• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Main






Title: Survey of the social, civic, and vocational interests of negro adults enrolled in WPA classes
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/FS00000047/00001
 Material Information
Title: Survey of the social, civic, and vocational interests of negro adults enrolled in WPA classes
Series Title: Survey of the social, civic, and vocational interests of negro adults enrolled in WPA classes
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Espy, James
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: FS00000047
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida State University
Holding Location: Florida State University
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0493

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Front Cover 2
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
Full Text


l41
taA
.,L. -.
.p *c*
LI;-
I;.


-ia- "r-- -~l "4 '7


.* .


. :4'4 *'j' IL M 'NT


nsan var smas wunrvutna

Pirrf P. Ianrr, ALdnitnator


DrfISION CO EDUCATION
T T. Sprinkle
State Director











A SURVEY OF THE
SOCIAL, CIVIC, AND VOCATTOIAL TNTERBETS OF
NEGRO ADULTS ENROLLED IN WPA CUSSES


By
James Eepy
Education Supervisor of Negroes




Under Directicn of
Clara M. Olson
Director of Curriculum


Jaoks-Mville, Florida
July, 1937


NIw:




I






FLORIDA WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION
Exchange Building, Jacksonville, Florida

INQUIRY CONCERNING THE SOCIAL, VOCATIONAL AND CIVIC INTERESTS OF NEGRO ADULTS EN-
ROLLED IN CLASSES IN FLORIDA

Name of Teacher

Date

Name Sex

Address Age

Place of Birth Present Grade

Are you Married?_ Single? (Check correct one)

Number of Children Number in School

What Church are you a Member of?

What Lodges are you a Member of?

What Clubs are you a Member of?



Do you own your Home? Do you rent your Home?

Do you own an Automobile? What Kind? Year

Do you own a Horse or Mle? Cow? Chickens? Hogs?

Do you have in your home a piano?( )a Radio?( ), Electric lights?( ), (Check

ones which apply)

What Newspapers are taken in your Home?

What Magazines are taken in yourHome?


Check your 1st and 2nd choices of the following in which you are most interested.

(As Singing (1), Athletics (2)

Athletics ( ), Reading ( ), Playing Musical Instruments ( ), Painting ( ),

Drawing ( ), Singing ( ), Movies ( ), Dancing( ), Dramatics ( ), Building

Things ( ), Any other (write in)

Are you a registered Voter?_ Did you vote in last election?

What is your occupation? Salary per month

Are you satisfied with your present job?










If not, what job would you like to have?

Give your reason for this


you had any training in School for your present job?

you had other training, beside School?

you had any training in School for the job you wish?

you had any other training, beside School?

training do you need for the job you wish?








PERSONAL STATUS



Total Included in Survey-----------------------------------------1450

Number of Men---------------------------------------------------- 494

Number of Women-------------------------------------------------- 956

Number Who are Single-------------------------------------------- 501

Number Who are Married------------------------------------------- 757

Number Who have been Married------------------------------------- 192

Number Having Children------------------------------------------- 634

Number Having no Children---------------------------------------- 816

Number With Children in School---------------------------------- 336






CONVENIENCES FOR FAMILY LIVING


Number Owning Automobiles--------------------------------------- 153

Number Owning Horses or Mules------------------------------------ 65

Number Owning Cows----------------------------------------------- 114

Number Owning Pianos--------------------------------------------- 194

Number Owning Hogs----------------------------------------------- 152

Number Owning Chickens------------------------------------------- 580

Number Owning Radios--------------------------------------------- 246

Number Having Electric Lights in Home---------------------------- 308







AGE-GRADE CHART OF 1450 ADULTS ENROLLED IN CLASSES


Age-Groups
Grade 17-24 25-24 3b-4 40-04 55-64 65 and up Total

1 27 41 63 33 12 31 207

2 23 46 34 28 15 10 156

3 38 56 55 58 15 6 228

4 44 57 67 35 16 8 227

5 45 41 45 21 11 7 170

6 47 31 26 19 4 3 130

7 29 29 17 7 0 2 84

8 16 13 16 3 3 1 52

9 31 14 6 0 0 0 51

10 30 7 6 2 1 0 46

11 19 0 0 1 0 0 20

12 30 9 1 0 0 0 40

College 23 16 5 1 0 0 39
Totals 402 354 341 208 77 68 1450

It is interesting to note that 1.107 of the 1450 included in this study
are between the ages of 17 and 44. It is within this age group that
Throndike says that the individual has the greatest ability to learn.
(See Thorndike's Curve of Ability to Learn in Relation to Age.)

The fact that 818 of the 1450 or 57% of the learners enrolled are
classified betwoon grades 1 and 4, presents a problem both of methods
and materials. Materials which may be used as a basis for an activity
program must be stated in the most elementary way, but at the same time
must have a content applicable to and consonant with the experiences
which adults have.






CLASSIFICATION OF BARNERS BY GRADES

GRADE FREQUENCY PERCENT

1. - - - - - 207 - - - - - 14.4%
2. - - - - - - - 156 - - - - - 10.6%
3. - - - - - - - 228 - - - - - 15.7%
4. - - - - - - - -227 - - - - - 15.7%
5. - - - - - - - 170 - - - - - 11.3%
6. - - - - - - - 130 - - - - - 9.0%
7. - - - - - - - 84 - - - - - 5.8%
8. - - - - - - - 52 - - - - - 3.6%
9. - - - - - - - 51 - - - - - 3.6/
10. - - - - - - - 46 - - - - - 3.1%
11. - - - - - - - 20 - - - - - .5%
12. - - - - - - - 40 - - - - - 2.8%
College - - - - - - 39 - - - - - -2.8%
TOTAL - -- - - - - 1450 - - - - - -100.00%



GRAPH SHOWING GRADE DISTRIBUTION OF LEARNERS

1 ////////////i///// / ii7//////7777 14.4%

2. ///////////////// /// / /// 10.7%

3. Z/ ////////// ///////////// ///// 15.7%
4' I//!i /i///J/,/////////////////////I / 15.7
5. /////////////// ////77/ / // /A n11.3%

6. // /// // / ////////////1 9.0%

7. //////////// 5.8%

8. Z 7////// 3.6%
9* ///// / ///I / 5. 6
9. 3. 6%

10. 3.1%

11. 777 1.5%

122. .8%

Co l 2.8%






CLASSIFICATION BY AGE-GROUPS

AGE-GROUP FREQUENCY PERCENT
17 to 24 402 27.7%

25 to 34 354 24.4%

35 to 44 341 23.5%

45 to 54 208 14.3%

55 to 64 77 5.3%

65 to 74 56 3.8%

75 and up 12 .8%



GRAPH SHOWING COMPARATIVE PERCENTAGE IN
EACH AGE-GROUP


17 to 24 / / / / / / / //////// / / 27.7%

25 to 34 // / / ///// / /7 24.4%

35 to 44 ////////////7 / / 23.5%

45 to 54 / / / / /14.3%

55 to 64 / / // / A 5.3%

65 and up // / / 4.7%




It is significant that 75.6% of those enrolled in WPA adult education
classes in Florida are between the ages of seventeen and forty-four;
and that more than one-fourth of them are lese than twenty-five years
old. According to studies made by Thorndikc, Milos, Jones, and
others, the ace for learning that is best in-tho sense of the great-
est returns pur unit of time spent in studying, is in the twenties,
and any age below forty-five is better than ages ten to fourteen.

As may be seen by the tables above, 27.7% of the learners are not more
than twenty-four years old. About 15% are between the ages of twenty*
five and thirty. Nearly half of those enrolled are, therefore, to be
classes in that age-group where the ability to learn is highest. It is








also this group that is just entering the business of making a living,
or has not definitely entered into it. Many have no vocations. Others
have drifted into the first job available.

A course or a series of units centered around the problem of guidance
might profitably form the work of this group. Such units properly
related to the individual and to the vocational opportunities existing
in that community, would serve a very fine and practical purpose. Teachers
will here find a rich field which has beon little explored as it concerns
adults in formal classes.

Such units of work might include:

1. Review of the vocations, or means of making a living.

2. A study of the vocational opportunities in the community.

3. Study of the possibility of new vocations in community.

4. Factors necessary for success in the different vocations.

5. Practical salesmanship as related to vocations.

6. Getting a job, a selling proposition.

7. Keeping a job, a selling proposition.

8. Improving one's personality.

These and many others might be built around the general theme of guidance.

Thorndike says, relative to the older age-groups, "These results, (investi-
gations by Miles, Jones and others) perform the useful service of assuring
an adult (person between twenty-one and seventy) who is not demented that
he can learn most of what he needs to learn, and with little or no greater
time cost than at age fifteen." These older groups that comprise about
25% of the total enrolled learners need, therefore, to be encouraged and
made hopeful that they can learn at this time as rapidly and as effectively
as they could have at any age below fifteen.








NUMBER INDICATING CERTAIN COMMUNITY INTERESTS


Church Members ----------------1325

Non Church Members ----.------ 125

Lodge Members ---------------- 266

Non Lodge Members -------------1184

Club Members ------------------ 388

Non Club Members --------------1062

Registered Voters ------------- 229

Non Registered Voters ---------1228

Voted in Last Election -------- 143

Did not Vote Fast Election ----1307


---------------------------91.3%

---------------.-.-.----- 8.7%

---------------------------18.4%

-------- ---------.---. ---81.6%

.-----------------.------- 26.8%

---.----------------. 73.2%

.---------------------.. 15.3%

-------------------.------ 84.7%

-----------------.------- 10.0%

------------------.------- 20.0%


It is interesting to note that a very large percentage of those who
are members of Lodges are affiliated with what is known as the
Pall Bearers Lodge. Other orders which a few years ago contained a
very large membership today apparently have lost most of them.

The clubs are almost entirely of the church and social types. The
civic or community welfare typo is almost non-existent. The teacher
may well tako advantage of this groat need within the group by encourag-
ing the discussion of public problems and matters of community bettor-
ment. Out of such beginnings there may grow a civic consciousness.
Somo type of knowledge must precede appreciation.

Aside from Volusia County, interest in civic affairs as indicated by
registration and voting is extremely small. The percentages here would
seem to indicate that members of this group arc little concerned with
this part of their responsibilities.






NUMBER INDICATING NEWSPAPERS TAKEN ACCORDING TO GRADE
DISTRIBUTION


Grade Frequency Percent

1 - -.. - - 87 - - - 42%
2 - - - - - 59 - - - 38%
3 - - - - - 98 - - - 43%
4 - - - - - 109 - - - 48%
5 - - - - - 102 - - - 60W
6 - - - - - 84 - - - 65%
7 - - - - - 58 - - - 69%
8 - - - - - 37 - - - 71%
3 - - - - - 46 - - - 90%
10 - - - - - 44 - - - 94%
11 - - - - - 19 - - - 98%
12 - - - - - 39 - - - 98%
College - - -- 34 - - --- 8%


Total newspapers taken------------------------- 998
Total learners taking newspapers--------------- 816


GRAPH SHOWING PERCENTAGE OF NEWSPAPERS TAKEN
BY LEARN;ERS ACCORDING TO GRADE DISTRIBUTION

Grade
1 I/ / // /i// 42%

2 //38%/

3 // / 43'/ /

4 /777 48%

5 160%

6 65%

7 ////////////i 69%

8 lL/ I, ///I I/ I 771,A 71n


10o / //// / ilIII/7 94%

11 ///// / 7 Z 7 / / / / / 98%a

12 / / //////////////1 98%

Col. / //////I//// / /es 88 s







GRAPH SIHO;WI(G PERCENTAGES OF LEARNERS TAKING NEWSPAPERS
WITHIN CERTAIN AGE-GROUPS


Ag -Group Frequency Percent

258
17 to 24 / / / / / / / / / / / / ///// 63.8%
198
25 to 34 //////////////77 53.8V
192
35 to 44 //// / ///// /7 7 / 56.4%
103
45 to 54 / / / / / /////// / 49.5%
38
55 to 64 //////// / // / //1 50.6%
27
65 and Up 40.9%


This table


has very much significance as it shows that age has little to


do with the desire to read and with interest in newspaper reading as it
represents current history. When it is remembered that the upper grade
groups are those largely between seventeen an'. forty-four it is remark-
able that the pcrcentageos here shovm maintain as high an average as they
do.

Since reading and the desire and love for reading are most necessary in
the acquisition of knowledge, this table should lend encouragement to
teachers of older adult groups.

Investigations by Thorndike seem to boar this out. Ie says "The decrease
in the total volume of interest from the twenties to the fifties is thus
slight and is restricted largely to physical activities. The interests
most needed to support adult learning show no decrease. The work of
adult learning is not impeded by a general drying up of the wells of
interests, nor by a decrease in the interests in observing, reading,
listening or performing acts of skill on which learning is especially do-
pendent."


-10-









GRAPH SHOWING THE RELATION BETWEEN MAGAZINES TAKEN
AND GRADE CLASSIFICATION


7.2%

9.6%




13.6%


*****j


26.2%


36.5%


41.1%


56.5%

56%


* ** ** ~* ** * **** *** * *** ** * ** **'


* * * * * * * * * * *


-11-


Grade


1.

2.


8.

9.

10.

11.

12.


*****************








NUMBER INDICATING CERTAIN AVOCATIONAL INTERESTS

Reading-------------------------------------------920
Singing------------------------------------------------------542
Playing Musical Instruments---------------------------------- 208
Building Things----------------------------------------------203
Painting-----------------------------------------------------186
Athletics----------------------------------------------------130
Drawing---------------------------------------------------- -62
Moving Pictures---------------------------------------------- 61
Dancing----------------------------------------------------- 52
Dramatics---------------------------------------------------- 36
Sewing------------------------------------------------------ 25
Arithmetic------------------------------------------------- 16
Writing------------------------------------------------------ 9
Cooking--------------------------------------------------- 3
Fishing----------------------------------------------------- 2
Social Work-------------------------------------------------- 2
Scouting----------------------------------- ------------------ 1
Art------------------------------------------------------- 1
Public Speaking--------------------------------------------- 1
Mechanical Work---------------------------------------------- 1



Learners were asked to indicate two choices of those things in
which they were interested. A few of them indicated only one choice.
To calculate the actual frequencies, the figures above should be
divided by two.

It is possible that the large number who checked reading were thinking
in terms of learning how to read, and its utilitarian value; and not
in terms of pleasure or leisure time activity. The same observation
might also be made of the number who checked Building Things.

It is noticeable that much leisure time interest is indicated in the
Arts. Aside from Reading and Building things, activities which were
of utilitarian value were probably mistaken for play value. Other
interests checked, which led by a large number, were: Singing, Playing
Musical Instruments, Painting, Drawing, Dancing, Dramatics. That these
are avocational interests it appears would be further indicated by the
fact that few or none gave these as occupations or occupational pref-
erences.

Jay Franklin, noted columnist, says, "A culture must have its roots
in the life, the language, the virtues and the vices of a people."
Many students of History, Literature and Art assert that things such
as an appreciation of art, of music, and of rhythm, come by nature to
the general group (Negroes) included by this study.


-12-






OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF NEGROES ENROLLED IN CLASSES

Occupation Number
Housewife-------------------- 159
Farmer----------------------- 149
Common Laborer--------------- 247
Personal Service------------- 111
Laundress-------------------- 135
Maid------------------------- 129
Cook------------------------- 113
Student---------------------- 83
Gardener--------------------- 22
Salesman--------------------- 20
Dressmaker------------------- 44
Clergyman-------------------- 14
Truck Driver----------------- 13
Mill Worker------------------ 12
Bellman--------------------- 8
Barber----------------------- 1
Carpenter-------------------- 8
Mechanic--------------------- 7
Porter----------------------- 9
Painter---------------------- 2
Plasterer-------------------- 2
Janitor---------------------- 8
Waiter or Waitress----------- 3
Chauffeur ------------------- 6
Baker------------------------ 1
Nursemaid-------------------- 7
Stone Mason------------------ 3
Stenographer----------------- 5
Teacher-------------------- 4
Hairdresser----------------- 5
Midwife ---------------------- 7
Cleaning and Pressing------- 3
Musician--------------------- 6
Nurse------------------------ 2
Iceman----------------------- 2
Longshoreman----------------- 2
Recreation Leader------------ 2
Blacksmith------------------- 2
Merchant--------------------- 2
Practical Nurse-------------- 2
Shoemaker -------------------- 2
Tailor----------------------- 1
Typesetter------------------- 1
Tree Surgeon----------------- 1
Divine Healer---------------- 1
Butcher---------------------- 1
Night Watchman--------------- 1
Miner------------------------ 1
Boxer------------------------ 1
Guide------------------------ 1
Movie Operator--------------- 1
Railroad Worker-------------- 1
Dishwasher------------------- 1
Construction Helper---------- 1
Woodyard Owner--------------- 1
Nono------------------------- 74
-13-








VOCATIONS OF RURAL LEARNERS CLASSIFIED
ACCORDING TO OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS


Agriculture - -- 124

Farmer------------122
Gardener---------- 2

Forestry and Fishing - 0

Extraction of Minerals 1

Miner------------- 1

Manufacturing and
Mechanical Industries- 23

Mill worker------- 12
Butcher----------- 1
Carpenter--------- 1
Mechanic---------- 1
Blacksmith-------- 1
Dressmaker ------- 7

Transportation and
Communication - - 2

Truck Driver------ 2

Trade - - - - - 1


Salesman---------- 1


Public Service - - - 1

Watchman------------ 1

Professional Service - - 4

Clergyman----------- 4

Semi-Professional Service -- 0

Domestic Service - - - 191

Housewife----------- 71
Personal Service---- 30
Laundress----------- 25
Beautician---------- 1
Maid---------------- 22
Cook---------------- 36
Porter-------------- 1
Midwife ------------ 2
Nursemaid----------- 3

Clerical - - - - - 0

Other - - - - - 101

Common Labor-------- 95
Student------------- 1
None---------------- 5


Total Number of Rural Adult Learners Included in Study--448


-14-







VOCATIONS OF URBAN LEARNERS CLASSIFIED
ACCORDING TO OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS


Agriculture - - - 47

Farmer------------27
Gardener----------20

Forestry and Fishing - 1

Tree Surgeon------ 1








Extraction of Minerals - 0

Manufacturing and
Mechanical Industries -65

Carpenter--------- 8
Mechanic---------- 6
Blacksmith-------- 1
Dressmaker--------37
Painter---------- 2
-2
Plastever.--------- 2
Baker--- ---------- 1
Stone Vason------- 3
Shoonz.ke r--------- 2
Tailur ------------ 1
Typesobtter-------- 1
Movi- Operator---- 1







Transportation and
Communication - -14

Truck Driver------ 11
Longshoreman------ 2
Railroad Worker -- 1

Trade - - - - -24

Salesman---------- 19
Iceman------------- 2
Merchant---------- 2
Woodyard Owner---- 1


Public Service - - - 0


Professional Service - -26

Clergyman------------10
Teacher------------- 4
Musician------------- 6
Nurse--------------- 2
Recreation Leader---- 2
Divine Healer-------- 1
Boxer---------------- 1

Semi-Professional Service- 0

Domestic Service - - 517

Housewife-----------88
Personal Service-----81
Laundress-----------110
Beautician---------- 4
Maid-------------- 107
Nurse Maid---------- 4
Midwife------------- 5
Cook---------------- 77
Porter-------------- 8
Bellman------------- 8
Janitor------------- 8
Waiter or Waitress-- 3
Chauffeur----------- 6
Clean, dye, press--- 3
Practical Nurse----- 2
Guide--------------- 1
Dishwasher---------- 1
Barber-------------- 1

clerical - - - 5

Stenographer-------- 5





Other - - - - - 236

Common Labor--------152
Student------------- 82
None---------------- 69


Total Number of Urban Adult Learners Included in Study -- 1002


-15-








COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS (F VOCATIONS OF RURAL AND URBAN
ADULT LEARNERS IN FLORIDA, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO
OCCUPATI TNAL GROUPS

Occupational Group Frequency Percentage

Agriculture (Rural) 124 27.7
Agriculture (Urban) 47 4.7
--------------------------------------------------------- -------
Forestry and Fishing (Rural) 0 0.
Forestry and Fishing (Urban) 1 .1
---------Extraction of Minerals (Rural) .2
Extraction of Minerals (Rural) 1 .2
Extraction of Minerals (Urban) 0 0.
--- --------------m----------------------- ---------m-------
Manufacturing and Mech. Ind. (Rural) 23 5.1
Manufacturing and Mech. Ind. (Urban) 65 6,5
-- -------------------------------------
Trans. and Communication (Rural) 2 .4
Transportation and Communica. (Urban) 14 1.4
----- --m------ M-- --------- m ------------- mmm-----m
Trade (Rural) 1 .2
Trade (Urban) 24 2.4
m- --M------ W----------------------------------------
Public Service (Rural) 1 .2
Public Service (Urban) 0 0.

Professional Service (Rural) 4 .9
Professional Scrvj ce (Urban) 26 2.6
W-M--------------- -------------------------
Domestic Service (Rural) 191 42.6
Domestic Service (Urban) 517 51.6
-- ----------------------- ----------------------
Clerical Occupations (Rural) 0 0.
Clerical Occupations (Urban) 5 5.
---------M-------w-------- --------------------------W---------
Common Labor (Rural) 95 21.2
Common Labor (Urban) 152 15.1
-W--- ----------- ----- ---------- --------------- --- -w-----
Student (Rural) 1 .2
Student (Urban) 82 8.2
----~m--m- --- m N N m l ) m --WW ---)( m --- m----- ----- m-Mm m --m-- mm--- m--
No Vocation (Rural) 5 1.2
No Vocation (Urban) 69 6.9



Note:
Those listed as students are young folks usually in the "'teen age"
who live at home and follow no regular occupation.

Most of those who gave no vocation listed themselves as unemployed,
or unemployable on account of health or age.









GRAPH SHOWING THE COMPARATIVE PERCENTAGES OF RURAL AND URBAN
NEGROES ENROLLED IN WPA CLASSES, IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS


Agriculture


* ** *** * ** ** ** ** * *C


27.7%


*4.7%

Manufacturing and Mechanical Industries

**** 5.1%

* 6.5%


Domestic Service


42.6%


********I****************************X*******.*** 51.6%


Common Labor


*-* **4***** ** **** ***** 1


15.1%


Student


-17-


Rural

Urban



Rural

Urban


Rural

Urban


Rural

Urban



Rural

Urban


21.2%







NUIPER INDICATING SALARIES RECEIVED WITIIIN
CERTAIN GROUPINGS


SALARY GROUP FREQUENCY PERCENT

$1.00 to $10.00 144 17.1%

$11.00 to $25.00 395 47.1%

$26.00 to $50.00 244 29.1%

$51.00 to $75.00 43 5.1%

$76.00 to (100.00 12 1.4%

$100.00 and above 1 .1%


These salaries are


calculated on a monthly basis.


GRAPH SHOOTING COMPARATIVE PERCENTAGES OF MONTHLY SALARIES RECEIVED
BY THE 839 LEARNERS ANSVATRING THIS QUESTION.


$1.00 to 310.00

$11.00 to !25.00

$26.00 to $50.00

$51.00 to $75.00

$76.00 to $100.00


/ / / / // 17.1%

// / / / / /I// I/I/// // /I 47.1%


'///////JJIJQLJ29 .1%


: 5.1%

Z 1.6%


From a study of the vocations in which those enrolled in WPA classes
are engaged, it would appear that those included in this study com-
prise a fair cross-section of the average of the Negro group. The
monthly salaries indicated above would, therefore, be representative
of the salaries received by the Negroes in Florida, if those in the
professions are excluded.

These figures tell of the need for training which will make the
services rendered more valuable to the employer. Any group which
must live largely in the low income brackets as represented above,
must contribute more than its share of illness and death, under-
nourishment and lack of civic responsibility to society.


-18-







COMPARATIVE CHART OF SALARIES RECEIVED BY
URBAN AND RURAL GROUPS OF LEARNRS



1.oo 00//// Urban 14%
to
$10.00 I Rural 24%


S11.00 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / Urban 50.
to
$25.00 Rural 38.5%


$26.00 / / / // / / / / Urban 27.2%
to
$50.00 Rural 33.4%


$51.00 Urban 6%
to
$75.00 Rural 3.5%


$76.00 Urban 1.8%
to
$100.00 Rural .4%


The total number of learners in classes conducted in urban centers
and included in this study is 1002. Five hundred and eighty-four of
these answered the question as to the salary they receive. It is
upon these figures that the percentages above are obtained.

The total number of learners in classes conducted in rural centers
and included in this study is 448. Two hundred and fifty-four of
these answered the question as to the salaries they receive. It is
upon the basis of these figures that the percentages above are
obtained.

The figures show that while there is a small percentage of learners
receiving salaries in the lowest bracket ($1.00 to $10.00 per month)
in the urban centers; rural groups maintain almost a percentage equality
in the middle groups ($11.00 to $50.00 per month). The total for the
urban group is 78%, and for the rural group, 72%.


-19-








CERTAIN FACTS CONCERNING TIIE TRAINING WYICH
LEARNERS HAVE FOR THEIR
VOCATIONS


Received Training in School for Job they have--------------------251

Received No Training in School for Job they have-----------------764

Received Training aside from School for Job they have------------339

Received No Training aside from School for Job they have---------556



Received Training in School for Job wanted-----------------------236

Received No Training in School for Job wanted--------------------389

Received Training aside from School for Job wanted---------------224

Received No Training aside from School for Job wanted-------------383



NUMBER INDICATTIG SATISFACTION WITH PRESENT JOB------------------744


The fact that the percentage of those answering the question as to
the training in school or aside from school answered in the negative
probably accounts for the poor salaries in many cases. Untrained
workers must continually be at a disadvantage in today's highly
specialized economic system. In connection with this idea, Harry
Hopkins, WPA Administrator, recently said, "We in the WPA recognize
that it is not enough merely to provide the able bodied unemployed
with jobs at security wages. That is the omorgency phase of our
task. Now it is passing, and we move into the reconstruction phase.
Our aim is to supply as many physically strong, mentally alert,
skilled workers to industry as we can."

It is to be noticed above that more than fifty percent of those in-
cluded in this survey expressed satisfaction with their present
jobs. This is so in spite of the fact that more than fifty percent
of those answering the question as to the salaries they receive
indicated that they receive $25.00 or less per month, and seventeen
percent do not receive more than $10.00 per month.


-20-








Satisfaction with such conditions must represent an attitude of futility,
or must presage a lack of ambition to improve. Either one of these
causes is detrimental to the progress of the group. Under this type of
thinking by workers, employers cannot get the efficiency which they
might, nor may society be benefitted as it should. The worker fails to
grow, the employer loses the product of efficient labor, and society
is impoverished.

To rekindle ambition, to dispel the attitude of "Oh! what's the use
trying," is a worthy objective of the adult education teacher. A whole-
some spirit of dissatisfaction with conditions as they are, and the hope
for a better day, either by reason of greater efficiency on the present
job, or advancement to another job through proper training, should
challenge our attention as instructors.


READING HABITS (NAMES OF NEWSPAPERS READ)

Times Union---------------------------------- 247
Jacksonville Journal------------------------- 156
Pittsburp Courier*--------------------------- 97
Miami Tribune-------------------------------- 44
Tampa Daily Times---------------------------- 29
Tampa Tribune-------------------------------- 27
Tampa Bulletin*------------------------------ 44
Miami Herald--------------------------------- 22
Pensacola News and Journal------------------- 19
Mobile Press and Register-------------------- 19
Mobile Press--------------------------------- 16
Chicago Defender*--------------------------- 16
Saint Petersburg Evening Independent--------- 15
Panama Herald-------------------------------- 13
Daytona-Beach Sun Record--------------------- 21
Tallahassee Democrat------------------------- 12
Miami Daily News----------------------------- 8
Daybona Beach Morning Journal---------------- 14
Deland Sun and News-------------------------- 4
Ocala Barnner--------------------------------- 4
Palm Beach Post----------------------------- 10
Palm Beach Times---------------------------- 3
Scint Augustine Record----------------------- 3
Miscellaneous------------------------------ 87
Total Newspacprs Road------------------------ 938

*Nkegro Newvspapers.


-21-









iHAT AMERICAN PEOPLE DO


Manufacturing and Mining----------------------------------- 15,000,000
Trade-------------------------------------------- 10,000,000
Agriculture and Forestry--------------------------------- 11,000,000
Transportation and Commnunication--------------------------- 4,000,000
Professional and Public Service---------------------------- 4,000,000
Domestic and Personal Service------------------------------ 5,000,000


These figures are the result of a survey made by the Works Progress
Administration, and represent the latest statistics as to the vocational
status of the American people. They are given here that teachers of
adults may be able to estimate the relative distribution bf workers. It
is reasonable to believe that where the groups arc larger, the greater
opportunities for deployment exist. Teachers might make valuable use of
this in counseling those of the younger group in their classes who have
no vocations.

Certain vocational fields are expanding. This is the case of the field
of Transportation and Communication. Certain fields are static or over-
crowded. This is true of some of the professions. An accompanying chart
gives the best opinions as to those occupations in which one may find the
best opportunity for a living. Some of these arc probably available in
the communities 'where classes are conducted.

A study of this chart, of the chart of Scholastic Magazine's Vocational
Survey, and of the occupational chart of the 1450 learners included in
this study, will give a view of the vocational situation as it applies
to the Negro in Florida.

Teachers of adult education classes may therefore render a fine service
by utilizing these interests in the teaching of their classes. They
may here help to develop a finer culture among this group. They may
by the use of these interests have vehicles for learning, helpful means
in improving knowledge or skill or power or some other interests.

One of the very great problems today is that of leisure time activity.
Crime is often the result of misdirected play instinct, and many times
a lack of knowledge of how to find enjoyment. One has but to check the
Monday court dockets to see that the great amount of petty lawbreaking
charged to this racial group is the result of ill controlled play instinct.

Through plays, programs, concerts and musicals, teachers of adults may
do much, not only to create and maintain interest in their own classes,
develop and foster a finer culture in the groups they work with, but
also promote a better citizenship among them.


-22-







SCHOLASTIC'S VOCATIONAL SURVEY


Question asked, to which fifty-one college placement and
personnel officials replied:

"Will you be kind enough to send me a list of those
occupations which you believe will be most favor-
able for the employment of college graduates within
the next five years, based on your present demands
from employers, your own contacts and observations."


The ten general occupational zones most frequently men-
tioned by them are as follows:


Sales
Business Administration
Government and Public Service
Engineering
Education
Chemistry
Secretarial
Social Work
Statistics
Accounting


Mentioned as favorable

Personnel Work
Educational Research
Sociological Research
Clinical Psychology
Vocational Guidance
Food Distribution
Library Work
Applied Art
Laboratory Work
Public Health
Nursery School Work


Child Development
Real Estate
Credit and Finance
Merchandising
Aviation
Manufacturing
Transportation
Advertising
Radio
Agriculture
Nursing


Building Trades


Doubtful and lagging behind


Medicine
College Teaching
Banking
Publishing
Biology Teaching


Radio
English Teaching
Social Science Teaching
History Teaching
Language Teaching
Motion Pictures


-23-








OCCUPATIONAL PREFERENCES INDICATED BY LEARNERS


Agriculture - - 37

Farmer-----------30
Gardener--------- 6
Horticulturist--- 1

Forestry and .Fishing - 0

Extraction of Minerals 0

Manufacturing and Mech.- 118

Carpenter--------10
Painter---------- 8
Plasterer-------- 1
Mechanic---------13
Shoemaker-------- 1
Cabinet TMker---- 3
Stone ,ason------ 4
Cement Worker---- 2
Upholsterer------ 1
Radio Technician---- 1
Boilermakor------ 1
Interior Docorator-i
Pho-toraphor----- 1

Transportation and Com.- 8

Truck Driver----- 2
Sailor----------- 3
Fireman---------- 3

Trade - - - - 12


Salesman--------- 2
Clerk------------ 4
Insurance Agent-- 2
Undertaker------- 2
Mcrchant--------- 2


Public Service - - 22

Mail Clerk--------22

Professional Service - 88

Nurse------------41
Physician--------- 1
Musician---------- 8
Social Worker----- 6
Clergyman--------- 3
Teacher-----------27
Recreation Leader- 2

Semi-Professional Service 0

Domestic Service- - 153

Chauffeur-------- 3
Housewifo-------- 2
Personal Service- 10
laundress-------- 4
Nurse Maid------- 36
Lady's Maid------ 7
Hotel Maid------- 5
Maid------------- 4
Practical Nurse-- 8
Cleaning and Pressing 1
Hairdresser------ 5
Cook------------- 60
Janitor --------- 2
Midwife---------- 1
Waitress--------- 1
Porter----------- 3
Elevator Operator 1

Clerical - - - - 96

Stenographer----- 84
Bookkeeper------- 12

Other - - - - 10


Common Laborer---
C. C. Camp-------
Girl's Camp------


-24-







GRAPH OF VOCATIONAL PREFERENCES OF LEARNERS
ACCORDING TO CERTAIN OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS




/6.8% (Agriculture)


/ / / / / / / / // / 21.6% (Manufacturing and Mechanical)


7 1.5% (Transportation and Communication)


7 2.2% (Trade)


/ 4 (Public Service)


// // // // 16% (Professional Service)


/ / / / / / / / / / / 28.1% (Domestic Service)


S/ / / / / / / / 18% (Clerical)



Total Number desiring a change of occupations--------------------- 544

The preference percentage in Agriculture is very much less than the
occupational percentage (6.8% against 18.7%). This is due partly to
the fact that those expressing a desire for a change of occupations
belong to the Urban and Young Age-Groups. There is little or no de-
sire for farm life by these groups.

There is a decided reduction in preferences expressed in the Domestic
Service Occupational Group against occupational percentages. This is
due largely to the low salaries paid domestic service workers.

Gains are registered here in Manufacturing and Mechanical Industries,
Public Service, Professional Service, and Clerical. This is attribut-
able to the large number of young men and women enrolled in the classes.
This group (52.1%) still has hope of getting the training necessary for
these technical occupations.

The occupational fields of Transportation and Communication and of
Trade attract very few.

The occupational horizon for the entire group is too narrow. Those
tables and charts but emphasize the suggestions made under the chart
on "Classification by Age-Groups."


-25-


_1 _




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs