future danger from
Indians, the orange wTll doubtless be
cultivated on an extensive scalo in
Florida, as there is no limit to the
number of new markets which the ex-
tensive construction of railroads has
opened within a few years to this and
to other tropical fruits.
Cuba oranges, which are generally
very inferior to those of Florida, usu-
ally sell, wholesale, in Charleston,
Savannah and other Atlantic seaports,
at the average price of fifteen dollars
a thousand, and sell by retail, at four
and fire cents a piece. If Florida
oranges can be sold at only ter, dollars
a thousand, (one-third less than the
price of inferior oranges,) a grove of
moderate dimensions, and one which
would require but about eight hands to
keep it in perfect order, will yield an
income far greater than a prosterous
sugar plantation, worked by one hun-
dred hands, Sugar planting even in
Florida, will not, on the average, yield
more than four hundred dollars to the
hand; which for one hundred hapds
would be foity thousand dollars.-
Let us now see what an orange grove
of four thousand trees will yield. The







-'J


average nuluii.r of vrin'gr-s p],i.IIi, cie] frlctioin in Flor idin, nil Ii l'eree po[)O"e
hy a tree in full bearing is at le.at t(o iulch muuro vigour andi iimucl greater
thousand. which at Ieast ten dollars a lringe.\iiy tlann in the Bliiddle Stites.-
thousand, is tiwnty dollars a tree. At Tlio fruit ripens some t.wo mionthis
twenty dollars a tree, the prohilct of earlier than in New Jersey, and its ex-
four ilhousand trees would nllraunt. to purt to Ne-w York nluw that direct
the sum of eighty thou-ranrl dollars, atranilont navigation is about being
uhich ja the amount prodcedJ by eight estlablihljd belt'%een Fernandiia and
hands, on about, lifty acres of lad.l, in that city, will doubtless, become a
the culture of oranges and jiist double proofiitable b.silness,, owning to the veijf
thle amodnt produced by one hurnlred early prilul at which thie Noriherni
hands 6n four hundred acres of land market ernn be supplied with them.
in thgt of sugar enll,. Norfolk, Charleston and Savannnll
It requires no, extraordinary nteri. have, fI;r somne ears, made the tran-
primA, *nd but a luoilerate ta pil.tn to portatiion of early vegetables to lile
establish an orange grove in FlorihlA. New York market an extensive and
that will contain ;it least four thonlRanl very profitable traule .it is scarcely
trees, and when thie %emv l&rge income necessary to retrark. that Florida will
which such a grove onlldi yiel.l, and lIave a grrt-ler aiJv:uitirie over every
the small amount of bhilr andi little othl.r purliin of the South in lhis
care required ill its cullirliai an iil rianeli olf 1.in's%, as she will be able
mana'-imertinot r' on iid's.1. it c.tninot to sLtid to tl, NorthlrnR market green
be' doubtedl thlat as soon 011 the extraior- pe-as amid tomal)tos in [Diruliber and
dinary alvantag's of this culhurl be- JIanuaiLy, gi.-.ni crn and strawborriea
colie generally klsnwrn, a multirude of in MTla.li, aind :ill other vig-talles and
enterprising men will eng:ag in it. fiuitl, I.-ag Lbef..ro they can be sup-
I shall here close my rnm.asks cl tilh pli,'l ithell-r by Charleston or Savan-
clilture of the orange, hanvins, I trnlt, n1ll.
said enough on the MsuAlj.-t Io call ':t- This is a bu-iness tlhat requires bqt
lion to the tempting tiIld which off;-r little capital, andl one &innnt fail to
to enterprise, and indeed, to ll h e, wih ordinary skil arid iridlhitrt
desire to derive'an ample income from a large profit. Lands o 'the Iestl:de-
a small capital; and this with hut, little scription for gardenin- pAirpo es ca
labor and care, and' with delightful now be procured at very moderate
and hegltYy occupation. In the cal- pIrices alol-ng te line of the "Flor a
culations I have heremade, I certainly y'ailroad," which liaits Easterd.term-
liave exaggerated nothing; on the con- pus at Fernandinat' Frar ertn'dica
t y I ,hlave %. P 'I ..
trar, I hav ery much underrated, early fruits and V'egetables cen 'e
nne-third, the wholesale price at which transp-orted dec, to .Nw York' in
Florida Oranges will be always sure to Ialb'ut filly hours. Ind'dd,'it is probla-
sell, and also the average number ot' ble that If',rines can be made by Itle
lhis fruit which trees of a Ilarge size ]culture of early vogtables anld fruits
will annually bear; and yet it will be in Flori'ln, m or rapidly and with
seen, at the lowest calculation, that the greater certainly than [Iv eillier Cotton
culture of oraqges in Florida, can, or Sugar planting, as this i, a branch
with but small capital and but little If induis-r which Florida can conduct
labor, he imule a business~ of extraordi- without completion.
.nary profit. I n nd.liliill to the many staples al-
The [eacl, abso, grows lo great ,pr. ready enumerated, Florida powesanss










Ih her Inexhaustible amount of fine
timber, a resource of vast value. There
is no State in the Union that can equal
Florida in the possession of valuable
timber. Her forests of the best species
of pitch and yeUow pine are of im-
mense extent, and now that they are
becoming extensively traversed by
railways will soon yield a large export
of lumber. Indeed the few mills in
operations in Jacksonville, Pensacola,
Cedar Keys, Ae., give already an an-
nual export of more than two millions
of dollars, and this may be regarded as
but the commencement of her lumber
trade.
Besides her pine'lumber, there is a
considerable export already from Flori-
da of live oak, red cedar, and red bay;
and as her hammocks abound in tb4
finest species of white oak for staves,
and her swamps in the best quality of
cypress for shingles, these, too, will
yield a valuable export.
Florida will surpass every State in
the Union in the production of Naval
Stores. Pitch Pine forests of great
extent, and of the richest quality,
stretch along the banks of her numer-
pus navigable, rivers, and are now be-
coming extensively intersected by rail-
ways. The turpentine planters of
'Nbrth Carolina have already begun to
discover these rich places, and to aban-
don for them the worn out fields of
their former industry. The turpentine
plantations or North and South Caro-
lina have very generally been bled
nearly to exhaustion, while the virgin
forests of Florida have as yet been
scarcely touched. The exhausted lands
of North and South Carolina sell at
comparatively high prices and generally
less accessible to market than the rich
unboxed lands of Florida, which sell at
very low rates. Besides these impor-
tant advantages, the Florida trees have
a much longer running season Iban


those of North and South Carolina.-
Rosin wat sent to the Charleston mar-
ket early in February, this year, from
the Florida plantation, which is about
two months earlier than it is generally
produced in North and South Carolina.
Several exteiisive turpentine planta-
tions have already been established at
different points along the line of the
Florida Railroad by NorthCarolinians,
and doing a prosperous business. These
plantations, now that the State is be-
coming extAinively traversed by rail-
roads, will multiply fast, and yield in
a short time a very large export of
Naval Stores.
The fisheries of Florida are much
more extensive and valuable than those
of any other Southern State, and will
when properly developed and protected,
form an important export.
Having now given a brief sketch of
the immense undeveloped resources
which Florida possesses, in the great
extent to which she is capable of pro-
ducing them, I shall in my next letter
discuss the productions of Texas.
VERDAD

NO. VII.
GAINEBVILLE, 1 Ia., May 16, '60,
The Southern portion bf Texas,
and the Southern portion of Florida,
are embraced within the seae par-
allels of latitude, and yet tho for-
mer State yields no tropical staples,
(with the exception of a partial pro-
duction of sugar) while the latter
produces well all the fruits and sta-
ples of the West India Islands.-
ven on the Rio Grande, (the most
Southern portion of Texas) oranges
Cannot be produced, as a staple,
while, three degrees North of that,
in Florida, they grow in per fiction.
The productions of Texas then, are








oomparativoly limited, and can be
comprised in a few words; they are
neither more nor less than those of
Mississippi and Louisiana, and with
the exception of sugar precisely the
same of Arkansas and Alabama.
It is unnlAssary, therefore, to enter
into a detailed description of those
productions, as every body, knows
what Arkansas and Alabama can
produce.
The Eastern and Northern por-
tiona of Texas are the only parts of
the S'tae that are well adapted to
agriculture.' Even in those regions
the planter has many obstacles to
encounter ; but the lands being ex-
tremely rich, when the seasons prove
favorable, very large crops of Up-
land Cotton can be neje; and near
the sea coast. Sugar crops about
equal to those of Louisiana, that is
about one hogshead to the acre,
which is not more than half a crop.
Neither Corn norV heat can be pro-
dnced as profitably in any part of
Texas, as it can it several of the
Western and Middle States.
Western Texas, by which is gen-
erally understood that extensive re-
gion (about one half of the State)
which lies between the Collorado
and the Rio Grande,is with the ex-
ception of a few Districts, limited to
the vicinities of Guadaloupe, the
Neuces, the San Antonio and a few
other small rivers, totally unsuited
"td agriculture. A great portion of
it is barren desert and chapparel,
and even where the land is rich,
timber and water are generally
both absent.
Besides this, the seasons are such
as to render profitable planting im-
practicable. During the productive


season of the year, there generally
prevail a persistent drought of many
months, attended with blustering,
hot, parching wides, which stuns
even the timber. The long and
heavy winter rains cause the argil'
lacious of these prairies to form
deep mud, of so tenacious a charac-
ter as to render locomotion extreme-
ly difficult for several months iw the
year; and the regular recurrence
of the summer drought bakes those
lands nearly as hard as brick, so that
it is with great labor and expense
that they can be reduced to a prop-
er tilth. A great portion.of this
very extensive region, however,
affords as fine stock range as any
in the world; and it is in stock-
raising that the inhabitants of this
large portion of the State will hive
their chief, if not their only re-
source.
The resources ofTexas, like those
of all our new States, have been, as
yet but very partially developed;
so that it is, at this time, impossible
to calculate with even an approxi-
mation to accuracy, what the extent
of her future export ts will be. The
precious metals may yet be discov-
ered in her mountains, and mineral
exports of immense amount be the
result. But, if we'may form an
opinion from what is now ostensible,
the resources of Texas, extensive as
she is. are vastly inferior to those
of Florida. This assertion will
doubtless, appear paradoxical to
those who have heard so umeh about
Texas, and so little about Florida.
But when we consider the immense
extent of prairie deserts, and moan-
tain wastes which Texas contains-
and then reflect on the small pro,








2.


Vartion of unavailable Inndil in
Florida, we have. gaoo reason to in-
fer that.the hitter SLate, nutLith-
standing her infieior dimensions
posssases a .lrge,, if not a much
larger amount of' roiluclive acres
than the for'iqrj,.B :ut even dil blhe
not ppsaesa mora thiun one fourtll
asr-any productive acres, so much
more valua.blu are her staples, thait
the pecuniary amount of her future
exports must far exceed that of'
Texas.
The only products worthy of con-
sideration whichl Texas is ever like-
ly to export, are Uplaiid Cotton,
Sugar, Cattle and bides. Florida,
besides the staples which Texas can
produce, will export an immense
amount of Long Staple Cotton (pi ob
ably to the anouint of one hundred
and seventy millions ilullars ;nntual
)y,) Cuba Tobacco, Oranges, Sisal
hlemp, and in short, all the most
v'iiuable troploal staples andli fruits.
She will moreover, export timber.
li2nber; ind 'Naval Stores of vast
tapountl'. nd numerous ai.inor ex-
ports,, puch as Asli, turtle, early
vegetables,.and fruits &c., which
her fdrtunatfe geographical position
enables er to produce, and trans-
p~rrt toianiket.witb greater advun-
rage tn 'ni other State.
lIn addition to the numerous ad-
.imntnges already presented, which
florida enjoys over Texas, therejare
others still of greater importance
to the epigrdnt, to which I shall
now briefly advert. These are, a
superior geographical position, su-
perior lihrbprp, greater facilities of
f internal trasportatiun and trav-
el, and greater security of life and
property. slihall discuss eat, of


tlh Fs topics in the order here sta-
ted
"The Geographical position of
F loribla is 11nt oily superior to tiat
of 'T'exas, but f'r preferable to any
other in the Western Hemisphere.
It, is only necessary to glance at
the map to see that it occupies the
most central position of all the
best niarkets in the world. It pre-
sents itself or the Gulfof Mexicoo by
numerous harbors, at a4 sea-
sons open to the commerce iild trav-
el of the Mississippi Valley, ofTex-
us, of Alexici, of tle Pacific coast,
On the South and Eastit is in closed
proximity to the markets of the
West Indies, and has convenient ac-
cess to those uoour Atlantic States,
of Europe, and of South America.
It has more extensive seacoast and
a greater numbers of good harbors
anld. nivigiible rivers than any other
State in the Unitm. so ltha the fa-
cilities of \iter transportation,, bdih
external and internal, are n.t equall-
edi by any other State. uch is its
centraliry that it lies within thirty
hours (by steamer) of New Orleans,
wkhin twenty four hours ol Savan-
nah and Chatreston, and within
forty eight house of New York. In
addition to all this, the position of
the Peninsula ii such as to confer
on it a most delightful and salubri-
ous climate, for, although situated
near the tropic, it is so. tempered
by the Northeast trade winds until
by the sea breezes of the Atlantic
and Gulf that a most agreeable
temperature is maintained through
the year.
7The Gcographicr l position of
Texas is in all respects very infe-
rior to that of Florida. The State









of Texas lies remote from nil the
best markes ; its sea cinat is much
less extensive than that of' Florida ;
its harbor are much fewer and very
inferior, And its inland navigation
not nearly so extensive. Besides
its whole Coast, as well as the State
itself, is regularly ~cuurged by
*Nqrtherts" So great is tie advan-
tage whiidh the geographical posi-
tion of Florida possesses over that
of Texas, in pint of sea transporta-
tion.:~at a cargo of Cotton shipped
fro.m'Fer'n.arlidiilu will frequently
arrive in Liverloul, before one
shipped fr6m Galveston,at the same
time, and to the same purt, will
have passed through the straits of
Florida, and under much higher in-
suraances.
'Tlie facts that produce must al-
ways be transported to market from
Texas at much greater expense, and
Itthl milch greater delay than From
Floriila, and that merchandise im-
ported from'EBrope, and from the
AtlantidStates must for the same
reasbo, .,ost much more in Texas
hian lit loftidn, are worthy of seri-
oue consila'tion ; as they detract
very much fiom the earnings both
ofpriddftifee and consumers in Tex-
as, and 6hbuld, all other things be-
itig equal to determine the emi-
;igknt's dhoite in favor of Florida.
"' 7 'A Harbors of Florida a re very
'iudieroise, and mnay of them very
#tiodl ones. Site possesses twenty-
six.' Three of those harbors Pen-
eacola0 Tampa Bay, and Fernandi.
lid, have from twenty to twenty-
threc feet at high water on their
'bars. tChirlutte Harbor has eighteen
'fet, Cedar Keys twelve feet, the
- Sil ahn's Bar clevern feet, ani i most


of the others not less than seven
feet, Key West can be entered at
all times uith moue than thirty feet.
The Harbors of l'exas are very
few, anlI very inferior. She pos-
sesses but six that deserves thei
name, an'l the best of them is Gul-
veston, which has not more than
twelve feet' at high water on its bar.
The great facilities which Florida
affords tfr the internal transporta-
ti.n of her produce is not the least
of her advantages over Texas.-
There ia certainly no country in thie
United States that can compare
dith her in this respect. The
length of the Peninsula is about
four hundred miles, and its breadth
at the widest part is one hundred
and fifty so that its most remote
point cannot be more than seventy.
five from the sea. This narrow
neck is intersected, at an average
distance ol less than thirty miles
apart, by navigable rivers, which
have their sources near the centre,
and which empty themselves on the
West into the Gulf of Mexico1 and
on the East into the Atlantic Ocean
and into the St. John's River,
which runs fur some two hundred
miles, parallel to the Eastern coast,
and which is itself navigable for
sailing vessels, more than a bua-
dred miles, and for steamboat to
the extent of at least two hundred
and fifty miles.
Besides the numerous shortfrir-
ers which take Easterly and West-
erTy courses from the centre of the
Peninsula, there tire others of oon-
siderable magnitude, which traYvrse
it in a Northernly and Souther-ply
direction. Of these the St. John'p,
rilready mentioned, is the motn :.







301

portent. The St. John's is a very other rivers in Florida, all of which
remarkable river, and one of won- are navigable to a greater pr less
derful magnitude, when we consider extent
the very short course (not more In addition to the numerous riv-
than two hundred and twenty miles ers which admit of stean~oat navi
in a direct line) which it runs. It nation. Florida abounds l' ireeks,
runs from South to North, at an av- by which the produce 9f.:hitountry
erage distance ofabout twenty miles can be transported in keofboats.
from the coast forming in its course Indeed, so regularly are the rivers
a chain of large beautiful lakes; and creeks distributed'thtough the
and its breadth, for at least one country, that it would be difficult if
hundred miles from its mouth, av- not impossible, to find a pointin the
erage more than a mile. The wa- whole State, so far as thirty miles
ter on its bar is about eleven feet distant from either ateop at or
deep, and the quantity of water in keel boat navigation.
its channel (which is quite deep) The State is everywheretterseo
scarcely varies a foot throughout ted by fine roads, for which it is in a
the year. This river of about two great degree indebted to the exten-
hundred and twenty miles long, sive and indefatigable labors of our
(even in its winding it is not more army, during a period of some twen-
than about three hundred and twen- ty years. The facility with which
ty miles in length,) contains a vol. good roads can be constructed in
ume of water at least three times as Florida is very great, the country
large as that of the Rio Grande, is generalTy level, the soil is every-
'which runs a course of more than a where mixed with sufficient sand
thousand miles The presumption to cause it-to absorb the rain, and
is, that this vast body of fresh wa- rocks are but seldom ~.ie with.
ter is chiefly derived from large There is certainly no new country
springs; and this will explain the in the United States in .which tfa
remarkablA uniformity of its vol- roads are so extensive and so goo
ume throughout the year, and the as in Florida.
feet that it never overflows its banks. The very extEnsive inland navi.
I doubt if there be another river in gallon and facilities of transpprta-
any part of the world, of so short a tion with which nature has so richly
coarse, whose magnitude is so endowed the State of Florida,,-can
great be greatly increased, at many point
The Apalachicola and the Su- by artificial means, and at a. very
wannee, are both large and import- moderate expense. For example it
alt rivers. The former divides has been estimated, by competent
West from Middle Florida, and the Engineer, that the expense of exten-
latter Middle from East Floridn. ding inland navigation by means
Each of these rivers is navigable of rivers and lagoons, from the St.
for steamboats to the extent of at John's to cnpe Florila, a .disrqnce
least one hundred and sixty miles, of about three hundred and jfify
There are from fifteen to twenty miles, would not exceed one hundred








thousand dollars. In order to com-
plete over two hundred miles of this
navigation, it is only noccessary to
connect South Lagoon with Indian
River by .eatting a communication
through the "Haulover," which is
not motltkan eight hundred yards
in extent.
The rapi.progress which Florida
has made within the last five years,
in internal improvements has al-
ready been projected, and which
has ben to a gre t extent construct-
ed, bsht Have-been completed, Flor-
ida willjpeses facilities of internal
transportation and travel such as
but few even of the oldet States
enjoy. '
ive years ago, there was 'not
more than twenty miles of railway
in the whole State of Florida.
About that time a system of rail
ways, to the extent of seven hun-
dred and thirty miles, was project-
ed and chartered; and of those sev-
en hundred and thirty mills, there
are at this time, not less than three
hundred and twenty miles comple-
ted, in operation, and doing well !
A large portion of the remainder is
under contract and partially con-
struoted, and it is confidently ex-
pected that, in less than four years,
the whole of that system will be
completed.
The road connecting the Atlnntie
with thelGulf of Mexico, (the "Flori-
da Railroad," which is one hundred
and fifty-four miles long,) which
runs from Fernandina to Cedar
Keys, and which forms the most im-
portant link of connection on this
continent, will be completed in less
than three weeks from this time.
The road from Jacksonville to


Lake City. sixty miles in length,
was finished more than n-month ago,
and its extension to Tallahassee,
about one hundred and two miles
further, will be completed by next
September.
The Pensncola and Montgomery
Road is making rapid progress, and
will probably be finished in less than
ayear.
So much for the natural and arti-
ficial means of transportation and
travel in Florida.
In discussing the Internal Im-
provements of Florida, I feel that I
only perform onlact of common juy-
tice when I pay a passing tribute
to the father of these improvements.
To the Hon. D. L. ulee, of the
United States Senate, is chiefly, if
not exclusively, due the merit of
having created the great railway
system which is now progressing so
rapidly towards completion in Flori-
da, and whichjhas alreadf'advnnced
so materially the prosperity of that
State. Had it not been for his
genius, enterprise and unfaltering
perseverance in grapplingtwith ob-
stacles which few men would have
encountered, Florida would mest
probably have been found five years
henco as she was five years ago,
with but twenty miles of railway
within her borders. Palmam qui
meruilferat.
VERDAD..

NO. VIII.
GAINErSVILLE, Fla.. May,j26, '60.
The means of internal transpor-
tation and travel in Texas cori-
trust very unfavorably with those
of Florida. The rivers of Texas are
fur so extensive a country, compar-









actively rew, andi ticir navilvition
extremely defective. The conse
quence is, that the distance from
any of the mo.t populous settle-
ments in that State to a port from
which produce can be conveniently
shipped, are, generally, from two
to three hundred miles. And'as
the roads ore, during the winter
months, almost inpassnble, it is
evident that planters in Texas mnst
generally incur much greater lifli-
culty and expense in transporting
their produce to market than those
in Florida, where thirty miles is
the greatest distance from naviga-
tion, ani where the roads are fine
at all seasons of the year. This
evil will. doubtless, be in a great
degree obviated in the course of
time by thi, extensive construction
of railway in Texnq.
Texas, like Florida, may be said
to have only commenced her inter-
nal improvements within the last
six years. She has already pro-
jected a system of 2,267 miles in
extent of railroads, andi hnd at the
close of 1857, 284 miles completed
and in operation. It would, how-
ever, require an immense expendi-
ture in railways, to render trans
portation and travel throughout
Texas as it was in Florida, even
before a mile of railway had been
constructed there.
The white population of Florida
will compare well with that of any
other State, new or oll, in obedi
ence to the laws, and in moral
character. It can be asserted with
truth, that there is no other new
State in the Union whose society,
in general, is so orderly intelligent.
cultivated and refined, as tht ol'


Florida. This e cin account iur
hlien we trace it to its source-
The first settlers of Middle Florida
were generally enterprising, educa-
ted gentlemen, who emigrated thert
some forty years ago from Virginia,
and North and South Carolina, and
gwive tone to the society of the new
Territory. The population which
has flowed into East Florida, with-
in the last fifteen years, has emi-
grnted chiefly from Carolina, Geor-
gia an I Alabama, and the proper.
ti"n of first-class planters which it
embraces, forms a large and control.
ing element in the society of that
section of the State, and a more
desirable element than this, it wotla
be hard to finil in any country.
When it is remembered that
Florida thust remain forever exempt
from the ravages of Indians-that
her population is a law abiding and
as orderly as any other, and that
her climnae is the most salubrious
in, the' United States, feel that
there is good reason to Aiikert that
life and property is as ;at 'east as
secure in that Siate as it sa in any
other in the Union.
Security of ?ife nnd property,~
probably, less" in Texas. thansitis
in any other State In.tbe:lnion.-r
The most warlik .and forndidable
tribes of Iidians on this continent,
constantly menace her borders, pnd
frequently make bloody forays into
the very centre of her.settlements.
Texas is likely to be infested by
these terrible neighbors for half a
century to come, for it will take at
least that time for them to become
extinct, and nothing short of their
extinction will ever give full securi-
ty to the Texan frutier.






it)

Frupp varinus ,p.rtJs it pqrs ,'. Muich bettr sbettIts.
cyi'de'Jhiit :there are but fi pur- 4. A Ltrger propor'tirfn iAliia-
Wons Qi ifexAt ih n hicl the'setr1er ble lands. '
rcap, at oll timne, feel petrfcty se- .5. A 'nmi h 'greAte '.4 itAY.
grprroam tlie ,]m;n er..,f rnlians'in-' and'i' much greater 't'frPiy(9 ib
fpri o; IV., tlii' cilrcu. st"iance limbecr, and i much dit H ra
ig l, f ,tt`el.i.rndr lbotlh liIo indl dis rihurivn of it. I 1r91i
DpITrvminch I's sCcurp in thi 6. A m pc sry6j4Jpi it fP*jtr
1 t n...*in w'1l e ~-e' o ood water, dgd a' aef t b
ari ea.n evver t in exist. al Histribution 'drt.': ', a I '
-li p~n T l Ie ieti't H vo '. A inikch rr.tf, ti f "'6
,( a fu s'iiflil bOth if ,pdii.'(i.-.r r's'nmieb; i6 1l-
sr i '%xa, il 'It~'el cnni- bl"sti i( ., *'.
.ip fTink ev e% ki prsunl b- 1 8. "LresttTr runi r'f gd'od
.. o;ns frnno .itiformation n vigible rivers, ..~id riddc'%@lb r
qelrive! frao %the t'8it Trlolbfe vnur- roads.
ee at every A1Mteine'nt which I '.' Suphrinr hlrlvirs, anq a much
ve pindoe i's ,Spb.trii.Ti'v true.- gr&C itCr itlonhlr of them.
p a ~.~i e,<. est rure, hiil if t1. A iiuclh nuore favoriurMe'Oefta
On.yo q i\ ill Fp int, out to>. me an inll- grip;'hiclil ipli'ttiu ."' .'" *
a tncee wlirriii I have errel, I ,l'l1l 11. Oe..iter f.icilitris'of internal
feel grptrful for tl~ correcion'tipn; in trariportation and tirael. '
bIll cheerfully conceal& what'i due 12. (re.ter security:6f T(~ n'd
$ rttbi. My sole aim' il writing property. lfr s ,
'e 18tt. lins baeri the proinut- Iflcr then, hre'..rn01Ff ItI4
fft f'u 4 of al su'bjteolt h1ih twelve ndvantages, ind'M eftrlpis
Wncej, p'be of' muci LTiEtcrcsi1' 6 i rl m of primrryv inipo'L Fni,'l* If
Pin ny lJ 1mf eloi;v cdiizFlhi ,'n tihe Irtriith possesses nvertr'Nixa, H 64
0on ih wcic feel sute4'rer'Di p* vi it'if i'tll e sds.? Docas Toexpl'rd4
M 'hlsi..: 'd ir' tf'tr "hbli ifa de a' i nry' iitae over ptW
.t.b b',ibi8 excep? thi 'lier ric-l kmi4 ff"
s t ,hanatbi4tnab- pd at'f' itet -id#i? Pire
UF 'ilna'ti bdn' g n'tle "f6 ei"ctr*' 'thti
S.iS 'ili ',e i a i i&ySi 'p ,' nor h:ive I'4eflniti
t.' '" '" ", iy one, airingn fifteen r a'-s
ithe fae's'" whtil' Tipri rpi on rhe, sorti .'h.Aein
'n these' let'rfs peetillg ( ain~ out to ''e.
0 I teXs be irie, the fol. Iltl e1 atrally* te theW
.a'. su.aray'r o6f tEe aayifntageS- happens that a 'con'Bry' "thh rw-:
,qlthe former possBse 8over h setI a ns to> the ~igrant.-so Ttin and
,St teoius~ be e il ': such C' xtrAordiinsty advHf.t a
1.. T t Flopa' prjia ossessc s are hre nssignedl tA-Flord ida~ d
pmPb1 more salubri'ous climate fl.y habe attracted so much 'eless'dii-
e,. '' gration than Texas and'bfier%#ew
2 'A much more a-'recabed cli- States, which have, .dhtipiati4ty,
aate. Iso fefr inducements to offer! '-








.Thip question can be satisfactori-
ly answered.
Previously to the commencement
of hosalities, in 1835, East Florida
Wrasa.lnot a terra incognita to all
except the savage tribes who inhab-
itedas. It is tue tht a few settle-
meats hPa been established on its
borders, and its interior had been
partially explored by a few daring
adveTOareu; but it was not till
after it had been extensively tra-
versed by our armies, and it most
di.icult reeesses penetrated, that a
correct idea had 'been formed of its
general topography, and, of course,
but little was known of its re-
sources.
Indeed, up to recent period, but
i4tle was known of East Florida,
even by its nearest neighbors; and
p9aperp~sawere the misrepresenta-
tions which were extensively cireu-
Wol'a rvebaUy. and through the
pe)fsia.-elaton to its health, ag-
ileltaral resources, &o., by those
%be had but a mere glimpse of the
OePts and whose inexperience or
puim disqualified, them from
latl g oaremct opinions.
.,Tk'h- faee that. East Florida re-
laiildl from 1821, when it was ce-
4ad w tihe United States, up to the
elom of, 882, either the allotted
esdi 4l of Indian tribes, or the
theatre o Indian hostilities, will of
itself,; paffiiently account for the
little *haowledge. that prevailed,
in.the,,peighboring States, of the
o ri46%'aoils, or productions.
fiil, general .ignorance of the
country was succeeded by a general
delusio ,and this delusion was cre-
ated by.the.extensive circulation of
the superficial and erroneous .uws
and misrepreseutationq of men who


had merely marched. over-'te.Pe-
ninsuls--nd whose cirdeyustan`o.
disqualified themlfrom forming pra.d-
tical and enlightened opinioRs '"e-
specting it. In short it 01Psj
of the Army, and not pl bf
Cotton, Cane and Toba~ o
gave to the worldthe first l s
AionsofEast Florida. That 0ej m-
pressions were unfavorable wai'i'p"
owing to any want of candor ?.
their part; men who;.have i tii
seen an acre of the country .W e e
cultivation, and who hbavasbe, a*:
ways accustomed to. eathige ,thb
fertility and productiveitu of soils
by the darkness of ihei 'olot--
naturally regarded the ,sand ~~i
marl mixed lands of the" Prienstia
as worthless, and did not hesitate
to proclaim, without reserve, *he
great.sterility of-the country.' .
So with regard to health. L iA
before it was possible to test' tlt
salubrity of the climistp. dieadfui
account were publish' ut i6h
"pestilential swamps oh .lor'd14,
and it having been infjrri trom
the general topography of the coun.
try. that It ouht to be lcklys t
insalubrity w determinee uor
aid ertlpse fore (6e I~
lauypost4ble evjdenpe oqfti ni5 .
The crude and prejudicial s ip'iins
of inexperienced men wh9 vi:` d
everything around them twotgh
the medium of their own hir Il
and privations, were published'
the world as truths, and so ndl.
was the public mind thus abu.i
and so difficult is it to efface t
impressions, that to this day, ltese
delusions prevail extensively, 'eve
among the inhabitants of neighbor-
ing States.
..,% n inatan c c' ar extravt









gant misrepresentations which were
ixtensiuIy propagated, by the first
explqiers' of the country, I shall
6~'iij ilqtAe the fact, that in the
c' rTf of the Florida War, it was
At I eCl" expression.among them
% lp whole Peninsuls was not
,AK cine medic4ie it would cost in
co.nqe git.!.. Meaning thus to
aimly, in one pithy sentence both
the.insalubrity and sterility of. the
Wuantry. A stronger illustration
thaa this could not be given of the
geinAdsl.ignorance which then pre-
vailedspecting a country which
dan.: nor wa proved stands on an
equality'iw*ith the richest of the
Southern. States, in fertility of
aesi ; ui fit surpasses all of them
in silubrity o climate, in prospec-
tive Value of productions and in the
facilities of transporting these pro-
dliciocns to market.
hTese misrepresentations form
Oe of tLh feanons why Immigratioc
i gli has been retarded.--
OAthsi, Mi be noticed m ray next
k mt .,..,
..VERDAD.

.l .... N H b1. -
S JAINnAVILLn, FIr., June 2,'60.
In .y last letter I stated that the
itravaggadt mhirepresentations which
wee so extensively promulgated in
riliten to Florida, shortly after the
eosmiweneement of the Seminole war,
m6(d ibih ended 'so much to delude
U~he pAulio opinion ever sinee, was oan
of ti causes which retarded immig .
titd into that State. Besides this,
Sfod. other potent causes concurred to
'8lreut imirigr*tOin from Florida.
~ hFirt, the geographical position of
%li6, Itated *hich places it outside of
All I'tl great lines of travel, tnd which,


consequently, prevented nearly know.
edge of the ouuntry, and a prompt dis-
sipation of the iijorions. minrprmseu-
tations relating to it. .
Secondly, the residence. wii' lA
borders, till three years ago:oferauel
bands of warlike and ferociei.taver
ge~ I I ,- i
Thirdly, the diffiewty of dhtaining
clear titles to lands, owing torthe facts
that the public domain .ad Ibeebut
partially surveyed, and that large
portion of the country was .ovemed
with Spanish grants, the boondaries-of
whiohlwere still undefined. ,. .. i
Fourthly, the a elationn of Texa
and the acquisition of California,.A
which countries so many -thousamd
were directed, without ever having
seen Florida, and I may almost add,
without ever having beard of it .
These circumstances, of themselves,
afford a satisfactory answer -to t.i
question, why immigration into'Florida
has been much retarded .
But when, in addition' t5'tfltaeva
rious obstacles,'the facts are lasidertA
that it was oily within the lass. igh-
teen years that it was possible to seU
in East Florida without the dast im-
minent risks of life,and thAiammigS
tion into that State had to khedsldd
almost exclusively from, the ..-am
States, the wonder i no thab, sh
population of Florida has inmreamel o
slowly, but that it haa, wonder mbekswy
adverse ciroemstances, ran apt.' p-
idly from 54,470 in the year 140,.to
150,000 in 1860. -i
Florida under the moat Mafavoorble
eiroumstances, quadrupled her inhabi-
tauts in twenty years sad ift oamt
made appear that none dof the ebaela
above enumerated esam o atgai im-
pedr: her settlement, we Ihll have
goid'reason to infer thai the netg ten
yeam will exhibit a very grealtseto .
siol'to her population. '









I shall nou endeavor to show uhat
thfovai ui cuautep which have herstu-
fure seriously impeided the settemenent
to'Ftbial hI a ra' heen so far rui 'd
as tw e srl'hreafter no obstacle ,to ii-
migrani"Si-, I ..
First. The experience of the many
ibWMmtbk'of-.aIlig-rantu L :ho ~ hve
ttuled'Jio Ftorida within the lua fif'.
ten-yafi'as l;nre been very generally
disninllated thronhlluut the Suuthernt
states, and cannot have failed to or-
rest, in a; great degree if not entirely,
the various errors and miscepreaenta.
aIoutF'rspeetiug tl. henltll, agriultu-
I.l resunuees, &Ic, of the country,
whioh bhad 'been promulgated so ex.
tunsively for several years bblfre it
ira possible to refute them by mutual
*eperinfueat I
Theiplidatersof Elorida have, within
ihe last ffteau years. rarely fail-d .to
Ilakd r leg and reuunierative cropa
and are eurnainly, at this time, at least
apr q eruiwas any other plaiitet in
b T ..Li I
T4'h.ebalthb.hich the pointers .of,
Jlulmd hdareaqjs.ed, during .dis po-
roadmdba Ua-'aruaobobatier alian it has,
biKimgmapiadia,,agiitult ral .State,-r-
iThlirhs trying. period uto thea.haltht
d if no*s agricultural country is 1bt
.hlleatettiva oeauiagel'." aramaded,
amubu idaJsnhi :psse.dd thbounlh .the
ia:etmiis: tbntir pbai tly. in barian,
-aiBhuaLPj u, other counties ia. Ehat
rldfiht, tn esatenailSa tbleriags baIe
been made and nuinarou plantations
d0leaned4uliih the aietl.few ,ears, end.
_k'tb-e. LLkh e of atkse .eontoies has
v[an sieti rks ll goud during. bhi
.ltsrlbiop4bp sod much betitr bshin
*in,. el Si es. wherer. o cleariAg'
Ihmle beul ts lae.for waliy yaprI. 1,.
Tbhe, pjtui s of lorida oaulrilth
ba.lauawl.eoptions. reside with safely
en their pTantations at. all seamsqy of
tha yer ; and this, it 'ie well kLuwn


'eulnot, ba ,done .in JlmoI of thb otlh.e
Ruulherll Slates, where tlhe gquerally
escape fihri tietm in iM13Y W 'iJ.1O pot
venture to return it thlitem.fj J~f iii-
ber, or until afterr fro.-t has oc'idriei.'
Altlirndi 'Flniria liut ndt.6en' h
fiIrtudIlite Was TVint, %ud niobt ofild
otIlhr' 'new':Stlie, Ii Ihiving pnltitA
celebtie her 'ehracteri *uevertWdldWi ,
ib ali-eady 'ufeiduitlly known lto ShUA i
her in firnre froid -the effroth of lattA
misreprerenltatio as a urruerly iuljwed
Ih r. n. aiil '
Second. Heretofbir the geography
leal position Inf Florida placed lbr b6tw
side .of all the great lines of travel
and so irregular and defe'etivremnrq
comimunieatioun; thlnt aeceCs toe'ir.w6
buth- difficult nud expeasiva Whe
consequence ,was that no trqXveUely or
enumiigrantsj ever siw the country, Vur
less tiey went there under incontvoqti
enice and expense for the spqiel pui-
pose of during so. Anlld sucal, ,nrre-
6vcr, was thi reputation i 'her firrt
exi.lbter 'had %4~e oted pr, id
ucli Wrii 'tie # Ar k' Ii l Il l
bundr'Bid dr AnifTe ditiba a W,
unly the very enterpriiugsi auridig bs.
Im~JtIs'I#M.aweio ever protrloed- tr
cruS her border: -- This is aufaher of
the obstacles wleb can never again
opi('rat- again the, sel alwu of
Florid". ,.,
.'lThe, oqmlple..ieo of .ii". ri
I.Ilil,')', wiOin .4' eal:, b rp.Q. )








eG .t oirliue of immense travel, which
will en u iany thqusandsievery ydar,
I eit.Sr e@ pjssant, Lad furm &hoir
Wtan option reuipecting her.
't ird. 'The died of Indiant in
4i6., h Las .probably contributed
pbre than all t'her eausep to prrerta
igration iUto that Slie tip te
$ v p i9 of ii.t'here wus eglcaPly
.Jpyriu,.3.he. taiiitae ec1ure Ciin


nbt likely itft the s~ttllcfitd bf'iPorkt
da will ever agaiY be retfrdedtbytllhi
eacte. The charaotor'eifCatiforrila,
that of Tdzas, is niu h bitter rpWtf.
stood, as present thit it wa teqn fjitr
ago. The charming iltitW dwhilb
didance so gener-lly "lFndi'k tp 4k
idi,"' rapidly disappear, ia'titb'lotirb
botive appproaohies; eid, tire Verj
large nuuiber orfeibigrailt'ir *broav
a ready "seeq tie eleplhan," "'Jh botr
tihese couutrida, and the sd y iiftb.r
timnate whom increased fihcih'ties of
travel will enable to see him wiflhi
thI next year, wiJl b ti quite itm.
btiirt* to disaerlni'D a sbac rtealk'i *
w'ill prevent ab eltenaivib et ieejrYin f
hs ev il. *
SAs respects California }, i6 47
iMLeutiou ats preqt tbo disui.pr-
actr, but, enC pqssgal pa if5,.
one fact wliiclh of s le
2uilu sufoieitt jo deter
rqtun eiiirating to thylk'tata "
itis, tla although remark '
crops of wheat, onat and barley us
iib trnd, cotlOh or sugr ,Ari' ad
i'thatStaute, thosh droypr 'in Ir'd
w#ys ht th1'tercy i tt ietl~ibge l.
ibits ad' udedrelidtbMale'iat 'ti.f. TM
irduJts Tr6th' thre ifat .it"a'dtfjfoti
Sid'gular fbre 'fd)BL'tith .
bh ere, us' GOD as ;r'bo8W h lI
d:eioh' is necessarily 't f titn hlU'Blit
k~ppilid, the sUfii odbd iaall
'riluzost, Vitihahds.^I tUtt&i #Malu
potatoes sell one y,car, ap hib~l('I
d6utt peit Pin, ai'd t 1f B Et. 'ear
oue ewbut-per loioni~ was tbiriitrftil
p ride,nd iaiy theairabdiI b*dMilN
rre'left to rut, "(hire d'a b d .i'irJt
"'fo r tlfe m i ' ..... a..1
Such extree n
with the price of ldbo I046
hitig (from ibVe to fie aoltruifN
ricVesarrly teudbra agrifettnirW 'u' I
'forni a mbt' unrdliabl a'lit f
pUirtf t.. A L, .e -










S..Tie sketch which I have given ,,f
Plorida in these coumimnientihn.i will,
doubt, surprise many of those
.hose ideas of that country have libenI
plietly derived from misrepresenlti-
Alous whijh were so, extensively spread,
abtthe coimmiruneneent o0 the war, when
the Peoiingular had been but partially
vi.1ed, 4nd csarcely at all understood.
o0 generalize from insufficient data is
a. common error, and never was it
,more forcibly illustrated than in the
ease of ast. Floridn, whose whole
character was so unreservedly de-
nouneqnd by those wlho had but the firpt
glimpse Qf her ftturrs. It is not
sArpriaiqg, that m'en who bad been
subjected to severe hardships and
privations, should have viewed through
' undrifav6t'ble mbdiuni the country
wiheh i'se' the peenuoof their sufferings,
arid 'tliobce tfind that it was from the
Sitial oila that werc encountered by
Z, fGl i'explorers that the general
characterr o.f East Florida was par-
,$led. '
I Th prere but few States or Terri
4gS.18, the Union which I have not
ij ,; .pd after many extensive
.,appparimiso apd careful, observations
Apn inqqirpsa, extqndingover a pc-
.rqd of more than twenty years, I can
ow, uasofit w:th confidence, that I
'koa of no country, new nor old, that
.pree pts.to the emigrant so many ad-
jautsg, su4.so few drawbacks, as

Ii hau alwaysbeon .4 common rq-
mark that"Floridp is the best country
.,m;Sbo vorld for a poor man,", and the
,rth of 'l ia has never been denied,
sDeu by those whose prejudices were
spql jast the country, and who
J i a0, cl nothing of its resources
;' Q,t ..is .impossiblo for any one
lo,,viLi..the ecttlQments in Florida,
Apd.. winpsos, the abunidance, caQse
eoi~iori and even luxury, in which


the poorer clnsic of the inhabitants
can live, and not be forcibly struck
with the truth of this observation. '!
It is admitted by all the settlers ii
that country that any nian who win
work'as nlany as three hours a day,
can provide himself and family with alt
the necessnries and with many of the
luxuries of life. There are but sfw
in serious men in that country s6
po as not to possess abundance df
corn, vegetables,and fruits, which eoii
them but little labor; and plenty d~
cattle, hogs and poultry, whtch mult(-
ply without expense. They have,ei.th
but little exertion more venison, thi'-
keys and other game than their ,finat-
lies can consume, and there is aqsea-
Il a neighborhood in the 8tafe tl
which fine fah isl not within convenient
distance. They have besides, their
sugar patch" and "cotton patch,"the
former of which supplies them abun-
dantly with sugar and 'moldiAes
throughout the year, and the latter
with nearly all the clothing which thej
require in so mild ac li .. "
It is scarcely neqeapary:- 4 r tma
that a country which all .allt .,9 fn
good for the poor mat, oanaot 6ai
for the rich man ; the soil wbI h so
readily yields a good stfpporf to the
one. will as readily yield rowlr.ioif-
ate profit to the other. Th.ere'liWr-
tainly no country in the UViied States
in which the planter oae 'tirp hil cap-
ital to such profitable aaba14 i he
can, at this time in Florida n;ar is
tle're any country in the world whqre
'he can live more luxutiously. He'bas
iere within in his 'teach, hllthi lt-
uries of the tropics, iiited td those 'of
more Northern latitudes, and'bottr of
these he can enjoy in a elimite which
is itself a luxury '"
Although confident myself' that
Florida poisospes many importaint'-
I vintages as a platining country t veq












any otlet in the Utnited Slates, I would
nevertheless. shrink from the respotu-
sibility of advising any man to remiuve
there before he had visited the country
and satisfied himself, by )iersorial (ob-
servation. and a thorough iuquiry, on
the spot, that it was to his advantage
to make it lhi pertmaent residence.-
It would do well for all who are de.
lirous of emigrating to make a visit of
daplaration to Florida, before they. de
lerinine an settling itiexas. Culifor-
nia, or any other country. This they
ran now do with great facility, and at
but little cost; and even should they
be.afterwards induced tu move further
on, the time and money spent on this
1isit will not have been lost. They
will tihn.be enabled to form enlighten-
ed oontrnsts, and arrive at a sound
judgement in a matter which so deep.
y concerns them. And should they
finally determine to fix their residenrm '
in a more remote region, they will Ibve
the satisfaction of feeling certain that
they have not been duped. hv news-
paper misrepresentations, to leave be-
hind themupmuch better country than
that in whroh they have selected their
new homes. This is the last oft'uy
Letters o Florida. V ERDAD.

Oc- a Ur.a, FLOUILDA Octl.ber 1866.
Te' ()rgplng articles would be iberni-
plite jflhodt the statement of s,.me ad-
ditional facts, which the lapute of lilme and
the effects of the late war has rinde ini-
portant to hum mentioned. Rc.tlerm Iri m
all heba States are particularly iivitlri to
U~tI 6bidailfduon.
l It Iihould be reenm'bercd 'tht lihe
author of th1erticles is not an intere't,-d
plkpery b owner, but waN a Sm-Qreon uf U.
& AL, gfextensive travel anmd obstrvAlioi,
and well lquaTfled to judge imlmartinllly and
correctlyof the malters which be te ilits
2nd. That the lavages of rtie lam.- war
did not extenil to the interior .-f the PLtiin-
bulJar, and the lo intli' a: ilS cl',m' na. inl
c-.nl condri;ion o o couimii n.i. a lan Liil .r
tle Ut sylstemn.


rn1. That LIw nl-alv di.plsinU .tion B J
I p'II.pl,. Ii ei've tlih f(iuritiiln and new snyr
tIm a f I Ir.a- ,a lim eI lIted [p a rich h rt
Yv hi and grlat prolils ie agriculltiril .pu.
Ssiii li.
4lt. That the enhaneed vatue-o.tlae
lcadlig pro.lnrt, Sea I.land Cott6h" it
hearing thr-c or fonr time its former prier,
nlmakem its m ultivrtioii the modit rojofite
Iursuit ev r I.. lre known to agrircilttire.
In illiitration ofr Ilii take ,the authnrs
liuires, anid a a basis ofrealcniation, allow
tIhe pre'sr-nt prire. lie etiImat&e Iheja%-
parity ofthe Peninsnla mnfficient to produce
*,000,000 bales. That is worth now about
9800,000,000 nearly twice as muacb a
the (lxporla of the United States. Cal-
culalte I'r hie profltsjif a single hand.-
.A halli will make n average thrlogh
ten years two Iales of Cotton, anid
crrn sulfircirnt to snhaist himself and mule.
At I'resent prices tha would be ahout
*N'0 per year. These fingres have
ht-n realized in practice this year. There
are farmers here s\ho have qad4o eVe
thl..isndd dollar to the hand this year,
Hnd i rovisio l n toulMir Ithe place upon,
The hani' tl staRtei WRagee, conld have
it-e-n Iirc..'uir. at viul hundred and fifty
dul(.ars andl ratlio .b.
6th. 1hal taxp.-iience hen shown thl
Long Cuitton is hie most prolituble crop,
and one to wiichi the soil and clinRle in
ell adaplrted. The great bhly of the
planter are niainly engage.D In its culture
lith. That the pll-ple are dteeerdlgli
desirous to hive emigrarirn cotre iton the
country. Their. hi rreA demand fareall.
lal and lahor. Capilnal lo take .p ihe laa
and pay laborers, and laborers to rednee
the land to culllvati n. AlL Aknds ofia-
borers are in great demand
7th. That nurthlmrn eruigraiits il well
as others are desired, all our peopTcd(uirt
ing i niiSrauta and capital from all'phrtsof
the world.
8th. That the consrrtction of Railroadt
has greatly increased tihe conveniences of
the rnllntry. One roid now rnns at'coss the
Penin.silar. annoher In irnceas (rfcfliAlPftE-
lion thrro uh it, frn, North to South.
lI. Tilit Mbrion i 'mnity is tle richest
county in the Peninimular,' kith steath.bnna
iavigeation at all serastun of tile year to its
Ie.ntre, ami that Ala'l.:hi Levy and Ret-
luIlll ,J, ai l Bol.. rcii liih cuuntiis.
OC.tLA.


LIBRARY
flORIDA STATE UNIVERSei.
TALUAASME. FLORIDn

_-B---,L. --:--I- --._.-_-"









. ,OCHARILESTON, S.

, via Jaksonvillee, Fernan-

'(ifa'St. E ps Bruiswick,

mtd vann 'Ca.,
. '.. THnE STEAMER




a- '^.^^


,.ir .A .


LOCKWOOD,


.COMMANDER.
THIS fine Steamer having been placed
'." pn~n~rlaitly nm the line between CbHr-
,t 1n'afl Palatka., touching at all the
4eddflhiagd h lSt. John's River, roteiit a
haate otrpnblle patronige.' Boihg com-
tentded Uy offers 9f experiences well and
(wvoMBrly.Inea~ n, and hauig:gond soqonm-
Sedelimtrlrpaeam w a ,awLndreight, every
Ufta e ,nmftort. nd safety mIry be
," *I, * ' ; ,

' ,JeesChlarlpaton every Sunday aL 7 s.
m, Sa.p.nphInndny at 10 a. m, arriving
batr-ptqigiw evqlng. I
Returning will leave Palatrka Tnesday
lgik4 i.ripsi'g at sxvannah nn Tuesday
Wad ChlAleston on Friday, malling counec.
4kims wikL thp various lines of Railroads
SMtwAUeaZbips for the North and West.
. HL L.. HART
.Agent at Palatika,, fin.
TIB/EAS~i FLORIDA BANNER
inpubithed 'eery WednesdayatsOcala,
Ps., at (a3 year, and is one of the
beAt verLising mediums in these tate.


FOR PALATKA.
The new and elegant Stea ie'







'*ICTALTOB,"


L. M. GOX&T'B1 ~faselaw, '

Will leave Charle-toli ilver Sueurrif
evening,,8 p en 'aaaduil,*lamu
rille. and au iterumdistijamnihi Mlgl the
SL. Jojli's River, ,, ,
BIETURNING :

Will leave l'alatkaq y Wymoy,pgf "p
at 7 o'eloek
Will. lpare Jckeo.ovwille
,,, 'ii. t 3 o' l'g i""
Sston same evening.,
ThSe trp.Dir "Datar." wi .rqju "
trilm 'oWdlnjuy h a uppn..Mn uiUi
tine 'r etrivtion.s r tih .tr 'I.
Fep0 Lj i .


LINE oF




TILLiN ST0Ij Era
'F ,OM" :I '. .' A '*-.



mITLE BvY RfX I u
T fSDA Y and AkT
UREA V fialmim ithe arri-Ta f aie %t fri
Arrive at Ocals the .ninm n~: '
Leaves Ocala every' 1 TrldSA T sad
SU.IDA V morning.
uly. B. SDOW-t & CO.
July 18 S-tf


* .*.. tt**




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