mROB MANNING ZIER
TlAllAI EE, FOllIDA
THE PRESENT P FUTURE PRODUCTIONS
BY S. SANDERS NECK.
BANNER STEAM PRINTINc HO'SE, OCALA, FLA.
ROrMp STATE UNiVEWTf
TALLAH SSaE1 FLM=
Entered according to Act of Congress,
BY S. SANDERS NECK,
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight
CLIMATE 0 PRODUCTIONS.
The delightful climate-of Florida and its accessibleness is
now drawing a large number of settlers. There are other
considerations that have been developed during the past five
years that make the State more attractive than before; that
is the great diversity of fruits and cereals, the cultivation of
which were unknown here a few years ago ; the introduction
of fine cattle and horses, and a knowledge that all the neces-
saries for home consumption, beside large exports, are yearly
made. Farming in Florida has increased since 1860, when
there were '2,'12,'22'. acres under cultivation, and in 1880,
3,297,324 acres. The statistics have not been given since 1880,
but it is safe to say the increase in cultivation has been very
great. The last period the general average in size of farIns
would be about 140 acres each. Too much importance cannot
be attached to the necessity of all new comers entering upon
a variety of crops, and one advantage to be gained is the con-
tinual supply in a country where the extremes of heat and
cold are unknown. In regard to the former it is difficult to
impress upon the mind of one who has not resided here an
entire year that the heat of summer is not oppressive or inju-
rious to'the system. The summer rains begin in June and
last until October; they cool and refresh the air, and the con-
stant breeze from sea to sea prevents that oppressive heat of
countries even in higher latitudes. All diseases are easily
amendiable to treatment, nor are they so severe as where the
extremes of temperature are found. Much of the sickness,
(there is very little, and that light in nature), is due to indis-
cretion. Avoiding exposure to the hot mid-day summer sun,
night air, and highly stimulating food and drink, with the
great variety of fruits and vegetables that are produced the
entire year-food adapted to the climate-whilst poultry,
swine, goats, sheep and cattle, give a constant supply of meat.
It is no longer a pioneer life, but fast approaching to comfort,
luxury and wealth.
During my fifteen years experience with the State, and
close observations on soil, crops, climate and health, I am
fully satisfied that Florida is to become a prominent State in
producing a large variety of the requirements for the non-
It should be impressed upon the Inind of the intending set-
tler that land suitable for crops, if he intends to raise them,
must be first considered. Thousands of acres of worthless
lands are sold yearly, and will be so long as purchasers cannot
discriminate between a sand dune, that cannot raise a. second
crop after the film of vegetation is plowed under, or a dark,
sandy loam, underlaid with yellow clay, that will raise crops
for all time so long as fertilization is kept up, whilst the sand
dune is a seive, a delusion, and a snare.
In regard to farm crops and cultivation in general, the sea-
sons are two months in advance of latitudes north of 32 deg.
Oats are sown and plowed (that they may root deeply) in De-
cember and January. Vegetables, cotton, and sugar cane,
planted and sown from January to April. Maize, millets"
cow peas, (in growth similar to French beans), and pinders,
from March to May. Tobacco plants set out in March, April
and May, and during the last named month oats are harvest-
ed. Maize can be used for table in May, June, and part of
July, when it is ripe enough for feeding to horses, etc. July
and August tobacco can be cured, and hay made during the
last named months, and also in September, when oranges
ripen. Sugar cane ground and made up in November. Rye
is sown during the last named months up to December as
green food for stock.
Farm implements are of the cheapest kind-one horse or
mule to a plow. Average plowed per day, one acre. Cost to
grow and harvest one bushel of maize, thirty cents. Maize
and oats are. the principal food for horses, pinders for hogs,
cotton seed, hay, sweet potatoes and pasture for cattle. Fer-
tilizers little used, but could be to great advantage. The soil
and climate respond fruitfully to good treatment.
Fruit culture in Florida up to within the past five years-
except the orange-was not considered. It was the orange
and nothing else; we can mark a new era now dawning. The
peach, plum, apricot, pear, persimmon, and apple grafted on
pear roots, the great variety of grapes, together with the
lemon, lime, guava, and a variety of nut bearing trees, are
growing in all sections of the State and fruiting, giving evi-
dence of their being at home and to stay. Fruits and nuts
that can be picked from January to December. A. large
amount of soil in Florida cannot raise fruits profitably. It
must be understood that to produce fruit, good soil and fine
cultivation are essential. It is better at the outset to-pay a
fair price for good land than a low price for very poor! The
buyer should be guided by the natural growth on the land.
Large pines are a poor indication of good soil-the reverse,
still there are excellent pine lands, and there are very, very
poor-the poorer, the more they are boomed at high prices.
The great deception is health guaranteed on poor land. It is
not so. Malaria is known to exist on sandy deserts. (See
Johnson and Martin on tropical climates)
Buying good land and raising vegetables, that are necessary
to good health, is better than starving on poor land;that costs
more to raise a crop on it than it can be bought for.
S. SANDERS NECK.
OCALA, FLORIDA, 1888.
There is a great attraction towards a country where at all
seasons fruits and vegetables are produced in abundance of
the finest quality. This applies to Florida, and more so to
certain sections and soils; to produce fine fruit, cultivation, soil,
and a knowledge as to the treatment of the different species is
necessary. This is acquired by constant study and a certain
amount of enthusiasm, enough to encourage the planter when
little difficulties arise. It is well to impress upon those who
intend to enter upon this interesting occupation to secure at
the start, soil adapted to the growth of fruits. The orange
will grow upon a great variety of soils throughout the State.
The peach, grape, plum, and other fruits, require soil suited
to their constitutions. A brown, sandy loam, underlaid with
yellow clay, will produce any kind of fruit adapted to Florida,
whilst a poor, hungry soil will disappoint the planter and eat
up all his profits in fertilizing materials. The selection of
good land has not been considered by the general average of
new settlers-Florida was all they required. It must be
acknowledged that all the energy and good judgment a man
can call together will be required to succeed. What does
success mean? A happy life in a glorious country, sur-
rounded with comforts that are solid.
Fruit culture in Florida is to become a leading industry,
ripening some months earlier than in the latitudes where the
great mass of consumers live, who can be supplied within
forty-eight hours after shipment by rail.
I have not entered into any particulars in cultivation, but
refer my readers to Rev. T. W. Moore's work on Orange Cul-
ture, and for general information to the valuable weekly
publications, viz: Florida Dispatch, Florida Farmer and Fruit
Grower, and The Agriculturist, each of which contain interest-
ing and valuable communications.
We will consider the short space of time Florida has been
brought into general notice, the difficulty to penetrate the
country before the railroad system, stretching out to every
advantageous point, was established; the many failures that
have followed a reckless planting regardless of soil, location
and experience, the outcome of which has been many suc-
cesses, whereby numbers have laid the foundation for a life
competency. With all the prejudice that for years has
grown out of ignorance of the value and beauty of the State,
the rapid strides are beyond calculation, and will be more so
within the next few years, when it is understood that the
perfection of climate compared with other regions, that are
subject to extremes unknown in Florida, the State will be
appreciated by the non-resident to a degree that a desire to
make a home here will grow stronger each year. Any part
of the State cannot be considered remote from the great
centres of commerce, or isolated, with the splendid railroad
systems now established throughout the State. A journey
within forty-eight hdurs from New York to Jacksonville by
rail, the feeling that when in Florida we are at the footstool
of home is very assuring.
Within the past five years a new era in fruit culture has
dawned upon the State. The one idea that orange culture
was the only dependence, brought thousands of new settlers
into the State, numbers of whom have failed, mainly for want
of capital enough to develop just what they intended, and
experience in the growing of the general crops of the country.
With all the failures in this direction, a large number of suc-
cesses have been made and thousands of valuable citizens
added to the State, few if any would desire to return to their
regions of cold and snow; the delightful seasons that merge
from one into another without the extremes are attractive
enough to ensure a rapidly increasing population as the State
becomes more thoroughly known. That fruit culture will
be a leading industry, no one can deny. since the introduction
of a large variety of fruits that have adpated themselves to
the climate. The new varieties will produce in time others,
through hybridizing, of rare excellen-e.
In making up a list of the fruits that are successfully
grown, I have carefully avoided recommending any that were
doubtful as to profitable culture.
In planting I would advise all who do so to set out no more
than they can care for thoroughly. The long growing season,
the advantage of which with fertilization, enables the planter
to produce a larger tree in two years than in the northern
latitudes in three. The Orange, Peento peach, Kelscy, and
plums of this family, together with the Loquat, will grow from
January to December if the season is a mild one, whilst
the northern varieties of grapevines grow from March-until
August very rapidly.
The new comer has advantages that the older settler had
not; with the new varieties of fruits and their quick return,
he can ensure an income within two years after planting;
this applies to the peach and plum, both of which command
high prices at the early season of their ripening. If the
industry is entered into upon a large scale, the surplus can be
canned, evaporated or distilled.
There are seasons of planting to be strictly adhered to if suc-
cess is to be expected. Orange or Lemon trees can be plant-
ed later, or in summer; all other trees from the middle
of December to end of January; not as late as this if it can be
avoided, still many plant as late as March; it is not satis-
factory; the soil becomes warm, weather dryer, whereas in
the winter trees begin to form roots as soon as the buds
swell in spring.
In regard to fertilizers, decayed vegetable matter, assisted
with a reliable commercial fertilizer, can be depended upon
as suitable for plant food ; a large proportion of the soil
throughout the State needs this assistance; for every acre of
land that needs help there are thousands of acres of rich
vegetable matter that can he utilized at a small cost, and
since the manufacture of lime of a superior quality near
Ocala, (Ocala Lime Co. and E. W. Agnew produce some 300
barrels per day), there is no reason why it should not be
largely used in connection with fruit culture.
It seems natural to begin with the orange since the great
influx of settlers were brought here under the seductive antic-
ipation of an orange grove. To raise one is not so difficult
Sas is supposed, provided the beginner starts out with good
soil, location, first-class trees, and means enough to carry on
the cultivation until the bearing period begins. The soil
should be strong enough to grow the trees without expensive
fertilizing. The location near to transportation, and pro-
tected from the few cold days that are probable in winter.
The trees are easily procured front the large number of first-
class nurseries throughout the state; these trees are grown
from seed and budded with a large variety of superior oranges,
viz:--The Nruvil. Homosassa, Magnuml Bonlun, Mandarine.
Old Yini, Parson Brown. Pine Apple, Tangerine, Mediter-
ranean Sweet, Jaffa, and many other varieties, produced from
natural trees grown from seed. The budded tree produces
fruit at four years from the bud, and a paying crop at five
years. Whilst the seedling tree does not bear until eight
years and even older, such a tree fourteen years from seed
will produce 2,000 oranges at one crop. The seedling grows
taller than the budded stock. The newly planted tree makes
but little top the first year of planting, does a little better the
second, the third and fourth it grows beyond anticipation.
The first periods the root system is forming ; this is very
searching; trees planted 25 feet apart each way, at four years
from planting, the fibrous roots will interlace each other.
That the soil of Florida is adapted to the growth of the
orange cannot be denied ; the soft, loamy soil through which
these rootlets course in search of food, producing such trees
that are monarchs of their kind. Instances of trees produc-
ing 10,000 oranges at one crop are not uncommon. Florida
is the home of the orange tree; the large groves of wild oranges
(bitter, sweet and sour) that have been converted into sweet
fruit, are the best evidence of this assertion. Whoever heard
of wild groves, hundreds of acres in extent in an\ other State
in the Union. The humid atmosphere, highly necessary for
trees with a hard shining leaf, and delightful showery season
in summer, are the requirements that nature has given and
favored this State. Irrigation is unnatural for the production
of a standard tree, whereas in the cultivation of vegetables it
is a great boon, and should be adopted more thoroughly.
Where it is possible a good watering assists an orange tree at
any time in dry weather. The more you water them the
faster they grow. When the soil is wet, four pailfulls of
chicken manure dissolved in forty gallons of water, (use from
two to six pails, according to size of tree), will force a heavy
growth if the applications are made twice each month in
the growing season.
Again, in regard to elevation, the higher anddryer, the less
liability of frost, whereas in low lands the night dew saturates
the leaves and gives food for the frost, ready for the warm
sun to scald the leaves and branches.
The periods of growth are, with the orange tree, decided,
and interesting to the cultivator. Should the winter be a
fairly mild one the trees begin to put on a heavy growth of
wood and leaves, that spread as a soft mantle over the entire
tree in February, accompanied by blossoms at the ends of the
new growth ; in a few weeks this growth hardens and the
little oranges show up in bunches, giving an idea of the
quantity of fruit to be anticipated, that ripens in October.
May, June and July are months when the trees make growth
with astonishing rapidity. August, September and October
the tree forms larger wood for main branches, and should the
winter be a mild one small trees will grow off in December
and January. The vigorous growing does not begin until the
third year, when with proper cultivation the tree goes ahead
of the planter's anticipation ; from this period and on to the
time of bearing, little trouble arises ; good cultivation, liberal
fertilization, and patience will secure for the outlay a com-
In regard to the quality of the different varieties there is
not a very perceptible difference. It is well to plant a good
variety, and of them there are many; the interest and skill
that has been brought to bear upon the production of fine
oranges has given a decided character to the Florida fruit:
the vinous flavor, smooth skin, and absence of stringy pulp,
go to make up a perfect orange, now produced throughout
There are several good reasons why many failures
have taken place where success should have attended
the expenditure. Large numbers of people flocked to
the State without the slightest knowledge of fruit
culture, with very little means, and no actual resources beyond
their especial calling, perhaps that of a different one from the
one they came to Florida to undertake. In nearly every
instance where the settler is a farmer or fruit grower he suc-
ceeds in some enterprise, and becomes delighted with his
choice. Still, it is not necessary to have a knowledge of fruit
culture as in former times; good land can be purchased at
fair prices; first-class nursery stock and reliable men to plant
and care for the grove or orchard.
The writer's experience has been principally in Marion.
County, the largest orange producing centre in the State
This section of country for vears has been off the line of
general traffic; had it been otherwise a large area of very
valuable lands, now for sale, would have been under cultiva-
tion. The growth of timber throughout the county is such
that indicates a fine class of soil. Communication is now
established by means of the different railroads, and more
projected, that all the products of the county are easily
shipped to any known point.
Fifteen years ago oranges sold for five dollars per barrel; at
the present time the same quantity will sell for ten and
twelve, even as high as fifteen dollars. Those who have not
studied the consumption of this fruit, and presume to antici-
pate a supply beyond demand, seems about as bad to con-
elude there may be some time hence more eggs produced than
the demand warrants. Oranges will pay a grower a hand-
some profit at half a cent each, net.
Few persons have any idea of the small quantity of oranges
shipped from the State compared with the present consump-
tion. 1887 season's crop was estimated at 1,200,000 boxes,
the entire consumption of these and imported fruit is over
5,000,000 boxes. How many of the population, somewhat off
the great centres of the distribution of oranges, use this
delicious fruit even in small quantities, a fruit highly neces-
sary for the human system.
We will consider the diversified fruit culture now being"
largely entered upon. Many of the fine fruits are from Japan,
their rapid growth and healthy foliage indicate that Florida
is their home, giving the State a precedence over others of
colder latitudes; many of these fruits ripen at a season
in advance of other States, thereby commanding a good price.
Trees producing juicy fruits require a loamy soil and abun-
dance of vegetable matter, decomposed by nature-the intend-
ing purchaser desiring to plant should particularly notice the
soil. If lie wishes to succeed, much of the land on which a
heavy growth of hard wood is established indicates a fine soil.
There are pine lands that possess excellent qualities for fruit-
raising whilst there is a large class of this land that is com-
paratively worthless. Marion county has a large proportion
of lands adapted to the requirements of every class of vege-
tation that can be grown in the State, from the heavy
hammocks to the light loamy sands.
It has been asserted by those who have no experience with
a residence in Florida, that to live on good soil means poor
health; this does not follow by any means. Malaria, the
only trouble that the system has to contend with, is easily
treated. A continual residence, with attention to hygiene, will
ensure the settler health that cannot be obtained elsewhere;
the even temperature of climate secures the invalid from such
extremes that are detrimental to convalescence.
In giving a list of the various fruits that are successfully
grown in Florida, I have avoided entering into special details
of cultivation for the guidance of intending planters. I
would advise planting enough of a variety that will ensure
an income sufficient to pay for the outlay ; an orchard of
peaches, plums, grapes, in connection with an orange grove,
can be made profitable from two to three years after
setting out, whereas an orange grove will not give mach
return under four or five years, and by no means mix up the
different species that the cultivation would be inconvenient.
Plums, by themselves, and so on with all other trees; plant
closer if you desire to save space; 20 feet apart each way for
plums or peaches allows sufficient room for the cultivation of
vegetables that can be grown profitably.
The peach is quite natural to the soil and climate of Flor-
ida, and as to longevity, I have one that is considered to be
thirty years old, producing enormous crops of fine fruit; this
tree measures at one foot from crown roots, five feet in
circumference. The habit of the native Florida peach
is to blossom in February, and even during the win-
ter months, provided the season is warm; whilst the
Peento peach blossoms in January, producing fruit
during April, therefore by a careful selection of the different
varieties peaches can be picked from April until October.
The price of trees by hundred or thousand is ver? nominal,
that a large area can be planted at small cost.
In regard to the different varieties, I will begin with the
PCeenl, o0 Flat Peach of China, that has been largely planted.
This peach ripens in April, finds a ready sale at high price
in h rthe Northen and Westl t 1 cties. There being somewhat
of an objection to the bitter I lavorr f the lIrui due principally
to being picked when Ilnilat re, a want o" pi per fertilizeht
and cultivation will pr'odu e a poor iuaity of f'uit
The I'ointo, or Flat Peach of Cliia, was intiodueed and
grown in England pilot to 1824. Knight imagined then
thel would be no dilhilt in o btaining fi om tile flat peach
othle vairietiOs oSf Slna1t habits, free fiom thi deformity
which has icoiminended it to t e CMin ee Th erefore, flio
the origimald eeontao Mi. 'i dweli. of Orlando, hai succeeded
in p>'oduiCing from seeda of tlis peach a strain that i- ciallel]
lobe superior to the pinen t in (iialit', si'e, and beauty
Thie Jidwell No. 4 is a fruit somewhat thicken thmnn tlh
lPeito, color pale yellow, tinged with green anil washed
with red; half ling, fleet hte, line grmined, melting and
veryjile3 u eet with a little noyall flavor. quality good.
RIIIDWiL NO. 4.
General appearatie good size
slightly oblong with moderate sut
lpoilit color pale yellow, washed
medium: shape round,
ilr( anld short, leeuirved
with armlline, deepest
around the stem; half cling, ith small, short, thick seed,
having a sharp, slightly carved point, flesh white, fine
grained, melting and juiy; sweet, sprightly, with a slight
noyau orir lier almond flavor; quality good The flavor
suggests the parent Peento. It is a sweeter peaoh than the
latter, and although it has a marked almond flavor it is an
agreeable noyau, rather than the objectionable bitter so often
plreent in tbh Peento until it rleaoihe the point of perfect
1ITTWiF. o 7
And two other varieties of DeachIe No. 7 and Bidwell's
Late aie claimed to be fruit of superior merit; the mulatto
soils of Marion County, a name given to such soils by the
old plantels iromn then dark rich loamy character, are
especially adapted to peach culture.
edi>ill Si\, oIblong, u i tI .1 AIni p rriiPrldI pimiut, ci'*anuy
wlitne, wabelid and nmottl
tExtllti i:idl .' ]uonei s%(tltih
ioweVl, and pIolific. iipe)IS In Jiiilue. Wohn hited on cer-
taib soils lt liable to be deloid of flavor. It is a dibtmct
strain ol the C(luines tspe. anld ilepioduces itself almost
identilnll firo sied,
iI] P i L Fr L Plt ll.
''lle Pallas, sedling rromi
ling out of mlany lhundrt-d
valued ifroi thiuliu lir t 1(
lhe Hmolly; thfl i, the only seed-
ol tih Iloiiny penach Inhch hia
vls oiguminatld k- fle Ilie DI)
L E. Berckmans, and first fruited in 1878. The fruit
resembles the parent in size but is more round in shape.
Flesh white, melting, with a rich vinous aroma, partaking in
this flavor of the Grosse Mignonne: maturing two weeks
later than the Honey ; tree retains the habit of the parent:
succeeds in the latitudes the Peento and Honey are grown, is
considered a valuable variety.
There are other varieties of peaches; the Thurber, Craw-
ford, Climax, and many of extra merit, originated by differ-
ent growers, who lay claim to their especial qualities.
Uses.-Early varieties shipped to distant markets, where
they cannot be produced at the season of their shipment;
none of the Peento varieties will fruit outside the States, on
the eastern coast of the Atlantic; canned; preserved; dried;
Propagation.-Seed, and to ensure the variety the young
seedlings are budded or grafted.
Fruiting-The second year from bud.
Cultivat ion-Must be good; soil a sandy loam, from one to
two feet deep. Fertilizers-potash and ground bone, or hard
wood ashes and air slaked lime.
Insects.-The borer attacks the bark near the crown roots;
The Plum is indigenous to Florida, and of the wild or com-
mol sorts there are many that ripen from lMay until October.
The humidity and slight saltness of the air is highly benefi-
cial for plum culture.
The introduction of the many fine varieties from Japan,
the fruiting of one in particular (the Kelsey) in the summer
of 1887 giving evidence of the adaptability of this species to
the climate; several small trees, two years transplanted, bore
over four hundred plums per tree.
The plum will grow on a greater variety of soils, in Florida,
than the peach. I have known peach trees to die out in
three years from transplanting on a thin pine land soil,
whereas the plum trees have grown to be large trees, and
produce heavy crops of plums. To grow fine plums, fertil-
izers must be used in moderation, bone meal or decayed
vegetable matter; the use of a small quantity of salt to a tree
is highly beneficial; quarter pound sprinkled around a small
tree, and half pound to a large one, and increase with age
KELSEY JAPAN PLUM.
To those who intend to enter upon plum culture, there can
be no doubt as to the success of this valuable fruit. The
" Kelsey and its species are rapid growers; have received
the strongest endorsement from the eminent horticulturist,
Mr. P. J. Berckmans of Georgia, who has largely introduced
these plums into the State, and from his thorough knowledge
of these trees, considers they are a great acquisition to the
State. Of the several varieties there are the Botan, Botankio.
Chabot, and others. One peculiarity of the trees are their
early bearing and rapid growth, giving to the planter a
This remarkable plum was imported from Japan in 1871
by the late John Kelsey. of Berkeley. California, one of this
State's pioneers in horticulture.
Its great merits are productiveness unsurpassed by any
other plum, bearing at an early age, fruit very large-from 7
to 9 inches in circumference, weighing from five to six and a
half ounces, with a remarkably small stone, attractive
appearance, rich yellow color, nearly overspread with a
bright red, and lovely bloom; heart shaped; ripens in Flor-
ida in August.
UeIis.-For distant shipment; 100ls of fruit produce 19t)lbs
of dried prunes; are excellent for canning, texture firm.
meaty, melting, rich and juicy.
The Botan, Chabot, Masu, and Longfruited, are of the
same general character as the Kelsey; they were all rapid
growers; the quality of the plums are endorsed by those who
have fruited them in California, where they were first intro-
duced. The same may be said of the Botankio.
I find the growth of these varieties very strong, and from
them I anticipate fruit this season.
Another variety-there is a doubt as to its correct name--
Virgata; fruit small, oblong, orange yellow, with apricot
flavor ; ripens middle of May.
Simon's (Prunus Simoni, or Apricot Plum), introduced
from China to Metz, Alsace-Lorraine ; a rapid grower; leaves
long, dark green ; flesh fine apricot yellow, firm, and with a
peculiar aromatic flavor. This plum is much esteemed in
France, where it has been grown for the past sixteen years.
From its rapid growth and healthy foliage we may anticipate
its success in Florida.
Prunus Pissardii, Persian purple leaved plum. A very
desirable variety, with its purple leaves, that it retains
during the warmest weather until midwinter; fruit of
medium size; color, bright crimson; desirable for cooking;
-nillin II aa 'l tii p iln tl cVIuced into the Stalte withil the past
two vecar, tlint (un it1 It a]t it early beating, hrandlom'i
coloi, large sIeC, and rLpid1 grolvthi These trees hai'e
been geniierlly red by i d by the inurerynen of the Slteo. If
the trees that are planted and show ig cvidences of their
fr[iting prove to be all that is claimed by the introduced,
Clhls, Eley, of SmitliLL Point, Toea, the plitu will be a
i r t lacquisition. The habit and growth of the tree are
isinil i.r to the wild goose pluin, froin wh ich iti ati-teIl the
MariMnal is a seedling
The'relP alt lny Oirl1OrIl sorts ol plants growing without
caule that produce large clops yearly, alibrding to poultry
land sbo e a large aotlout of blood Amongst the vai rities of
plllls theri air thi seet, sour, and biltte, boiiting front
May until October in such abundance that is incredible;
many trees upon my plantation have astonished me at the
large quantity produced every season, that I decided Florida
must become a great plum producing State.
Cultivation simple; grow on a large variety of soil, best
on heavy loam, with clay near surface; fertilizers, bone meal
and potash, and decayed vegetable matter, if soil is deficient.
Propagation-seed, suckers, and budding and grafting
seedlings with desirable varieties.
The large number of wild vines throughout the hammocks
of Florida give evidence that this State is the home of the
vine. Of the varieties the Vitis Rotundifolia or Bullace
grape, and Astivalis or Summer grape, are abundant, grow-
ing to the topmost branches of the oaks and hickories.
There are a large variety of the cultivated species planted
and bearing fine crops yearly. The first and foremost are
the Vitis Rotundifolia or Scuppernong; the vine grows in
wild luxuriance, bearing crops the third year of transplanting,
enough to pay for cultivation; the vines are planted thirty
to forty feet apart each way, and trained to one straight
stem, six feet high, by being tied to a strong pine stake; after
the vine reaches the desired height, a square frame is sup-
ported on four strong stakes upon which the vine spreads
itself; one vine will cover several hundred square feet in a
few years. Of the scuppernong varieties the Thomas, a
large black grape, is considered the best. Matures at end
of August. Has but little musky aroma, and makes a supe-
rior red wine. As there is a spurious variety sold under the
name of Thomas, planters should be fully assured they pro-
cure the genuine vine, the fruit of which is slight violet color,
quite transparent, pulp tender, sweet, and of a peculiar
vinous flavor. Quality superior to any of the type. Vines
propagated by layers.
The hammocks of Marion County are frequently netted
over in parts with wild vines, that readily fruit when grafted
with the cultivated varieties.
That Florida is adapted to the cultivation of the grape is
without doubt, and at some time in the near future, this
branch of industry will become a large one. The fruit being
produced some two months earlier than in the Northern and
Western States, a large demand will be created.
The grape that can be depended upon, is the Norton's
Virginia, originated as a native grape on Cedar Island, James
River, four miles above Richmond, in 1835. This variety
from that time has established itself as a grape that can be
depended upon, and since it has been successfully fruited by
Prof. Dubois, near Tallahassee, who very strongly reco.m-
mends this grape for home and shipment. The Professor's
experience and successes are to be considered.
The grape is small, sweet, and spicy, and is well known
for its keeping qualities. It is a grape that can be relied
upon for distant shipment.
Vine very productive. I have no doubt on the rich, rocky
lands of Marion County this grape can be grown to perfection.
Of the varieties of grapes I have growing I can show many
very fine fruiting vines that are exceedingly large at the age
of four years.
The Moore's Early has fruited successfully in the State,
also many other varieties of Northern grapes. The Moore's
Early cannot be recommended for shipping or for wine, but
for home sale or use, it is a grape adapted to the climate. It
is a seedling of the Concord, ripens two weeks earlier.
Grapes are usually planted in rows, six feet in row, and at
distances apart in line according to growth, as some varieties
require more room to extend, for instance, a Delaware vine
will do well six feet apart, while the Ives Seedling requires
ten feet apart in the rows.
Strong lightwood posts sixteen feet apart, 5 feet above ground
and 2 in-7 foot posts-upon which is stretched a No. 12
wire 18 inches from ground and then three wires above this,
one at same distance. 18 inches; brace up the end posts to
prevent the strain from pulling them over.
Another variety. a white seedling from the Concord, grows
well and flhl ts slcceasfilly. This grape c n only bI recom-
iended lor home ube or wine, quality good; very produc-
the, wine light sti aw colot
C(uitiation simple; pruning necessary to ensure fruit'ing
fertilizers, bone meal and potash; propagation by cuttings,
seed, or layros; season of planting, December to end of
January, ot not ltr cost of vine very nominal. A vety lag
business hal developed i thlie p loduction of grape vines foi
Varieties that succeed in Jlorida -Ives Soedlhig, Nor-
ton's Virginia, Delaware, Moore's Early, Martha, Niagara,
and several others of the foreign varieties.
Before planting a large number of any one variety, it is
better to consult a practical vmciyardist as to kinds, soil, and
method of cultivation. Mcessr. Lehman and Hostettor, of
lake Weir, have made a great success of what they claim to
be original varieties, that have faited abundantly upon light
pine land, due no doubt to good cultivation and liberal fLrtii-
One of the most graceful and ornamental plants in Florida
is the banana, the cultivation of which is very simple
To grow to perfection, it is necessary that the plants are
bedded in a rich compost of decayed manure and bone meal,
which should be followed with copious waterings with liquid
mnanures; by this means very large plants can be produced
and very fineruit The size these plants attain, through
good treatment, is surprising. Should the plant flower in
spring or early summer the fruit will perfect itself before the
There are several varieties grown throughout the ,'iII-,
viz:-Hart's Choice, Guinea, or A.i'. in and -'.1v-,.lih.
Propagation by suckers, at any season of the year.
The cultivation of this valuable tree will be largely entered
upon when a more intimate knowledge of its cultivation and
actual value is appreciated. Few persons have any idea of
the large quantities of olives consumed annually. The taste
for olives is a <-uilti\ i.1] one, and when eaten in nI..1l-rai"i
are exceedingly beneficial to the human system.
The varieties of the orange are numerous. The Picholine,
a variety esteemed for pickling, I procured from Mr. J. L,
Taber, of Glen St. Mary, they are very hardy and :hIniltI
growers. There are several other varieties that produce the
oil of commerce, all of which can be grown -u. -.--ftiily in
Florida. There are 11iiI- il-, of acres of rich lands in
Marion County that with very little cost can be planted in
olive trees, lands that are the remains of old plantations, the
soils of which are -Iu,',., rocky, and moist, with'spots of rich
There is a general impression that it takes many years
before the olive bears fruit; from five to six years after trans-
planting the trees bear a crop and increase with age. The
cultivation is simple, very little care needed when the trees
Propagation by seed and cuttings ; the seed must be planted
as soon as ripe to ensure their 4,.'lriii.i igi:.
In appearance the trees are similar to a young water oak,
evergreen foliage, and much hardier than the orange. It
would seem advantageous to plant them in lands that are
exposed to cold winds, as a pI' .t.l., iI;'r other more tender
trees. In transplanting it is necessary to shade the trees,
mulch and well water l I.,-m.
This remarkable fruit was introduced from Japan some
twelve years ago, and during this period the trees have grad-
ually been distributed until they have now become a standard
fruit. The native persimmon grafted or budded with any of
the Japan varieties succeeds well, fruit ripening in October
and November; there are many varieties, some very large.
The fruit will keep solid for some weeks after being picked, a
great advantage to the shipper; as soon as they soften their
delicious edible qualities are fully appreciated.
The color of most of the varieties is bright orange .,
resembling a large, smooth tomato; the flesh is soft, rich,
sweet and a slight apricot flavor. Dried as figs they ane verY
Propagation.-Grafting on native stock in winter, budding
Cultivation simple; soil should be underlaid with clay.
Varieties of this frftit *are bearing in the State, and espe-
cially in Marimn County. The thrifty growth of thetress
are givig evidence of their adaptability to the sell and
clima~te. The Moorpa~rk Apricot is the one I especially refer
One of the greatest acquisitions to the State in fruits wass
that of the LeConte, pear and its kindred, Naid to be of
Chinese origin. The babit of these trees are to g- rapidly,
,tall, and elegant in form, somewhat after a poplar. Their
-mundy loam. Tress planted when one yourold produce fruit
Th geiftnr p-ar has the advantage over the LeCoate in
~,I - when four ye.. old producing fruit,
OPI I Buonr than theLeConte; several trees
produced very fine fruit in Marion County in 1887. Time of
ripening uly and August. Fruit large, yellow skin, bight
vermillion cbeek; flesh brittle, very juicy, with a marked
mrary aroma;; tree vigorous and very prolific
The want of a thorough knowledge of the requirements of
the fig tree, and what to do with its fruit, has to a great
extent prevented its general culture throughout the State.
I believe when the new varieties introduced within the past
two years, and the delicious preserves that are made from
the fruit, are more generally known, the fig tree will be
planted largely. This tree requires extra rich soil to grow to
perfection, or constant feeding with liquid manures if on
poor soil, and by no means planted unless in a bed of rich
compost. Keep weeds down and do not plow around the trees,
tearing up the roots. Cultivation easy; do not prune unless
to keep tree in shape.
Propagation by cuttings, layers, seed.
Uses.-Dried, preserved, or eaten ripe.
Varieties.-White Adriatic, White Genoa, San Pedro,
Celestial; Brunswick, Brown Turkey, and many other vari-
eties are cultivated throughout the State.
The culture of almond trees has been with very indiffer-
ent success; the reason given is that the varieties were not
adapted to the climate and soil. It always remains for
someone who is enterprising enough to try until they suc-
ceed. It has fallen to the lot of Mr. J. C. Crawshaw, of
Lawtey, to be rewarded with success in almond culture. I
have no doubt many will follow in his steps. The sort Mr.
C. cultivates is called the Paper Shell.
The soil should be a good sandy loam, underlaid with clay,
that it may retain moisture without being too wet. Culti-
vation same as peach. The tree does not require much
pruning. I have several varieties, none of which have
Propagation by budding on plum stocks, peach, or bitter
Of these there are several varieties grown in Florida. The
Sicily, August, Villa Franca, Genoa, McGaragan, Bellair, and
others, all of which are fine fruit. The lemon buds are in-
serted in the sour or bitter orange stock. From this com-
bination a rapid, healthy tree is produced, that bears at three
years from budding, ripening during July, August and Septem-
ber. There are sections of Florida that are particularly
adapted to the growth of the lemon. The tree grows continu-
ally, and in sections, subjected to severe frosts, or where the
thermometer r -i-t..r .- 15 or 160 any time during the winter
the trees are severely cut down and frequently destroyed.
The growing of lemons will become a great source of income
where raised in sections suited to their constitution.
These are more hardy than the citron, but require protec-
tion. They have the advantage of climate that is adapted to
the lemon and citron. There are several varieties. Grow
rapidly from seed and bear early.
These rapid growing trees are very sensitive to cold, and
if planted in the sections of the State where the winters can-
not injure them can be made an article of profit and easily
raised. They can be budded on the sour or bitter orange or
raised from seed.
Commonly known as the grape-fruit. Of this species of
citrus there are many. from the large shaddock to the smaller
variety, grown generally throughout the State. The rapid
and continuous growth of the tree renders it liable to cold.
When the tree has attained the bearing age it becomes more
hardy, the sap being distributed over a larger portion of the
tree renders it less liable to cold. This fruit has been grown
for several years in Florida, and only within the past few
years has there been any appreciation of their value. The
thick, tough skin, and keeping qualities, together with their
large size, should recommend them for general use. The
fruit will keep many months, and can be marketed late in
the spring when oranges become scarce. I am propagating a
variety that is said to possess the qualities of a fine sweet
orange. The trees are small at present.
These are easily raised from seed of dates purchased at any
fruit store. The seed or stone can be sown in a damp, rich
spot. Young plants will appear in some two months; these
can be transplanted at one year old; still better to plant the
seed where the tree is intended to grow. There are several
trees bearing fruit throughout the State from 10 to 13 years
from the seed. As a staple fruit I do not believe it can be
made profitable unless entered into with a thorough knowl-
edge of the fructification of the female tree, and enough trees
planted to insure an income for the outlay. It would seem
just as easy to cultivate 500 as 100.
There aremany species; evergreen; indigenous to a climate
where the frost is not severe enough to kill them out. The
fruit is delicious, and valuable for jelly. Planted in sufficient
quantities in the latitudes of the State where they are not
subject to severe frost, the guava can be made a profitable
crop in connection with other fruits. Propagation by seed,
cuttings, or suckers.
Strawberries, blackberries, and huckleberries grow to per-
fection throughout the State. There are sections and soils
particularly adapted to the culture of strawberries, soil that
is somewhat inclined to moisture.
A bushy shrub, hardy in Florida. It is remarkable to find
them so little .ultivated throughout the State. Its delicious
sub-acid fruit should recommend their more general planting.
They are easily raised from seed, cuttings, or suckers. The
fruit stands shipment, and can be made a profitable cir-ip
from the several varieties, the early and late. The flowers
are very attractive. Fruit ripens from July to December.
These are easily grown if afforded protection when there is
a liability of frost, but in the southern portion of the State
this fruit grows to perfection, with very little care or expense.
It is a profitable crop.
There are many other tropical fruits that are, and others
that can be, grown in the extreme south of the State.
The cocoanut groves promise great success in the southern
There are enough reliable fruits that can be grown
profitably without the risk of making losses in experiments
trying to produce fruit in a latitude uncongenial to their
nature, and with soil and experience that are wanting.
It is natural to suppose that in a country where all varieties
of fruits are grown the necessaries of life should also be pro-
duced to perfection. There can be no doubt as to the success,
since it has been demonstrated by practical farmers for the
past fifty years that Florida can be made to supply a super-
abundance of the requirements of its residents, besides a large
surplus for export. This would not seem to the inexperienced
cultivator of Florida soil impossible, if the general apnear-
ance of soil were taken as a standard of its fruitfulness.
Water, so necessary for the nutrition of plants, is at certain
seasons supplied either in heavy dews or rains, copious enough
in their periods of falling to assist with the warm atmosphere
such a rapidity of growth that can only be compared to
forcing, giving a result in a much shorter space of time than
where these grand coliniiiti-:ui, are wanting. That such
assertions can be fully proved, seeds of all kinds are easily
germinated, together with cuttings of plants and vines that
are difficult, and in colder latitudes impossible to make grow.
Soil, and its heat have much to do with this. A decided dif-
ference can be noticed on the varieties of soils in the State.
For instance, trees and vegetables suffer more during the
short dry periods on heavy clay lands, whereas on the light
loamy soils the root system is largely developed, penetrating
deeply to obtain moisture. That by stirring up this class of
soil frequently, when rain is needed, draws moisture enough
to prevent plants from suffering. It is well known that water
is the all essential of plant life. Fruits and vegetables can be
grown at will with the advantages Florida has of heat, soil,
and abundance ofwater that can be obtained without difficulty,
the innumerable lakes, -rivers, creeks, springs, and artificial
means that can be utilized will insure for the outlay a cer-
tainty. That a system whereby the waters are at the control
of the cultivator is to be commended, and should be carried
out where possible. The question of irrigation does not apply
to farm crops or fruit trees, but solely to vegetables of a
succulent nature. It is the mechanical means we employ in
agriculture that brings the reward; a cultivated plant will
do but little towards the production of its species unless
means are used to assist it against the enemies that contend
for their portion of the soil. I can illustrate trees that I
have carefully cultivated that were planted with others plant-
ed at same date, showing a comparison, that some are fifteen
feet in height and four inches in diameter, whereas the un-
cultivated ones are eighteen inches high and half inch in
diameter. The contention for the soil in cultivated lands
during the growing season are beyond the imagination of a
To compare soils of different latitudes that are not subject
to the same influences, and form an opinion without regard
to the experience of those who are successful with soil that on
general appearance looks worthless, if the opinion is reverse
to sound logic, can only be set aside as either profound
ignorance or strong prejudice. It is well known to cultivators
of the soil that a light, warm, porous one is the essential for
productiveness. The loamy soils of Florida are largely made
up with fine aluminous earth.
Fruit trees, with their deep penetrating roots aided by their
laterals, grow to perfection on soils that the lighter annual
vegetation would find difficulty, without grpat assistance, a
sustenance enough to barely live. That nut producing trees
should be more generally planted there is no doubt. The
pecan, walnut, and other trees of similar habit; the former, as
they can be successfully grown, should be extensively planted
to take the place of the red, post and scrub oaks. That the
soils of Florida contain large quantities of oil is fully illus-
trated in the growth of cotton, pindars, and other oil produc-
ing plants that flourish until the soil if not fertilized refuses
to grow the crop to perfection, hence the necessity of keeping
up its condition by means of fertilizers; one especially, the
cow-pea, in reality a bean, which draws its nourishment
largely from the atmosphere, can be depended upon for recup-
erating, its long tap root bringing to the surface new matter
for plant food.
It is a deplorable fact that such a valuable material as
cotton seed is not returned to the soil. It should be thoroughly
understood by all who contemplate success in the cultivation
of crops in Florida, that fertilizers, if used in moderation and
with a degree of knowledge as to the requirements of the soil
a paying return will follow, and leaving it in good condition
for another crop. Green manures can be used to great advan-
tage. Rye sown in October, plowed under in March.\ Cow-
peas sown in April and plowed under in July.
There are certain soils in the State that can be benefited
and made fertile by the use of decayed vegetable matter and
the lime manufactured in the State. This lime is recom-
mended for its purity for all purposes of agriculture, slaking
up into a fine powder. Then there is another valuable materi-
al that can be procured at a small cost from the kilns, that is
pure carbonate of lime in such form that it can be used to
great benefit on lands devoid of this element, viz., poor, thin
A great extent of the State is underlaid with carbonate of
lime, in many instances cropping out on the surface, and at
no great depth below the surface clays, the well-known galt
and the red sandy clays, the former containing fossils of the
larger animals of the tertiary age.
I have noticed these fossils on some of the richest lands
on elevations that would lead one to suppose in some great
submerge these animals took refuge on the highest elevations,
thrown up by continual washings, but were destroyed at
The entire surface of the lands that are at present covered
with growths of pines can be entirely changed, provided the
soil is strong enough to raise hard ornamental woods. This
would seem somewhat of an inducement for capital invested
in connection with other industries.
This valuable grape, of which there are several varieties,
should be more largely planted. The products are wine,
brandy, jelly, preserves and vinegar.
The best known is the white scuppernong. A rich, juicy
grape, making a delicate straw-colored wine, but for general
planting the Thomas and Flowers, both black grapes, are
recommended. The former makes a rich, dark wine, similar
to Burgundy; the latter, wine similar to claret.
The cultivation of the vines are simple and inexpensive,
and when once established they grow rapidly, and increase in
the quantity of fruit yearly. Vines are known to be over one
hundred and fifty years old throughout the Southern states.
The soil may be the driest sand hill or the lowest swamp,
without the least indication of disease. The best soil is a
sand underlaid with clay, but not entirely swampy. The
vine is propagated by layers put down in spring or summer;
they are removed early the spring following and planted in
nursery rows, for a year or so, until they become well-rooted.
When planted to positions, holes are dug 30 feet apart each
way, four feet square and two feet deep; fill up two-thirds
top soil, the balance fill up with rich compost. Plant in
December, six inches deep, spreading out the roots carefully,
and pressing earth around the vine. I would suggest a strong
stake being set in the hole first to train the vine to, as it must
be trimmed during the first year or so of its growth to one
single cane until it reaches the top of the stake, which should
be seven feet clear from the surface of soil. After the vine
is planted cut off all side shoots except the longest, this can
be tied to the stakes, and all growth from it trained to one
cane to the top. When this is reached, the vine should be
let grow in all directions until the scaffold is built on four
strong stakes ten feet apart, upon which the vine should be
carefully spread out. All side shoots should be pinched off
to make the vine spread. When the vine covers this scaffold
it is at the option of the cultivator as to whether he will adopt
a wire frame or continue the stakes and scaffold. The vines
must be spread in December that light and air can uniformly
ripen the fruit, or the wine will be sour, caused by imperfect
ripened grapes. The vines require manuring every two years.
A good rich compost of leaf mold, or muck with an addition
of bone meal, spread around to the extent the vines have
spread ; the roots are equal to the vine.
Annual expense of cultivation nominal, but to those who do
not cultivate the land for crops until the vines are i-ta i li-lied,
the cost would be about twelve dollars per acre. At the end
of the third year each vine would yield one peck of grapes;
in the fourth year two bushels; the fifth year five bushels;
allowing the vines to be 30 feet each way, or 30 vines to the
acre, in ten years the yield would be about one barrel of wine
to each vine. The increase yearly is beyond computation
with well cultivated vines. They are free from disease and
are certain bearers. The vines must not be pruned or trimmed in
winter; August is the time for this work. Many have at-
tempted the culture of the scuppernong for profit, and the
result has been very satisfactory, as high as $1,500 per
acre. This is the outcome of good cultivation, and a knowl-
edge of how to make up the wine.
White Scuppernong and Thomas ripen in July and Aug-
ust, Flowers in September.
It may safely be predicted that the growing of grapes for
shipment and for the manufacture of wines will become a
leading industry in the State. It is only within a few years
that the growing of the vine has been largely entered upon
by a few enterprising, intelligent cultivators, (strange to say,
new comers), who saw at once the advantages Florida offers
for this class of industry. Lands that are unfit for the
growing of cereals can be utilized for vineyards, and the
great variety of grapes that can be cultivated places Florida
as the foremost grape growing State in the Union. In variety
and length of time they can be harvested from May to
October. It was not considered possible to manufacture wine
in the temperature of the State. This impression is now
eradicated since wines have been produced fine in bouquet
and flavor, wines that are not to rank second with those of
France or Germany. The consumption of wines will increase,
and should, to take the place of spirituous liquors, that are
highly injurious to the human system. As regards soil, it is
almost impossible to find land in Florida that is not capable
of growing the vine. It is generally understood that it is not
necessary to have rich lands to produce wine. The varied
soils of the State will produce wines of different qualities,
some no doubt of rare excellence. The situation of vineyards,
whether on slopes or plains, has been much debated upon by
growers. Calcareous hills are preferred for the producing of
dry wines, and lower lands that are richer in vegetable and
calcareous matter produce wines of a foamy character. All
these results have been for years demonstrated on the con-
tinent of Europe; perhaps these peculiarities may not develop
in Florida. It is certain the vine flourishes in the low, rich
lands or high, dry, pine, and as the time of flowering of the
vines is at a season when there is no danger of frost, success
is insured on this point, and again, hail, another enemy to
the fruit, is not to be anticipated. In fact it is hard to say
what is in the way of successful culture of the vine through-
out the State.
It is asserted the grape phylloxera, so destructive to the
vineyards of France, cannot thrive in sandy soils, and Florida
possesses large areas of this class of lands, all of which are
capable of being planted in vineyards.
In the foregoing remarks on soil, it may be well for those
who intend to plant, to plant vines that are somewhat in
accordance with the quality of the soil, as certain varieties
have a greater development of root system, and are better
adapted for shipment, or that particular class of wine the
planter wishes to produce
There is much to be learned in regard to the culture of the
vine throughout the State, but since success has been met
with in every portion where trials have been made, it is
safe to presume the vine is to become one of our leading
industries. Lands that are devoid of calcareous matter can
be cheaply made up with this material that is abundant at
no great distance from any point devoid of this element, or
can be obtained from the lime kilns throughout the State; and
another material, decayed vegetable mold, that is abundant in
the low lands.
There is a large demand for American made wines, but a
mere unit in comparison with the vast business that can be
developed when a large supply is on hand.
At present the greater number of vines planted are of
American origin. Many are of the original vine, whilst a
large proportion are hybrids, in some instances with a foreign
grape. Experiments are being made with foreign grapes that
so far have grown well-fruited, and promise good results.
*With such a large'variety of grapes, it may be presumed,
wines of nearly every class can be produced. It would be
well if a variety of the species of vines were introduced from
Splaiu and Italy, and men who understand their cultivation.
Thi State is certainly wanting more of this element, expe-
ri-niced in growing the vine and making the wine. If estab-
lishments were started that would buy the grapes and manu-
tacture the wine, they would soon develop into a large busi-
ness, very profitable and certain.
It may be of interest to the reader to know Florida pos-
ses,-s a large variety of birds, of the torrid and temperate
Heron, three varieties.
Osprey, or Fish Hawk.
Bald Headed Eagle.
Turkey Buzzard, or Vulture.
Cranes, two varieties.
Wild Ducks, a large variety.
Snipe, several varieties.
Rice, Red, Blue, and Mocking Birds.
Owls, several varieties.
Hawks, several varieties.
Woodpeckers, several varieties.
Doves, two varieties.
S- Partridge, particularly plentiful.
Sea Gulls, several varieties.
Besides Blue Jays, Kingfishers, and many varieties of birds
of minor importance.
The black bear, deer, ocelot, wolf, wild boar, and puma are
becoming scarce in the settled portions of the State. The fox,
raccoon, oppossum, otter, squirrel, skunk, weasel, are numer-
ous enough to afford sport and make depredations upon the
poultry roost or corn field. Hares, two varieties, abundant.
The insect world is well represented, but not to such a
degree as to make residence objectionable; where cleanliness/
and preventive means are used there is no discomfort or an-
To those who are fond of the rod, come to Florida. The
great variety and excellence give to the angler at all times
and seasons enjoyment of sport beyond comprehension.
The lakes and streams abound with fish of quality and size.
Foremost we will mention the black bass, mullet, cat fish,
pike, bream, dog fish, and a large variety of the perch family,
besides many other kinds, not particularly valuable for food.
The coast fish comprise the sheephead, pompano, red and
black fish, red and black snapper, Spanish mackerel, rock
fish and mullet, besides innumerable varieties of smaller
kinds, in company with the shark and turtle. Oysters here
is to be one of Florida's great industries. Large quantities
offish and turtles are caught yearly to supply the inland
residents. The exports are small compared with the oppor-
tunity of the development. Ice, for packing, is manufactured
largely in the State and is used to great advantage in ship-
ments of fish to the inland cities of the State, also to Alabama
The following list of fish around the coast, also in lakes and
Pompono. Black Bass, or Trout.
Eel. Red Fish.
Jew Fish. Oyster.
Cat Fish. Clam.
Angel Fish. Crab.
The Green Turtle, Loggerhead Turtle, Hawk's Bill Turtle,
Land Turtle, and Terrapin, are excellent eating.
Florida possesses a large variety of trees. Foremost is the
pine; as to quantity this is simply immense; many of the trees
are giants, measuring, three feet from the crown roots,
three to four feet in diameter.
Then we have the live oak, a tree that grows to a gigantic
size; red cedar; red, water, white, and post oaks; also the
hickory, poplar, wild cherry, black walnut, red bay, bass
wood, mulberry and cypress, besides many varieties of wood
all more or less useful; the export of pine lumber has been for
years a large one, also the products of the pine-turpentine
From the palmetto, that grows in great abundance, pulp
has been crushed which, when manufactured, makes a fine
paper. The following list of trees will enable the reader to
learn somewhat of the timbers of the State; a large proportion
can be used up for manufacturing purposes. This list
embraces trees that grow over the entire State. Of the two
hundred, or nearly so, varieties, the yellow pine is by far
Yellow Pine, and six other kinds of less value.
Cypress, for shingles, etc.
Live Oak, for ships and boats.
Red Cedars, pencils, etc.
Post and Black Jack Oak foi charcoal.
Red Bay, Magnolia, furniture.
Black Walnut, Black Cherry, Bass Wood, Beech, Birch,
Sugar Maple, Sycamore, Gum, Elm, Ash, Hickory, Red
Maple, Poplar, Holly, Persimmon, Mulberry, Locust, Chest-
nut, Black and White Mangrove, Lignum Vitte, and Cocoa-
There are thirteen varieties of oak, seven of pine, and five
The woods in the southern portion of the State are sub-
tropical, many of great beauty. They are not known to be of
CATTLE, SHEEP, AND GOATS.
Large herds of cattle roam in the pine woods and hammocks,
giving little trouble to their owners, and paying a fine interest
on the investment. In some of the older settled portions of
the State, the finer breeds of cattle have been successfully
introduced, thereby improving the breed of the small, original
stock. The raising of cattle can be made very profitable if
the investor 'will lay off enough land where plenty of water is
at hand, by letting the cattle feed at will during the summer
months, and during the winter feed them on green rye and
oat pasture, and a little dry food, raising only fine beef cattle.
With these goats and sheep do well, but require some pro-
tection from dogs and night marauders. It is not possible to
raise hogs with sheep or goats; the former eat up the young of
the latter. In point of health, growth, and little trouble
attending the keeping of goats and sheep, it is nominal.
During the winter months they would require artificial
The description of Florida has been thoroughly given in
many publications. It may be well to give the following facts.
There are 58,680 square miles of surface, 18,000 square
miles of bays, gulfs, sounds, harbors, and coast waters, 390
square miles rivers and streams, 2,250 square miles lakes and
ponds, leaving 34,713,500 acres of land surface.
We will consider the great advantages the State enjoys in
the water supply, for navigation, agriculture, and manufac-
ture. Of the former, the State has some of the finest harbors
in the United States, deep and safe enough for the largest
Atlantic steamers to load. Over 1,000 miles of river surface
are navigable by steamer. There are many magnificent
streams, all available for water transportation. The millions
of tons of vegetable matter deposited in the bays and along
the banks of the rivers and lakes are available material for .,
the fruit raiser and farmer. There are many projects for
canals that can be cheaply made, requiring no locks, or
subject to bursting through ice gorges; simply cutting from
one lake to a river, or river to a lake. The State can be
made a perfect net work of canals that can operate profitably
with the railroads. Surely no country was ever blest with
such advantages. Many of the rivers are clear as crystal, in .
depth 20 to 30 feet, in which myriads of fish can be seen
enjoying the clear, pure water, that gushes forth from springs
at intervals along the river bed. The fisheries around the
coast will become a large source of income as a food supply,
and fish unfit for food can be utilized for fertilizers that can
be manufactured in the State.
Consider the vast amount of undeveloped wealth that is
accessible by water or rail, at no great distance from the
great masses who will depend upon the State for a large food
supply, obtainable in Florida at seasons when it is impossible
to produce in other States. The supply runs the year through
as well. The first few months of the year Florida supplies
the north with vegetables and fruit, then Georgia, North and
South Carolina, Delaware, and Jersey; other States send their
quota. This round is gone over every year, but in the fall
and winter Florida sends her oranges, and in this business it
may safely be said is the monopoly, that from climatic in-
fluences, soil, and experience now attained, will insure for
the State each year a large increasing sum.
Florida wants a population that will create wants for each
other, and one with means enough to develop whatever they
may set about to do; this with patience and perseverance will
be sure to bring the reward. Large numbers began life in the
State with very little means, and are to-day wealthy. The
same may be said of thousands elsewhere who by circum-
stances favorable to their advancement have become wealthy
in commercial life. It was the man, the time, and the oppor-
tunity. A large class of the newcomers to the State were
unfit in mind, body, and means, to ever accomplish any
result beyond the training of their calling, which, perhaps,
was quite foreign to their nature. Few men in undertakings
that the heart enters into fail, provided the physical strength
is enabled to keep up the race; ingenuity, self-sacrifice, and
determination are the necessary requirements. The small
cost of living and requirements are an advantage to those who
have means enough to support themselves, that it should be
a great inducement to those who are able enough to make
Florida their home. Before purchasing land, that is adver-
tised extensively, it would be well to consider the quality,
location, and actual value; there are thousands of actes that
would be dear at a gift. If the intending settler purchases
with the idea of making a living, he should be assured in some
way, not by false assertions or plausible statements, that the land is
capable of raising crops, and that the soil is good, or it will take
the entire value of a crop, and perhaps rather more, to make up
the soil with fertilizers. The difference in pine land is great;
some may be dark, rich, and loamy, underlaid with clay; the
other, poor, white sand, covered with a thin coat of wire grass.
The difference with hammocks are not so great, the growth
of timber on these indicate the quality of the soil.
PRICES OF LANDS.
It is frequently a source of inquiry as to why one class of
land is worth $1.25 per acre, and another $50 per acre; and
yet the persons who offer these lands assert that they are
equal as to productiveness. It may or may not be so. A
large proportion of lands that are accessible to transportation
are graded as to value, and those who wish to know what
good land is must depend upon the color of the soil, subsoil,
and growth of timber. It would be difficult to guide a buyer
in writing the difference in price of lands or quality; he
should be somewhat of a judge to define between a sand hill
and a loamy soil. The prices lands are sold for throughout
the State are very low. State, railroad, and lands owned by
private parties are graded as to value, therefore the buyer
can hardly fail to procure just the class of land and location
he desires, and upon advantageous terms.
CLIMATOLOGY OF MARION COUNTY.
BY DR. T. P. GARY, OCALA, FLA.
That the residents of the State have claimed Florida as the
Italy of America as regards climate, is from the impression
that the State compares with Italy, whereas it is not so.
Italy, with its volcanoes, its seasons of cold that are trying
to the invalid, and its pestilential fevers, is not in comparison
with Florida, free from volcanoes, severe cold, trying winds
and fevers that are fatal to human life-giving to it the
palm as the greatest health resort of the American or the
There are many strong claims. They are these:-It is well
known the benefit that is derived by those who suffer from
pulmonary complaints; that the equality of temperature
during the winter months, in which period there are more
clear and fine days than in any other section of the continent,
with a dryness of atmosphere, upon which the improvement
in all pulmonary diseases are based. Marion county being
situated in the central portion' of the peninsula, having a
watershed running through its northern boundary line, is,
par excellence, one of the most healthful regions in the beauti-
ful and a tt t.li' ii State of Florida. As the county becomes
more developed, and those measures of hygiene instituted
that are necessary to maintain and secure health, Marion
county will not give the first place in point of health to any
other section of our State. The summer heat is dreaded in
all climates, but Marion county being situated in the narrow-
est portion of the peninsula, between the Gulf and the
Atlantic, has the full benefit of the breezes that are blowing
from sea to sea, therefore the temperature never exceeds 98
degrees in the hottest months of July and August. The
mean winter temperature as given by reliable authority for
Marion county, taken in Ocala, is 60 to 69 degrees F4hren-
heit, therefore it approaches very near a tropical climate.
The county has within its boundary the greatest amount of
hammock land found in any part of the State, with a large
amount of first-class pine land, that consists of deep, sandy
soil and natural drainage; these lands are fertile and healthy,
whilst there are large bodies of very poor land unsuitable for
Ocala has an elevation above sea level of about two hun-
dred feet; three hundred feet is said to be the highest eleva-
tion above sea level of any portion of the State.
The varieties of soils in Marion county are of such charac-
ter that they are adapted to all classes of vegetation, whilst
some are too poor to pay for expense (f clearing; still they
are L]i:,iily lands for the invalid, and by heavy fertilization
may be made to produce crops, but not for commercial pur-
poses. Sandy soil predominates in pine lands, and a large
proportion of these are underlaid with clay a few feet below
the surface, which renders the best class of these lands fertile
and adapted for residence and fruit growing. Then there
are sandy hammocks, considered the best class of lands for
the citrus family.
The variability of the configuration of our lands and the
irregular distribution of the different kinds of soil renders no
particular place more desirable in this respect than another.
It is sufficient for us to know that Marion county possesses
these peculiar features that are valuable to those who suffer
from diseases other than phthisis, pulmonaris or chronic
inflammation of the mucuous membrane, such as nasal pha-
ryngeal, laryngeal catarrh, bronchitis and asthma, chronic
rheumatism, and all diseases of the nervous system. Owing
to the fact that we have a great amount of water fall in the
summer season and very rapid and active growth of vegetable
matter, we have all varieties of malarial fever, but as a class
they are more amenable to treatment than they are in other
countries, having so little swamp land throughout the county,
that if persons will observe the proper requirements of dress
and diet, and avoid as much as possible the mid-day sun, in
laboring, they can very materially modify or prevent parox-
ysms of malarial fever. After an active life of thirty years
in the medical profession, I do not remember to have ever
had malarial fever, after being acclimated. A prolonged
residence in afy climate makes the close observer to be better
able to form a correct opinion as to the best places for those
seeking health and contentment, therefore the main
object of the writer of this article is simply to give a
correct outline of what may be expected and the ,
benefit derived by a residence amongst us.
THE ORANGE TREE AND ITS CULTIVATION
This interesting tree, with its dark green foliage and golden
colored fruit, is one of the most beautiful trees of the vege-
table kingdom. The botanical name citrus originated from
the town of Citron, in Judea. From the Latin Pomum Auran-
um we get the word orange. It is said the China, or sweet
orange, was first introduced into Europe from China by the
Portuguese in 1547. They were disseminated throughout
Europe from one of the gardens of the nobility in Lisbon.
Oranges were first taken to England in the reign of Edward I.
'by a Spanish ship; they were purchased by the Queen with
other fruits, of which only seven were oranges. No records
show of the fruit being imported until 1432 and in 1470; also
in 1502, when Elizabeth of York rewarded the servant of the
Spanish prothonotary for a present of oranges. In 1530 and
1539 records show that Henry VIII bought oranges for the
household. In 1558 The Stationers Company at their court
dinner paid the large sum of eight cents apiece for oranges.
In 1598 Stowe remarks they had become an article of com-
merce. The bitter orange was the first introduced into Eng-
land; they were the Seville, or bitter sweet. That orange
trees were cultivated in England one hundred years previous
to 1695 is well known. The trees were in open ground, but
in winter were protected from the cold by coverings. In the
beginning of the eighteenth century they were eighteen feet
high and about nine inches in diameter. They were destroyed
by the severe frost of the winter of 1738.
The French Gardener," published in London in 1672,
gives particulars as to planting seeds, transplanting and culti-
i vation. The instructions are Concerning orange and lim-
mon trees. I shall only deliver the principal and most or-
dinary government of them, which is to sow their pepins in
boxes, and when they are two years old transplant them in
cases filled with rich, mellow, bed mould, each tree by itself.
You may either inoculate or graft them by approach in the
spring of the year."
The introduction of the bitter sweet and sour oranges were
no doubt the result of the Spanish landing in Florida between
the years 1512 to 1565, or even later. It was at this time they
k were in possession of these two varieties only. The Portu-
guese, it is said, introduced the sweet orange fitm China in
1547, therefore it is not probable the Spaniards would have
introduced the sweet orange at that time. The keeping qual-
ities of the sour and bitter sweet, and the refreshing acid was
no doubt enjoyed by those early explorers on their voyage.
We find the large wild groves on margins of lakes and in
moist lands. The readiness with which the seed germinates
in moist earth and is nourished by the good, rich soil, we may
presume, started a few trees, the nucleus of the vast wild
groves. The oranges were no doubt carried by Indians from
one spot to another. Where soil and protection afforded the
trees a chance to grow they multiplied largely in that period.
There were no herds of roaming cattle to eat them down and
ultimately destroy them.
At Hampton Court, England, the orange trees are believed
to be 300 years old. The writer examined these trees some
years ago and learned they were only exposed to the open air
in summer. They are planted in large tubs, and stand in
front of the palace during the summer months. In size they
are about that of a sweet seedling grown in Florida, five
years old; leaves small, and in appearance a dwarfed tree in
every way. The same may be said of the specimens I ob-
served at Kew Gardens; they are not in their natural ele-
ment. The oranges are small. Trees grown in plant pots
also produce fruit in England. It is an established fact that
the older the tree becomes the finer the fruit. In Europe
there are large numbers of trees from 150 to 200 years old,
that increase in the quantity they produce each year. In-
stances are known in Spain of trees producing 20,000 oranges
to a tree. Florida can boast of trees that produce 10,000 to
The old and 'magnificent bitter orange, (citrus bigarade),
that for over four hundred and forty years adorned the i
orangery at Versailles, died a few years after the Franco- .
German war, said to have been through neglect. Its trunk
was twenty feet in circumference, and its height was forty
feet. It was planted in 1421, and transplanted to the orangery
at Versailles in 1532.
In regard to the benefit derived through eating oranges, as / l
their use becomes more general the demand will increase for ,|
the reason that when once a person acquires a taste for the
orange it is hard to deprive the appetite of this delicious fruit.
It has been proved by eminent medical authority that the use
of oranges are highly beneficial to health. The juice is com-
posed of mucilage, sugar, and citric acid, the most wholesome
vegetable juice known. It has no superior in the sick room.
The first shipments of oranges from Portugal, Spain and
Sicily arrive in England about the middle of November.
They are carried in steamships that hold from 10,000 to
24,000 boxes. Each box contains 350 oranges, whilst some
boxes from other Mediterranean ports contain from 420 to 710
The London merchants advance large sums of money to
the growers, who consign their oranges to them. The mer-
chants hand the shipments over to brokers, who sell them at
auction. The prices obtained are very low, still, high enough
to pay the growers a large profit. The headquarters are Pud-
ding lane, Thames street. Here I have watched the strong
porters carry box after box with a large pad, somewhat after a
horse collar, on the back of their neck, walk up a flight of
stairs to the upper floors of the warehouse with perfect ease.
They trudge all day long and are a very tough element. It's
" Git out of the way." Billingsgate is hard by, you will get a
little of its language if you attempt a refrain, therefore it is
better to keep out of the way: The amount of space occupied
with this large business and the rapidity with which it is car-
ried on is surprising. All the ports of Great Britain receive
oranges and lemons.
The varieties of oranges are very numerous. There is a
difference in the quality, size, color, and time of ripening.
In regard to the first point, some varieties are more acid, less
juicy and pulpy, while others are the reverse, deliciously
vinous and sweet, and nearly pulpless; in all the varieties,
asserted to be something over one hundred in Florida, but
only a few generally cultivated. It is difficult to find a poor
class of fruits. The uniform salubrity of the climate remains
high enough at the seasons the fruit forms and collects its
juices to insure a very fine quality of fruit, and with experience
of the cultivators in the treatment of their trees by proper
fertilization, Florida, with these advantages, produces fruit of
very superior excellence. The Italians prefer a soil with a
yellow clay subsoil, which is to be found in various parts of
the State. Then the limestone strata adds much to the forma-
tion of fine trees and fruit. The tree responds to good treat-
ment and pays largely in return. The thin, velvety peel,
with small, volatile oil glands, and the delicious, sweet pulp
cells, are the outcome of soil, climate and cultivation.
It is noticeable of trees grown from seed that the fruit is
generally fine in quality. This is a point in soil and climate.
Where trials have been made with a large variety of Florida
oranges as to their relative merits, the difference was not
enough for any judge to rule out any particular kind; they
are too much akin in every point-quality, size, and color.
Still there are varieties that are seedless, or nearly so, which
should be an advantage in their favor. Then it is asserted
that these varieties do not bear as heavily as the non-seedless
In regard to these matters, it is too premature to give an
opinion, soil and cultivation may give some advantage to the
The varieties of sizes are classed individually. Ninety-six
oranges will occupy a space that two hundred and forty of
another variety will. There is no doubt the larger the quan-
tity upon the tree the smaller the orange. This has been my
observation; whether it applies to new large varieties I can-
not determine; would be disposed to conclude it must be so,
since this rule applies somewhat to other fruits, still nature
may assert her rights in setting only enough fruit to produce i
a large size.
The sudden rush to Florida to start orange groves can be
compared to mining, working in soil without experience,
from which no good result will ever follow.
To select lands suited for orange culture has not been
seriously thought of by the general number of planters. Too
much importance cannot be attached to this point. Whilst
nearly every kind of land that is dry enough to work will
grow the orange tree, there are certainly favored spots,
and as such I attach the value, that some are valueless and
others are invaluable. There are many reasons to be given .
-soil that is too poor to grow the trees of nature is too poor
without great expense to grow the orange; lands too dry and
deep in silicious matter are not capable of sustaining the tree
in the short periods of dry weather in spring, at which season
the fruit sets, and if very dry will shed the embryo oranges, at
a great loss to the grower; whilst lands that are rich and low
produce rapid growth, and this too at a late season of the year,
when frost may be expected. Then lands that are open to
winter winds are not to be recommended, or others that are
wet and clayey. I presume to opinion that the soil, whether
pine or hammock, should be loamy with a clay subsoil, and
of the former not so devoid of the elements of natural fertility
as to need a heavy expense each year to keep the trees in a
healthy condition; they are not subject to disease, provided
in the periods of their growing they develop healthy leaves
and wood. This is not a difficult matter. The greatest
drawback the grower has is with new land, and more so with
hammock that has a large amount of undergrowth. It is
only after continual plowing that the trees grow, unless the
land has been prepared from six months to a year prior to
setting out the trees. Hammock lands, if good, have a top
surface of decaying vegetable matter that requires plowing
under and bringing into such condition that it will easily
absorb moisture. When this vegetable matter is decayed it
becomes a valuable plant food for the orange tree. Lands in
Florida that have a heavy growth of hickory, red, water and
post oaks, with magnolia, gum, bay, and a very few, but
large, pines, are underlaid with yellow clay at various dis-
tances from the surface, ranging from one to four feet. Too
large a proportion of red oak will indicate a thirsty gravelly
soil; this tree being a rapid grower is detrimental to the
orange tree if left too thick in a grove. The hickory drops
every year a large quantity of nuts, which decay and become
fine vegetable mold, and does not seem to effect the growth
of the orange tree; but whenever trees are planted in prox-
imity to forest trees it is necessary to be very liberal with
fertilizer to counteract the effect of forest growth.
In hammocks the trees that are cut down are usually piled
up in windows between the orange trees, and so rapid is the
decay, that in from six to eight years, the huge trunks and
branches become a mass of decayed matter; this, with the
addition of lime, can be used to fertilize the grove. If the
piles are made close it admits of a plow both ways, but not
entirely the width of one.
In regard to distance trees are planted, my opinion is that
we have generally planted too close. At from twenty to
thirty feet for the budded tree, whereas the seedling should
not be less than forty feet. The reason may be given, planters
have concluded that by placing trees at short distances there
is less liability of injury from frost. With the natural sweet
tree the distance might be forty feet. There is a strong pre-
judice against the great distance last named. The rapid
growth of the trees and size they make when isolated are
conclusive proofs that even forty feet would not be too great
a distance. Natural sweet trees transplanted at four years old
will attain a height of sixteen feet, and a diameter of six
inches one foot from the crown roots in from four to five
years after being planted. This size is attained by
good cultivation and transplanting in soil that has been
broken up at least one year. Such trees bear from four to
five years after transplanting. At twelve years from trans-
planting, making the tree sixteen years old, the tree would be
twenty-five feet in height, and diameter fourteen inches, one
foot from the crown roots.
Unlike many other trees the orange, even when loaded
down with fruit, grows vigorously, putting on branches to be
covered with fruit the coming season; the periods of growing
extend from February to October.
The sour and bitter sweet orange stocks are used for bud-
ding; any variety of orange grows rapidly when budded or
grafted into them. The buds or grafts are inserted from one
to two feet from the crown roots, thereby insuring a low
growing, handsome tree. Stocks budded when one year old
bear three years after. If the stocks are older, say three to
four years, oranges will frequently appear the next season
after budding, and at three years from budding give from
100 to 200 oranges per tree-this result depends
much upon variety, care, and seasons. It should be under-
stood by all who intend to enter upon orange culture, good,
successful results are only attained by experience and patience.
I do not attempt to set aside the experience of others or
presume to direct those who have succeeded. I cannot help
coming to the conclusion that the making of an orange grove
does not require extraordinary skill to bring a grove into
bearing; there are rules to follow that if carried out success
may be anticipated. I have trees that have gone far beyond
my expectations. It has not been due, particularly, to extra
care or skill in cultivation, but more to fertilizing-in fact,
feeding the trees. No matter how good the soil may be, it
requires other elements than soil, stimulants in fact, to
develop the inert properties of the earth. There are a
variety of opinions as regards fertilizing materials. Where
it is possible, I would advise well-rotted stable manure; this
put around the trees early in January, and hoed in, acts like
a charm upon the spring growth, and more so upon land that
has been planted some years. It gives the soil vegetable
matter, ammonia, and salts. Where this material cannot be
obtained, the grower must resort to a commercial fertilizer
that will analyze as near as possible to stable manure. I would
not indorse the entire use of stable manure. It can be alternat-
ed with bone meal or a manufactured fertilizer. Soils that are
devoid of vegetable matter should be made up by carting it
on in the winter, put in heaps, and spread in January, to be
hoed or plowed in (the latter never in bearing groves). Then
the use of the carbonate of lime or refuse from the kilns can-
not be too highly recommended. I have seen the effects of
this being spread over the ground and harrowed in. Pine
lands can be benefited by its use.
The orange trees of Florida are not subject to diseases that
are not amenable to treatment, or insects that are not under
the control of the planter. The experiments made by the
Department of Entomology, under the direction of Professor
Riley, have solved the problem that the planter is now master
of the present pests that he may encounter. The remedies
are quick in application, cheap and effective. The rust mite
Mr. Hubbard and others claim to have conquered by means
of syringing with solutions. The idea that by severe Druning
and heavy fertilization the mastery could be obtained over
insect pests is absurd. The severe pruning is not necessary,
provided the planter prevents the trees from becoming covered
with insects, but the heavy fertilization is necessary should
the tree be seriously damaged, A careful planter avoids
either extreme, and' prevents the rapid spread of insects by
arresting their development beyond control.
A grove should be situated as near as possible to trans-
portation, or the expense of cartage maybe enough to fertilize
or even care for the grove. This is loss in time and money.
The trees require constant care and watchfulness on the part
of the owner or his overseer-not that in point of labor, but a
looking over generally and frequently. This becomes to the
planter a great source of pleasure, in fact there is a fascina-
tion that seems to link the cultivator to the trees. Few care
to sell a grove when once it yields a return.
II I I I
The value of fine bearing grove can only be estimated by
the location, age, size, and condition of the trees. Groves
that are valued at $1,000 per acre are in some instances dear,
in others cheap. We will consider the income from such a
grove. Taken at ten acres with 700 trees, these, if yielding
four boxes per tree per annum, would produce a gross sum
for the 2,800 boxes at $2.50 per box; deduct picking, sizing,
wrapping, packing, boxes, marking, freight, cartage, and
commission, would net the grower about $1.50 per box. The
sale price is about the medium. There are times when the
box of oranges brings $4.00, and again $2.00. Take the net
price at $1.50 per box this gives the grower an income of
$5,800. The cost of care, fertilizers, taxes and incidentals
would not be over $1,200 per annum. The foregoing state-
ment is based upon observations in groves that produce these
results. We must take into consideration the trees are only
entering upon their bearing stage, therefore at $1,500 per acre
a grove of this class cannot be but cheap, in fact, a fine in-
investment. Take these same trees five years from the time
they have yielded four boxes per tree, and if the trees are not
too closely set, run up in ten years to twelve and fifteen boxes
per annum. From two acres of natural sweet trees that were
sixteen to eighteen years old, as high a sum as $1.700 was the
net return. We must allow this grove of two acres would be
worth more than $2,000 per acre. Therefore it is presumption
without knowledge to assert the value of orange groves have
depreciated; far from it I The owners of groves do not all
comprehend the great value this property will become with
There is claimed for Florida an Orange Belt, the true
meaning of which assertion is, that within that radius the
orange tree grows to greater perfection, and is less liable to
frost. This is correct, since the cold seasons have from time
to time demonstrated that there are favored spots. These
locations are to be found in the latitude that is suited to the
tree, therefore East Florida may be termed the Orange Land.
The trees were cultivated at St. Augustine prior to 1835
quantities of the fruit were exported annually, bringing to
the growers a large return. In 1838 the Orange Coccus, a
scale insect, made its appearance at Mandarin. Their intro-
duction was due to the importation of trees. In three or four
years the insect had spread rapidly; in 1840 they were intro-
duced in St. Augustine from the trees at Mandarin; by 1855
the insect spread over the entire State, and during this year
another scale insect was imported from Bermuda. The num-
ber of washes and treatment these insects received was in-
numerable. Some of these appeared to arrest their progress.
Like many scourges the insects disappeared to a great extent,
no doubt due to a better state of cultivation and insect
enemies that brought about a balance of nature. There are
many insects that feed upon the scales. The emulsions now
used are effective, therefore the grower may look upon the
scale insects really controlled.
There is no class of property (except that which rises in
value suddenly through the growth of cities) that can com-
pare with orange growing. When once the trees are fully
established they are capable of enduring great extremes of
heat, drought, and as much cold as may be anticipated in the
State, for during the hard freeze of January 1886 the thermo-
meter stood at 150 above zero for four days and nights as far
south as lat. 260 In exposed positions small trees were killed
entirely, whereas the trees that were on high, dry situations,
partially protected, were least affected-in many instances
did not lose a leaf or twig. The seasons of winters that fol-
low the cold ones are not severe enough to injure the trees,
therefore between these periods they grow rapidly until
they are large enough to withstand severe cold. Trees that
are well cultivated and healthy resist the ;cold to a greater
degree than the reverse, therefore the owners of groves, who
from experience know these facts, place much higher value on
their property than the uninitiated can. A grove that will
pay as many do, of ten acres, not planted twelve years, a
yearly income of five to six thousand dollars is valued very
There are two classes of groves in the State-the trees that
are the old wild stocks budded with sweet fruit, and the
symmetrical transplanted trees. This latter grove admits of
finer cultivation. In point of value the grove made from wild
stocks must be determined by the yield, expense for care
and closeness of the trees. The thinning out of these wild
groves has been a source of great income to the owners.
Thousands of these large trees are sold to those who desire a
quick bearing tree. The transplanting of trees requires
skill and care. The extra cost of the trees and planting does
not compensate the grower in proportion to a smaller tree and
more of them-that is my experience. Therefore a tree with
a one, two, or three year bud, good nursery stock, well plant-
ed and cared for, are at all times to be recommended; one of
these large trees cost, with planting, some six dollars; for
this sum six trees of the two year buds can be bought and
planted, and trees that are well rooted-a great consideration.
In regard to transplanting a tree the last named class, with
diligent care and good cultivation, the planter may expect a
fair crop in four or five years after planting, whilst with the
larger trees he will do no better, and perhaps lose several in
transplanting-yet he may not if the work is done by an
experienced planter. I give these facts from close observa-
tion and experience. There are many discouragements to be
met with in starting a grove. It must be understood, how-
ever, that this applies to the new-comer, but to the experi-
enced the starting of a grove and bringing it into bearing is,
in reality, a simple affair; he takes advantage of the season
selects the right soil, situation, and follows the cultivation as
the circumstances necessitate, (this depends on the weather) it
would be impossible to lay down a rule, still there are certain
lines to follow. It seems every planter has his own particular
experience, and perhaps can show a fine grove as the result of
his management. Still, he may have made many mistakes
and have expended money enough to have twice the result.
He has succeeded, therefore clings to his ideas that may be
totally at variance with the experience of another planter,
upon a different soil and situation.
In the matter of soil, it is not at all infrequent to find ham-
mock and pine lands of from three to four different surface
soils and subsoils. That upon ten acres the difference of soil
can be observed by the appearance of the trees, some will be
on richer spots than others, or dryer, and to meet this pecu-
liarity the grower resorts to the use of fertilizers that are re-
quired to bring the trees along in even growth, or some will
stand still and others thrive. There is one peculiarity about
the orange tree, it will live for years and grow but little,
become bark-bound and sickly if let alone.
The most interesting part of their cultivation is the way
the trees respond to good treatment, this encourages the
grower, until the trees become an interesting object.
A variety of opinion exists as to the time of transplanting.
I have tried every month in the year with good success, (but
the tree should not be covered with soft growth when moved), it was
not on a large scale, but with plenty of watering and care the
trees have lived. About the middle of January to the middle
of February, just before the sap rises, may be considered a
good season. If the trees are to be planted in a protected
spot, November and early part of December are safe months.
Very little, if any, of the growth need be cut back, or
the sap will rise and make a tender tree liable to frost. June
provided the weather is wet is also a good season; if dry, very
bad. In planting, use bottom soil around the roots, as it is
free from humus, which is liable to dry quickly and thus kill
out the fibrous roots. From two to three pails of water
should be used to settle the soil around them; the root fibres
should be spread out and covered carefully, so that the earth
may be packed close. After the tree is planted a ring should
be hoed around it in the form of an inverted saucer, leaving
a concave surface that will hold water at each watering; a
coating of leaves or pine straw must be placed over the entire
hoeing to prevent drying, or the rays of the hot sun scalding
the roots. Trees planted in this way rarely die, in fact, not
one per cent., (yet there may be ten, if a dry, hot season).
The losses may come from other causes, although the trees
live they may not grow, whilst others will. This does not
apply to all lands that are planted, the losses are more on
new lands than on older cultivated ones-the soil may be
S dryer or wetter in spots, or the trees may not be constitution-
ally the same. Take one thousand trees and some will be
more vigorous than others, therefore a planter may have to
transplant his grove several times before he succeeds in mak-
ing it uniform. Only to the extent, perhaps, of five or ten
per cent. of the amount originally planted. It is not the rule;
many groves have been made without this trouble. For
several months after transplanting the trees require little else
than watering-the cultivating does not take place until the
year after planting, and then the better the cultivation the
more the trees grow.
Growers too frequently anticipate a return before it is pos-
sible to get it; whilst some approximate idea can be given as
to the expected crop, no certainty can be laid out. It may
be from four to six years after the trees are planted that they
lighten up the expense of care given them, and begin to put
the balance on the other side
I am frequently surprised at the unreasonable expectations
of those who invest money in orange growing.
To begin with this subject, I will illustrate the outlay and
anticipated profit. The investor buys land, has it planted
with trees, and pays for four years care-say of 20 acres-
the total cost of land, trees and care for the four years, would
in all probability not be over $4,000-may be more or less,
this is a medium. At four years there may be a crop suffi-
cient to pay expenses, perhaps not less than five. The $4,000
would be about the cost even if it ran for five years. The
price I give is for first class hammock land; good pine land
would be from one-third less, but the extra fertilizing
would bring the amount up to the cost of hammock. With
this outlay of $4,000 the investor expects that he will get an
income of, at least, at the end of eight to ten years from the
time of planting, not less than three to five thousand dollars
per annum-in fact in two years get back all that was ex-
pended with the interest. In view of this many owners of these
groves are continually complaining of the expense, and at
every step try to curtail, and even let the trees suffer for want
of fertilizers, with the prospect of a fine property and income.
I can instance several groves that did not cost, the owners
being residents here, anything like the above sum. These
groves to-day are giving the owners from three to four thou-
sand dollars per annum; but whilst waiting for the trees
to bear they were continually complaining of what a great
expense it was to them, not that they were needy. It can
only be compared to a want or share of common sense. Then
there are others who will assert that groves do not pay, and
perhaps these very men began the cultivation of orange groves
without means to pay a day's help, yet to-day they have fine
groves, homes, and every comfort. Where did it come from
if not from the grove? If they have not succeeded it must be
because the debit is larger than the credit for some imagined
There is one difficulty that is about controlled-that is, the
disposition of the crops. The Florida Fruit Exchalge," an
organization formed for the purpose of distributing it to
points that have not been reached ; this is one of the steps
towards a difficulty that seemed at one time possible. Many
growers have houses they ship to on consignment. These
houses receive the fruit, sell, deduct their commission-10 per
cent., freight and cartage, and remit the grower the net pro-
ceeds. This system works well in the hands of honest men,
and there are some; but the easy way in which a new house
may start has brought many unreliable people into this busi-
ness whose only aim is to benefit themselves. The Fruit
Exchange makes it their business to select good houses; still,
there are instances of complaint against this association, but
there were two sides to the question-the fruit may have
been badly packed or the Exchange may have anade a mis-
take; whatever has been done was possibly with good intent
on the Dart of the officers of the concern. It must be under-
stood that many men can grow oranges, but few can market
them unless assistance is at hand to dispose of their produc-
tion in a proper manner.
Whether the Fruit Exchange will solve the problem of dis-
tribution or whether it will come about from a natural outlet,
the efforts of this association are to be commended. There
are in the association some of the best informed men on the
growing and disposing of the fruit, and who are responsible,
reliable, and interested in the workings of the Exchange.
The orange boxes are made to a size that will hold 240
small oranges or 96 large ones, with a division in the middle,
half of either of these numbers being on each side, carefully
packed, and wrapped in paper. Machines are used to size up
the oranges, regular layers being made in packing. Boxes
when made up cost about 13c. each; paper for wrapping a
box of oranges about 5c. The orange box is really a neat
affair, light, strong, and cheap. When shipped they are
marked to signify the grade; a number indicates the quantity,
the name, number, or trade mark of the grower, and the
name of the consignee. The grade informs the latter of the
quality of the orange, it may be bright, medium, or russet.
In regard to the latter, the cause has been clearly defined by
Mr. H. G. Hubbard in his work on orange insects. Their
habits, classification, and destruction are so thoroughly
understood that the grower need not fear any trouble on
Of all the fruits raised in Florida, the orange will rank the
first in importance. The reason is, that in point of competi-
tion with any other States, Florida will in time outstrip the
production in quantity, quality, and price.
In regard to the impression of many as to over-production,
we will take into consideration the increasing demand. In
1831 England imported of oranges and lemons some 270,606
boxes, containing about 700 to the box; in 1865, 1,566,745
bushels; in 1876, 2,995,323 bushels, and in 1878, 3,533,781
bushels. Since the last named date the increased importa-
tions to Great Britain have been very large. In 1878, with a
population of 33,000,000, after the exportation of some of the
shipments, the estimated quantity consumed was 700,000,000
oranges and lemons.
In 1883 the importation into the United States, from all
sources was, of oranges, 280,862,160 from the Mediterranean,
(40 per cent, of which perished on the voyage); 33,150,363
from other ports (50 per cent. perishing); 16,000,000 from
Florida; and of lemons, 316,500,360 were imported (20 per
cent. perishing). From these figures we can easily see the
vast demand that is building up.
In 1886 and 1887, including all ports, about 1,200,000 boxes
of oranges, and 2,500,000 boxes of lemons, were imported.
Florida sent out of the State about 850,000 boxes in the
last above mentioned season.
These figures do not include the California or Louisiana
crop, which are not sufficient to be considered as very im-
portant factors in the question of large increasing supplies
enough to interfere with the crop from Florida, since the
California oranges are marketed at a season when the bulk
of the Florida crop is gone. The consumption of oranges is
rapidly on the increase. It is a question whether we can
keep up with the increase of population. Anticipating the
latter to be 80,000,000 in the year 1898, can we supply the
demand ten years from now, should it increase at the same
ratio as in the past years?
The acreage of trees in good condition has not increased
as anticipated. Frost, poor cultivation, and lands unfit
for growing the tree are the cause of failures. The immens-
ity of the business that can be worked up will be due to the
supply, transportation, and distribution; no matter how
large the crop will be, it will find an outlet. The quality of
the fruit, and freshness, will create a large demand, rather
than the wilted, thick-skinned, pulpy foreigner. Prosper-
ous times for the State are anticipated. It will not be many
years hence when Florida will ship 5,000,000 boxes per annum.
For a more general account of the insects affecting the
orange, I refer my reader to Mr. H. G. Hubbard's work on
this subject, valuable, conclusive, and covering the entire
history of the insect pests, and their destruction by an emul-
sion of kerosene oil and whale oil soap.
In regard to the rust mite, if the grower will closely observe
.his trees he will notice the difference between a healthy leaf
or branch and one that has a yellow green rusty appearance,
which is caused by the rust mite. I made particular observa-
tions during the past year, and I am quite satisfied with Mr.
Hubbard's opinion. Trees of all ages and sizes are attacked
by the mite. I have also noticed bright green fruit up to
June, but on the branches the mites would be very thick,
and then worked their way down over the stem of the
orange until they covered one half of the fruit, leav-
ing the underside as though a line had been laid out.
Their food evidently consists of the essential oil. The young
are produced from eggs, that hatch in four or five days in
summer, and this operation is not suspended in winter,
but retarded, and considering the rapid rate at which
they can travel-from 10 to 12 feet per hour-they can
easily overrun a grove. My impression is that they have a
period when they are in great abundance, followed by one of
less degree. I have noticed groves that were one year over-
run, and the next much less, whilst another grove adjoining
would be overrun where it had been the reverse.
Upon a leaf examined in January, and upon an area of one
square inch, 4568 mites and eggs were counted, and upon the
entire upper surface of the leaf 68,520, whilst upon the under
side of the leaf the number was estimated at 25,000, therefore
the ,mites and eggs on a single leaf amounted to about
90,000. Can it be wondered why oranges are rusty after this
army has been oyer the skin and extracted its oil. Instead
of deteriorating the quality of the fruit, except in appear-
ance, it is improved in its keeping qualities.
Whenever the mites overrun a tree it presents a dry, dusty
appearance, and yellow, sickly leaves; such trees well fertil-
ized are soon restored to color by the flow of sap.
The scale insects begin at the lower limbs of the tree and
work their way upwards, destroying the small twigs and
branches in their course. The grower who gives his trees at-
tention observes this, and at once proceeds to arrest their
progress. This is more difficult to do if the tree is dormant,
therefore it is necessary to resort to a fertilizer (liquid man-
ure) to give the tree a quick flow of sap; this with the ap-
plication of the emulsion will destroy the entire list of scale
insects, and thereby ensure a healthy tree. It is very little
use to depend on one application without the other. In my
experience I have taken trees in hand that looked hopeless-
at the present time the trees are healthy and robust.
In regard to the rust mite, several growers claim to destroy
these by an application of lime, sulphur, etc.
Again, in regard to irrigation, there are different methods
pursued. One that is more generally applied is soaking the
soil at intervals. Groves that are planted on thin, deep,
sandy soils would, no doubt, be greatly benefited by such
practice. It must be understood that where the soil is selected
by experienced cultivators no such practice is necessary; the
yellow clay at no great distance below the surface holds mois-
ture for months, in fact, is a reservoir for the roots to pene-
trate. In experiments made in dry seasons,. I have
been surprised to find the clay cold and moist at two, three,
and four feet below the surface. The peculiarity of this clay,
its tenacity, increases with its depth, which enables the roots
to penetrate deeply. I do not extol this class of land beyond
any other. I have applied the remarks to lands that are high
and dry as there are many lands that are low and moist and
yet safe from frost, either by water or forest protection.
In observations made during the nights when I anticipated
a very low temperature, I found that trees on low open
ground, if the day had been bright and warm, would be
covered with moisture (dew from the radiation of heat) at 12
o'clock midnight, which would be frozen into a glaze from
two to six a. m. Trees in this condition, more especially young,
tender growth, and leaves, wilt down and die before the bright
morning sun. I have found that syringing with cold water
before the sun rises, will, if the freeze is not too severe, and
the prospect of a rise in the thermometer, save the growths
and leaves. Again I have found where the trees are on high
lands with partial protection, that the in periods of time before
named the trees would be dry the entire night and morn;
this dry condition is well known to be advantageous to the
trees on cold nights.
In regard to planting budded or sweet trees, if the land is
high and dry and the cultivator wishes a quick return, plant
budded trees. It is a good plan to plant some of each, say
half. Plant sweet trees in the more exposed places. I once
observed a budded and sweet tree side by side, each about
the same age-sixteen years old. In size the sweet tree was
majestic, and symmetrical in form; whilst the budded tree was
as wide as high. In bearing the sweet tree bids fair to outstrip
its companion. These trees were exposed to winds and cold,
were perfectly healthy. The sweet seedling tree may be
relied upon for producing as fine a fruit as the parent tree,
and even better. To be certain of a good variety it is well to
avoid seed from fruit grown in proximity to bitter sweet or
sour trees. I have known instances of hybrids; it is not
As to the hardiness of the orange tree, many of the old
inhabitants assert the trees are better able to withstand
cold, that they are becoming acclimated, and from their
observations the present generation of trees are stronger. It is
a fact worth consideration that trees that are raised in open
ground will endure several degrees more cold than those
raised in a close, protected spot.
The importation of oranges will cease; Florida will produce
oranges cheap enough to sell at a good profit, and low enough
to create a large demand. We may anticipate a period when
a box of oranges will go to New York for 20c., and then will be
the time when Florida will shine forth in all her glory. One
successful enterprise will build up another, and those who
have built it up will look back with pride and honor upon
the difficulties they have encountered-these are the heroes of
the State, who will have demonstrated one of Florida's resources
midst difficulties, losses and inexperience, that required
great faith, and I trust all will be rewarded who have under-
taken this interesting branch of horticulture in the face of
prejudice and ignorance of our noble fruit.
The odoriferousness of the orange tree is due to three dis-
tinct oils that are extracted from the flowers, leaves, and
rind. From the flowers we have orange flower water, the
manufacture of which is carried on very extensively in France
and Italy. The bitter sweet orange flowers yield the greatest
fragrance, and from them the well known product neroli
oil is obtained; even the small unripe oranges are distilled,
and used for the same purpose as the orange flower water.
Oil is also extracted from the leaves of the bitter orange.
The oils contained in the rind are stomatic and carminative
and excellent as a tonic when used in bitter infusions. The
rind is used in connection with confectionery, also in the
manufacture of marmalade, a healthful preserve and tonic ;
when properly manufactured can be eaten by the delicate in
health to great advantage.
All cultivators have their own methods, but they are not
all successful. The different classes of soils, situation and
protection, requires different modes of treatment, for one cul
tivator whose experience may have been upon one class of
soil, and under circumstances that the treatment of the trees
necessitated more or less skill, that he can attempt to in-
struct another cultivator cannot be expected; take for example,
heavy hammock largely made up of blue clay, tenacious, and
at every long dry spell becomes hard and full of cracks;
would it be reasonable to plow this land and let the soil set
in hard baked lumps of earth ? I know of groves made upon
this soil that have not been plowed after the first two years
the trees were planted, and are kept in perfect order by the
hoe; these trees have grown finely, and yield large crops.
This soil would yield 30 to 40 bushels of corn to the acre.
We will take the brown, loamy soil, or grey hammock; here
we have a dryer soil, which requires little else than periodical
plowings to break up the mass of fibrous roots and bury the
decaying vegetable matter, whilst the cultivation of the trees
must be carried out with the hoe. This class of land is bene-
fited around the trees by the application of hydrate of lime
chopped in with the hoe. The trees upon this, as with pine
land, develop a large amount of fibrous roots. When this
loamy hammock soil becomes thoroughly settled, in fact,
packed, the trees grow with astonishing rapidity; it may be
from two to three years before the soil settles-it depends on
Pine lands of the first-class, being easier to clear and plow,
require about the same treatment as light hammock; the
trees grow off more rapidly than in the latter named soil, and
as with all other soils, a stimulating fertilizer must be used
to keep the trees up to a standard of health. Whilst upon
pine lands of the second class, light, sand pine, high and dry,
the cost of fertilizers will reduce the profits of culture and,
in fact, disappoint the grower. Therefore, it is advisable to
procure good soil; in the end the cost of fertilizer would
amount to more than the extra cost of the land to such an
extent beyond calculation; for if the elements necessary for
the production of wood, leaves and fruit are wanting, they
must be added, perhaps at a great expense. The ashes of the
Potash . . . 20.15 I Soda .. . 10.22
Lime .. 30.12 Magnesia .. .. 9.02
Phosphoric Acid . 20.04 Sulphuric Acid . 1.08
Silicious Acid . 2.82 Iron and other residue .62
We can easily see the necessity of feeding the trees beyond
the supply obtained in the soil. The ashes from the trunk,
branches and leaves constitute:
Potash . . . 14.15 Soda . . . 16.67
Lime . .... .31.57 Magnesia. . 10.64
Phosphoric Acid . 18.82 Sulphuric Acid . 4.19
Silicious Acid 2.82 Iron and other residue .44
Hence the reason why good lands are necessary to produce
fine trees and fruit without the aid of expensive fertilizers.
Soils that contain carbonate of lime supply the soda and lime;
next must be a large supply of potash, in decayed vegetable
matter, from which we obtain the phosphoric acid, sulphuric
acid and other organic matter. Iron enters little into the
composition of tree or fruit, the use of iron as fertilizer sours
the soil, and can only be corrected with hydrate of lime; still
a small quantity of iron is beneficial.
In regard to fertilizers, unless a reliable commercial'fertil-
izer can be obtained, it is better, if possible, to resort to well-
rotted manure. We can see from the following constituents
the composition. The chemical properties depend large-
ly upon the food animals are fed upon, therefore
I do not give the analysis; this would not apply
to every quantity of manure, but it is safe to presume if the
latter is made up as it should be, of soluble organic matter,
from whcih we obtain nitrogen, silica, phosphate of lime,
lime, magnesia, potash, soda, chloride of sodium, sulphuric
acid, carbonic acid gas, and the oxides of iron and alumina.
With well-rotted stable manure we have given the soil all the
elements necessary. I have made many experiments with
various fertilizers, but in no case have I observed the effect so
decided as with rotted manure. It would not, perhaps, be
within the reach of every cultivation to procure this article,
and it is not necessary upon lands that are full of humus, but
it is on soils that have been long cultivated in orange trees.
Where it is impossible to procure the rotted manure in suffi-
.. 4 -
cient quantities, leaves, or humus, with the aid of chemicals
will no doubt supply the want.
From researches I have made as to the fertilizers used
generally abroad, guano and the manure of horses, goats, and
sheep are used largely, supplemented with irrigation. This
is practiced in Italy, Sicily, Spain, Turkey, Syria, Morocco,
Mexico, California., and partially in Jamaica.
The soil and climate of Florida is certainly more congenial
to the growth :of the orange than almost any other country
that is near the markets that demand the fruit. In regard to
Jamaica the orange ripens and is packed at a season of great
heat, and under, these circumstances the fruit is more liable
to decay in transit; this applies to many other orange grow-
ing regions; whilst the fruit can be grown, it is difficult to
market it in good condition.
The general crop ripening as it does in the winter of Florida,
and more especially in the months of October, November and
December, at a time when the seasons are dry, cool and clear,
the fruit perfects its juices to the extent that a Florida grown
orange has become known for its delicious, vinous juice. The
sandy soils are preferred by cultivators; the reasons are,
these soils retain moisture where clay is near the surface, are
not subject to being baked in hot weather, and attract mois-
ture in cooling down at night if stirred up in warm weather.
INSECTS AFFECTING THE ORANGE TREE.
We may consider the various opinions and experience of
cultivators, in regard to insects that effect orange trees, only
of value when they have a thorough knowledge and control of
these pests, therefore I will endeavor to explain some of the
useless methods that have been applied, in some instances suc-
cessful, in none certain. Why? Because to master an enemy
you must know his vulnerable part and be able to destroy
quickly and certain. It would be difficult for me to give the
list of various nostrums that have been tried, some with partial
success, others with apparent success, and others to the serious
injury of the trees. The peculiar conformation of scale insects
renders it necessary to use such means that will reach the
vital parts and destroy the perfect insect or its egg. The in-
sects have their periods of propagation, and at these seasons
they are more easily kept down, therefore it is better to close-
ly observe if any insects are on the trees. If so, at once resort
to the syringe and prevent their increase. They do not spread
with such rapidity that they are difficult to control, nor do
they attackk the tree in a mass, but begin on the lower
branches. It is then they must be at once worked on. My
experience is they increase more in Feburary, March, August
and September. At one time it was presumed guano water
syringed on the trees was a certain remedy. Turpentine,
syrup, soap, Potash aud a long list of mixtures have been
tried to no purpose. Until the perfected emulsion by Prof. C.
V. Riley and Mr. H. G. Hubbard, were adopted after a
thorough scientific series of experiments were made. It was
fully demonstrated that if the formula was made up properly
and applied as directed, there was do doubt of the destruction
of the scale and its eggs. These experiments were not the
work of uncertainty, but gauged to a degree of nicety that
they were enabled to decide how strong the emulsion must be
to utterly destroy the scale and not injure the tree. These
experiments and the result are invaluable to the orange culti-
vator, and have given to the State an incalculable Uenefit,
that is only appreciated by those who know its value.
It is boldly asserted by many that if the trees are kept in a
fine state of cultivation they will never be attacked with
scale-this is an absurdity. Any one with the least idea of
tree culture must understand that scale insects are a local
trouble to the tree, and are in no way connected with the
cultivation. The insect attacks the vigorous and sickly tree
alike. Many let their trees become so badly infested that
they resort to pruning and trust to a new lot of branches,
believing this to be a cure, while it is only cultivating new
foliage for the insect to attack-an absurdity in the extreme.
Scale insects are prepared to settle upon any tree, no matter
in what condition it may be, and what is remarkable, they
stcw to thrive, in fact, develop with ammoniated manures.
In an experiment I made this summer, 1888, by penning some
20 chickens in a small clump of trees, the entire lot of trees
were covered in three months with long scale-two applica-
tions of emulsion destroyed them. Orange trees grown near
by a stable or poultry house are nearly always infected with
Let those who depend upon a high state of cultivation and
ignore any other means for the destruction or prevention of
scale, anticipate success, they are sure to be convinced 6n the
end. I have found many persons who have applied washes
to the serious injury of their trees. It was the application,
perhaps, of some ingredient that was not regulated according
to any degree of certainty as to whether it killed the scale or
injured the tree. When kerosene emulsion is made and
applied properly, no injurious effects follow, but a certain
destruction of the scale. Then others presume that the use
of certain kinds of fertilizers will destroy scale; it may make
the trees grow thrifty, but it does not destroy the insect.
Experiments have been made with sulphate of iron, as much
as six pounds to a tree, raked in. It is well known that the
continued application of sulphate of iron is injurious to vege-
tation, and if so, why is it not to the orange tree ? Trees so
treated Were not entirely cleared of the scale; there is no
assurance they would be. It must be highly injurious to apply
every second or third year from three to six pounds of sul-
phate of iron to destroy the scale, therefore this method is
unreasonable and unsound. Then others have resorted to
boring holes in the trees and filling with sulphur, or calo-
mel, made claim for this method, all of which are poisonous
in the end. Sulphate of iron (or green vitriol) contains "28.9
per cent. of of sulphusic accid, 28.3 protoxide of iron and 44
water," Where are the destructive agencies to the scale in
the above analysis on fertilizing properties? If there is a
large amount of organic matter in the soil, the sulphuric acid
would soon destroy this, and the iron render the soil sour.
So much for this theory.
I have merely given an outline of the various trials made
without regard to their value. I attach nothing to them but
draw attention to those who wish to succeed in destroying
scale, to adopt the only safe, effiient and satisfactory remedy.
Kerosene emulsion, a brief outline of the scale insects and
their general character, will enable the cultivator to recognize
them before they become numerous enough to require a
MVI SPiB CTrRICOLA. (Pct.)--l Sles on oange leaf natural size. la, ksae
of female, dr l view. Scale of female wLth central scale and eggs. -c. Scale of
wArrnrA PEArnana co wTr-- sale o Female. lb scle of malenlarges,
Im rins convone.a (Rc S es on oange eafs Inatural f.0x. scale of
ferle dora view,, s. Scle of male Sale of female with rcatrl sale and
"Mytilaspie Oirieol (Packard), to which the 'ame 'purple
scale' may be given, is somewhat larger than Mytilaspi
Gloverii, which it resembles in general form, and with which
it is commonly confounded. Itis, however, usually dark pur-
ple in color, individual scale varying to red brown. Like the
long scale it is found upon the twigs and branches, and it is
apt to infest the lemon citron and those varieties of orange
which have large cells, Tangerine, etc.
"Parlaonia Pergandii (Comstock), is small thin scale nearly
circular in outline. In color it so closely resembles the bark
that it very often escapes notice, in fact many persons whose
groves are suffering from the attacks of this scale are unaware
of its presence. It infests by preference the trunk and larger
branches, and to these it generally confines itself, until every
portion of their surface is thickly coated and the young bark
lice can no longer find places to plant themselves. It is also
frequently seen upon the fruit. The young often form their
scales underneath or over the mother, and are found pilled
upon one another in a manner never seen in the other scales.
From their resemblance to a coating of fine chaff or bran upon
the trunk of the trees they are called the 'chaff scale.'
Mytilaspis Gloverii, (Pack.) is the most destructive, while
it is the most readily destroyed. The purple scale is, in my
experience, rarer tho' altogether not less injurious than the
long scale to the trees which it infest, It is somewhat more
difficult to kill than the latter. The chaff scale (P. Pergandii)
is hardly less common than the long scale and is very frequent-
ly associated with it.
"On the tree it is decidedly the most difficult to exterminate,
owing in part at least to is habit of piling or lapping one over
the other. Except upon very young trees, it seldom does per-
manent injury, and is much less to be feared than the other
two species. Its thinner scale renders it liable to the attacks
of enemies to a much greater extent than the Mytilaspis
scales, and they often cause its complete disappearance from a
The foregoing particulars are by Mr. H. G. Hubbard, who
has made a close study of these insects. Their habits and
propogation have also been fully explained by Profs. Glover,
Packard and Comstock. Their periods of incubation, growth
and migration are more rapid during the warmer seasons of
the year. The winters of Florida are not severe enough to de-
stroy them or suspend their increase for any length of time,
that would be particularly noticeable. The horny covering,
similar to the shell of a snail, protects the insect from any
ordinary wash, but is not invulnerable to kerosene emulsion.
The searching properties of the former are well known and
when applied with the soap enters under the covering and de-
stroys the insect without injuring the tree in the least. I
have found that 24.hours after syringing the insects drop off
the leaves and on microscopical examination they were dead.
The scales are subject to many insect enemies. The black
"lady bug" often observed at work on the tree is busy devour-
ing the scale. Then there are mites who feed on the
lil i ` _.
young and eggs. There are also minute winged flies who
pierce the scale to deposit a single egg, this in turn becomes
a grub that feeds upon the scale insect; after this insect leaves
the shell the mites enter and find a home. The aid of the
numerous enemies keep the scale insects somewhat in check.
There are many objections raised as to the cost of applying
the emulsion, this can only be for want of knowledge as to
the cost of material and time for application. I will begin
with the outlay necessary to carry on the operation:
One syringe, (only buy the best brass tubes, tinkered up
without valves are useless.) Brass pump, simple and effective,
cost $6,00; cost of two gallons of best keroene, 30cts; one
half pound of best whale oil soap, 3cts; one gallon of water.
This will make when diluted 27 gallons. One half gallon
will be sufficient for a good size tree, one pint for a small one.
I give from two to three applications. If three the cost for
the larger size tree would be about, 4cts., this would include
time in application and making up the emulsion. Trees so
treated twice each year can be kept perfectly clean. I claim
trees should not be allowed to become in such a condition
that its necessary to have a big affair on hand to attend to
cleanse them. It may only be necessary to treat a few trees
in a grove, therefore the expense would be very small.
The emulsion is made ur as follows: Two gallons of best
quality kerosene oil; one gallon of water, and one half pound
best whale oil soap. Boil the soap in the water until it is
disolved then pour this in the vessel containing the oil; place
the pump in the former and pump backward and forward un-
til the whole mass becomes a creamy substance. Put it away
in a bottle and use it when necessary; add to one pint nine
pints of cold water, churn it through the pump before apply-
ing to the trees, this should be done in cloudy weather in the
evening, at intervals of every ten days. March, June and
September the applications are more effective; it is their propo-
gating season. It is not advisable to apply the emulsion dur-
ing winter, after the middle of November to the first part of
February. I have injured trees and killed them during the
experiments made in cold weather.
The application with the syringe must be thorough, that the
leaves may be wetted on both sides. Therefore the nozzel
should break up the emulsion in a fine spray. I prefer
syringing the trees three times. Mr. Hubbard remarks one
application is all that is necessary. I hold there is noth-
ing like plenty of a good thing, and that is just what I want
the scales to have. The evening is considered the best
time to apply the emulsion, and in cloudy weather at inter-
vals of every ten days.
THE RUST MITE.
The speculations and theories as to rusted oranges were all
set aside in the discoveries made by Mr. Hubbard, who, by
aid of a compound microscope, proved the rustiness to be the
work of an insect, so small as to compare with gold dust in
size and color. The impression of many growers is that the
rust mite is only to be found upon the fruit. It is not so.
The mites can be found on trees of all sizes-observe the
yellow twigs and limbs. This season I particularly noticed
their migration from the limbs and leaves of a bearing tree,
their gradual descent until they covered the fruit. During
their first settlement I found they were easily rubbed off, but
after the fruit is half grown the gummy exuviae seems to be
set or hardened, therefore for the destruction of the mite and
to ensure bright fruit it is necessary to use means that are
My observations confirm Mr. Hubbard's opinion, that trees
whose foliage are of bright green the oranges will be bright.
I have trees that on one side the foliage is bright green and
the oranges are clear and free from mites; therefore we can
see it is in the hands of the cultivator to cleanse the trees by
means of a solution that will eradicate them.
The length of the adult mite is 0.14mm (5-1,000 inch)
therefore it is too small to be observed with the naked eye.
In hot weather the eggs hatch in four or five days, and they
are not entirely arrested by frost. Their food consists of the
essential oil of the leaves or fruit, and their rate of progress
is quite rapid amounting to some 10 to 12 feet per hour. One
square inch that was under observation, and from this and
calculating the size of the leaf, not less than 50,020 mites
were on one side, and taking the under surface as well as the
upper the number reached 75,000. The mites do not like a
hot sun for any length of time, but prefer a shade, avoiding
dark shades, and we may observe the decided rings of rust
around the fruit, showing that the insects have moved as sun
and light troubled them. A dry season is an advantage to
the grower, on the following one the fruit is usually bright.
It is well known that rusty fruit keeps better than bright.
The effects of rust tend to give the fruit a keeping quality,
therefore the fruit is in no way deteriorated from its outside
appearance. I have obtained as good a price for russets as
for brights, when I did not expect it. Many cultivators have
claimed, as with scale insects, that they succeeded in keeping
their fruit bright by means of fertilizers. What can fertilizers
have to do with the rust insect?
Mr. Hubbard observed that where groves are on moist land
the oranges are brighter, and also when the fruit is shaded.
Many solutions have been tried, but none so effective
as sulphur. In experiments I have made this sea-
son I have decided that a solution made up of half pound of
best whale oil soap, half-pound of sulphur (flowers), boiled in
one gallon of water for one hour, and if much reduced add
water enough to make one gallon. When used make a paste
with wheaten flour that will be free from lumps, and not too
thick to pass through a syringe ; to every gallon of the paste
add one pint of the sulphur and soap mixture and apply with
a syringe at any time the mites are observed. It is better to
apply at certain seasons, soon after the fruit has set, also in
April, May and June, but not in the coldest part of winter.
THE ORANGE RUST MITE.-a, dorsal view; b, lateral view-enlarged. The dot in
circle indicates natural size. c, leg; d, egg, with embryo just about to hatch-more
Some years ago I was warned by an old settler of the
serious trouble that might be expected from this so-called
disease, or as he termed it foot-rot. I at once took advant-
age of this caution, and determined upon trying my skill
upon any trees that might become affected under my obser-
vation. I give my experience partially from observation and
practice.. That it only attacks the sweet trees is well known,
and then only severely on wet lands. I have examined
affected trees upon the latter, in nearly every instance the
tree was on the heavy blue clay, which retarded the develop-
ment of the fibrous root system, causing a large quantity of
sap to collect at the crown roots in its return. This
with continued moisture produced a sourness that would
result in fermentation and a destruction of the bark. I have
never treated trees upon this class of soil, but I have on light
hammock, with perfect success. I have had the trees dug up
that were four and five years old and slightly affected, and in
every instance I found there was a want of root to balance
Trees affected with gum disease should have the bark cut
around the part where the gum exudes, as much as necessary,
to the unaffected part; then apply, as follows, a mixture of
coal tar made into a paste by the addition of flowers of sul-
phur, heat together (but not enough to ignite), and apply
warm to the diseased part. Examine the tree a few weeks
after the application, should any gum exude in a fresh spot,
treat this as before. I have found this a perfect remedy on
Many who lose trees from this cause forget that the trouble
lies in the root. It is really a want of circulation of the sap.
If the tree is not growing above ground, it is below, and if
it is dying back the roots are dormant. The only remedy I
have found effectual is to cut back to the sound wood, dig
out the soil around the roots, and re-pack with a rich com-
post, water liberally with liquid manure, and mulch. This
re-acts upon the sap and gives the tree new life, arrests the
progress of decay, for such is the die-back.
COST, CARE AND RETURN.
Much has been said and written in regard to cost and
return, and there are so many circumstances that may
arise after the first cost before the return comes. I have
given, as follows, as clear an outline as possible that will give
the intending planter an idea of all the details connected with
orange culture to the time of bearing.
Whether budded, grafted or sweet seedling trees are used
the cultivation is the same-that is, concentrate all your
labor and fertilizers about the trees. It will be some few
years before the roots occupy the space between the trees.
Cut back to healthy wood all dead and diseased branches.
STrees that languish require liquid fertilizer, several applica-
tions until the sap rises. With healthy trees the bark is an
olive green color. Mulching around trees with leaves after the
rains in February prevents the roots from drying out too
rapidly before the rainy season of June, and also prevents
grass from growing around the trees. A sprinkling of hydrate
of lime on the leaves reduces them to plant food in a few
months; grass or swamp muck can be used equally as well.
Watch closely for scale insects and syringe at once on dis-
covery, but not in winter if there is a prospect of cold weather.
Sweet seedling trees can be bought from 15c. to 40c. each;
budded sour trees from 25c. to $1 each; grafted trees from
40c. to $1.50 each. In regard to the latter it has been asserted
that they do not succeed as well, but I have seen fine trees
produced through grafting in a much shorter time than with
buds. The budding is performed much quicker, therefore it
is preferred by nursery men. I have tested both plans, and
thus far I find many others agree with me in preference for
After the land is prepared, and this must be thoroughly
done, plant the trees, if possible, in November, where there is
partial protection, and in January where there is none; also
in June. If a wet season sets in put plenty of mulch around
the trees; never let them dry out. In planting use
enough water to pack the soil firmly. Do not disturb the
mulch for at least six months, unless it is put back again.
Depend more on watering than hoeing. If the trees are
small and in exposed land surround them in November with
three pine tops, to shade them and break the cold wind; do
not let them touch the tree, but place securely in a position
inclining slightly towards the tree. I have tried every plan,
and this is the only one I found really successful; it surrounds
the trees and yet gives light and air. The protection is
required on all sides-one from the morning sun, and the
others from north and west winds. Let trees grow low, and,
if possible, never trim up the lower branches to leave the
trunk exposed. It frequently happens after a freeze the hot
sun that follows will scald the bark so that one half or quar-
ter will be destroyed; the lower branches prevent this by
shading from the hot sun and cold. It is natural for these
lower branches to grow, therefore it is unwise to cut them off.
Feed the trees as highly as possible, if you wish a quick
return. ; ''"
After the trees are planted, a good plan is to'place kerosene
barrels in the rows at every twenty trees, and this admits of
watering that number of trees; after each watering the bar-
rels must be filled as soon as possible, thatthey may be
ready for use at any time, and when the trees begin to grow,
the same barrels can be used for liquid manure. It is perhaps
rather an expensive process, but I question if it is in the end.
My experience is that it repays the cost. I know few would
adopt it for reason of the expense. I never think of expesne
in an orange grove. A close policy will bring a poor, slow
result. I do not claim it is necessary to follow the plan I
have laid down, I suggest it from experience, and know that
such a method pays in the end, every root gets the benefit of
liquid manure at once, but do not apply except in protected
places after August. A budded tree begins to bear from one
to three years old from bud. This depends upon the class of
bud and variety. I prefer a tree not to bear too early. There
is no advantage in a small tree being covered with fruit; this
applies about the same to the grafted tree.
A sweet seedling begins to bear from 6 to 8 years old and
increases largely each year, and at sixteen years old bear
3,000 to 4,000 oranges.
Where the planter is entirely ignorant of setting orange
trees, by no means attempt it, unless there is a total dis-
regard as to losses or bad setting. It costs less in the end to
employ experienced planters.
The expense of bringing a grove into bearing depends upon
seasons, soil and the amount of labor devoted to the trees.
Take it per tree, outside the purchase of land and fencing, I
put it, with high class culture and fertilizers on hammock
land, at about $100 per acre for the first five years, i.e. dur-
ing this entire period. It may be made more or less. I give
this amount where the cultivator gives his sole attention to
the trees and pays for the labor. There are many non-resi-
dents who have not the slightest knowledge of on orange tree,
who would consider this a large sum to pay out, but they do
not take into consideration that after the first five years their
expenses are lessened, and that they establish a property that
will pay a handsome revenue, that increases with age. To
expect much from an orange tree without expense is fallacy,
and those who have devoted their time, energies and capital
to the making of grove are deserving of its profits.
It is well when planting to set out a few extra trees in
a nursery to use if necessity should arise by losses occurring
in the grove. Procure trees that are grown on soil similar to
that which you will plant on. Trees from heavy clay ham-
mock are devoid of fibrous roots, and are more difficult to
make grow off; small thrifty trees are to be preferred to old
bark-bound stocks. It is not necessary to buy poor trees,
there is a large supply of superior trees throughout the State.
Plant a little above the level of soil after the land is prepared.
Trees budded when four years old bear fruit from two to four
years from budding, and at five years bear a paying crop, and
increase in quantity rapidly each year. Trees one and a half
inches in diameter with a dormant bud have yielded four to
five boxes to the tree, six years from transplanting.
In conclusion, the reader must bear in mind the variety of
soil, situation and latitude are to be considered. The in-
tensity of cold is modified in the southern counties, as it
naturally would be in a distance of six hundred miles north
It would be unreasonable to support a theory that one
section of country posesses superior advantages over another.
Let it be understood that Florida, as a State, can produce the
orange to perfection, but there are certain sections that are
preferable as to soils. I have observed some pine lands
superior to hammock and some of the latter superior to the
former. The surface soil throughout the State varies greatly,
even in a few acres we 'find three and four varieties of soil;
this applies more to hammock than to pine lands. In the
matter of forest protection, as the young trees become estab-
lished the forest growth can be girdled, very little injury is to
be apprehended from the falling branches, which can be
gathered up; the trunks are easily cut down by experienced
choppers without endangering the trees. Too much forest
protection prevents the trees from growing. In the cultiva-
tion of an orange grove, it must be understood, it is high-class
INSTRUCTIONS FOR PACKING & SHIPPING.
A box of oranges when packed should appear thus:
GOODPRICE & CO.,
FROM G. HARDWORKER,
The bottom of box when packed is really the top when
opened. A more regular layer of fruit can be put in at first
than when finished. The grower can put a number on the
box instead of the name, provided the commission merchant
has the number on his books. Trade marks are also used,
from an alligator to an Indian. The names Fancy, Choice,
Bright, Russet, Mandarin, Tangerine, Navel, etc., are used to
class quality or kind.
The auction system of selling oranges has been tried with
success. In the end this may become the best method. It
ensures for the grower a quick return from his consignment.
The old system of consigning on commission works well when
the grower succeeds in sending to an honest man.
The size of standard box is 12x 2x27 inches, with a parti-
tion in the centre, around which three straps are nailed;
these require soaking before putting* on. The wrapping,
packing, strapping and marking must be done neatly and
correctly or it injures the sale.
Sort the varieties correctly as to color, bright or rusty, and
mark on the left hand corner of the box; if mandarin, tanger-
ine or navel, etc.
All under 128 size are marked A.
From 128 to 138, inclusive, are marked B.
From 146 to 160, inclusive, are marked C.
From 176 to 200, inclusive, are marked D.
All over 200 are marked E.
Send letter of advice, stating the route shipped by, also
number of boxes and class, to the parties you ship to. If the
shipper desires to ship through the Exchange,, write A. M.
Ives, Esq., Jacksonville, Fla., for particulars.
The fruit must be cut from the tree with a knife or scissors;
the stem must be cut close to the orange. In handling avoid
bruising. After the fruit is picked it should be put in a cool,
dry place for at least 24 hours before packing. Sort the sizes
carefully with the improved machines now in use; there is no
difficulty, they are perfectly automatic. Each orange after
sorting is wrapped in tissue paper and packed in rows.
The packing in even layers, to the inexperienced, is some-
what tedious. After the oranges are sorted by a sorting ma-
chine they are laid in the boxes after being neatly wrapped
in tissue paper. Box contains
96.-Three rows of oranges, 16 in each row.
128.-Four rows, 16 in each row.
138. Three rows, 17 in each row;
( One row, 18 in each row.
146. Three rows, 18 in each row;
I One row, 19 in each row.
160.-Four rows, 20 in each row.
( First row, 18 in row;
I Second row, 17 in row;
176. 4 Third row, 18 in row;
Fourth row, 17 in row;
SFifth row, 18 in row.
200.-Five rows, 20 in each row.
The following list of oranges and lemons cultivated through-
out the State, besides many others not generally known :
; _______ __
Acadia, Acis, Botelha, Bell, Beaches' No. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5,
Beaches' Variegated, Beaches' Acme, China Sweet, Cunning-
ham, Centennial, Du Roi, De Bary, Dummitt, Exquisite, Ear-
ly Oblong, Giant-Gigantezea Brazilura, Harts' Tardiff-Non-
pareil, Honey Larango mel do Brazil, Homosassa, Italian,
King, Jaffti, Kumquat, Long, Mediterranean Sweet, Gary's
Mediterr:in 'an Sweet, Mandarin, Magnum Bonum, Maltese
Blood, Majorca, Malta Oval, Mangoosten (Eichelberger),
Madam Vinous, Navel Imperial, Navel Washington, Navel
Atwood, Nonpareil, Osceola, Old Vini, Phillip's Bitter
Sweet, Parson Brown, Peerless, Pineapple, Queen, Selecta,
Star Calyx, Spanish Early, St. Michel, Sweet Seville, St.
Michel's Egg, Satsuma, Stark's Seedless, Tangerine Dancy,
Tangerine (several varieties), Tangerona-Tangerona Brazil-
ura, Velvet Peel (Eichelberger), White-Laraga Branca Bra-
The Genoa, Villa Franca, Bellair Premium, Eureka, Lamb,
McGahagin, Bijou, Sicily, Lisbon, August Lemon, Pomelo,
and several other varieties.
THE PEACH AND ITS CULTIVATION.
This delicious fruit is raised and in great abundance where
properly cultivated and fertilized, and unless this is done the
trees grow slowly and produce a small bitter fruit. The best
class of peach lands do not for the first few years after plant-
ing require the same amount of fertilizer that is required on
a thin, sandy soil, and in planting on the latter it is highly
necessary to put a good compost of well rotted stable manure
and loam, about half a bushel; or if not convenient, half a
barrel of swamp muck; on this put a layer of some three
inches of top soil and then plant the tree, after cutting off all
side branches. If a small tree, its appearance would then be
about the same as a walking stick, two feet high from surface
of soil. Trim off all broken or tangled roots, pack the dirt
in with the hands, pour water around to fill up every space,
level off top soil, then press around the tree with the foot;
this makes the soil firm; rake, level and put some mulch,
but not close to the trunk. Trees planted from first part of
December to the middle of January grow off better than any
other season. To be certain of not losing any trees through
transplanting do not plant after the time fixed by all practi-
cal planters. Keep all side shoots off as they appear,
except three or four that will start near the top of the stock,
these must be let grow for main branches. In June pinch
these back, when the tree will branch again from the th ree
or four left, and in September pinch back again; the tree will
then make a head. The next season shorten in the branches
after the blossoms have set fruit, this throws the strength
into the fruit. Blossom branches may be kn6wn by the
double buds, viz.: two little spurs on the branch laying along-
side each other. The trees must be kept free from grass or
weeds; avoid deep plowing, cut back after first year half of
the year's growth, that your trees will make a head and not
"To prevent the attack of the borer, hill up the tree in
April and level off again in November, the hard bark of the
tree will prevent the insect from puncturing it and if any
eggs are by chance deposited they can easily be removed."
In regard to the variety for profitable shipment I cannot do
better than draw the attention to the remarks by Mr. P. J.
Berckmans, whose authority in matters of this kind are
a guarantee that such a recommendation cannot be over-
looked. Mr. Berckmans says of the Peen-to:
"This remarkable peach originated in our nursery from
pits sent from Australia in 1869. Although very hardy here,
the tree has produced fruit but very seldom, owing to its
habit of blooming in January. In Florida, however, this
tree has succeeded admirably. In Pensacola it produced the
enormous amount of 1,200 peaches upon a three year old
tree. In Florida this peach, together with the Honey, suc-
ceeds when the other varieties of the common or Persian
strain prove of little or no value. Fruit 2 to 2J inches in
diameter, very flat, skin pale greenish white, with a beauti-
ful mottled red cheek, peels readily at maturity, flesh very
finely grained, juicy and dissolving, with a delicate almond
aroma, quality best; clingstone. Maturity in Florida from
April 1st to May 10th.
This peach colors a long time before maturing or full devel-
opment, and is therefore often gathered prematurely, which
renders it unfit for use. It should be allowed to hang upon
the tree until approaching full maturity, when its shows it ex-
cellent quality, and can then be shipped safely to distant
markets. Last year the early shipments made before this
fruit was developed created a bad impression in the Northern
markets, yet those who gathered at proper period of maturity
roic.-ivAl from $1I.I to $2'- per bushel, and some ex\ceptionally
good lnt. yielded at the rate of $50 per bushel. These results
prove its great value for the orange growing belt, and are to
us a source of gratification in having added this valuable
peach to the fruit growing resources of Florida.
Many new seedlings of the Peen-to have appeared of late
in Florida. We have had ample opportunities to examine
and taste the largest number of these, and we still hold to
our assertion that of all flat varieties none are superior to the
original, providing the fruit -is allowed to mature fully upon
the trees. During a two-months stay in Florida we had
ample opportunities to compare the relative merits
and periods of maturity of the Peen-to with other
early varieties. On April 1st the Peen-to was ripe in Hills-
borough County, while none of the newer early kinds, grown
side by side, were within three weeks of maturity. It still
heads the list of the earliest peaches.
Several seedlings of the Peen-to have appeared of late;
some are flat, others oblong, but nearly all are of the same
texture of flesh and quality, and many of the oblong varie-
ties, although originated in different sections of Florida, are
so much alike that an expert would find it difficult to dis-
tinguish between them. It is likely that we are to have the
same experience with the Peen-to seedlings of oblong shape
that we had with the scores of early varieties of the Alexan-
der. All good, all early, but all alike so far as practical
acre planted, one-half to wine grapes, one-half to market
grapes-based on our own experience with forty-five acres in
grapes, and on returns evidenced by checks duly cashed:
One acre of land suitably located . . . . . . .. $25 oo
Preparing land-leveling, plowing and harrowing . . . .5 oo
680 vines i year old, planted 8x8, viz.:
150 Cynthianas .. .. .... .. ... .. ..... $11 25
150 Nortons . . . . . . . . . .. . 9 oo
40 Oportos . . . . . . . . . . 3 oo
150 Delawares ........ ............... 8 25
140 Ives . . . . . . . . . . . 2 50
50 Niagaras ................. .. 8 00 42 oo
680 stakes at 50 cents per oo . . . ... ........ 3 40
Fertilizer, 300 pounds at $40 per ton . . . . . . . 6 oo
Digging holes . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6 80
Marking and setting out ........... ........ 7 50
Cultivation first year ..................... 10 oo
Cultivating second year, including pruning and tying . . .. 15 oo
Fertilizer, 400 pounds ..................... 8 oo00
Labor for putting up trellis . . . . . . . . .. 7 50
227 posts at 8 cents apiece .. . . . . . . . . 18 15
2 wire trellis ......................... 17 oo
Total ............ ...... ..... ...'$171 35
Our vines will bear one-half crop the third year, but sup-
pose they only cover the expenses of cultivation; we will,
therefore, make our estimate of returns from the fourth
Our 340 wine grapes will average o1 pounds of grapes, say 3,400
pounds, representing 275 gallons of wine, at 50 cents only per
gallon . . . . . . ... . . . ... . $137 50
Our 340 market grapes will yield about 8 pounds per vine of
marketable grapes, say 2,720 pounds at o1 cents net per pound 272 00
Gross receipts .... ................. .. $409 50
Cultivation ........ ..... . ..... $I5 oo
Pruning and tying... ... ......... .. 20 00
Fertilizer, 500 pounds . . . . . .... o oo
Gathering the crop ......... ........ 5 oo
Interest on capital invested . . . . . . 13 70 63 70
Net profit per acre annually. . . . . . . . $345 8
Everybody can rely on these figures being under rather
than overrated. Our wine, at least that of Leon county, re-
sembles more the best brands of foreign wine than other wine
in America. For the present no industry in this country
offers so great inducements as grape culture in Florida.
San Luis, Vineyards, near Tallahassee, Fla.
SUMMARY DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING.
"As soon as you receive your vines from the Nursery, heel
them in moist, fine soil. Your ground must have been pre-
pared beforehand, ploughed and harrowed over. In soil
where the clay is three or four feet below the surface it is not
necessary to break the ground very deep, which has to be
done when the clay is near the surface.
Run your rows six feet apart, from north to south, if possi-
ble, so as to permit the breeze in summer to circulate through
your vineyard, and also that the sun may not shine on your
grapes at the hottest time of the day and scald the most ten-
der sorts. Plant Norton, Cynthiana, Concord, IIerbemont
and other strong growing varieties, eight feet apart in the
rows. For Delaware and most of the European varieties a
distance of six, and even five feet, is sufficient.
Dig your holes about two feet square by eighteen inches
deep. In digging, put on one side the surface soil and on the
other the earth that comes from the bottom of the hole.
When your holes are all dug, stick a stake four and a half or
five feet long in the middle of each hole, using a garden line
to have all the stakes in a straight row. Then proceed to the
planting of the vines.
Take a shovelful of the surface soil (or hammock earth, if
you plant in a sandy land) to make a mound in the bottom of
the hole. If the roots and the tops of your vines have not
been shortened in, trim the former to about six inches and
the latter down to three buds. All roots starting within four
inches from the lower bud should be removed altogether.
Now spread the lower crown of roots over the little mound,
cover with two or or three inches of earth, spread the second
crown of roots on this earth and cover again three or four
inches. Scatter fertilizer all over the hole-four ounces in
good hammock land and five or six ounces in ordinary pine
land. Cover the fertilizer with two or three inches of dirt,
and tread down the earth gently around the vines, the drier
the weather the more firmly. When all this has been
done the holes will lack about eight inches of being full-as
they should be left for the present. In very sandy soil, where
rr II I I
th ere is no clay sub-soil, instead of eighteen inches, plant two
feet deep. Vines planted deep are less liable to diseases."
TIME OF PLANTING.
The best time for planting grape vines in Florida is be-
tween the 1st of December and the 1st of February, though
they can be planted as late as the 25th of March.
The product of this valuable plant was first introduced into
Europe under the name of "Indian Salt," and from India
to Greece and Rome. The cane grew in the islands of the
Indian Archipelago. In the year 1250 Marco Paulo, a Vene-
tian, visited Bengal; his knowledge of the productions of
this wonderful country was soon taken advantage of by mer-
chants, who introduced sugar into Arabia; from thence the
cultivation was entered upon in Nubia, Egypt and Ethiopia.
The general manufacture began about the end of the four-
teenth century, in the several ports of Egypt and Arabia, un-
til the business became extensive in the sixteenth century.
It was introduced into Sicily and Maderia, after the letters
discovery in 1420, and was cultivated with success. The Por-
tuguese introduced the sugar cane in the island of St. Thom-
as and in 1520 it was extensively cultivated and came from
thence into the West India Islands. The varieties cultivated
in Florida are known as the Green and Red Ribbon, the
former is largely used for eating, being more succulent and
thinner coated than the latter. The Green cane grows equal-
ly as well as the red, but the red is preferred for sugar or
syrup. Should the planter be late in grinding up the cane
he has less to fear from frost with the Red variety, as it is
hardier than the green.
The sugar cane may be said to be at home in Florida. The
light, loose, calcarious soils of the State are adapted to the
cane, and from crops grown upon such soils a fine honey
syrup is produced, bright in color; if boiled down to crystali-
zation we have sugar. The farmers of Florida assert it is