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Title: Tallahassee, Leon County: history and bibliography
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Title: Tallahassee, Leon County: history and bibliography
Series Title: Tallahassee, Leon County: history and bibliography
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Full Text
















. a


FLA
F
319
T14
E4
1986
















ROBERT MANNING
STROZIER LIBRARY


Tallahassee


Gift of
Mary Louise Ellis


---- -- p_





iORIDA COLLECTION


I U


TALLAHASSEE
LEON COUNTY
A History
and
Bibliography
by
Mary Louise Ellis and William Warren Rogers





31 453TF XL
12/93 24-9503-12 23 -1








ROBERT MANNING
STROZIER LIBRARY

JUL 15 19s7


Tallahassee, Florida


Copyright 1986 by
Florida Department of State


For Dorothy Dodd who has made major
contributions to the writing and to
the preservation of Florida history


But the land, whither ye go to possess it,
is a land of hills and valleys,
and drinketh water of the rain of heaven.
Deuteronomy 11:11


I


I




II -~ - -I


CONTENTS



Illustrations and Maps ................. ........... ................ iv
Preface ..................................... .. .................. ............ v
Introduction ................ .. ......................................... vi
Tallahassee and Leon County .......................................... 1
Footnotes .................................................................. 35
Bibliography ................................. ........ .................... 41
Introduction and Narrative Index ................. ................... 66
Author Index .............................................................. 70
Subject Index ......... ..... .. ........... ........................ 73








I
ILLUSTRATIONS
AND MAPS


Florida's Capitol in 1842 .............................................. viii
A ndrew Jackson ................................. ........................ 3
N eam athla ................................................................. 5
Colonel Robert Butler .............................. .................. 8
Francis W Eppes ....................................................... 9
Achille Murat and Catherine Dangerfield Willis Gray Murat ..... 11
Susan Bradford .......................................................... 15
View of Tallahassee in 1868 ................................... ..... 19
Leon County Court House ........................................... 20
Farmers at a Cotton Gin ................................. ... 23
Gillette Family at Sunny Hill .......................................... 24
Snow Storm of 1899 ..... .................................................... 25
State Capitol in the 1870s ................................................ 27
Old Administration Building at Florida State University ......... 29
Victory Garden at Florida State College for Women ............... 29
Thomas DeSaille Tucker ................................................ 31
Gibbs Hall at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University .... 32
A "Sit-In" at Tallahassee in 1960 ........................ .......... 33
Opening of Dale Mabry Field, 1929 ................................... 45
Calhoun Street in 1910 ................................................... 48
Class of 1904 at Florida State Normal
and Industrial School for Negroes ................................. 50
Houston Family and their Automobile ......... ......................... 52
Seaboard Air Line ............................................. ..... 55
McCord House on Thomasville Road ............................... 56
Victory Formation at Florida State College for Women ............ 57
M r. Jacob's Bar ............................................................ 58
Karl F. Wittman and a Religious Revival ............................. 64
Map of Leon County ...................................................... 76

PHOTO CREDITS: Photographs on pages 29 and 57 are from
Special Collections, Strozier Library, Florida State University. All
other photographs are from the Photographic Collection, Florida
State Archives.









PREFACE


Since its establishment in 1970, the Historic Tallahassee Preser-
vation Board has interpreted its role to be "a special guardian of
Florida's capital city" with responsibility to identify, preserve and
interpret the history of Tallahassee and its surrounding area. The
Board has undertaken a variety of projects to this end: the restora-
tion of the Brokaw-McDougall House, encouragement of other
groups and individuals to preserve historic sites and structures,
surveys of architecturally and historically significant sites and
neighborhoods, and publication of historical monographs. The
Board is especially pleased to sponsor this publication. Tallahassee
and Leon County: A History and Bibliography provides for the
first time a concise yet comprehensive historical overview of our
capital city, one that will be useful for residents or visitors who are
students or just curious about our history. While it gives a broad
view of our development, the reading list provides ample oppor-
tunity to discover details about those people and events that
shaped our city and county.
We are especially fortunate that Dr. William Warren Rogers and
Mary Louise Ellis are the authors. Dr. Rogers, Professor of History
at Florida State University and a trustee for the Historic
Tallahassee Preservation Board, is well known for his historical
research and writing. Mrs. Ellis, a doctoral candidate at Florida
State University, is the president of the Tallahassee Historical
Society. They donated their manuscript to the Historic Tallahassee
Preservation Board and worked diligently to keep the reading list
current up until the time of publication (adding titles whenever
they appeared or were discovered) and selecting maps and
photographs to include in the book.
I want to thank Robert Bell for his assistance designing the book
and Gwen Montgomery for her expertise on the phototypesetter;
both are with the Florida Department of State Graphics office.
Thanks also to Joan Morris of the Photographic Collection,
Florida State Archives, and Susan Hamburger, Special Collec-
tions, Strozier Library at Florida State University, for their help
locating the illustrations.

Linda V. Ellsworth, Director
Historic Tallahassee Preservation Board
January, 1986


Ill -


~LI I--- --









INTRODUCTION

There is no overall history of the capital city and county. The
most inclusive scholarly works are Bertram H. Groene, Ante-
Bellum Tallahassee (Tallahassee, 1971), Clifton L. Paisley, From
Cotton to Quail: An Agricultural Chronicle of Leon County,
Florida, 1860-1967 (Gainesville, 1968), and Julia Floyd Smith,
Slavery and Plantation Growth in Antebellum Florida 1821-1860
(Gainesville, 1973). The best single volume on Florida history is
Charlton W. Tebeau, A History of Florida (Miami, 1971), while a
convenient source of information is Allen Morris (Compiler), The
Florida Handbook 1983-1984 (Tallahassee, 1983) (see various edi-
tions). The editors have been greatly aided by two reliable books of
writings on Florida: Michael H. Harris, Florida History: A
Bibliography (Metuchen, New Jersey, 1972), and Janette C.
Gardner, An Annotated Bibliography Of Florida Fiction: 1801-1980
(St. Petersburg, 1983).
Such scholarly journals as the Florida Historical Quarterly con-
tain articles on the city and county. The Tallahassee Historical
Society, organized January 11, 1933, published four volumes of the
Tallahassee Historical Society Annual in the 1930s. Beginning in
1944 the publication became Apalachee. Since then Apalachee has
been published at irregular intervals. The society's journals are an
important source.
Significant research material is preserved locally in the Leon
County Courthouse, Florida State Library, and the Division of
Archives, History and Records Management. A variety of primary
data may be obtained at the Federal Records Center, East Point,
Georgia, and in Washington, D.C., at the National Archives and
the Library of Congress. Various universities and colleges in Florida
house relevant materials. The most important are Florida State
University, Special Collections, Robert M. Strozier Library,
Tallahassee (separate from Special Collections but administered by
its staff is the Mildred and Claude Pepper Library); the P.K. Yonge
Library, University of Florida, Gainesville; University of West
Florida, Special Collections, John C. Pace Library, Pensacola; and
the Black Archives Research Center and Museum, Florida
Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee.
The bibliographical citations in this study are to works directly
pertinent to Tallahassee and Leon County. Exceptions are made
with certain books and articles that bear heavily on the region.












Admitting to errors, particularly of omission, the writers and com-
pilers hope the work will prove useful to students, scholars, and ad-
ministrators. They wish to appeal equally to that amorphous but
highly important group called "general readers." Perhaps the study
will stimulate their intellectual curiosity to read more about
Tallahassee and Leon County and to contribute their own research
and writing to future studies.
The amount of published and unpublished material that has been
written about Tallahassee and Leon County is an indication of the
region's importance in Florida history. The brief overview that
follows is intended to place the area in its proper historical context.
There are numerous gaps in political, economic, social, intellectual,
religious, and military history that need to be filled before an
accurate account of Tallahassee and Leon County can be achieved.
Yet with research materials becoming more available and with
individuals-scholars and non-scholars alike-becoming involved
in writing, the blank pages can be filled and become significant
chapters in the ongoing story of Florida's capital city and the sur-
rounding region.


_ ___________


i -p~..





























































Florida's Capitol as it appeared in 1842


viii










TALLAHASSEE

LEON COUNTY


Located in the north central part of the Florida peninsula,
Tallahassee and Leon County have a rich history. Tallahassee is an
Apalachee Indian word meaning "old fields" or "abandoned
villages." Leon County was named in honor of Juan Ponce de Leon,
who discovered Florida in 1513. Tallahassee's favorable
geographical setting caused an early group of Indians-the
Apalachees-to establish a village to take advantage of the area's
excellent fishing and hunting. Wild berries and fruit were plentiful,
and as time passed, the rich soil yielded abundant crops of corn,
squash, beans, pumpkins, peanuts, and sweet potatoes.
Panfilo de Narvaez and a Spanish expedition seeking gold march-
ed north from Tampa Bay in 1528 and were the first known Euro-
peans to visit the Apalachee country. Finding no precious metals
and facing increasing opposition from the Indians, Narvaez and his
men constructed rude rafts for their departure. Leaving the area
near present-day St. Marks, they hugged the shoreline and
maneuvered through the shallow waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The
most famous survivor was Alvar Nunez, Cabeza de Vaca, who
wrote about his experiences.1
The next adventurer was Hernando de Soto whose force of 600
men and 250 horses moved into the region during the winter of
1539. The presence of these European Catholics lends credence to
the appealing theory that a Christmas mass was conducted in what
would become Leon County. Soon DeSoto led the Spaniards across
the Flint River and into Georgia. The great explorer continued
westward and when he died in 1540 he was buried on the banks of
the Mississippi River.2
Spanish colonists permanently settled in Florida with the found-
ing of St. Augustine in 1565 by Pedro Menendez de Aviles. Expan-
sion followed as missions and military outposts were established
throughout northern Florida and southern Georgia. By the last
decades of the seventeenth century Franciscan missions existed in
the Apalachee country including two in Tallahassee: San Luis de
Talimali, or de Apalachee, and Purificacion de la Tama. San Luis
(founded between 1633 and 1655), was the central village and mis-
sion in the Apalachee region with a population of at least 1,400.3
1


I








Spain's possession of Florida was challenged as Great Britain and
France established rival empires in the New World. The French
founded Gulf Coast settlements at Biloxi, Mobile, and New
Orleans, while the Union Jack flew over forts and towns in Georgia
and the Carolinas.4 Economic rivalry between the countries turned
into military confrontation and a series of European wars. The im-
perial conflicts spread to colonial America as well. During one stage
of Queen Anne's War (1702-1713), Governor James Moore of South
Carolina assembled his colonial forces (largely white ruffians and
Indians) for an invasion of the Apalachee country. Reducing and
destroying missions, including those at Tallahassee, Moore's
devastating incursion resulted in the deaths and enslavement of the
Apalachee Indians. The Tallahassee area was depopulated, and the
forest with an undergrowth of vines, weeds, grass, and flowers
reasserted its quiet sovereignty.5
The European powers periodically revived their animosities. In
America the European opponents vied for alliances with the
Indians. The struggles were temporarily interrupted by treaties, and
through it all Florida was the pawn. Spain sided with France in the
Seven Years' War (known in British North America as the French
and Indian War). The Treaty of Paris ended the conflict, and in 1763
Spain was forced to yield Florida to the victorious English.6
By that time Great Britian's colonies along the Atlantic seaboard
were growing increasingly self-reliant. When the mother country
attempted to tighten administrative control, the colonials asserted
their independence. The British divided their newly acquired do-
main to the south into East Florida with its capital at St. Augustine
and West Florida which was governed from Pensacola, where a
Spanish expedition had attempted settlement as early as 1559.
British control proved short-lived as her older colonies rose in revolt
and not only declared their independence, but won it. Even so,
freedom was not achieved with the aid of Florida. Both provinces
remained faithful to the British crown and served as havens for
Tories fleeing the ire of the Continentals.7
George III's closer neighbors were less respectful. Florida's former
proprietor, Spain, and would-be proprietor, France, aided the cause
of the American revolutionaries. The Treaty of Paris of 1783, which
granted the colonies their independence, returned Florida to Spain.
The second period of Spanish possession was brief, lasting only
until 1819 when the Adams-Onis treaty turned Florida over to the
United States. The interim was turbulent, and the physical exchange
was hardly achieved with textbook precision: the transfer did not
actually take place until 1821.
2


I


























:rr-



Z ..





Military hero Andrew Jackson served as
U.S. Commissioner of Florida and received West Florida from Spain in 1821.

On a sweltering July 17, Andrew Jackson formally received West
Florida from the Spanish authorities at Pensacola. As a part of the
ceremonies of transfer, a band played "The Star Spangled Banner,"
a song that was catching on in popularity. Jackson's protege, Col-
onel Robert Butler, had enacted a similar ritual for East Florida a
week earlier at St. Augustine.8
Old Hickory was no stranger to Florida, having campaigned
there during the War of 1812 and again in 1818 during the First
Seminole War. It was fitting for Jackson to become United States
Commissioner and what amounted to military governor of East and
West Florida. If Jackson's tenure was brief, his influence was lasting.
The hero of the battle of New Orleans left Florida in October,
returning to the Hermitage, his home in Nashville, Tennessee.
Whatever his reasons-ill-health or political considerations-
Jackson resigned his position in November 1821.9


~ - --







In conformity with the Ordinance of 1787 which defined the pro-
cess of achieving statehood, Congress established the Territory of
Florida. President James Monroe signed the bill into law on March
30, 1822, appointed a Legislative Council of thirteen citizens, and
named William Pope DuVal as the first Territorial Governor.1o
DuVal (1784-1854) was born in Virginia but achieved maturity and
reputation in Kentucky. Lawyer, militia captain, congressman, and
judge, he served three terms as territorial governor of Florida.
DuVal's popularity increased the longer he remained in office. The
unpretentious thirty-eight-year-old governor was the right choice
for presiding over the new territory. An approving contemporary
saw him once "wearing a tattered straw hat, deerskin trousers, blue
stockings, shoes covered with mud, riding a raw-boned horse, ar-
riving to consult . about a treaty with the Indians.""
The first Legislative Council met in Pensacola in 1821 and at St.
Augustine the next year. The waste of time and the inconvenience,
not to mention the physical hazards, of shuttling governmental
operations between the two cities brought demands for a permanent
capital, one as centrally located as possible. To that end the
Legislative Council empowered Governor DuVal to appoint two
commissioners to explore the area between the Ochlockonee and
the Suwannee rivers and recommend a location for a capital city.
Attempting to avoid the suggestion of partisanship, DuVal selected
Dr. William H. Simmons of St. Augustine and John Lee Williams, a
Pensacola lawyer, for the mission. In October 1823, the two men
rendezvoused at the old seventeenth-century Spanish outpost of St.
Marks (San Marcos de Apalache).12
The area surrounding present-day Tallahassee had slowly
recovered in the decades following Governor Moore's raid of the
early 1700s. By the 1730s Creek and Seminole Indians had moved
into the lands of the vanquished Spaniards and Apalachees. Once a
part of the Creek confederation of Georgia and Alabama, the
Seminoles, a word variously translated as "runaways" or "wild
people," moved south in sporadic migrations. The fresh lakes,
streams, and rolling hills of the future Leon County attracted the im-
portant Tallahassee and Mikasuki bands. The Indians settled in
villages called "fowl towns"-so named because the Indians raised
chickens and because the settlements were so closely situated that
cocks crowing in one location could be heard in another. Old
Tallahassee was one of the fowl towns.
A forceful Seminole chief, Neamathla, was, along with Governor
DuVal, portrayed by Washington Irving in two stories, "The Early
Experiences of Ralph Ringwood" and "The Conspiracy of




III


Neamathla." DuVal had frequent dealings with Neamathla and ad-
mitted that the Indian was "uncommonly capable, bold, violent,
restless, unable to submit to a superior or to endure an equal."13
White settlers were anxious to homestead and to begin planting
cotton and sugar cane. The Indians finally gave in to the pressure to
surrender their lands. In 1823 James Gadsden signed the treaty of
Moultrie Creek with Neamathla and other chiefs. The document,
drafted a few miles south of St. Augustine, was a one-sided agree-
5


The important Seminole chief, Neamathla,
was described by Governor DuVal as uncommonly capable








ment that favored the United States. As Washington's represen-
tative, Gadsden persuaded the Indians to exchange their north
Florida domain for money and greatly reduced acreage in the in-
ferior lands of south Florida.14
The physical removal of the Indians had not been effected in the
fall of 1823. October turned into November as Williams and
Simmons, their party led by guides, moved north through the red
clay hills of the Apalachee country. Neamathla and Chifixico, chief
of Old Tallahassee, angered by the intrusion, confronted the
Americans, but did not attack. Instead, the Indians provided food,
lodging, and even entertainment: athletics and acrobatic dancing.
Williams and Simmons explored the surrounding areas before
deciding that Tallahassee, elevated and made scenic by a cascade of
water, was the best site. Williams preferred Tallahassee from the
first."1
After DuVal had received the commissioners' report recommend-
ing Tallahassee, he instructed the Legislative Council to meet at the
new capital in November 1824. That spring settlers began moving
in. The first were a party of seven (including a male mulatto) led by
John McIver of North Carolina. The small band which arrived on
April 9, 1824, and threw up temporary shelters, was the vanguard
of more to come.16
Trees were felled, ground cleared, and in December 1824, the
Legislative Council moved into a temporary capitol built of logs.
Throughout December the solons were busy. In quick order the
town was officially given the name Tallahassee (the eleventh) and
made a geographical part of newly-created Leon County (the
twenty-ninth). The town was incorporated on December 9, 1825,
and made the county seat on January 16, 1828. In the ante-bellum
period Tallahassee was incorporated three more times: January 18,
1827, February 13, 1831, and March 2, 1840. The town site was part
of a quarter section of land donated by Congress as the new capital,
and land sales were to be used to raise money for public buildings.
George Walton, the territorial secretary who also served as acting
governor, selected the southeastern corner of the quarter section as
the prime meridian, the point which became the basis for all land
surveys in Florida.17
Tallahassee soon emerged as the political and social center of
Florida. Settlers poured in from Georgia, the Carolinas, and
Virginia to establish a cotton kingdom in Leon County. Some of the
immigrants were yeoman farmers while others were wealthy
planters who came in caravans bringing with them their slaves,
household goods, livestock, and agricultural implements. Among
6


,, ______ ... .... ...----- ^ --- -- I- "l III "1l l^ 'l'^ ^ ^ ^ ^H ^ ^ '^ J '^ ^







the aristocratic families were the Chaireses, Parkhills, Bradfords,
Meginnisses, Gambles, Whitfields, Baileys, Calls, Houstons, and
Crooms. Leaving his native Viginia in the winter of 1827-1828,
Thomas Brown brought his family and possessions to Leon County,
a journey that took sixty days. Within a brief time the plantation
system of the Upper South was superimposed on Leon County's
green forests that now gaped with stump-filled fields."1
Tallahassee's first newspaper, the Florida Intelligencer, founded
in 1825, noted, "This young capital of Florida is already attracting
the interests of capitalists. Many buildings are erecting, and others
are in a state of preparation. . It is situated on a beautiful
eminence," and the surrounding "tract of country . is finely
watered . ."9 One of Tallahassee's first settlers wrote in 1824,
"We are well, as could be expected, of a woods-town of five months
old [with] the essential appointments of shelter for the head and lin-
ing for the stomach." He mentioned well-roofed houses "all with
chimneys more or less."20
Not everybody agreed with the booster pronouncements of
DuVal and others. It would take time for refined society, juxtaposed
with the raw frontier, to prevail. A "traveler" in 1827 complained of
the bad lodging and what he called the immunities enjoyed by dogs,
hogs, and fleas in Tallahassee. Ralph Waldo Emerson, the New
England literary figure who is thought to have visited Tallahassee in
1827, wrote that it was "a grotesque place . rapidly settled by
public officers, land speculators, and desperadoes." John S.
Tappan, part of a New England family famous for its efforts in the
temperance crusade, remarked that "you could not walk the streets
without being armed to the teeth." Another visitor, Comte de
Castelnau, a French botanist who traveled through Middle Florida
in the winter of 1837-1838, was horrified that "the habit of carrying
arms is universal. Every man has constantly on him a bowie knife,
and when he is on horseback he has a long rifle in his hand.""
Despite such imperfections, both town and county grew rapidly.
In 1825, Leon County had 996 people. By 1840, it had 11,442, an ex-
pansion in fifteen years of 1,049 per cent. A dramatic change occur-
red in the late 1830s when the Second Seminole War and the Panic of
1837 (which saw the collapse of the country's banking structure)
severely curtailed territorial expansion. Other events compounded
the problems. No less than ten per cent of the capital's summer
population died from yellow fever during the epidemic of 1841. The
great fire of 1843-who or what started it was never discovered-
destroyed much of the business district on Monroe and Adams
streets. Even so, Tallahassee and Leon County had grown to a


C





































I Andrew Jackson's friend, Colonel Butler,
served as territorial Florida's first surveyor.

plateau that held steady until the Civil War. In 1845, Florida became
the twenty-seventh state, an event observed with much fanfare in
Tallahassee. The occasion was appropriately celebrated with the in-
auguration of Democrat William D. Moseley, the state's first gover-
nor, in the new capitol building, undefiled as yet by the tobacco
stains of politicians and visitors.22
A number of people influenced the area's development during
this period. Among them was Colonel Robert Butler. A prosperous
planter, Butler was the territory's first surveyor general and design-
ed the two-story capitol wing that was completed in 1826. Francis
Eppes was another. He came to Leon County from Virginia in 1828.
8





































Francis W. Eppes, three-time intendent or
mayor of Tallahassee, came to Leon County in 1828.

The grandson of Thomas Jefferson, who had personally directed his
education, Eppes knew French, Spanish, and German in addition to
English. Every day he read the scriptures in Latin and Greek. Eppes
was Tallahassee's most distinguished mayor (intendant) in the
period before the Civil War. The most important physician was Dr.
Edward Bradford, a North Carolinian, who came to Tallahassee in
1831. Bradford married Martha Branch, daughter of John Branch,
Florida's last territorial governor, and became master of Pine Hill
and Horseshoe plantations, both located north of Tallahassee.
Most of the area's population were American, but two French-
men also made their mark. One, the Marquis de Lafayette, did so
9







tangentially and in absentia. The other, Prince Achille Murat, did
so personally and with impact.
Lafayette had fallen on impecunious times in 1794. A grateful
United States, whose citizens remembered the contributions of the
dashing boy general to American independence, granted him back
military pay and a tract of land in the Louisiana Territory. In 1824
Lafayette made a triumphant tour of the United States. Once more
Congress responded, this time with cash and the gift of a township
(thirty-six square miles of land) in the Territory of Florida. The tract
selected was Township 1 East, Range 1 North in Leon County.
Although he never visited his property, the abolitionist Lafayette
backed an agricultural experiment attempting to farm without
slaves in the center of a slave-dominated economy and society. In
March 1831 more than fifty French farmers arrived to undertake the
production of limes, olives, mulberry trees, and silk worms.
Located on a bluff overlooking Lake Lafayette, the slaveless colony
never functioned effectively. It failed because of diseases (the set-
tlers had no doctor), language and cultural difficulties, and confu-
sion over land titles. The colonists scattered, some going to New
Orleans and others returning to France. Litigation over property
ownership continued until 1860. A few remained, settling in an area
of the grant that became a predominantly black neighborhood but
remains known today as Frenchtown.23
Achille Murat's parents were Caroline, sister of Napoleon
Bonaparte, and Joachim Murat, Marshall of France and ruler of the
Kingdom of Naples. The prince became an emigre following the
Battle of Waterloo and his uncle's subsequent fall from power. In
1821 Murat found himself in the United States, and by 1825 the
itinerant Frenchman had settled in Jefferson County, Florida. He
married Catherine Dangerfield Willis Gray, a transplanted Virgi-
nian and the great-grand-niece of George Washington. Their plan-
tation was named Lipona, and later they lived at Econchatti,
another Jefferson County plantation. After Murat died in 1847,
Catherine, who was popularly known as Kate, moved to Bellevue, a
five hundred acre plantation on the Jackson Bluff Road two miles
west of Tallahassee. Kate died in 1867.
Murat's writings promoted Florida, and he was active in the ter-
ritory's political, economic, and social life. His eccentricities reach-
ed epic proportions: Murat slept on a moss mattress, carried on a
monologue with a pet owl, and spoke seven languages. His
gastronomic preferences were enjoyed alone, although he con-
sidered himself a gourmet cook, and specialized in cow's ear stew,
baked owl with head on, alligator steaks, and roasted crow.2"

























































Achille Murat and his wife, Catherine Dangerfield Willis Gray Murat,
were popular and flamboyant residents of early Tallahassee.


;7-i







By 1860 the area had survived crop failures, financial panics,
wars, fires, hurricanes, and epidemics to lead the state in wealth and
population. The town and county had 12,343 persons. The 3,194
whites were greatly outnumbered by 9,089 slaves and 60 free per-
sons of color.25 A visiting planter from the Mississippi Delta or
Alabama's Black Belt would have detected striking similarities be-
tween the economy of his own home and that of Leon County. As in
the Delta and the Black Belt, the local structure-political,
economic, and social-was dominated by a white patrician minori-
ty. This planter class was supported by white yeoman farmers,
while the institution of slavery undergirded the whole system.
Tallahassee had forty-three merchants who offered everything
from prescription drugs and patent medicines (Matthew Lively's
drugstore was the most popular) to guns to jewelry to photographs
(William Kuhn's shop did a flourishing business). P.B. Brokaw
operated a blacksmithy and livery stable, and D.C. Wilson and
Son's was the largest general and dry goods store. Tallahassee
boasted twenty-six manufacturing enterprises and two newspapers.
There were fourteen doctors (seventeen more lived in the county),
twenty lawyers, nine school teachers, a professor of music, and two
music teachers.
Active congregations of Methodists (the first and the largest),
Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Baptists, and Catholics promoted the
town's religious life. Once the crops were laid by, the revival or pro-
tracted meeting season began to reconsecrate the converted and to
convert the sinners.
A telegraph line connected Tallahassee with the outside world,
and transportation was provided by the Tallahassee Railroad con-
necting with St. Marks-it dated from the 1830s-and by the east-
west Pensacola and Georgia Railroad that linked Quincy and Lake
City. The Florida Atlantic and Gulf Central Railroad extended from
Lake City to Jacksonville. There were several roads that converged
on the capital. John Bellamy built the earliest in 1826 as part of the
federal project linking St. Augustine and Pensacola. With its
downtown area rebuilt from the fire of 1843 and bolstered by the
economic prosperity of the late 1850s, Tallahassee was a handsome
and affluent town on the eve of the Civil War.
On January 10, 1861, Florida became the third Southern state to
secede. A state in the Union for only sixteen years, Florida had been
caught up in the sectional disputes. The election of Abraham
Lincoln and the Republicans in November 1860 triggered the crisis.
As a slave state with 61,745 bondsmen in a total population of
140,424, Florida followed the lead of South Carolina, which seced-







ed in December 1860. A convention of sixty-nine delegates met at
the capitol and voted to secede. All five Leon County delegates
voted for secession despite protests from moderates such as Richard
Keith Call, a Tallahasseean, an old friend of Jackson, and former
territorial governor. Florida became a part of the Confederate
States of America, established at Montgomery, Alabama, in
February. Governor Madison Stark Perry was succeeded by John
Milton, who coordinated Florida's war effort with Confederate
President Jefferson Davis. Overwhelmed by the demands of his of-
fice, Milton committed suicide on April 1, 1865, and was followed
as governor by Abraham K. Allison.26
Although Florida was not a major theatre of action, the Civil War
almost began at Fort Pickens, located on Santa Rosa Island across
the bay from Pensacola. Confederate forces assembled in the area
created the same threat to federal property as their comrades-in-
arms at Charleston, South Carolina, did to Fort Sumter. The con-
flict began with the cannonade at Charleston Harbor on April 12,
1861, while sustained fighting at Pensacola did not occur until that
autumn. Units from Leon County were present, and in an engage-
ment on Santa Rosa Island on October 9, 1861, two Leon countians
were casualties. Private William R. Roth (or Routh) and Captain
Richard H. Bradford, both of the First Florida Infantry Regiment,
became the county's first men to be killed in action. Bradford, a
member of a pioneer family, was brought home in state for burial.
On December 8, 1861, the name of New River County (created in
1858) was changed to Bradford County.27
Throughout the war Florida was subject to coastal raids and an
ever-tightening Union blockade, but no major land battles. The
largest engagement fought in Florida ended in a Confederate victory
at Olustee, or Ocean Pond, located between Lake City and Jackson-
ville. On February 20, 1864, forces of equal strength-approx-
imately 5,000 men each-fought from 12:30 p.m. until late after-
noon when the United States troops began withdrawing toward
Jacksonville. The Confederates were unable to follow up their
victory.26
Florida contributed vital support for the Confederacy. Bacon,
beef, and agricultural products headed the list. Late in the war
saltworks erected along the Gulf Coast were the South's major
source of that vital preservative. The state furnished 15,000 men to
the Confederacy, the overwhelming majority of whom, to Gover-
nor Milton's dismay, fought on the distant battlefields of the Upper
South. Approximately 1,300 Floridians who remained loyal to the
Union fought for the United States.29


_______







Throughout the war, Tallahasseeans feared that their city would
be attacked. Governor Milton kept his family at Sylvania, his plan-
tation near Marianna in Jackson County, because he anticipated a
move on Tallahassee at any moment. Fortunately it never came,
since only the most meager earthworks were erected for defense.
The city was the center for planning operations. Wounded soldiers
were housed in hotels, private residences, and at nearby planta-
tions. On occasion Union prisoners of war were held in the capital,
although their incarceration was notoriously informal and they
were casually guarded.
On March 6, 1865, late in the war, units from Tallahassee, in-
cluding young cadets from the West Florida Seminary, took part in
the Battle of Natural Bridge in the lower part of Leon County. A
combined Union sea and land force made a belated attempt to take
St. Marks, cut the railroad between that port and Tallahassee, and
march on the capital. About 900 Union soldiers, many of them
black troops, were engaged by 1,500 to 2,000 Confederates in a
battle that ended with the Federals withdrawing to their fleet in
Apalachee Bay and returning to Key West.30 A Southern victory so
late in the war was an anomaly.
Alice Chaires heard the fighting from her home, Verdura Planta-
tion. She was doubly frightened because her husband, Samuel
Parkhill Chaires, was in the battle. Alice sought safety forty miles
north across the Georgia boundary at Thomasville. She rejoiced in
the victory but realized that the South's cause was lost. As she wrote
her cousin, "I am packed up, ready, so if the Yanks do come again, I
will be ready." Defeatism was in the air, and numerous Southern
soldiers simply walked away from their units. "These deserters
wives," Alice commented, "say that they [Northern troops] are
coming again and in a larger force."31
The end of the war was closer than many Southerners believed
possible. General Robert E. Lee capitulated to General Ulysses S.
Grant on April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.
Later, on April 26, Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston sur-
rendered his forces to General William T. Sherman. The surrender
convention occurred near Durham Station, North Carolina. Florida
was a part of General Johnston's command, and the man responsi-
ble for accepting the state's surrender was Major General James H.
Wilson. From his headquarters at Macon, Georgia, General Wilson
sent Brigadier General Edward M. McCook to Southwest Georgia
and Florida.32
In Georgia McCook's command received the surrender of
Albany, Thomasville, and Bainbridge. Then McCook and two


- I ..








q
ItI-~


I


1!I


/)1


Susan Bradford, shown here in 1864, described her experiences in Leon County
a during the Civil War in her reminiscences, Through Some Fuentful Years.
1. cavalry units numbering 300 men crossed into Florida. On May 11,
n the Union soldiers paused four miles north of Tallahassee, and from
ia there the general and a small party rode into town to receive the ini-
tial surrender. Susan Bradford, a romantic nineteen-year-old
)f Southern patriot, observed the proceedings from her father's
o Pinehill plantation. "McCook's men got us after all," she wrote.


_ _







"About twelve o'clock today they came in sight, a long line of blue. I
don't see how I ever thought the blue uniform was pretty. . It
took a long, long time for the dusty column in blue to pass our place.
The officers were very strict with the men and did not allow them to
straggle nor did they let the men come inside the enclosure for any
purpose.""
In Tallahassee Ellen Call Long, the forty-year-old daughter of
Richard Keith Call, wrote, "I was startled on yesterday by a cry
from our little 'black boy' of 'Yankees!' 'Yankees!' and I found
myself running with the 'rest of the children' to the front to see Gen.
McCook and staff enter to take command of our little city." She ap-
preciated McCook's diplomacy in keeping his main force on the
town's outskirts, adding, "The General was very properly received
by representative men of the place, and the courtesies due him were
gracefully extended."34
There was a jurisdictional dispute among higher Federal com-
manders concerning who should accept Florida's surrender, but
since McCook was physically present, he prevailed. He and his men
took charge of Confederate supplies, without resistance, and parol-
ed Southern soldiers. On May 12, an officer of McCook's command
received the surrender of Fort Ward at St. Marks, confiscated a few
bales of cotton and some military equipment, and paroled the of-
ficers and crew of the steamer Spray. For Tallahassee the end came
formally on May 20, with a ceremonial raising of the stars and
stripes. Freedmen and Union soldiers made up most of the audience.
Yet many townspeople heard the sound of guns: as the flag was
hoisted a salute was fired for every state in the Union. The Civil War
was over for Florida.35
In reasserting national authority after the surrender, General
McCook placed Florida under martial law on May 22, 1865. Five
companies of Federal troops (some of them blacks) were stationed at
Tallahassee. On July 23, President Andrew Johnson, who had suc-
ceeded the assassinated Abraham Lincoln, appointed William
Marvin of Key West as Provisional Governor. Marvin worked with
the state's military commander, Major General John S. Foster.
Carrying out President Johnson's Reconstruction program, Flori-
dians had by December 1866 adopted a new constitution and elected
David S. Walker as governor. Yet Johnson and Congress became
embroiled in a bitter political and ideological conflict that saw the
defeat of the president's policies and the installation in 1867 of
Radical or Congressional Reconstruction. Florida entered a stormy
period of Republican hegemony. The party was a coalition of
Northern whites (scornfully dismissed by ex-Confederates as


P







carpetbaggers), Southern-born whites (known pejoratively as
scalawags), and blacks. The military and the Freedman's Bureau, a
federal agency that assisted and protected the former slaves, sup-
ported these elements.
The second military occupation came in April 1867, when Col-
onel John T. Sprague established headquarters at Tallahassee and
proclaimed martial law. A new constitution, written in 1868,
guaranteed blacks the right to vote; provided for public schools;
modernized the court system; and equalized the tax structure. In
July 1868, Florida was readmitted into the Union with Harrison
Reed, a carpetbagger, as the state's first Republican governor. Reed
was succeeded in 1872 by Ossian B. Hart, a scalawag, who con-
tinued Republican control. Hart died in office, and in 1874 was
followed by Lieutenant Governor Marcellus L. Stearns, a native of
Maine and former official in the Freedman's Bureau.
Although Republican rule was marked by internecine warfare,
Radical Reconstruction was not the orgy of corruption depicted by
the Democrats. Still, white Floridians were determined to have
"home rule" or "redemption." In the national election of 1876
Florida played an important role. Florida, Louisiana, and South
Carolina each forwarded contested election returns to Washington.
Each state had a set of electoral votes favoring both the Republican,
Rutherford B. Hayes, and the Democrat, Samuel J. Tilden. Con-
gress created an Electoral Commission to decide the dispute. The
commission, with its Republican majority, ruled in favor of Hayes.
Even so, Florida went Democratic in the state elections, and the new
governor was George F. Drew, born in New Hampshire but a resi-
dent of the South since the 1840s. In January 1877, Florida was
restored to home rule.b3
In the final decades of the nineteenth century, the Conservative
Democrats (often called Bourbons) entrenched themselves politi-
cally. During the late 1880s and into the 1890s the Populists
mounted an abortive challenge. Democratic control was solidified
and held firm in local and state elections throughout most of the
twentieth century. Yet Republicans made inroads, and as the cen-
tury drew to a close, Florida frequently voted Republican at the na-
tional level and was no longer a one party state.
Tracing Leon County politics at the national level reveals several
deviations from the state pattern. In 1848, the first time Florida par-
ticipated in a national campaign, Leon County gave a majority vote
to Zachary Taylor and the Whigs who also carried Florida and the
nation. In 1852, 1856, and 1860 both county and state voted
Democratic (the winner in the latter contest was John C.


-I.r-_s--







Breckinridge, the candidate of the Southern wing of the Democratic
party). Because of the Civil War Florida did not participate in the
campaign that reelected Lincoln in 1864. The state legislature cast
Florida's electoral votes in 1868 for Ulysses S. Grant, and
Republicans also carried local elections in Leon County. In the elec-
tions of 1872, 1876, 1880, and 1884 Leon County voted Republican,
even though the state went Democratic in 1880 and 1884.
A new state constitution in 1885 permitted the effective control
and disfranchisement of black voters. The result was that Leon
County and Florida returned Democratic majorities in the ten
national elections through 1924. In 1928 Herbert Hoover carried
Florida for the Republicans, but Leon County remained loyal to Al
Smith and the Democrats. The county and state remained solidly
Democratic through Franklin D. Roosevelt's four victories and
Harry S. Truman's 1948 triumph. Dwight D. Eisenhower carried
Florida in 1952 and 1956, as did Richard M. Nixon in 1960. Yet in all
three of those contests Leon County stuck to the Democrats. In an
unusual twist, Leon County went for Barry Goldwater and the
Republicans in 1964 despite the statewide majority for Lyndon B.
Johnson. Nixon won Florida in 1968, but a majority of Leon coun-
tians voted for George C. Wallace and his American Independent
party ticket. Leon County and Florida gave majorities to Nixon in
1972, but the Southern Democrat Jimmy Carter carried both in
1976.
Florida joined the landslide for Republican Ronald Reagan in
1980, but Leon County did not. Carter was the victor by 3,580
votes. The election of 1984 pitted the incumbent President Reagan
and Vice President George Bush against Walter Mondale (Carter's
vice president) and Geraldine Ferraro, the first woman to be
nominated for vice president. What began as a dull campaign pick-
ed up interest in the closing weeks. Leon County joined Florida and
the nation in awarding Reagan an overwhelming victory. From
1848 through 1984 (excluding 1864), Leon County cast a majority of
its Presidential ballots for one Whig, one American Independent,
nine Republicans, and twenty-three Democrats.37
In December 1825, Florida's Legislative Council provided that
Tallahassee would be governed by an intendant or mayor and a five
member city council. All were to be elected annually and all were to
serve without pay. Following an election in 1826, Dr. Charles Haire
became the town's first mayor. Supervision of the county lay with
the elected county commissioners and various officials such as the
sheriff. This basic form of government was retained until 1919 when
the city commission system was adopted. The change came as part
18
















n
n
d

y
d
d



"A View of Tallahassee, Florida, from the South(W)-
From a Sketch by James E. Taylor" appeared in the popular
It publication, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, on October 31, 1868.
n
nof the Progressive movement nationwide which included municipal
reform as basic to its goals.
SBy the late twentieth century the operations of county and city
0 were in part determined by special laws of the state legislature
n (usually the work of the local legislative delegation). The city com-
s missioners, the only elected officials, were chosen at large. In turn
e the commissioners annually elected a mayor from among
themselves and appointed several city officials including the key ad-
ministrator, the city manager. County commissioners were elected
by district, although the vote was countywide. Efforts to merge city
f and county government failed, but in 1967 the important
Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Commission was established.
Its members were appointed in equal numbers by the county and
t city commissioners.
eThe original size of Leon County was altered by the creation of
Jefferson County in 1827 and of Wakulla County in 1842. After
those changes Leon remained at approximately 685 square miles.
The city retained its boundaries of one square mile until it was
enlarged to 2.25 square miles in 1912. Expansion occurred
periodically in later years. By 1986 the city had 56.09 square miles,
t and future growth seemed inevitable.


-II












I
- r. .V_'=


o1 2 4 ,


iLi. i'I i'.,il- 'unit L' hi n ,,I: on t
east side of Monroe Street at Jefferson Street. Altered significantly
over the years, it was demolished in 1985 to make way for a new facility.
After the Civil War, the town and county maintained as much
social life as the times would permit. Sidney Lanier, the Southern
poet and musician, toured Florida in the mid-1870s under a commis-
sion to write a guide book. After his visit to Tallahassee, he wrote,
"The repute of these people for hospitality was a matter of national
renown before the war between the States: and even the dreadful
reverses of that cataclysm appear to have spent their force in vain
against this feature of Tallahassee manners . it exists
unimpaired."3
20







Before the Civil War, Independence Day was the most popular
holiday. From 1865 until the turn of the century, the Fourth of July
was celebrated mainly by blacks and Republicans. Blacks in the area
observed May 20 as their day of emancipation. Whites continued to
attend the May Day party which was first held in 1833. Everyone
enjoyed church festivals, religious revivals, musical concerts,
theatrical entertainments, public lectures, fairs, circuses, picnics,
baseball, fishing, and hunting. In the twentieth century more
sophisticated forms of entertainment-movies (the first was the
Capital City Theater which opened on College Avenue in 1912),
radio, and television-were added.
* The participation in clubs and organizations, basing its appeal on
grand hailing signs, secret handshakes, and password incantations,
seems to be an instinct that cannot be suppressed. Whites joined the
Masons (Jackson Masonic Lodge, No. 23, was the town's first
fraternal order), Knights of Phythias, agricultural societies and
debating clubs as well. Blacks joined the Odd Fellows, formed
various musical groups, and became members of the Leon County
Colored Reform Club.9
In the post-war decades agriculture became more diversified and
remained the basis of Leon County's economy. The Leon
Agricultural Society, founded in 1868, and other farm organiza-
tions urged adoption of better farm machinery, the use of fertilizers,
and the planting of new crops. Soon local farmers raised oats,
peanuts, velvet beans, and vegetables as well as the traditional
crops of corn and cotton. Yet the shortage of cash saddled the tenant
farming-crop lien system on the region, and there it remained, in
some form, to the middle decades of the twentieth century.
By the 1870s local farmers hoped that vegetables could be shipped
to Northern markets, and what amounted to a craze for LeConte
pear orchards came in the 1880s. A blight ended the commercial
pear venture. Also, there was no direct, fast rail connection to the
East and Midwest, and a much discussed rail connection with
Thomasville never materialized, although a hookup was made with
Bainbridge in 1903. But as Sidney Lanier wrote in 1875, "no one has
starved, and albeit the people are poor . and ready money is slow
of circulation, yet it must be confessed that the bountiful tables
looked like anything but famine. . ."40
For a while in the 1880s-1890s some Leon Countians grew grapes
and successfully marketed wine. There were only a few large vint-
ners, and these efforts died with the coming of prohibition. Leon
County farmers produced cigar leaf tobacco before 1900 and after
then shade tobacco. Heavy competition from neighboring Gadsden







County and a severe drop in prices caused local growers to abandon
tobacco.
Livestock, especially milk cows, greatly boosted the area's
economy. There were numerous hogs, horses, beef cattle, mules,
sheep, and goats. George W. Gibbs led the way with sheep and was
also a pioneer in the nursery business. By the 1890s dairying was big
business, and the Jersey was the favored milk cow for such leaders
as John R. and R.F. Bradford, Jan Donk, Patrick Houston, John A.
Craig, and Rudolph Herold, a Swiss immigrant. Until after World
War I, Leon County was the state's banner dairying county. The in-
dustry remained important through the 1950s.
About 1900 an intensive effort was made to combine land sales
and pecan orchards. Profits from pecans were trumpeted as
limitless, and numerous buyers became customers of the Florida
Pecan Endowment Company. But unpredictable crop years and the
careful attention required by the orchards (even the ubiquitous
Spanish moss shut out needed sunlight) could not be overcome.
Before World War I much of the pecan acreage was sold for tax
delinquency.
Leon Countians then shifted their attention to tung nut trees. As
early as 1906 William Raynes planted the first tree and in 1913 Dr.
Tennent Rolands set out the first bearing grove. Both ac-
complishments were firsts in Florida. Although a freeze in 1917hurt
the groves, by the 1930s tung trees were being grown commercially.
Oil from the nuts had many uses, especially in the manufacture of
paints and varnishes. The groves remained important until the
1960s when freezes, price fluctuations, and less expensive synthetic
substitutes caused a decline. Even so, the soft pink blooms of the
tung tree rival those of the more widely known cherry, peach, and
apple trees in beauty.
Despite brief interludes, cotton and corn produced by tenant
farmers (most of them blacks) was the prevailing agricultural
system. In the late nineteenth century profound changes took place
in land use and ownership. By the 1880s wealthy Northerners and a
few affluent locals began buying the old plantations. Their primary
purpose was sport, particularly hunting quail, and in the 1880s a
gun club was organized. The lands of north Leon County were con-
verted from agricultural tracts to game preserves. The trend con-
tinued into the twentieth century (a brief vogue of leasing hunting
lands died out in the 1920s). Soon the plantation owners employed
managers, who were expert agriculturalists, to supervise the planta-
tions and direct the production of livestock and corn.
Across the line in Georgia, plantations in Thomas and Grady


22


- ----- --- ~ i








































After the Civil War, the tenant and crop lien system of
producing cotton became entrenched across the South, including
Leon County. This 1879 photo shows black farmers at a local cotton gin.

counties underwent a similar transition. What amounted to a
Northern colony-many of its members were related by birth and
marriage-emerged. In fact, parts of several quail plantations
(periodically they were sold, swapped, and given as presents) were
located in both states.
Changes in land use occurred in other parts of Leon County. The
Resettlement Administration, an agency of the New Deal, pur-
chased the southwestern quarter of the county in 1935, and in 1936
the land became a part of the Apalachicola National Forest. Much
23























on Sunny Hilkl, one of Leon Counly's distinct ive quail panalions.
on Sunny Hill, one of Leon County's distinctive quail plantations.


of the sandy sections in the county's southern portions, never pro-
ductive farm land, became the property of the St. Joe Paper Com-
pany, a subsidiary of the DuPont Corporation.
An additional important reduction in farm land occurred as
Tallahassee grew. Urban expansion into residential subdivisions
and shopping areas seemed inexorable and endless. The result of all
this was a dramatic decline in agriculture. Patch farming remained,
as blacks found extra and full-time employment on the quail planta-
tions. But increasingly, they followed white farmers to construction
work and other jobs in Tallahassee. The expanding educational
system and state government offered more certain and more
lucrative pay than small scale farming.4'
In 1860 Leon County easily led Florida in total acres devoted to
farming, in cash value of farm land, and in the worth of farm
machinery. By the mid-1980s only one family in the county derived
its income solely from agriculture. In 1860 local farmers ginned
16,686 bales of cotton. In 1985 not a stalk of cotton grew in Leon
County.42 Few areas had made such a complete transition from a
rural to an urban economy. The agricultural kingdom had ceased to
exist.
In the spring of 1865, Tallahasseeans and Leon Countians went
about the business of earning a living. Political turmoil could be
participated in or ignored. Bad prices for crops were hard to accept,
but there was always next year. Perhaps the economic situation
would improve. There was usually a dance or a picnic to attend,
24







Lake Jackson teemed with fish, and the church doors would open as
surely as the sun came up on Sunday. Even so, there was little, other
than talk, the people could do about the weather. Talk about the
weather they certainly did. It was either too dry or too wet. There
were dire predictions of doom. Such talk was, of course, the most
neutral and commonly accepted means of starting a conversation,
but it was also of vital concern.
In the fall of 1873 the citizens witnessed a climatic phenomenon
that gave them something to remember and talk about for years. A
devastating hurricane struck the Gulf Coast and swept through the
region on September 19. Before, the area's interior geographical set-
ting had made it relatively safe from the tropical gales of summer
and autumn. But not in 1873. Tallahassee's streets were filled with
debris as scores of giant oaks and other trees were blown down.
Stores were heavily damaged and forty private homes were
demolished. Many farmers lost their entire cotton crop. Fifteen cot-
ton gins were wrecked; farm implements were destroyed; and corn
cribs, barns, and fences were scattered across the countryside. For-
tunately, there were only two deaths. Damage was estimated at
over $200,000 in the county's worst hurricane. The area's second
most powerful storm, hitting unusually late in the season, occurred
November 21, 1985. Hurricane Kate came ashore at Cane San Bias


The snow storm in February 1899 provided an
unusual opportunity for a snowball fight on the Capitol steps.


-Ij







and Port St. Joe, a hundred miles southwest of Tallahassee, and
moved northeast, reaching the capital city early in the evening.
Kate's winds had by then diminished from 100 miles to about 70
miles per hour. Considerable property damage was sustained,
especially by a series of local tornadoes spawned by the hurricane.
There were no deaths in the county or city.43
Such destructive aberrations of nature were rare. For the most
part, the region's climate was one of heavy rainfall and of pleasant
springs that began in March; long, humid summers; mild autumns;
crisp, short winters that could be unexpectedly cold. Snow that
"stayed on the ground" was so rare that people had no difficulty
remembering the year it occurred. The winter of 1899 was par-
ticularly severe, although the snow served as a conversation piece
and offered a rare recreational opportunity.
People in the Territory of Florida had planned Tallahassee's birth
and purpose. The hamlet set down in a forest clearing in 1824 was
designed to be the capital. As time passed the role of government ex-
panded, and Tallahassee's possession of the capitol building became
more important. Although elected and appointed officials exercised
their tenure and moved on, the lives and livelihood of increasing
numbers of local residents revolved around the interlinked bureaus,
agencies, and departments that enabled the state to function.
The attempt to remove the state capital made other problems
seem minor to the post-Reconstruction generations of Leon Coun-
ty. If the capital was lost ("stolen" was the word they used), the
citizens could look forward to painful oblivion and economic
stagnation. There had been previous efforts. As early as 1831 the
Legislative Council assigned five commissioners the task of finding a
new site, but they failed to agree. Then, on separate occasions in
1832 a bill to remove the seat of government to St. Augustine and
another to locate in the central part of the territory were defeated.
The campaign was renewed in 1843. Claims that Tallahassee was
geographically inconvenient and unhealthy prompted a motion in
the House of Representatives to seek a more central setting. The mo-
tion lost. In 1854, the question of removal was contested in a
statewide referendum. Political issues of the day (Whigs versus
Democrats) affected the outcome, but, in any case, supporters of
Tallahassee carried the election 5,020 to 4,402, a margin of 518
votes.4
The first post-Civil War challenge came in 1881, when Governor
William D. Bloxham vetoed a bill to establish the capital at
Gainesville or another place to be selected later. His veto was
upheld. Fortunately for Tallahassee, Bloxham, the first native-born


_~____







Floridian to become governor, served again from 1897-1901. He
strongly opposed a well-organized effort to change the seat of
government. A statewide vote was held in conjunction with the
general election of November 1900. The contenders, Jacksonville,
Ocala, and St. Augustine, each claimed advantages: growth,
transportation facilities, healthfulness, superior climate, and scenic
attractions. Each offered to donate land for state buildings.
Leon County offered similar arguments for retaining its favored
position. Governor Bloxham noted that moving would be expen-
sive. It was far easier to repair or build occasionally than to erect a
completely new physical complex. Beyond that, Tallahassee had
tradition and public sentiment on its side. As the challengers argued
among themselves, Floridians, fearful that removal meant addi-
tional taxes, stuck with what they had. Jacksonville came closest
with 7,672 votes, but Tallahassee received 13,435."5 According to a
modern scholar, the capital was saved because of "geography and a
determined, politically conscious populace in Tallahassee. .. ."46
Part of the agitation for removal had centered around the
dilapidated condition and inadequacy of the capitol itself and the
lack of other buildings. Once the electorate decided to keep the
capital at Tallahassee, the legislature began a major program of ex-
pansion. Back of the newest appropriations for the capitol lay three-
quarters of a century of construction and sporadic patching.


El


Tl 4, -


L i-F--- -
., r


This photograph from the 1870s shows the State Capitol as it
looked between its construction in 1845 and 1891 when the cupola was added.







In 1824 three log cabins served as the territory's first govern-
mental buildings. Next, a two-story capitol was completed in 1826.
Financial disputes snarled attempts to enlarge and maintain the
brick and mortar edifice. In 1839 congressional funds permitted the
replacement of the 1826 structure. When federal money ran out in
1841, territorial supplements proved insufficient. Additional
appropriations came from Washington in 1844, and the capitol was
completed in 1845. The three-story building remained basically
unaltered, except for the addition of a cupola in 1891. In 1902-1903
the existing wings were enlarged and the cupola was replaced by a
dome.
Despite the addition of east and west wings the old structure
could not meet the needs of a rapidly growing state. Government
leaders, determined to build a new capitol, decided to raze the old
structures. Preservationists from around the state rallied and as a
result, the old capitol was restored to its proportions of 1902-1903,
and nearby an entirely new capitol was built. Work on the old
capitol was completed in 1982, and it became a museum of Florida
government. The dramatic new twenty-two story capitol was the
work of a group of associates of the noted architect, Edward Durrell
Stone. Work was begun in 1977, and on March 31, 1978, Governor
Reubin O'D. Askew presided over the formal dedication
ceremonies.4
Education, including the lack of it, but, more important, the
presence of it, significantly influenced the capital city and Leon
County. Wealthy planters often hired tutors to live in their homes.
The Leon Academy and House of Worship, established in 1827 by
the Presbyterian minister, Henry M. White, was the first school in
the county. Numerous academies and schools followed, usually
private and segregated by sex. The state had no true system of
public education before the Civil War. The Free School of
Tallahassee, begun in 1850, was one of the few public schools. In
1851 the state legislature provided for a seminary west of the
Suwannee River and for one to the east. Tallahassee outbid other
competitors, and in 1857 the West Florida Seminary opened in the
capital city. Women were admitted when the Tallahassee Female
College was absorbed in 1858. The institution (hardly more than a
secondary school) struggled along through the war and the years
that followed. Its survival was more remarkable than its lack of
distinction. In 1905 the Buckman Act expanded the school's func-
tion, limited its student body to women, and named it the Florida
Female College. Patrons and supporters resented the name, and in
1909 it was changed to the Florida State College For Women. The


- --- --e ~-- ~- 1_























Graduates of Florida Female College, now
I~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~I .. -. -l--. h-A -IA!--


Students at Florida State College for Women, like thousands of other
patriotic citizens, planted victory or defense gardens during World War II.







unprecedented expansion of higher education after World War II
brought sweeping changes. In October 1946 some male students
were admitted to the women's college, and in 1947 full-fledged
coeducational status was made official with the new name: Florida
State University.4
Before 1860 blacks were denied an education by state law. In
1865, despite occasional violations of the statutes, the mass of
Florida's black population was illiterate. Schools for blacks were
begun in 1865 and were largely maintained by the Freedmen's
Bureau and various Northern religious groups and philanthropic
societies. By 1866 John Wallace, a black, conducted a school for
former slaves in Leon County on the plantation of William D.
Bloxham. A state law in 1869 provided the means of public support
for education, although the schools were segregated. The separa-
tion of the races in school was made mandatory by the constitution
of 1885, but public education was specifically required."
Higher education for blacks came with an important law passed
October 3, 1887, which provided for the establishment of the
Tallahassee State Normal College for Colored Students. The first
president was Thomas De Saille Tucker, who was born in Sierra
Leone, West Africa, and educated at Oberlin College in Ohio. From
its location on a commanding hill south of the Capitol, the institu-
tion grew in size and importance-the transition was reflected in its
name changes. The small college became the Florida State Normal
and Industrial School in 1901 and the Florida Agricultural and
Mechanical College for Negroes in 1909. By 1951 it was called
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, and in 1953 it became
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University.50
Educational needs at every level increased in the twentieth cen-
tury. Even in the depths of the Great Depression-1931-the efforts
of Lewis M. Lively led to the founding of Lively Vocational School.
With the growth of population there was an increase in the number
of primary and secondary schools, both public and private, and the
expansion of the two universities. Another type of educational in-
stitution was begun in 1966. The Tallahassee Junior College
(presently Tallahassee Community College) opened its doors for
classes. The state institution's initial home was in Amos P. Godby
High School, but in 1967 a spacious campus and physical plant in
west Tallahassee became its permanent site.
The integration of public schools in the South, including Florida,
was frustratingly slow to blacks. A majority of the South's white
population and political leaders reacted adversely to the historic
Brown decision of 1954. By it the United States Supreme Court


F~_ i

































































Gibbs Hall, shown here on the FAMUcampus in
about 1910, was named in honor of Thomas V. Gibbs, a former
state legislator and vice-president of the school from 1887 until 1898.

overturned the concept that "separate but equal" was constitutional
(Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896). To Florida's credit there was less disrup-
S tion and acrimony than in other Southern states. The relatively
quiet change was due in large part to the leadership of Governor
LeRoy Collins. In 1959 Dade County became the first in the state to
desegretate a public school. In September 1962, Florida State
University and Blessed Sacrament, a Catholic grade school, became
Leon County's first desegregated educational institutions. The in-
tegration of the county's public schools came in the fall of 1963. The
first white student was accepted at Florida Agricultural and
Mechanical University in 1964. After graduating, he attended
graduate school at Florida State University and later returned to
teach at his alma mater.1
Blacks were an important part of the area's life from the earliest.
From 1840 through 1940 they outnumbered the whites. In 1980
blacks made up approximately one-third of the county's popula-
tion. Generalities about the condition of black men and women in
the South can be made. For example, after 1865 the slaves became
legally free, but they were relegated to a position of second class
citizenship and worse. Still, generalizations rarely apply equally to
particular situations. The relationship of blacks and whites in
Tallahassee and Leon County has been and remains complex.
The former slaves were protected by constitutional amendments
and federal laws, but their status in post-Civil War Leon County
was an inferior one. Yet during the turbulence of Reconstruction the


-








county remained relatively safe for blacks. Such was the view of
"Bishop" Charles H. Pearce, a mercurial black minister and politi-
cian. Pearce came to Florida after 1865 and became presiding elder
of the Tallahassee District of the African Methodist Episcopal
church. He served variously as a member of the constitutional con-
vention of 1868, the Florida Senate, and as a Presidential elector in
1876. Testifying before a Congressional committee in 1872, he said,
"we have no trouble in a county like Leon; we are just as secure there
as in the State of Massachusetts. It is in the other sparsely settled
counties . where we have the most trouble." Were blacks pro-
tected in Leon County? "Yes, sir; we get along very well."52
Pearce's point held true during the 1880s and into the first decades
of the twentieth century when mob violence and lynchings reached
their peak across the South. Research by scholars and investigators
revealed that in counties where the density of blacks was heavy,
there were fewer lynchings. Mob terror was statistically much
higher in counties where blacks made up less than fifty per cent of
the population. The reasons included the well defined economic and
cultural levels of blacks and whites in plantation counties and the
economic dependence of whites on black laborers and tenants.53


Paralleling national activities, FAMU students participated
in "sit-ins" against racially-segregated lunch counters in 1960.







In actual practice Tallahassee and Leon County conformed to the
theory. Throughout the period Leon County had a large black ma-
jority: in 1920 there were 12,167 blacks in a total population of
18,059. Whites comprised only one-third of the citizens. A study of
lynchings in the South from 1889 to 1918 cited only one lynching in
Leon County. The total for Florida during the period was 178.54 In
1897 a black man named Pierce Taylor was accused of attempted
rape and placed in jail. An unruly crowd stormed the prison, took
Taylor out, and lynched him. There are no extant Tallahassee news-
papers to gauge the reaction, but a furious Jacksonville Times-
Union warned that "we will sink into barbarism if we allow private
persons at their pleasure to usurp the highest powers of the court,"
and hoped that the guilty would be punished."
In the twentieth century the area's blacks, like their contem-
poraries elsewhere, achieved significant social, economic, and
political gains, although not without a struggle. In 1956-1957,
Tallahassee's black citizens, led by Charles Kenzie Steele, pastor of
the Bethel Missionary Baptist Church, staged a peaceful and suc-
cessful boycott against the segregated transit system. Besides inte-
grating the city's buses, the black community was active in other civil
rights struggles. In 1960 students from Florida Agricultural and
Mechanical University took the lead in staging nonviolent "sit-ins" at
a local store that practiced racial discrimination in serving food to the
public. By the 1980s blacks in Leon County, in terms of per capital in-
come and opportunities for advancement, still lived in a dominant
white society. Yet increasingly they held political and professional
positions and comprised an important part of the area's middle
class.5'
As indicated by this brief history, Tallahassee and Leon County
have been important in the development of Florida. In the 1820s Prince
Achille Murat, the much traveled refugee, selected frontier Florida as
his home. Murat, a close observer of his surroundings, wrote in 1825,
"A year ago, this was but a forest.... Now there are more than a hun-
dred houses, two hundred inhabitants. ... Is not this magic?"57 By
1986 Leon County had a population exceeding 167,000. Over 114,000
were residents of Tallahassee. Projections of future growth placed the
county's population in 2000 at well beyond 235,000.
The city continued to dominate the county, although such com-
munities as Woodville, Miccosukee, Bradfordville, and Chaires
have their own traditions and history. The bibliography that
follows attempts to list the major published accounts (as well as
scholarly theses and dissertations) 'and to arrange them in a
systematic and usable order.
34








FOOTNOTES

1Fanny Bandelier, tr., intro. John Francis Bannon, The Narrative
of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (Barre, Massachusetts, 1972),
33-34.
2Theodore H. Lewis, "The Narrative of the Expedition of
Hernando De Soto by the Gentlemen of Elvas," 127-272, in Spanish
Explorers in the Southern United States 1528-1543 (New York,
1907); Final Report of the United States De Soto Expedition
(Washington, 1939), 165.
'See Mark F. Boyd, Hale G. Smith, and John W. Griffin, Here
They Once Stood: The Tragic End of the Apalachee Missions
(Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1951), 12, 139, 158; Mark
F. Boyd, "Mission Sites in Florida, an Attempt to Approximately
Identify the Sites of Spanish Mission Settlements of the Seventeenth
Century in Northern Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, XVII
(April, 1939): 254-280; Venila Lovina Shores, "The Ruins of Fort
San Luis Near Tallahassee," Florida Historical Quarterly, VI (Oc-
tober, 1927), 111-116.
4There is an excellent body of historical scholarship relating to
colonial rivalry. See for examples J. Leitch Wright, Jr., Anglo-
Spanish Rivalry in North America (Athens, 1971); Verner W.
Crane, The Southern Frontier, 1670-1732 (Durham, 1928); Henry
Folmer, Franco-Spanish Rivalry in North America, 1524-1763
(Glendale, 1953).
5B. Calvin Jones, "Colonel James Moore and the Destruction of
the Apalachee Missions in 1704," Bulletin No. 2 (Bureau of Historic
Sites and Properties, Division of Archives, History and Records
Management, Tallahassee, 1972), 1-61; Boyd, Smith, and Griffin,
Here They Once Stood, ix, 91-95.
'Robert L. Gold, Borderland Empires in Transition: The Triple-
Nation Transfer of Florida (Carbondale, 1969), 13-29; Wright,
Anglo-Spanish Rivalry, 101-110.
7See J. Leitch Wright, Jr., Florida in the American Revolution
(Gainesville, 1975); Cecil Johnson, British West Florida, 1763-1783
(New Haven, 1943); J. Barton Starr, Tories, Dons, and Rebels: The
American Revolution in British West Florida (Gainesville, 1976);
Thelma Peters, "The Migration from East Florida to the Bahama
Islands," Florida Historical Quarterly, XL (October, 1961),
123-141; Robert M. Calhoon, The Loyalists in Revolutionary
America, 1760-1781 (New York, 1973); William H. Nelson, The
American Tory (Oxford, 1961).
35







'Hubert Bruce Fuller, The Purchase of Florida Its History and
Diplomacy (Gainesville [facsimile edition], 1964); Philip C. Brooks,
Diplomacy of the Borderlands: The Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819
(Berkeley, 1939).
'Frederick K. Abbott, "The Ceremonies of July 17, 1821," 36-37,
in James R. McGovern, ed., Andrew Jackson and Pensacola (Pen-
sacola, 1971); Robert V. Remini, Andrew Jackson and the Course of
American Empire 1767-1821, I (New York, 1977).
1oUnited States Statutes At large, III, 654-659, 750-754; see ibid.,
637-639, and James Owen Knauss, "William Pope Duval: Pioneer
and State Builder," Florida Historical Quarterly, IX (January,
1933), 94-139.
"Quoted in A.J. Hanna, A Prince in their Midst (Norman,
Oklahoma, 1946), 112.
; 12Acts of the Legislative Council of the Territory of Florida, 1823,
33-34; William H. Simmons, "Journal of Dr. W.H. Simmons, Com-
missioner to Locate the Seat of Government of the Territory of
Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, I (April, 1908), 28-36; "The
Selection of Tallahassee as the Capital: Journal of John Lee
Williams, Commissioner to Locate the Seat of Government of the
Territory of Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, I (April, 1908),
37-44; (July, 1908), 18-27.
"'Quoted in John K. Mahon, History of the Second Seminole War
1835-1842 (Gainesville, 1967), 52.
14Charles J. Kappler, Indian Affairs Laws and Treaties, II
(Washington, 1927), 203-206; Mahon, Second Seminole War,
29-50.
15"Journal of John Lee Williams," 24.
"Bertram H. Groene, Ante-Bellum Tallahassee (Tallahassee,
1971), 3-12.
"1Acts of the Legislative Council, 1824, 158-161, 260-262; 1825,
68-73; 1828, 67-68; United States Statutes At Large, IV, 30-31;
Dorothy Dodd, "Old Tallahassee," Apalachee, V (1957-1962),
63-71; Venila Lovina Shores, "The Laying Out of Tallahassee,"
Apalachee, V (1957-1962), 41-47.
"For movement into the area see Julia Floyd Smith, Slavery and
Plantation Growth in Antebellum Florida (Gainesville, 1973), 1-18;
Groene, Ante-Bellum Tallahassee, 25-50; Mary D. Lewis, "Thomas
Brown," Apalachee, I (1944), 90-95.
L"Greenfield [Massachusetts] Gazette, April 26, 1825, quoting
Tallahassee Florida Intelligencer.
20Pensacola Gazette and West Florida Advertiser, December 11,
1824.


_ I ~ L_ _F~







2See letter to Tallahassee Florida Advocate, May 19, 1827; Mrs.
Henry L. Richmond, "Ralph Waldo Emerson in Florida," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XVIII (October, 1939), 91; Alan J. Downes,
"The Legendary Visit of Emerson to Tallahassee," Florida Historical
Quarterly, XXXIV (April, 1956), 334-338; W.T. Cash, ed.,
"Tallahassee and St. Marks in 1841: A Letter of John S. Tappan,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, XXIV (October, 1945), 109; Francis de
Castelnau, "Comte de Castelnau in Middle Florida," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XXVI (April, 1948), 237.
"Barbara Miller, "Tallahassee and the 1841 Yellow Fever
Epidemic," Apalachee, VIII (1971-1979), 21-31; "The Tallahassee
Fire of 1843," Florida Historical Quarterly, VII (October, 1928),
164-167; United States Statutes At Large, V, 742-743. Extensive
coverage of Moseley's inauguration was supplied by such local
Tallahassee papers as the Sentinel, Star of Florida, and Floridian.
"See Kathryn T. Abbey, "The Story of the LaFayette Lands in
Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, X (January, 1932), 115-133;
and her "LaFayette and the LaFayette Land Grants," Tallahassee
Historical Society Annual, I (1934), 1-9.
"Hanna, Prince in their Midst.
2Eighth Census, 1860, Vol. I: Population, 54. Tallahassee's
population was 1,932, giving it fourth rank in the state.
26See Dorothy Dodd, "The Secessionist Movement in Florida,
1850-1861," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXX (July, 1933), 3-24,
45-66; Donald R. Hadd, "The Irony of Secession," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XLI (July, 1962), 22-28; Ralph A. Wooster,
"The Florida Secession Convention," Florida Historical Quarterly,
XXXVI (April, 1958), 373-385. The standard monographs are
William Watson Davis, The Civil War and Reconstruction in
Florida (New York, 1913), and John E. Johns, Florida during the
Civil War (Gainesville, 1963).
27Edwin C. Bearss, "Civil War Operations in and around Pen-
sacola," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXXVI (October, 1957),
125-165; XXIX (January, 1961), 213-235; (April, 1961), 330-353; Joy
Smith Paisley, comp. and ed., The Cemeteries of Leon County
(Tallahassee, 1978), 34; Fred L. Robertson, Soldiers of Florida in the
Seminole Indian-Civil and Spanish American Wars (Live Oak,
Florida, 1903), 59, 67. Bradford commanded Company F, while
Routh served in Company A.
O80f the several accounts of the encounter at Olustee see Mark F.
Boyd, "The Federal Campaign of 1864 in East Florida," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XXIX (July, 1951), 3-37.
2"Ella Lonn, "The Extent and Importance of Federal Naval Raids
37







on Salt Making in Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, X (April,
1932), 167-184; Francis A. Rhodes, "Salt Making on the Apalachee
Bay," Tallahassee Historical Society Annual, II (1935), 17-21; for
Florida's contribution to the Civil War see Johns, Florida during the
Civil War, 201-215.
"3Edwin C. Bearss, "Federal Expedition Against Saint Marks Ends
at Natural Bridge," Florida Historical Quarterly, XLVI (April,
1967), 369-390; Mark F. Boyd, "The Joint Operations of the Federal
Army and Navy Near St. Marks, Florida, March 1865," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XXIX (October, 1950), 96-124; William
Miller, "The Battle of Natural Bridge," Apalachee, IV (1950-1956),
76-86; Stanley L. Itkin, "Operations of the East Gulf Blockade
Squadron in the Blockade of Florida, 1862-1865," Unpublished
master's thesis, Florida State University, 1962.
31Alice Chaires to "Dear Cousin" [Sue Bradford], March 16,
1865; letter loaned to authors by Sue Boynton of Tallahassee.
32James P. Jones and William Warren Rogers, "The Surrender of
Tallahassee," Apalachee, VI (1963-1967), 103-110.
3Susan Bradford Eppes, Through Some Eventful Years
(Gainesville [facsimile edition], 1968), 270-271.
"3Ellen Call Long, Florida Breezes: or, Florida, New and Old
(Gainesville [facsimile edition], 1962), 380-381.
"Jones and Rogers, "Surrender of Tallahassee," 110.
36The most comprehensive monograph on Reconstruction is
Jerrell H. Shofner, Nor Is It Over Yet Florida in the Era of
Reconstruction 1863-1877 (Gainesville, 1974). See also Joe M.
Richardson, The Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 1865-1877
(Tallahassee, 1965).
"The vote from Leon County 1848-1892 was compiled from the
appropriate election year issues in November of the Tallahassee
Floridian and Journal, Tallahassee Weekly Floridian, and the
Jacksonville Times-Union. Returns beginning in 1896 are available
at Florida Secretary of State, Election Returns, State Library of
Florida, Tallahassee.
"Sidney Lanier, Florida: Its Scenery, Climate, And History
(Gainesville [facsimile edition], 1973), 108.
39See John B. Meyers, "Social Life and Recreation in Tallahassee
during Reconstruction 1865-1877," Apalachee, VII (1968-1970),
20-37; Allan J. Downes, "Change and Stability in Society Life:
Tallahassee, Florida, 1870-1890," Unpublished master's thesis,
Florida State University, 1955; and Fenton Garnett Davis Avant, ed.,
David A. Avant, Jr., My Tallahassee (Tallahassee, 1983), 137-154.
40Lanier, Florida, 111.
38







"See the detailed monograph Clifton Paisley, From Cotton to
Quail An Agricultural Chronicle of Leon County, Florida
1860-1967 (Gainesville, 1968), 40-124. For an account of a planta-
tion in Thomas County, Georgia, see William Warren Rogers,
Pebble Hill: The Story of a Plantation (Tallahassee, 1979).
"Mary Louise Ellis interview with Lawrence Heitmeyer, Leon
County Agricultural Extension Director, October 10, 1984. The
farmer was F.G. Palmer who resided at Capitola in the county's
eastern section.
4Mary Louise Ellis, "North Florida and the Great Storm of 1873,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, LXII (April, 1984), 485-496. For hur-
ricane Kate see Tallahassee Democrat, November 22-24, 1985.
""Capital Removal," Florida Historical Quarterly, III (April,
1925), 9; Sylvia Jean Hardaway, "Capital Removal," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XXXVI (July, 1957), 77-83.
""Capital Removal," 3-10; Hardaway, "Capital Removal," 77-83.
Gainesville was briefly in the contest but soon dropped out. Ocala
received 6,373 votes and 2,100 Floridians preferred St. Augustine.
See also Ruby Leach Carson, "William Dunnington Bloxham:
Florida's Two Term Governor," Unpublished master's thesis, Univer-
sity of Florida, 1945.
46Edward C. Williamson, Florida Politics in the Gilded Age
1877-1893 (Gainesville, 1976), 17. Williamson noted with irony that
"it might have seemed to a casual onlooker that a town so rural held
its favored position with only a light grasp." (17).
"Tallahassee Democrat, April 1, 1978; Morris, Florida Handbook,
1983-1984, 221-240.
"See William G. Dodd, "Early Education in Tallahassee and the
West Florida Seminary, Now Florida State University," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XXVIII (July, 1948), 2-27; (October, 1948),
157-180; and his History of West Florida Seminary, 1857-1901;
Florida State College, 1901-1905 (Tallahassee, 1952).
"Richardson, The Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida,
112-124; Shofner, Nor Is It Over Yet, 150-153.
"oSee Leedell W. Neyland and John W. Riley, The History of
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (Gainesville, 1963).
5"Joseph Aaron Tomberlin, "The Negro and Florida's System of
Education: The Aftermath of the Brown Case," Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, Florida State University, 1967. James M. Van Matre,
1964-1969, took his master's degree in sociology.
52Testimony Taken By The Joint Select Committee To Inquire Into
The Condition Of Affairs In The Late Insurrectionary States
(Washington, 1972), 167. See also Dorothy Dodd, "'Bishop Pearce







and the Reconstruction of Leon County," Apalachee, II (1937),
27-34.
53Lynchings and What They Mean General Findings of the
Southern Commission in the Study of Lynching (Atlanta, 1931),
12-13, 31.
5Fourteenth Census, 1920, Vol. II: Population, 1332; Thirty
Years of Lynching in the United States 1889-1918 (New York, 1919),
32. A second lynching of a black man (Mick Morris) occurred in
Tallahassee on June 6, 1909. See Tallahassee Weekly True
Democrat, June 11, 1909.
"5Jacksonville Florida Times-Union, January 25, 1897; Thirty
Years of Lynching, 54.
6"See Gregory B. Padgett, "C.K. Steel and the Tallahassee Bus
Boycott," Unpublished master's thesis, Florida State University,
1970; Charles U. Smith and Lewis M. Killian, The Tallahassee Bus
Protest (New York, 1958); Robert M. White, "The Tallahassee Sit-
ins and CORE: A Non-violent Revolutionary Sub-movement," Un-
published Ph.d. dissertation, Florida State University, 1964;
Glenda Alice Rabby, "Out of the Past: The Civil Rights Movement
in Tallahassee, Florida," Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Florida
State University, 1984.
"Achille Murat, The United States of North America (London,
1933), 44.


_ _~ ~








BIBLIOGRAPHY
Spanish Period
A-1 Boyd, Mark F. "Diego Pena's Expedition to Apalachee and
Apalachicola in 1716; A Journal Translated and with an
introduction by Mark F. Boyd," Florida Historical Quarter-
ly, XXVIII (July, 1949), 1-27.
A-2 Boyd, Mark F. "Documents Describing the Second and
Third Expeditions of Lieutenant Diego Pena to Apalachee
and Apalachicola in 1717 and 1718, Florida Historical
Quarterly, XXXI (October, 1952), 109-139.
A-3 Boyd, Mark F. "The Fortifications at San Marcos de
Apalache (St. Marks, Wakulla Co., Florida)," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XV (July, 1936), 3-34.
A-4 Boyd, Mark F., ed. "Further Consideration of the
Apalachee Missions," Americas, IX (1953), 459-479.
A-5 Boyd, Mark F.; Smith, Hale G.; and Griffin, John W. Here
They Once Stood: The Tragic End of the Apalachee Mis-
sions. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1951.
A-6 Boyd, Mark F. "Mission Sites in Florida, an Attempt to Ap-
proximately Identify the Sites of Spanish Mission Set-
tlements of the Seventeenth Century in Northern Florida,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, XVII (April, 1939), 254-280.
A-7 Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Nunez. The Journey of Alvar
Nunez, Cabeza de Vaca and his Companions From Florida
to the Pacific, 1528-1536. New York: A.S. Barnes, 1905.
A-8 Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Nunez. The Power Within Us.
Cabeza de Vaca's Relation of His Journey From Florida to
the Pacific 1528-1536. New York: Sloan and Peace, 1944.
A-9 Choate, Charles A. "DeSoto in Florida," Gulf States
Historical Magazine, I (1903), 342-344.
A-10 Goodbody, Amy. "Fort San Luis," Tallahassee Historical
Society Annual, I (1934), 25-27.
A-11 Jones, Calvin B. "Colonel James Moore and the Destruction
of the Apalachee Missions in 1704." Bulletin No. 2.
Tallahassee: Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties, Divi-
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A-12 King, Grace. DeSoto and His Men in the Land of Florida.
New York: Macmillan Company, 1898.
A-13 Shores,Venila Lovina. "The Ruins of Fort San Luis Near
Tallahassee," Florida Historical Quarterly, VI (October,
1927), 111-116.


ii







Territorial Period
B-1 Abbey, Kathryn T. "LaFayette and the LaFayette Land
Grants," Tallahassee Historical Society Annual, I (1934),
1-9.
B-2 Abbey, Kathryn T. "The Story of the LaFayette Lands in
Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, X (January, 1932),
115-133.
B-3 Abbey, Kathryn T. "The Union Bank of Tallahassee, an Ex-
periment in Territorial Finance," Florida Historical
Quarterly, XV (April, 1937), 207-231.
B-4 Bishko, Lucretia Ramsey. "A French Would-Be Settler on
Lafayette's Florida Township," Florida Historical Quarter-
ly, LXII (July, 1983), 44-61.
B-5 Castelnau, Francis de. "Comte de Castelnau in Middle
Florida, 1837-1838," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXVI
(April, 1948), 199-255, 300-324.
B-6 Campbell, James T., ed. "The Charles Hutchinson Letters
from Territorial Tallahassee 1839-1843," Apalachee, IV
(1950-1956), 13-28.
B-7 Davis, Mary Lamar. "Tallahassee Through Territorial
Days," Apalachee, I (1944), 47-61.
B-8 Davis, T. Frederick. "Pioneer Florida: Destruction of Port
Leon, 1843," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXIV (April,
1946), 287-290.
B-9 Davis, T. Frederick. "Pioneer Florida: The Wild Tallahassee
of 1827," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXIV (April, 1946),
292-294.
B-10 Denham, James Michael. "An Upper Class Institution:
Dueling in Territorial Middle Florida during the Early
1830s," Apalachee, IX (1980-1983), 29-40.
B-11 Denham, James Michael. "Dueling in Territorial Middle
Florida." Unpublished master's thesis, Florida State Univer-
sity, 1983.
B-12 "Dreadful Conflagration in Tallahassee," Florida Historical
Quarterly, III (July, 1924), 44-48.
B-13 "The First Message of Gov. William P. Duval: To the
Legislative Council Assembled in Tallahassee, Florida,
1824." Florida Historical Quarterly, I (July, 1908), 13-17.
B-14 "From Pensacola to Saint Augustine in 1827: A Journey of
the Rt. Reverend Michael Portier," Florida Historical
Quarterly, XXVI (October, 1947), 135-166.
B-15 Groene, Bertram H. "A Virginian's Cavalcade; Florida Ter-
ritory Seemed a Promised Land to Captain Thomas Brown


- __ -







of Fauquier and his Fellow Pioneers," Virginia Cavalcade,
XVIII (1968), 15-21.
B-16 Hendry, Capt. F.A. "Tallahassee before the War," Florida
Historical Quarterly, I (January, 1909), 16-18.
B-17 Johnson, Malcolm B. Red, White and Bluebloods in Frontier
Florida. Tallahassee: Rotary Clubs of Tallahassee, 1976.
B-18 Ley, Fred P., Jr. "The Tallahassee Fire of 1843," Apalachee,
III (1948-1950), 11-19.
B-19 McCord, Guyte, Sr. "A Glimpse at the Labors of the Court
of Appeals of the Territory of Florida," Apalachee, IV
(1950-1956), 87-93.
B-20 Martin, Sidney Walter. Florida during the Territorial Days.
Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1944.
B-21 Martin, Sidney Walter. "The Territorial Period of Florida,
1819-1845." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of
North Carolina, 1942.
B-22 Miller, Barbara. "Tallahassee and the 1841 Yellow Fever
Epidemic," Apalachee, VIII (1971-1979), 21-31.
B-23 Miller, Barbara Elizabeth. "Tallahassee and the 1841 Yellow
Fever Epidemic." Unpublished master's thesis, Florida State
University, 1976.
B-24 "The Selection of Tallahassee as the Capital: Journal of John
Lee Williams, Commissioner to Locate the Seat of Govern-
ment of the Territory of Florida," Florida Historical
Quarterly, I (April, 1908), 37-44; (July, 1908), 18-27.
B-25 Shores, Venila Lovina. "The Laying Out of Tallahassee,"
Apalachee, V (1957-1962), 41-47.
B-26 Simmons, William H. "Journal of Dr. W.H.Simmons,
Commissioner to Locate the Seat of Government of the Ter-
ritory of Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, I (April,
1908), 28-36.
B-27 "The Tallahassee Fire of 1843," Florida Historical Quarter-
ly, VII (October, 1928), 164-167.
B-28 "Tallahassee in 1824-5," Florida Historical Quarterly, III
(October, 1924), 38-40.

Civil War and Reconstruction
C-1 Bearss, Edwin C. "Federal Expedition Against Saint Marks
Ends at Natural Bridge," Florida Historical Quarterly, XLVI
(April, 1967), 369-390.
C-2 Boyd, Mark F. "The Joint Operations of the Federal Army
and Navy near St. Marks, Florida, March 1865," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XXIX (October, 1950), 96-124.


_t







C-3 Dodd, Dorothy. "'Bishop'Pearce and the Reconstruction of
Leon County," Apalachee, II (1946), 5-12.
C-4 Groene, Bertram H., ed. "A Letter from Occupied
Tallahassee," Florida Historical Quarterly, XLVIII (July,
1969), 70-75.
C-5 Itkin, Stanley, L. "Operations of the East Gulf Blockade
Squadron in the Blockade of Florida 1862-1865." Un-
published master's thesis, Florida State University, 1962.
C-6 Jones, James P., and Rogers, William Warren. "The Sur-
render of Tallahassee," Apalachee, VI (1963-1967),
103-110.
C-7 Keen, Mary W. "Some Phases of Life in Leon County Dur-
ing the Civil War," Tallahassee Historical Society Annual,
IV (1939), 20-47.
C-8 Miller, William. "The Battle of the Natural Bridge,"
Apalachee, IV (1950-1956), 76-86.
C-9 Myers, John B. "Social Life and Recreation in Tallahassee
During Reconstruction 1865-1877," Apalachee, VII
(1968-1970), 20-37.
C-10 "Notes on Secession in Tallahassee and Leon County,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, IV (October, 1925), 61-67.
C-11 Olsen, Stanley J. "Artillery Projectiles from the Civil War
Engagement at Newport, Florida," Florida Anthropologist,
XV (1962), 21-26.
C-12 Osborn, George C., ed. "Letters of a Carpetbagger in
Florida, 1866-1869," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXXVI
(January, 1958), 239-285.
C-13 Paisley, Clifton, ed. "How to Escape the Yankees: Major
Scott's Letter to his Wife at Tallahassee, March, 1864,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, L (July, 1971), 53-61.
C-14 Paisley, Clifton. "Tallahassee through the Storebooks: Era
of Radical Reconstruction, 1867-1877," Florida Historical
Quarterly, LIII (July, 1974), 49-65.
C-15 Paisley, Clifton. "Tallahassee through the Storebooks: War
Clouds and War, 1860-1863," Florida Historical Quarterly,
LI (July, 1972), 37-51.
C-16 Reaver, J. Russell, Jr., ed. "Letters of Joel C. Blake,"
Apalachee, V (1957-1962), 5-25.
C-17 Rhodes, F.A. "Salt Making on the Apalachee Bay,"
Tallahassee Historical Society Annual, II (1935), 17-20.
C-18 Roberts, Albert Hubbard. "Florida and Leon County in the
Election of 1876," Tallahassee Historical Society Annual, IV
(1939), 88-96.
44







C-19 Roberts, Albert Hubbard. "Tallahassee Rejoins the Union,"
Apalachee, I (1944), 74-80.
C-20 Rogers, William Warren, ed. "Florida on the Eve of the Civil
War as Seen by a Southern Reporter," Florida Historical
Quarterly, XXXIX (October, 1960), 145-158.
C-21 Ruffin, Edmund. "Edmund Ruffin's Account of the Florida
Secession Convention, 1861," Florida Historical Quarterly,
XII (October, 1933), 67-76.
C-22 Willis, Katharine Jackson, and Rogers, William Warren.
"Encounter at the Aucilla, 1862," Florida Historical
Quarterly, LXI (October, 1982), 148-154.
C-23 Wooster, Ralph A. "The Florida Secession Convention,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, XXXVI (April, 1958), 373-385.

Twentieth Century
D-1 Cafaro, Joseph. "Tallahassee: Revolution and Red Scare,"
Apalachee, IX (1980-1983), 13-28.
D-2 Davis, Fred H. "Leon County during the World War,"
Tallahassee Historical Society Annual, III (1937), 27-52.
D-3 Jones, James Pickett. F.S.U. One Time! A History of
Seminole Football. Tallahassee: Sentry Press, 1973.


I alanasseeans adedcated tne opening or Uale Mabry field in November, 1929.
D-4 Ramsey, David. "The First Year of Dale Mabry Field: June
1940-June 1941," Apalachee, IX (1971-1979), 7-20.
D-5 Cook, Louis H. Tallahassee, 1974. Tallahassee: City of
Tallahassee, 1974.


-I







D-6 Clough, Charles S. Directory of the City of Tallahassee.
S. .Tallahassee: Wilson, 1904.
D-7 Tallahassee, Leon County Florida. Jacksonville: Arnold
Printing Company, 1913 (?).
D-8 McDaniel, Sidne. "The Invasion of North Florida: German
and Italian Prisoner of War Camps, 1944-1946," Florida
State Historical Journal, I (1983-1984), 88-99.
D-9 Taylor, A.D., and Flint, Herbert L. Florida Capitol Center:
A Report on the Proposed Development. Tallahasee: State
of Florida, 1947.

Agriculture and Slavery
E-1 Abbey, Kathryn T., ed. "Documents Relating to El Destino
and Chemonie Plantations, Middle Florida, 1828-1868,"
Part I, Florida Historical Quarterly, VII (January, 1929),
179-213; Part II, VII (April, 1929), 291-329; Part III, VIII (Ju-
ly, 1929), 3-46; ". 1828-1878," Part IV, VIII (October,
1929), 79-111.
E-2 Appleyard, Lula Dee Keith. "Plantation Life in Middle
Florida, 1821-1845." Unpublished master's thesis, Florida
State University, 1940.
E-3 Chatam, Katharine. "Plantation Slavery in Middle
Florida." Unpublished master's thesis, University of North
Carolina, 1938.
E-4 Florida Hill Country or Agricultural Attractions of Leon
County, Florida. Tallahassee: Board of Commissioners of
Leon County, 1898.
E-5 Glunt, J.D. "Plantation and Frontier Records of East and
Middle Florida, 1798-1868." Unpublished Ph.D. disserta-
tion, University of Michigan, 1931.
E-6 Hering, Julia. "Plantation Economy in Leon County from
1830-1840." Unpublished master's thesis, Florida State
University, 1954.
E-7 Hering, Julia. "Plantation Economy in Leon County,
1830-1840," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXXIII (July,
1954), 32-47.
E-8 Jordan, Weymouth T. "'The Florida Plan': An Ante-Bellum
Effort to Control Cotton Sales," Florida Historical Quarter-
ly, XXXV (January, 1957), 205-218.
E-9 La Dunca, Charles Edward. "A Preliminary Study of the
Tobacco Industry in Gadsden County, Florida." Un-
published master's thesis, Florida State University, 1949.
4d E-10 Nichols, Judy R. "The Middle Florida Agricultural Fair,


I







1879-1885," Apalachee, VII (1968-1970), 80-98.
E-11 Ordonez, Margaret T. "Plantation Self-Sufficiency in Leon
County, Florida: 1824-1860," Florida Historical Quarterly,
LX (April, 1982), 428-439.
E-12 Paisley, Clifton L. From Cotton to Quail: An Agricultural
Chronicle of Leon County, Florida, 1860-1967. Gainesville:
University of Florida Press, 1968.
E-13 Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell, and Glunt, James David, eds.
Florida Plantation Records from the Papers of George
Noble Jones. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society, 1927.
E-14 Shofner, Jerrell H., and Rogers, William Warren. "Sea
Island Cotton in Ante-Bellum Florida," Florida Historical
Quarterly, XL (April, 1962), 373-380.
E-15 Smith, Julia F. "Cotton and the Factorage System in Ante-
Bellum Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, XLIX (July,
1970), 36-48.
E-16 Smith, Julia Frances (Hering). "The Plantation Belt in Mid-
dle Florida, 1850-1860." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation,
Florida State University, 1964.
E-17 Smith, Julia Floyd. Slavery and Plantation Growth in
Antebellum Florida 1821-1860. Gainesville: University of
Florida Press, 1973.
E-18 Spellman, Charles W. "The Agriculture of Early North
Florida Indians," Florida Anthropologist, I (1948), 37-48.

Archaeology and Architecture
F-1 Davis, Mary Lamar. "The Cornerstone of the Capitol,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, XX (October, 1941), 220-221.
F-2 Hadd, Donald. "'The Columns'-1830-1860," Apalachee,
V (1957-1962), 26-40.
F-3 Harrigan, Anthony, and Davis, Mary Lamar. "Two Planta-
tion Houses in Florida," Antiques, LXIV (1953), 46-47.
F-4 Henry, Evelyn Whitfield. "Old Houses of Tallahassee,"
Tallahassee Historical Society Annual, I (1934), 39-55.
F-5 Kilgore, John. "Florida's Capitol," Tallahassee Historical
Society Annual, III (1937), 8-13.
F-6 Miller, James J. "Landscape Archaeology at the Brokaw-
McDougall House, Tallahassee, Florida," Apalachee, VIII
(1971-1979), 39-49.
F-7 Miller, Sam. Capitol A Guide for Visitors. Tallahassee:
Historic Tallahassee Preservation Board, 1982.
F-8 Olds, Dorris La Vanture. "History and Archaeology of Fort
Saint Marks in Apalachee." Unpublished master's thesis,


II
























n tinoun street tooKing nonn nom
___ Call Street) was lined with residences in 1910. J

Florida State University, 1962.
F-9 Shenkel, J. Richard, and Westbury, William. "The Marine
Hospital at Fort St. Marks," Notes in Anthropology, XII
(1965), 21.
F-10 Warner, Lee H., and Eastland, Mary B. Tallahassee,
Downtown Transitions. Tallahassee: Historic Tallahassee
Preservation Board, 1976.
F-11 Wenhold, Lucy L. "The First Fort of San Marcos de
Apalache," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXXIV (April,
1956), 301-314.

Biography
G-l Barber, Lylah. Lylah. Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books, 1985.
G-2 Brevard, Caroline Mays. "Richard Keith Call," Florida
Historical Quarterly, I (July, 1908), 3-12; (October, 1908),
8-20.
G-3 Collins, Thomas LeRoy. Forerunners Courageous: Stories
of Frontier Florida. Tallahassee: Colcade Publishers, 1971.
G-4 Cotterill, R.S. "David Shelby Walker," Tallahassee
Historical Society Annual, I (1934), 56-62.
G-5 Davis, Mary Lamar. "Robert Butler-an American
Pioneer," Tallahassee Historical Society Annual, IV (1939),
48-67.
G-6 Doherty, Herbert J., Jr. Richard Keith Call, Southern


- ~cpg--------- --







Unionist. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1961.
G-7 Doherty, Herbert J., Jr. "Richard Keith Call, Southern
Unionist." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of
North Carolina, 1953.
G-8 Ellis, Mary Louise. "Benjamin Chaires: Territorial Florida's
Man for All Seasons," Florida State Historical Journal, I
(1983-1984), 39-49.
G-9 Eppes, Mrs. Nicholas Ware. "Francis Eppes (1801-1881),
Pioneer of Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, V (Octo-
ber, 1926), 94-102.
G-10 Eppes, Susan Bradford (Mrs. Nicholas Ware Eppes).
Through Some Eventful Years. Introduction by Joseph D.
Cushman, Jr., Floridiana Facsimile and Reprint Series.
Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1968.
G-11 Fain, Marjorie. "Some Extracts from the History of the
Gamble Family in Florida," Tallahassee Historical Society
Annual, I (1934), 28-31.
G-12 Hanna, A.J. A Prince in their Midst: The Adventurous Life
of Achille Murat on the American Frontier. Norman:
University of Oklahoma Press, 1946.
G-13 Jones, Sarah L. "Governor Milton and his Family: A Con-
temporary Picture of Life in Florida during the War, by an
English Tutor," Florida Historical Quarterly, II (July, 1909),
42-50.
G-14 Knauss, James Owen. "William Pope DuVal: Pioneer and
State Builder," Florida Historical Quarterly, XI (January,
1933), 94-139.
G-15 Lewis, Mary D. "Thomas Brown," Apalachee, I (1944),
90-95.
G-16 Long, Ellen Call. "Princesse Achille Murat: A Biographical
Sketch," Florida Historical Quarterly, II (July, 1909), 27-38.
G-17 Martin, Sidney Walter. "Richard Keith Call, Florida Ter-
ritorial Leader," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXI (April,
1943), 332-351.
G-18 Meginniss, Benjamin A. "George Pettus Raney, 1845-1911,"
Apalachee, I (1944), 81-89.
G-19 Muir, Andrew Forest. "David Betton Macomb, Frontiers-
man," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXXII (January, 1954),
189-201.
G-20 Phillips, Rebecca, ed. "A Diary of Jesse Talbot Bernard:
Newnansville and Tallahassee," Florida Historical Quarter-
ly, XVIII (October, 1939), 115-126.
G-21 Roberts, Albert Hubbard. "Wilkinson Call, Soldier and


3







Senator," Florida Historical Quarterly, XII (January, 1934),
94-113; (April, 1934), 179-197.
G-22 Schene, Michael. "Peres Bonney Brokaw: Tallahassee En-
trepreneur," Apalachee, VIII (1971-1979), 32-38.
G-23 Shofner, Jerrell H. Daniel Ladd Merchant Prince of Frontier
Florida. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1978.
G-24 Smith, Elizabeth F. Tom Brown's Tallahassee Days,
1825-1850. Crawfordville: Magnolia Monthly Press, 1971.
G-25 Wagy, Thomas R. "The Administration of Governor LeRoy
Collins: An Opened Door to a New Era." Unpublished
master's thesis, Florida State University, 1976.
G-26 Wagy, Thomas R. Governor LeRoy Collins of Florida:
Statesman of the New South. University: University of
Alabama Press, 1985.
G-27 Wagy, Thomas R. "A South to Save: The Administration of
Governor LeRoy Collins of Florida." Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, Florida State University, 1980.
G-28 Wagy, Thomas R. "A Tallahassee Lad: The Early Years of
Governor LeRoy Collins of Florida," Apalachee, VIII
(1971-1979), 82-94.
G-29 Waldo, Horatio. "Richard Keith Call-Thomas Brown,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, VI (January, 1928), 156-158.


I The Class of 1904 at Florida State Normal and
Industrial School for Negroes (now FAMU) posed for this group portrait.


- _. ~__ _i








Blacks
H-1 Blow, James Harold. Those Who Trespass Against Us, Bas-
ed on the Life and Letters of Nathan Benjamin Young.
Tallahassee: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Universi-
ty, 1976.
H-2 Burt, John, Jr. "Black Political Participation in Florida: A
Test Of Three Explanations." Unpublished Ph.D. disserta-
tion, Florida State University, 1982.
H-3 Eppes, Susan Bradford (Mrs. Nicholas Ware Eppes). The
Negro of the Old South: A Bit of Period History. Chicago:
Joseph G. Branch, 1925.
H-4 Fanning, Sandra L. "A Study of Changes in Racial Attitudes
as Revealed in Selected Speeches of LeRoy Collins,
1955-1965." Unpublished master's thesis, University of
South Florida, 1968.
H-5 Hall, Robert La Bret. "The Social Cosmos of Black
Churches in Tallahassee, Florida, 1865-1885." Unpublished
master's thesis, Florida State University, 1972.
H-6 Hamburger, Susan. "The 1968 Tallahassee Riots Following
the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.," Apalachee,
IX (1980-1983), 57-66.
H-7 Killian, Lewis M. "Organization, Rationality and Spon-
taneity in the Civil Rights Movement," American
Sociological Review, XLIX (December, 1984), 770-783.
H-8 Lewis, Terry Edward. "Frenchtown: A Geographic Survey
of an All-Negro Business District in Tallahassee, Florida."
Unpublished master's thesis, Florida State University, 1966.
H-9 Neyland, Leedell W. Twelve Black Floridians. Tallahassee:
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University Founda-
tion, 1970.
H-10 Padgett, Gregory B. "C.K. Steele and the Tallahassee Bus
Boycott," Unpublished master's thesis, Florida State
University, 1970.
H-11 Parker, Rosalind. "The Proctors-Antonio, George, and
John," Apalachee, II (1946), 19-29.
H-12 Rabby, Glenda Alice. "Out of the past: The Civil Rights
Movement in Tallahassee, Florida," Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, Florida State University, 1984.
H-13 Rivers, Larry E. "Slavery in Microcosm: Leon County,
1824-1860," Journal of Negro History, XLVI (Fall, 1981),
235-245.
H-14 Smith, Charles U., and Killian, Lewis M. The Tallahassee
Bus Protest. New York: Anti-Defamation League of B'nai


I







B'rith, 1958.
H-15 White, Robert Melvin. "The Tallahassee Sit-ins and CORE:
A Non-Violent Revolutionary Sub-movement." Unpublish-
ed Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University, 1964.


Cultural and Social
I-1 Avant, Fenton Garnett Davis. My Tallahassee. Edited by
David A. Avant, Jr. Tallahassee: L'Avant Studios, 1983.
I-2 Cash, W.T., ed. "Tallahassee and St. Marks in 1841: A
Letter of John S. Tappan," Florida Historical Quarterly,
XXIV (October, 1945), 108-112.
I-3 Cockrell, Alston W. "Reminiscences of Tallahassee,"
Tallahassee Historical Society Annual, II (1935), 37-44.
I-4 Derby, Clyde L. "Leon County Imprints Prior to 1860,"
Tallahassee Historical Society Annual, IV (1939), 80-87.
I-5 Dodd, Dorothy. "Florida in 1845: Statistics-Economic Life
-Social Life," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXIV (July,
1945), 3-27.
I-6 Dodd, Dorothy. "Horse Racing in Middle Florida,
1830-1843," Apalachee, III (1948-1950), 20-29.
I-7 Dodd, Dorothy. "Old Tallahassee," Apalachee, V
(1957-1962), 66-75.







I-8 Dodd, Dorothy. "The Steamboats Home and Pulaski,"
Apalachee, IV (1950-1956), 66-75.
I-9 Dodd, William G. "Ring Tournaments in Tallahassee,"
Apalachee, III (1948-1950), 55-70.
1-10 Dodd, William G. "Theatrical Entertainment in Early
Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXV (October,
1946), 121-174.
I-11 Downes, Allan J. "Change and Stability in Social Life:
Tallahassee, Florida, 1870-1890," Unpublished master's
thesis, Florida State University, 1955.
1-12 Dozier, Annie Randolph. "Early Settlers of Tallahassee,
1824-1850," Tallahassee Historical Society Annual, I
(1934), 33-38.
1-13 Elliot, Carrie Edward. "Aunt Memory at the Fair,"
Tallahassee Historical Society Annual, II (1935), 8-11.
1-14 Elliot, Carrie E. "McDougall's Pasture," Apalachee, II
(1946), 30-34.
1-15 Estes, Maxie C. "A Century of Theatre Activity in the
Capital City of Florida: An Historical Study of Theatrical
Entertainment in Tallahassee, Florida, From 1857-1957."
Unpublished master's thesis, Florida State University, 1962.
1-16 Graham, Thomas Sentell. "Ante-Bellum Newspapers,
1845-1861." Unpublished master's thesis, Florida State
University, 1967.
1-17 Groene, Bertram H. Ante-Bellum Tallahassee. Tallahassee:
Florida Heritage Foundation, 1971.
1-18 Groene, Bertram H. "Ante-Bellum Tallahassee: It Was A
Gay Time Then." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Florida
State University, 1967.
1-19 Groene, Bertram H. "Lizzie Brown's Tallahassee," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XLVIII (October, 1969), 155-175.
1-20 Hayden, Clara Ryder. "Confederate Postwar Organiza-
tions and History of Anna Jackson Chapter U.D.C.,"
Apalachee, III (1948-1950), 71-79.
1-21 Henry, Evelyn Whitfield. "The May Party," Apalachee, II
(1946), 35-45.
1-22 Jahoda, Gloria. The Other Florida. New York: Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1968.
1-23 Kennerly, Arthur. "The Democrat," Florida Historical
Quarterly, XXXVII (October, 1958), 150-155.
1-24 Kilgore, John. "Leon County's Newspapers," Tallahassee
Historical Society Annual, IV (1939), 68-79.
1-25 Long, Reinette Gamble. An Historical Pageant of


_







Tallahassee Acted by the People of Tallahassee . 1924.
Tallahassee: T.J. Appleyard, 1924.
1-26 McCord, Jean P. History Tallahassee Garden Club, Inc.,
1926-1960. Tallahassee: Garden Club, 1960.
1-27 Matheny, Martha. "The Circus in Tallahassee, 1831-1920."
Unpublished master's thesis, Florida State University, 1973.
1-28 Meginniss, Benjamin A. "Munro's Opera House,"
Apalachee, V (1957-1962), 72-75.
1-29 "Note Sur Deux itineraries De Charleston a Tallahassee
(Florida)," Societe De Georgraphic de Paris, XVIII (1842),
241-259.
1-30 Ordonez, Margaret T. "A Frontier Reflected in Costume:
Tallahassee Leon County, Florida, 1824-1861." Unpublish-
ed Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University, 1978.
1-31 Paisley, Joy Smith, comp. and ed. The Cemeteries of Leon
County . Tallahassee: Colonial Dames XVII Century,
1978.
1-32 Palmer, Henry E. "The Proctors-A True Story of Ante-
Bellum Days and Since," Tallahassee Historical Society
Annual, I (1934), 14-16.
1-33 Reaver, J. Russell. "Folk History from Northern Florida,"
Southern Folklore Quarterly, XXXII (1968), 7-16.
1-34 Rich, Lou. "Wakulla Spring: Its Setting and Literary
Visitors," Florida Historical Quarterly, XLII (April, 1964),
351-362.
1-35 Rogers, William Warren. "The Way They Went: Death in
Leon County in 1860," Apalachee, IX (1980-1983), 89-95.
1-36 Ruth, Marion Ursula. The Tallahassee Years of Ernst von
Dohnanyi. Tallahassee: Florida State University Press,
1962.
1-37 Seymour, Arthur R. "Social Aspects of Leon County Wills
and Inventories, 1826-1845," Apalachee, III (1948-1950),
43-54.
1-38 Tallahassee from the Outside Looking In [By the Outsider].
Jacksonville: Arnold Printing Company, 1900.
1-39 "The Tallahassee Historical Society's Apalachee," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XXIII (July, 1944), 15-38.
1-40 Varick, Floreda Duke. Tallahassee and Leon County,
Florida. Tallahassee: Varick, 1979.
1-41 West, William. "An Historical Study of Professional
Theater Activities in Tallahassee, Florida, 1874-1893." Un-
published master's thesis, Florida State University, 1954.


-- ~II


























Economics
J-1 Boyd, Mark F. A Century of Confidence and Conservatism
Culminates in the Lewis State Bank of Tallahassee, Florida.
Supplement of Florida Historical Quarterly, XXXIV (April,
1956), 1-51.
J-2 Brubaker, Harry Frederick. "Land Classification, Owner-
ship, and Use in Leon County, Florida." Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Michigan, 1956.
J-3 Cash, W.T. "Newport as a Business Center," Apalachee, I
(1944), 13-28.
J-4 Davis, T. Frederick. "Pioneer Florida: The First Rail
Roads," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXIII (January,
1945), 177-183.
J-5 Dodd, Dorothy. "Railroad Projects in Territorial Florida."
Unpublished master's thesis, Florida State University, 1929.
J-6 Dodd, Dorothy. "The Tallahassee Railroad and the Town
of St. Marks," Apalachee, IV (1950-1956), 1-12.
J-7 Fry, Virginia Kay. "An Analysis of the Dairying Industry of
Leon County, Florida." Unpublished master's thesis,
Florida State University, 1966.
J-8 "Investigation of St. Marks Harbor with Brief Commercial
History of that Town and Newport," Tallahassee Historical
Society Annual, II (1935), 47-52.

55







J-9 Leynes, Bernhardt Crevasse. "Developments in Land
Ownership and Land Use on Large Holdings in Leon Coun-
ty, Florida, since 1950." Unpublished master's, thesis,
Florida State University, 1959.
J-10 Ollry, Jan. "Changes in the Geographic Distribution of
Selected Retail and Service Establishments in the
Tallahassee Urban Area, 1949-1969." Unpublished master's
thesis, Florida State University, 1970.
J-11 Paisley, Clifton. "Tallahassee through the Storebooks,
1843-1863: AnteBellum Cotton Prosperity," Florida
Historical Quarterly, L (October, 1971), 111-127.
J-12 Paisley, Clifton L. "Van Brunt's Store, lamonia, Florida,
1902-1911," Florida Historical Quarterly, XLVIII (July,
1970), 353-367.
J-13 White, Otis. "Tallahassee Goes Industry Hunting with a
Popgun," Florida Trend, XXVII (February, 1985), 80-86.
J-14 Whitman, Alice. "Transportation in Territorial Florida,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, XVII (July, 1938), 25-53.
















The McCord House was located along
Thomasville Road, an important connector with that Georgia town.


Education
K-1 Bartley, Lau Steward. A Brief History of the Division of
Health, Physical Education and Recreation at FAMU from
1918 through 1978 (60 Years). Tallahassee: Florida
Agricultural and Mechanical University, 1979.
56







K-2 Campbell, Doak S. A University in Transition: Florida
State University, 1941-1947. Tallahassee: Florida State
University Studies, 1964.
K-3 Copeland, Emily A. "The Florida Agricultural and
Mechanical University Department of Library Services,
Tallahassee, Florida," Florida Libraries, VII (1956), 28-29.
K-4 Diamond, Rowena. "History of Florida State College for
Women 1853-1859." Tallahassee, 1929(7). (Typewritten
and bound).
K-5 Dodd, William G. "Early Education in Tallahassee and the
West Florida Seminary, now Florida State University,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, XXVII (July, 1948), 1-27;
(October, 1948), 157-180.

















Students and staff of Horida State College for Women
joined the war effort posing in a victory formation in 1942.

K-6 Dodd, William G. "Florida State College for Women Notes
on the Formative Years." Tallahassee, 1959. (Typewritten
and bound).
K-7 Dodd, William G. History of West Florida Seminary,
1857-1901; Florida State College, 1901-1905. Tallahassee:
Florida State University, 1952.
K-8 Lincoln High And Elementary School Faculties, The Evolu-
tion of Susan Prim. Tallahassee: Lincoln High School, 1944.
K-9 McCullough, Mildred White. "The David S. Walker
Library," Apalachee, II (1946), 13-18.
57







K-10 Memoirs of Edward Conradi President of the Florida State
College for Women 1909-1941. Tallahassee: Florida State
College for Women, 1946 (?).
K-11 Neyland, Leedell W., and Riley, John W. The History of
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University.
Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1963.
K-12 Paddyfote, C.J. Archer. "Administration of J.R.E. Lee,
President of Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College,
1924 to 1944." Unpublished master's thesis, Florida
Agricultural and Mechanical University, 1957.
K-13 Rhodes, Francis A. "A History of Education in Leon Coun-
ty, Florida." Unpublished master's thesis, University of
Florida, 1946.
K-14 Shores, Venila Lovina. "Some Historical Notes Concerning
Florida State College for Women," Tallahassee Historical
Society Annual, III (1937), 103-120.


Fiction, Writers, and Photography
L-1 Alfriend, Mary Bethell. San Luis of Apalachee. A Tale of
Early American Life. Boston: Chapman & Grimes, 1938.
L-2 Bellamy, Elizabeth Whitfield (Croom). Old Man Gilbert.
Chicago: Belford, Clark & Co., 1889.
58







L-3 Cash, W.T. "Literary History of Leon County," Tallahassee
Historical Society Annual, II (1935), 21-33.
L-4 Cassender, Don Pedro (Smith, The Rev. Michael). The Lost
Virgin of the South: A Tale of Truth Connected with the
History of the Indian War of the South, in the Years
1812-13-14 and 15, and Gen. Jackson, now President of the
United States. Tallahassee: By the Author, 1831. This book
was printed by William Mortimer Smith's Tallahassee
Florida Courier and was probably the first novel published
in Florida.
L-5 Dahl, Evelyn. Bell of Destiny. New York: Greenberg
Publishers, 1958.
L-6 Dresser, David (Holliday, Brett). Lady Be Bad. New York:
Dell Publishing Co., 1969.
L-7 Downes, Alan J. "The Legendary Visit of Emerson to
Tallahassee," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXXIV (April,
1956), 334-338.
L-8 Dunn, Hampton. Yesterday's Tallahassee. Miami: E.A.
Seamann Publishers, 1974. Photographs.
L-9 Dunsing, Dorothy May (Dee). Swamp Shadows. New
York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1948.
L-10 Edwards, Henry Stillwell. Eneas Africanus. Macon: J.W.
Burke and Company, 1920.
L-11 Hayden, Clara R. A Century of Tallahassee Girls
(1824-1924) As Viewed from the Leaves of their Diaries.
Atlanta: Foote & Davies, n.d.
L-12 Holmes, Mary Jane (Hawes). Queenie Heatherton. New
York: Street and Smith, 1880.
L-13 Irving, Washington. Woolfert's Roost, and other Papers,
Now First Collected. New York: G.P. Putnam, 1855.
L-14 Jackson, Lena E. "Sidney Lanier in Florida," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XV (October, 1936), 118-124.
L-15 Lordahl, Jo Ann. Those Subtle Weeds. New York: Ace
Books, 1974.
L-16 McCall, Lillian B. The Unconquerables. A Florida
Historical Novel. New York: Exposition Press, 1958.
L-17 Marean, Beatrice. Camilla. Boston: Roxborough
Publishing Company, 1922.
L-18 Morris, Joan Perry and Warner, Lee H., eds. The
Photographs of Alvan S. Harper Tallahassee, 1885-1910.
Tallahassee: Florida State University Press, 1983.
L-19 Mustaine, Mrs. A[mbie] [H.] The Prince and Princess of
Tallahassee. Tallahassee: Rose Printing Company, 1946.
59







L-20 Peek, Comer Leonard. Lorna Carswell. A Story of the
South. New York: Broadway Publishing Company, 1903.
L-21 Pendleton, Louis Beauregard. In the Wire Grass. New York:
D. Appleton and Company, 1899.
L-22 Pope, Edith Everett (Taylor). Not Magnolia. New York:
E.P. Dutton, 1928.
L-23 Richmond, Mrs. Henry L. "Ralph Waldo Emerson in
Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, XVIII (October,
1939), 75-93.
L-24 Shaara, Michael. The Herald. New York: McGraw-Hill,
1981.
L-25 Thompson, (James) Maurice. A Tallahassee Girl. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1881.
L-26 Wallace, May Nickerson. Challenge to Babs. New York:
Abelard Press, 1952.
L-27 Witherspoon, (Mrs.) Mary Elizabeth (Rhyne). Somebody
Speak for Katy. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company,
1950.

General
M-1 "An Educator Looks at Florida in 1884: A Letter of Ashley
D. Hart to his Wife," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXXI,
208-213.
M-2 Blake, Sallie E. "Old Street Railway of Tallahassee,"
Tallahassee Historical Society Annual, II (1935), 34-36.
M-3 Blake, Sallie E. Tallahassee of Yesterday. Tallahassee: T.J.
Appleyard, 1924.
M-4 Boyd, Mark F., ed. "A Map of the Road from Pensacola to
St. Augustine, 1778," Florida Historical Quarterly, XVII
(July, 1938), 15-24.
M-5 Doherty, Herbert J., Jr. "Code Duello in Florida," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XXIX (April, 1951), 243-252.
M-6 Ellis, Mary Louise. "North Florida and the Great Storm of
1873," Florida Historical Quarterly, LXII (April, 1984),
485-496.
M-7 Fisher, Barbara Jean. Meridian Markers. Great Neck [NY]:
Todd and Honeywell, 1984.
M-8 "The Great Storm [Tallahassee, August 23-24, 18511,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, XVIII (April, 1940), 270-273.
M-9 Harper, Roland. A Botanically Remarkable Locality in the
Red Hills of Middle Florida. Reprinted from Torreya, XXV
(May-June, 1925).
M-10 His Letters from Tallahassee. Description of the County.
60







.. Tallahassee: Dorr & Bower, 1885.
M-11 Ketchum, Eleanor. Tales of Tallahassee. Tallahassee: J.
Dye, 1976.
M-12 Leon County, Florida. Tallahassee: Leon County Farmers'
Club, 1884.
M-13 Long, Ellen Call. Florida Breezes; or, Florida, New and Old.
Introduction by Margaret Louise Chapman, Gainesville:
Floridiana Facsimile and Reprint Series, University of
Florida Press, 1962.
M-14 Long, Richard C. Features of the Hill Region, Florida. New
York: Moss Engraving Company, 1894.
M-15 McCord, Guyte P. "List of Postmasters Who Have Served
in Tallahassee, Leon County, Florida," Tallahassee
Historical Society Annual, I (1934), 32.
M-16 McRory, Mary Oakley, and Barrows, Edith Clarke.
History of Jefferson County, Florida. Monticello: Kiwanis
Club, 1958.
M-17 Mickler, Delia Appleyard, and O'Bryan, Carolyde Phillips.
The Colonel's Inn Caterers' Tallahassee Historical
Cookbook. Tallahassee: Rose Printing Company, 1984.
M-18 Palmer, Henry E. "Physicians of Early Tallahassee and
Vicinity," Apalachee, I (1944), 29-46.
M-19 Palmer, Theresa Yeager, and Palmer, Hugh Archer. "Physi-
cians, A Family Tradition," Journal Florida Medical
Association, XIII (1966), 718-723.
M-20 Parker, Daisy. "The Leon County Court, 1825-1833,"
Apalachee, III (1948-1950), 30-42.
M-21 Pasco, Samuel. "Jefferson County, Florida, 1827-1910,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, VII (October, 1928), 139-154.
M-22 Ralph, Julian. "Our Own Riviera," Harper's New Monthly
Magazine, LXXXVI (March, 1893), 488-510.
M-23 Reese, Joseph Hugh. The Lands of Leon. Tallahassee: M.A.
Smith, 1911. (Published as a supplement to the Tallahassee
Weekly True Democrat.)
M-24 Rippey, H.C. "Description of Leon County, Florida,"
Jacksonville Semi-Tropical, II (June, 1876), 396-406.
M-25 Rogers, William Warren. "A Great Stirring in the Land:
Tallahassee and Leon County in 1860," Florida Historical
Quarterly, LXIV (October, 1985), 148-160.
M-26 Shofner, Jerrell H. History of Jefferson County.
Tallahassee: Sentry Press, 1976.
M-27 Smith, Hale Gilliam. Tallahassee Historic Scenic Capitol of
Florida, Illustrated by George Milton. Tallahassee:
61







Tallahassee, Inc., 1955.
M-28 Stanley, J. Randall. History of Gadsden County.
Tallahassee: L'Avant Studios, 1985 (originally published
1948).
M-29 "Tallahassee: Where the Present and the Future Make Room
for the Cherished Past," Florida Trend, XVI (September,
1973), 35-64.
M-30 Taylor, F.H., and Choate, Charles A. From the St. Johns to
the Apalachicola: or, Through the Uplands of Florida. New
York: Florida Central Railroad, 1882.
M-31 Torrey, Bradford. A Florida Sketch-Book. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1895.
M-32 Womack, Miles Kennan, Jr. Gadsden A Florida County in
Word and Picture, Quincy [Florida]: privately published,
1976.
M-33 Wood, George Alex, Jr. and Wood, Jane Stoddard. Our
French Heritage. Tallahassee: Lewis State Bank, 1970.
M-34 Writers Program, Florida. "Tallahassee (Leon County)."
Federal Writers Project. P.K. Yonge Collection, University
of Florida Library, Gainesville. Typewritten.
Indians
N-1 "An Alarm at Tallahassee, 1836: A Letter of Capt. Wm.
Chandler, U.S.N.," Florida Historical Quarterly, VIII
(April, 1930), 197-199.
N-2 Drew, Frank. "Florida Place-names of Indian Origin,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, VI (April, 1928), 197-205.
N-3 Ehrmann, W.W. "The Timucua Indians of Sixteenth Cen-
tury Florida," Florida Historical Quarterly, XVIII (January,
1940), 168-191.
N-4 Graves, William. "Apache Indians and North Florida,
Apalachee, IX (1980-1983), 41-56.
N-5 Key, Margaret. "William Augustus Bowles in the
Tallahassee Area," Apalachee, IV (1950-1956), 44-65.
N-6 Kinnaird, Lawrence. "The Significance of William
Augustus Bowles's Seizure of Panton's Apalachee Store in
1792," Florida Historical Quarterly, IX (January, 1931),
156-192.
N-7 Wright, J. Leitch, Jr. William Augustus Bowles: Director
General of the Creek Nation. Athens: University of Georgia
Press, 1967.
Politics
0-1 Barfield, William D. "The First Civil Governor and the
Capital of Florida," Jacksonville Historical Society, Papers,
62







II (1949), 75-89.
0-2 "Capital Removal," Florida Historical Quarterly, III (1949),
75-89.
0-3 Davis, T. Frederick. "Pioneer Florida," Florida Historical
Quarterly, XXII (January, 1944), 134-139.
0-4 Dodd, Dorothy. "The Corporation of Tallahassee,
1826-1860," Apalachee, III (1948-1950), 80-96.
0-5 Espey, Ruth F. "The Anatomy of Defeat: The 1968
Senatorial Campaign of LeRoy Collins." Unpublished
master's thesis, University of South Florida, 1974.
0-6 Graham, Thomas S. "Florida Politics and the Tallahassee
Press, 1845-1861," Florida Historical Quarterly, XLVI
(January, 1968), 234-242.
0-7 Hardaway, Sylvia Jean. "Capital Removal," Florida
Historical Quarterly, XXXVI (July, 1957), 77-83.
0-8 Johnson, Malcolm B. I Declare! Tallahassee: Tallahassee
Democrat, 1983.
0-9 Laws of Leon County Local and Special Legislation 1820 to
1956. Tallahassee: Leon County Commission, 1956.
0-10 Moseley, William D. "Inaugural Address of Governor
Moseley," Florida Historical Quarterly, XXIII (April, 1945),
212-219.
0-11 Parker, Daisy. "Richard Keith Call: Whig Leader,"
Tallahassee Historical Society Annual, IV (1939), 12-19.
0-12 Parker, Daisy, "The Inauguration of the First Governor of
the State of Florida," Apalachee, II (1946), 59-67.
0-13 Wagy, Thomas R. "Governor LeRoy Collins of Florida and
the Selma Crisis of 1965," Florida Historical Quarterly, LVII
(April, 1979), 403-420.
0-14 Williamson, Edward C. "The Constitutional Convention of
1885," Florida Historical Quarterly, XLI (October, 1962),
116-126.
Religion
P-1 Booth, Norman Edward. "Highlights and Happenings at
'Old Pisgah,' 1830-1976." Typed pamphlet, 1976, located in
the Florida Room, Florida State University, Tallahassee.
P-2 Booth, Norman Edward. "Tallahassee Trinity's Ante-
Bellum Times, 1824-1861." Unpublished master's thesis,
Florida State University, 1971.
P-3 Bryant, James C. Indian Springs: The Story of a Pioneer
Church in Leon County, Florida. Tallahassee: privately
printed, 1971.


__


























P-4 Burnett, Louise Davie. History of Woman's Missionary
Union of First Baptist Church, Tallahassee, Florida,
1904-1926. Tallahassee: Woman's Missionary Union of First
Baptist Church, 1926.
P-5 Carter, W.H. "History of St. John's Church, Tallahassee,"
Semi-Centennial of the Diocese of Florida Held in
Tallahassee 1888. Jacksonville: Church Year Publishing
Company, 1889.
P-6 Cash, W.T. "History of Trinity Methodist Church,"
Apalachee, II (1946), 46-58.
P-7 Cuthbert, Norma B. "Yankee Preacher-Teacher in Florida,
1838," Huntington Library Quarterly, VII (November,
1944), 95-104.
P-8 Hall, Robert L. "Tallahassee's Black Churches, 1865-1885,"
Florida Historical Quarterly, LVIII (October, 1979),
185-196.
P-9 Hall, Robert L. "The Gospel According to Radicalism:
African Methodism Comes to Tallahassee after the Civil
War," Apalachee, VIII (1971-1979), 69-81.
P-10 Hoyt, Nathan. "A Religious Revival in Tallahassee in
1843," Edited by George C. Osborn, Florida Historical
Quarterly, XXXII (April, 1954), 288-294.
P-11 Ley, John C. Fifty-two Years in Florida. Nashville:
Methodist-Episcopal Church South, 1899.


_ _- __ - - --







P-12 Pansler, Clarence Eugene. "A Comparative Content
Analysis of Sermons by Pentecostal and Main Stream
Denominational Ministers in Tallahassee, Florida." Un-
published Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University,
1970.
P-13 Rhodes, Mary Margaret Pichard. "From Mission Bells to
Cathedral Chimes," Apalachee, IX (1980-1983), 67-88.
P-14 Stauffer, Carl. God Willing: A History of St. John's
Episcopal Church 1829-1979. Tallahassee: St. John's
Episcopal Church, 1984.
P-15 Van Brunt, Dorothy. "Father Hugon and the Early Catholic
Church in Tallahassee," Apalachee, I (1944), 62-73.
P-16 Warren, Leslie Cobb (compiler). St. Clement's Chapel of the
Church of the Advent, Tallahassee, Florida: A Short
History. Tallahassee: P. Mitchell Associates, 1976.


i










INTRODUCTION AND NARRATIVE

INDEX


Adams-Onis Treaty 1819, 2
Alabama, 4
Alabama Black Belt, 12
Albany, Ga., 14
Allison, Abraham K., 12
American Independent Party, 18
Amos P. Godby High School, 30
Apalachee, vi
Apalachee Bay, Fla., 14
Apalachee country, 1-2, 6
Apalachicola National Forest, 23
Appomattox Courthouse, Va., 14
Askew, Governor Reubin O'D., 28
Bailey family, 7
Bainbridge, Ga., 14, 21
Bellamy, John, 12
Bethel Missionary Baptist Church, 34
Biloxi, Miss., 2
Blacks, 12, 17-18, 21, 30, 32-34
Blessed Sacrament School, 32
Bloxham, Governor William D., 26-27,
30
Bourbon Democrats, 17
Bradford County, Fla., 13
Bradford, Dr. Edward, 9
Bradford family, 7
Bradford, John, 22
Bradford, R.F., 22
Bradford, Richard H., 13
Bradford, Susan, 15-16
Bradfordville, Fla., 34
Branch, John, 9
Branch, Martha, 9
Breckinridge, John C., 17-18
Brokaw, Peres Bonney, 12
Brown decision of 1954, 30
Brown, Thomas, 7
Buckman Act, 28
Bush, Vice President George, 18
Butler, Robert, 3, 8
Cabeza de Vaca (Alvar Nunez), 1
Call family, 7
Call, Richard Keith, 13, 16
Cape San Bias, 25
Capital City Theater, 21


Capital removal, 26-27
Capitol, 6, 8, 13, 26-28
Carpetbaggers, 17
Carter, President Jimmy, 18
Castelnau, Comte de, 7
Catholics, 1, 12
Chaires, Fla., 34
Chaires, Alice, 14
Chaires family, 7
Chaires, Samuel Parkhill, 14
Charleston, S.C., 13
Chixifixico, 6
Churches, Presbyterian, 12; Episcopal,
12; Baptist, 12; Catholic, 12;
Methodist,12
Civil War, 8-9, 12-13, 16, 18, 20-21, 26,
28, 32
Collins, Governor LeRoy, 32
Confederate States of America, 13
"Conspiracy of Neamathla, The," 4-5
Constitutions of Florida, 1866, 16;
1868, 17; 1885, 18, 30
Continentals, 2
County government, 18-19
Craig, John A., 22
Croom family, 7
Dade County, Fla., 32
Davis, President Jefferson, 13
Democratic party, 8, 17, 18, 26
de Aviles, Pedro Menendez, 1
de Leon, Ponce, 1
de Narvaez, Panfilo, 1
de Soto, Hemando, 1-2
Donk, Jan, 22
Drew, Governor George F., 17
Dupont Corporation, 24
Durham Station, N.C., 14
Duval, William Pope, Territorial
Governor, 4-7
"Early Experiences of Ralph Ringwood,
The," 4
East Florida, 2-3
Education, 28, 30, 32
Eisenhower, President Dwight D., 18
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 7


------ ~







Eppes, Francis, 8-9
Europe, 1-2
Ferraro, Geraldine, 18
First Florida Infantry Regiment, 13
Florida, 1-4, 6-10, 12-18, 22, 24, 28, 30,
32-34
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical
College, 30
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical
College for Negroes, 30
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical
University, 30, 32, 34
Florida Historical Quarterly, vi
Florida Pecan Endowment Company,
22
Florida State College for Women, 28
Florida State Normal and Industrial
School, 30
Florida State University 30, 32
Fire of 1843, 7, 12
Florida Female College, 28
Forts, Fort Pickens, Fla., 13; Fort
Sumter, S.C., 13; Fort Ward, Fla., 16
Foster, Major-General John S., 16
Fowl towns, 4
France, 2, 7, 10
Franciscan missions, 1
Fraternal orders and clubs, Knights of
Pythias, 21; Jackson Masonic Lodge
#23, 21; Odd Fellows, 21; Leon
County Colored Reform Club, 21;
Leon County Agricultural Society,
21
Free persons of color, 12
Free School of Tallahassee, 28
Freedmen's Bureau, 17, 30
French and Indian War, 3
Frenchtown, 10
Gadsden County, Fla., 22
Gadsden, James, 5-6
Gainesville, Fla., 26
Gamble family, 7
Gardner, Janette C., vi
George III, 2
Georgia, 1, 4, 6, 14, 22
Gibbs, George W., 22
Goldwater, Barry, 18
Grady County, Ga., 22
Grant, General Ulysses S., 14, 18
Gray, Catherine Dangerfield Willis (see
also "Princess" Murat), 10
Great Britain, 2-3


Groene, Bertram H., vi
Gulf of Mexico, 1
Haire, Dr. Charles, 18
Harris, Michael H., vi
Hart, Governor Ossian B., 17
Hayes, President Rutherford B., 17
Hermitage, the, 3
Herold, Rudolph, 22
Holidays, Christmas, 1; 4th of July,
20-21; May 20 (Emancipation Day),
21; May party, 21
Hoover, President Herbert, 18
Houston family, 7
Houston, Patrick, 22
Hurricanes, 1873, 25; Kate, 1985, 25-26
Indians, 2, 5-6
Indians, Apalachee, 1, 2, 4; Creek, 4;
Mikasuki band, 4; Seminole, 4, 7;
Tallahassee band, 4
Irving, Washington, 4
Jackson, Andrew, 3, 13, 15
Jackson County, Fla., 14
Jackson Masonic Lodge, #23, 21
Jacksonville, Ha., 12-13, 27
Jacksonville Times-Union, 34
Jefferson County, Fla., 10, 19
Jefferson, Thomas, 9
Johnson, President Andrew, 15
Johnson, President Lyndon B., 18
Johnston, General Joseph 3., 14
Kentucky, 4
Key West, Fla., 14, 16
Kuhn, William, 12
Lafayette, Marquis de, 9-10
Lake City, Fla., 12, 13
Lakes, Lafayette, 10; Jackson, 31
Lanier, Sidney, 20-21
Lee, General Robert E., 14
Legislative Council, 4, 6, 18, 26
Leon Academy and House of Worship,
28
Leon County, Fla., vi-vii, 1, 4, 6-8, 10,
12-14, 17-19, 21-24, 26-28, 30, 32-34
Lincoln, President Abraham, 12, 16, 18
Lively, Lewis M., 30
Lively, Matthew, 12
Lively Vocational School, 30
Long, Ellen Call, 16
Louisiana, 10, 17
Lynchings, 39-40
Macon, Ga., 18
Maine. 17








Marianna, Fla., 14
Marvin, Provisional Governor
William, 16
Massachusetts, 33
Cook, Brigadier General Edward M.,
14-16
Mclver, John, 6
Meginniss family, 7
Miccosukee, Fla., 34
Middle Florida, 7
Milton, Governor John, 13-14
Mississippi Delta, 12
Mobile, Ala., 2
Mondale, Walter, 18
Monroe, James, 4
Montgomery, Ala., 13
Moore, Governor James, 2, 4
Morris, Allen, vi
Moseley, Governor William D., 8
Municipal government (city), 18-19
Murat, Caroline, 10
Murat, Joachim, 10
Murat, Prince Achille, 10, 34
Murat, "Princess," 10
Naples, Kingdom of, 10
Napoleon Bonaparte, 10
Nashville, Tenn., 3
Natural Bridge, battle of, 14
Neamathla, 4-6
New Deal, the, 23
New England, 7
New Hampshire, 17
New Orleans, La., 2-3, 10
New River County, Fla., 13
Newspapers, Tallahassee Florida
Intelligence, 7
Nixon, President Richard M., 18
North Carolina, 6, 9
Oberlin College, Ohio, 30
Ocala, Fla., 27
Ohio, 30
Olustee (or Ocean Pond), battle of, 13
Ordinance of 1787, 4
Paisley, Clifton L., vi
Panic of 1837, 7
Parkhill family, 7
Pearce, "Bishop" Charles H., 33
Pensacola, Fla., 2-4, 12-13
Pensacola Bay, 3
Perry, Governor Madison Stark, 13
Plantations, Pinehill, 9, 14; Horseshoe,
9; Lipona (Jefferson County), 10;


Econchatti (Jefferson County), 10;
Belleview, 10; Sylvania (Jackson
County), 14; Verdura, 14
Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896, 32
Populists, 17
Port St. Joe, Fla., 26
Presidential elections, 17-18
Prime Meridian, 6
Progressive movement, 19
Purificacion de la Tama mission, 1
Queen Anne's War, 2
Quincy, Fla., 12
Railroads, Tallahassee, 12; Pensacola
and Georgia, 12; Florida, Atlantic,
and Gulf Central, 12
Raynes, William, 22
Reagan, President Ronald, 18
Reconstruction, 16-17, 26, 32
Reed, Governor Harrison, 17
Republican party, 12, 16-18, 21
Resettlement Administration, 23
Rivers, Ochlockonee, 4; Mississippi, 1;
Flint, 1; Suwannee, 28
Rolands, Dr. Tennent, 22
Roosevelt, President Franklin D., 18
Roth (or Routh), William R., 13
St. Augustine, Fla., 2-5, 12, 26, 27
St. Joe Paper Company, 24
St. Marks, Fla., 1, 4, 12, 14, 16
San Luis de Apalachee mission, 1
San Luis de Talimali mission, 1
San Marcos de Apalachee mission, 4
Santa Rosa Island, Fla., 13
Scalawags, 17
Seminole War, First, 3; Second, 7
Seven Years' War (French and Indian
War), 2
Sherman, General William T., 14
Sierra Leone, West Africa, 30
Simmons, Dr. William H., 4, 6
Slavery, 12
Smith, Alfred E., 18
Smith, Julia Floyd, vi
South Carolina, 2, 6, 12
Spain, 1-4
Sprague, Colonel John T., 17
Spray, steamer, 16
"Star Spangled Banner, The," 3
Stearns, Governor Marcellus L., 17
Steele, Charles Kenzie, 34
Stone, Edward Durrell, 28
Streets, Monroe, 7; Adams, 7; Jackson


I________________P_________i








Bluff Road, 10; College Avenue, 26
Suwannee River, 35
Tallahassee, 1, 2, 4, 6-10, 12-17, 19-20,
24-27, 30, 32, 34
Tallahassee Community College, 30
Tallahassee District, A.M.E. Church,
33
Tallahassee Female College, 28
Tallahassee Historical Society, vi
Tallahassee Historical Society Annual,
vi
Tallahassee Junior College, 30
Tallahassee-Leon County Planning
Commission, 19
Tallahassee State Normal College for
Colored Students, 30
Tampa Bay, 1
Tappan, John S., 7
Taylor, Pierce, 34
Taylor, President Zachary, 17
Tebeau, Charlton W., vi
Territory of Florida, 4, 10, 26
Thomas County, Ga., 22
Thomasville, Ga., 14, 21
Tilden, Samuel J., 17
Tories, 2
Treaty of Moultrie Creek, 1823, 5
Treaty of Paris, 1763, 2


Treaty of Paris, 1783, 2
Truman, President Harry S., 18
Tucker, Thomas De Saille, 30
United States of America, 2, 6, 10, 13
United States Congress, 4, 6, 10, 16
United States Supreme Court, 30, 32
Virginia, 4, 6-8
Wakulla County, Fla., 19
Walker, Governor David S., 16
Wallace, Governor George C., 18
Wallace, John, 30
Walton, George, 6
War of 1812, 3
Washington, D.C., 6, 17, 28
Washington, President George, 10
Waterloo, battle of, 10
West Florida, 2-3
West Florida Seminary, 14, 28
Whig party, 17-18, 26
White, Henry M., 28
Whitfield family, 7
Williams, John Lee, 4, 6, 8
Wilson, D.C., 12
Wilson, Major General James H., 14
Woodville, Fla., 34
World War I, 22; II, 30
Yellow fever epidemic of 1841, 7


I I










AUTHOR INDEX
(Letters and numbers refer to entry numbers)


Abbey, Kathryn T.; B-1, B-2, B-3, E-1
Alfriend, Mary Bethell; L-1
Appleyard, Lula Dee Keith; E-2
Avant, Fenton Garnett Davis; I-1
Barber, Lylah; G-1
Barfield, William D.; 0-1
Barrows, Edith Clarke; M-16
Bearss, Edwin C.; C-1
Bellamy, Elizabeth Whitfield (Croom);
L-2
Bishko, Lucretia Ramsey; B-4
Blake, Sallie E.; M-2, M-3
Blow, James Harold; H-1
Booth, Norman Edward; P-l, P-2
Boyd, Mark F.; A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4,
A-5, A-6, C-2, J-l, M-4
Brevard, Caroline Mays; G-2
Brubaker, Harry Frederick; J-2
Bryant, James C.; P-3
Burnett, Louise Davie; P-4
Burt, John, Jr.; H-2
Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Nunez; A-7,
A-8
Cafaro, Joseph; D-1
Campbell, Doak S.; K-2
Campbell, James T.; B-6
Carter, W.H.; P-5
Cash, W.T.; 1-2, J-3, L-3, P-6
Cassender, Don Pedro (Smith, The
Rev. Michael); L-4
Castelnau, Comte Francis de; B-5
Chandler, William; N-1
Chatam, Katharine; E-3
Choate, Charles A.; A-9, M-30
Clough, Charles S.; D-6
Cockrell, Alston W.; I-3
Collins, Thomas LeRoy; G-3
Conradi, Edward; K-10
Cook, Louis H.; D-5
Copeland, Emily A.; K-3
Cotterill, R.S.; G-4
Cuthbert, Norma B.; P-7
Dahl, Evelyn; L-5
Davis, Fred H.; D-2
Davis, Mary Lamar; B-7, F-l, F-3, C-5


Davis, T. Frederick; B-8, B-9, J-4, 0-3
Denham, James Michael; B-10, B-11
Derby, Clyde L.; I-4
Diamond, Rowena; K-4
Dodd, Dorothy; C-3, 1-5, I-6, 1-7, 1-8,
J-5, J-6, 0-4
Dodd, William G.; 1-9, 1-10, K-5, K-6,
K-7
Doherty, Herbert J., Jr.; G-6, G-7, M-5
Downes, Allan J.; I-11, L-7
Dozier, Annie Randolph; 1-12
Dresser, David (Holliday, Bret); L-6
Drew, Frank; N-2
Dunn, Hampton; L-8
Dunsing, Dorothy May (Dee); L-9
Duval, Governor William P.; message
of; to Legislative Council; B-13
Eastland, Mary B.; F-10
Edwards, Henry Stilwell; L-10
Ehrmann, W.W.; N-3
Elliot, Carrie Edwards; 1-13, 1-14
Ellis, Mary Louise; G-8, M-6
Eppes, Susan Bradford (Eppes, Mrs.
Nicholas Ware); G-9, G-10, H-3
Espey, Ruth F.; 0-5
Estes, Maxie C.; 1-15
Fain, Marjorie; G-11
Fanning, Sandra L.; H-4
Fisher, Barbara Jean; M-7
Flint, Herbert L.' D-9
Florida Historical Quarterly;
(Apalachee); 1-39; (capital removal);
0-2; (fire), B-12; (fire), B-27;
(hurricanes), M-8; (secession), C-10;
(Tallahassee history), B-28
Fry, Virginia Kay; J-7
Gammon, William Lamar; C-4
Glunt, James David; E-5, E-13
Goodbody, Amy; A-10
Graham, Thomas Sentell; 1-16, 0-6
Graves, William; N-4
Groene, Bertram H.; B-15, C-4, 1-17,
1-18, 1-19
Hadd, Donald; F-2
Hall, Robert La Bret; H-5, P-8, P-9


- --- -- --- - ---








Hamburger, Susan; H-6
Hanna, A.J.; G-12
Hardaway, Sylvia Jean; 0-7
Harper, Roland; M-9
Harrigan, Anthony, and Davis, Mary
Lamar; F-3
Hart, Ashley D.; M-1
Hayden, Clara Ryder; 1-20, L-11
Hendry, Captain F.A.; B-16
Henry, Evelyn Whitfield; F-4, 1-21
Hering, Julia (see also Smith, Julia); E-6,
E-7, E-15, E-16, E-17
Holliday, Bret (Dresser, David); L-6
Holmes, Mary Jane (Hawes); L-12
Hoyt, Nathan; P-10
Irving, Washington; L-13
Itkin, Stanley L.; C-5
Jackson, Lena E.; L-14
Jahoda, Gloria; 1-22
Johnson, Malcolm B.; B-17, 0-8
Jones, Calvin B.; A-11
Jones, James Pickett; C-6, D-3
Jones, James P. and Rogers, William
Warren; C-6
Jones, Sarah L.; G-13
Jordan, Weymouth T.; E-8
Keen, Mary W.; C-7
Kennerly, Arthur; 1-23
Ketchum, Eleanor; M-11
Key, Margaret; N-5
Kilgore, John; F-5, 1-24
Killian, Lewis M.; H-7, H-14
King, Grace; A-12
Kinnaird, Lawrence; N-6
Knauss, James Owen; G-14
La Dunca, Charles Edward: E-9
Leon County Commission (laws); 0-9
Leon County Farmers' Club; M-12
Lewis, Mary D.; G-15
Lewis, Terry Edward; H-8
Ley, Fred P., Jr.; B-18
Ley, John C.; P-ll
Leynes, Bernhardt Crevasse; J-9
Lincoln High and Elementary School
Faculties; K-8
Long, Ellen Call; G-16, M-13
Long, Reinette Gamble; 1-15
Long, Richard C.; M-14
Lordahl, Jo Ann; L-15
Marean, Beatrice; L-17
Martin, Sidney Walter; B-20, B-21,
G-17


Matheny, Martha; 1-27
Meginniss, Benjamin A.; C-18, 1-28
Mickler, Delia Appleyard; M-17
Miller, Barbara; B-22, B-23
Miller, lames J.; F-6
Miller, Sam; F-7
Miller, William; C-8
Morris, Joan Perry and Warner, Lee H.
(editors); L-18
Moseley, William D.; 0-10
Muir, Andrew Forest; G-19
Mustaine, Mrs. Almbie] [H.]; L-19
Myers, John B.; C-9
McCall, Lillian B.; L-16
McCord, Guyte P.; M-15
McCord, Guyte, Sr.; B-19
McCord, Jean P.; 1-26
McCullough, Mildred White; K-9
McDaniel, Sidne; D-8
McRory, Mary Oakley and Barrows,
Edith Clarke; M-16
Neyland, Leedell W.; H-9
Neyland, Leedell W. and Riley, John
W.; K-11
Nicholas, Judy R.; E-10
O'Bryan, Carolyde Phillips; M-17
Olds, Dorris La Vanture; F-8
Ollry, Jan; J-10
Olsen, Stanley J.; C-11
Ordonez, Margaret T.; E-11, 1-30
Osborn, George C. (editor); C-12
"Outsider, The;" 1-38
Paddyfote, C.J. Archer; K-12
Padgett, Gregory B.; H-10
Paisley, Clifton L.; C-13, C-14, C-15,
E-12, J-11, J-12
Paisley, Joy Smith; 1-31
Palmer, Henry E.; 1-32, M-18
Palmer, Hugh Archer; M-19
Palmer, Theresa Yeager, and Palmer,
Hugh Archer; M-19
Pansler, Clarence Eugene; P-12
Parker, Daisy; M-20, 0-11, 0-11
Parker, Rosalind; H-11
Pasco, Samuel; M-21
Peek, Comer Leonard; L-10
Pendleton, Louis Beauregard; L-21
Phillips, Rebecca (editor); G-20
Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell, and Glunt,
James David (editors); E-13
Pope, Edith Everett (Taylor); .-22
Portier, Right Rev. Michael; B-14








Rabby, Glenda Alice; H-12
Ralph, Julian; M-22
Ramsey, David; D-4
Reaver, J. Russell, Jr.; C-16, 1-33
Reese, Joseph Hugh; M-23
Rhodes, Francis A.; C-17, K-13
Rhodes, Mary Margaret Pichard; P-13
Rich, Lou; 1-34
Richmond, Mrs. Henry L.; L-23
Riley, John W.; K-11
Rippey, H.C.; M-24
Rivers, Larry E.; H-13
Roberts, Albert Hubbard; C-18 C-19,
G-21
Rogers, William Warren; C-6, C-20,
C-22, E-14, 1-35, M-25
Ruffin, Edmund; C-21
Ruth, Marion Ursula; 1-36
Schene, Michael; G-22
Seymour, Arthur R.; 1-37
Shaara, Michael; L-24
Shenkel, J. Richard, and Westbury,
William; F-9
Shofner, Jerrell H.; G-23, M-26
Shofner, Jerrell H., and Rogers,
William Warren; E-14
Shores, Venila Lovina; A-13, B-25,
K-14
Simmons, William H.; B-26
Smith, Charles U., and Killian, Lewis
M.; H-14
Smith, Elizabeth F.; G-24
Smith, Julia (see also Hering, Julia); E-6,
E-7, E-15, E-16, E-17
Smith, Hale Gilliam; M-27
Smith, The Rev. Michael (Cassender,
Don Pedro); L-4
Spellman, Charles W.; E-18
Stanley, J. Randall; M-28
Stauffer, Carl; P-14


Tallahassee (agriculture in Leon
County); E-4
Tallahassee (Leon County); D-7
Tallahassee (early travel); 1-29
Tallahassee Historical Society Annual
(St. Marks and Newport); J-8
Tappan, John S.; 1-2
Taylor, A.D., and Flint, Herbert L.;
D-9
Taylor, F.H., and Choate, Charles A.;
M-30
Thompson, (James) Maurice; L-25
Torrey, Bradford; M-31
Van Brunt, Dorothy; P-15
Varick, Floreda Duke; 1-40
Wagy, Thomas R.; G-25, G-26, G-27,
G-28, 0-13
Waldo, Horatio; G-29
Wallace, Mary Nickerson; L-26
Warner, Lee H.; F-10, L-18
Warner, Lee H., and Eastland, Mary B.;
F-10
Warren, Leslie Cobb (compiler); P-16
Wenhold, Lucy L.; F-11
West, William; 1-41
Westbury, William; F-9
White, Otis; J-13
White, Robert Melvin; H-15
Whitman, Alice; J-14
Williams, John Lee; B-24
Williamson, Edward C.; 0-14
Willis, Katherine Jackson, and Rogers,
William Warren; C-22
Witherspoon, (Mrs.) Mary Elizabeth
(Rhyne); L-27
Womack, Miles Kennan, Jr.; M-32
Wooster, Ralph A.; C-23
Wood, George Alex, Jr., and Wood,
Jane Stoddard; M-33
Wright, J. Leitch, Jr.; N-7
Writers Program, Florida; M-34


--- In










SUBJECT INDEX
(Letters and numbers refer to entry numbers)


Agriculture; Leon County, E-4, E-13;
Florida, E-8, E-14, E-15, E-18;
tobacco, E-9
Agriculture and Slavery; E-1-E-18
Apalachee; A-i, A-2
Apalachee; 1-39
Apalachee Bay; C-18
Apalachee missions; A-4, A-5, A-6,
A-11
Apalachicola, Fla.; A-1, A-2
Archaeology and Architecture; F 1
F-11; Fort St. Marks, F-8, F-9, F-11;
plantation houses, F-3; Tallahassee,
F-4, F-10
Aucilla River; encounter, C-23
Aunt Memory; 1-13
Banks; B-3
Barber, Lylah, G-1
Bernard, Jesse Talbot, G-20
Biography, G-1-G-29; general, G-3,
G-10
Blacks; H-1-H-15; and LeRoy Collins,
H-4, 0-13; Aunt Memory, 1-13; civil
rights, H-6, H-7, H-10, H-12, H-13,
H-15; general, H-3; in business, H-8;
leaders, H-9; politics, H-2; religion,
H-5, P-8, P-9; slavery, H-13;
Proctors, the, H-11
Blake, loel C.; C-17
Bowles, William Augustus; N-5, N-6,
N-7
Brokaw, Peres Bonney; C-22
Brokaw-McDougall House; F-6
Brown, Lizzie; 1-19
Brown, Thomas; B-15, G-15, G-24
Businesses; Tallahassee, J-10, J-11
Butler, Robert; G-5
Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Nunez; A-7,
A-8
Call, Richard Keith; G-2, C-6, G-7,
G-17, G-29, 0-11
Call, Wilkinson; G-21
Capital; selection, B-24, B-26; removal,
0-2, 0-7
Capitol; D-9, F-l, F-, F-7, 0-1


Castelnau, Comte Francis de; B-5
Cemeteries; I-31
Chaires, Benjamin; G-8
Chandler, William; N-1
Churches; Advent (St. Clement's
Chapel) (Episcopal), 16; Catholic,
P-3, P-15; Indian Springs (Baptist),
P-3; Pisgah (Methodist), I-1; St.
John's (Episcopal), P-5, P-14; Tnity
(Methodist), P-2, P-6
Civil Rights, 0-13
Civil War and Reconstruction; C 1
C-24
Clubs and Fraternal Orders; 1-20, 1-26
Collins, Governor Thomas LeRoy;
G-25, G-26, G-27, G-28, G-29, H-4,
0-5, 0-13
Columns, The; F-2
Conradi, Edward; K-10
Constitutions; of 1885, 0-14
Cookbook; M-17
Courts; M-20; of Appeals, B-19
Cultural and Social; 1-1-1-41; 1-1, 1-3,
1-7, 1-11, 1-30, 1-33, 1-35, 1-37, 1-38,
1-40, L-11, L-25
Dairy Industry; J-7
Dale Mabry Field; D-4
de Soto, Hernando; A-9, A-12
Dohanyi, Ernst von; 1-36
Dueling; B-10, B-11, M-5
Duval, Governor William P.; B-13,
G-14, 0-1
East Gulf Blockade Squadron; C-6
Economics; J- -J-14
Education; K1--K-14: K-5, K-8, K-13,
M-l
Elections; national, 1876, C-19
Emerson, Ralph Waldo; L-7, L-33
Eppes, Francis; G-9
Fairs, Entertainments, and Circuses;
E-9, 1-9, 1-10, I-13, 1-15, 1-21, I-25,
1-27, 1-28, 1-41
Fiction, Writers, and Photography; L-1
-L-27
Fires: B-12. B-18 B-27


III








Florida Agricultural and Mechanical
College; K-12
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical
University; K-l, K-3, K-11
Florida; Civil War, C-21, C-22, C-24;
Reconstruction, C-13; Territorial,
B-10, B-11, B-15, B-17, B-19, B-21,
B-22, B-24, B-26, 1-2, 1-5, 1-12, 1-29;
transportation, J-14, 0-13'
Florida State College; K-7
Florida State College for Women; K-4,
K-10, K-14
Florida State University; K-2, K-5;
football, D-3
Fort St. Marks (San Marcos de
Apalachee); F-8, F-9, F-11
Fort San Luis; A-10, A-13
Frenchtown; H-8
Gadsden County, Fla.; E-9, M-28, M-32
Gamble family; G-11
General; M-1-M-34
Harper, Alvan S.; L-18
Hart, Ashley D.; M-1
Hugon, Father; P-15
Hurricanes; M-6, M-8
Hutchinson, Charles; B-6
Iamonia, Fla.; J-12
Imprints; Leon County, I-4
Indians; N-1-N-7; agriculture, E-18;
Apache, N-4; placenames, N-2;
Timucua, N-3
Industry; J-13
Jefferson County, Fla.; M-16, M-21,
M-26
Jones, George Noble; E-13
King, Martin Luther, Jr.; H-6
Ladd, Daniel; G-23
LaFayette, Marquis de; B-l, B-2, B-4
LaFayette lands; B-l, B-2, B-4
Land, classification and description;
J-2, J-9, M-9, M-10, M-14, M-23,
M-24
Lanier, Sidney; L-14
Lee, J.R.; K-12
Legislative Council; B-13
Leon County, Fla.; Civil War, C-8,
C-11; general, M-12, M-25, M-34;
laws, 0-9; literature, L-3; World War
1, D-2
Lewis State Bank; J-1
Libraries; Davis S. Walker, K-9
Macomb, David Betton; G-19


Milton, Governor John; C-4; G-13
Missions; L-1
Moore, Governor James; A-11
Moseley, Governor William D.; 0-12
Murat, Achille; G-12
Murat, "Princess" (Gray, Katherine
Dangerfield Willis); G-16
McDougall's pasture; 1-14
Natural Bridge, battle of; C-l, C-2, C-9
Newport, Fla.; C-12, J-3, J-8
Newspapers; 1-16, 1-23, 1-24, 0-6
Pearce, "Bishop" Charles H.; C-3
Pena, Diego; A-1, A-2
Pensacola, Fla.; M-4
Photographs; L-18, L-18, M-17
Physicians; M-18, M-19
Pisgah Methodist Church; P-1
Plantations; El Destino, E-1;
Chemonie, E-1; E-2, E-3, E-5, E-6,
E-7, E-11, E-13, E-16, E-17
Politics; 0-1-0-14, C-19
Port Leon, Fla.; B-8
Portier, Right Rev. Michael; B-14
Postmasters; M-15
Prisoner of War Camps; World War II,
D-8
Proctors, the; 1-32
Proctors, (Antonio, George, and John);
H-11
Racing; horse, I-6
Railroads; J-4, J-5; Tallahassee, J-6
Raney, George Pettus; G-18
Reconstruction; Leon County, C-3
Red Scare; D-1
Religion; P-1-P-16; ministers, P-7,
P-11; revivals, P-10; sermons; P-12
Ruffin, Edmund; C-22
St. Augustine, Fla.; M-4
St. Clement's Chapel (Episcopal); P-16
San Luis of Apalachee; L-1
San Marcos de Apalachee; A-3
St. Marks, Fla.; C-1, C-2, J-6; harbor,
J-8
Saltmaking; C-18
Scott, George W.; C-14
Selma, Ala.; 0-13
Simmons, William H.; B-26
Slavery; E-3, E-16, E-17, H-13
Steamboats; Home and Pulaski, 1-8
Steele, Charles Kenzie; H-10
Street Railway; M-2
Tallahassee; Civil War, C-7, C-11,


c-







C-14, C-16; Directory, 1904, D-6;
Emerson, visit of, L-7; general, D-5,
D-7, 1-17, 1-18, 1-19, 1-22, M-3, M-7,
M-11, M-25, M-27, M-28, M-33,
M-34, 0-4, 0-8; Historical Society,
1-39; Reconstruction, C-3, C-5, C-10,
C-15, C-20; Territorial, B-6, B-7, B-9,
B-16, B-25, B-26, B-28, 1-2
Tappan, John S.; 1-2
Travel, descriptive accounts; B-14,
B-15, 1-2, 1-29, L-14, M-22, M-30,
M-31


Twentieth Century; D-1-D-9
Union Bank of Tallahassee; B-3
Van Brunt's Store; J-12
Wakulla Springs; 1-34
Walker, David Shelby; G-4, K-9
West Florida Seminary; K-5, K-7
Williams, John Lee; B-24
Woman's Missionary Union, Baptist
Church; P-4
Writers; L-7, L-23
Yellow Fever; B-22, B-23
Young, Nathan Benjamin; H-1






























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(lD Historic Tallahassee ;! _,
Preservation Board
^1/ FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE '
'ATIO George Firestone *
Secretary of State



HISTORIC TALLAHASSEE PRESERVATION BOARD

Robert C. Parker, Jr., Chairman
Samuel E. Hand, Jr.
Janet Snyder Matthews
Elizabeth A. Messer
Leedell Neyland
Benjamin K. Phipps
William Warren Rogers













This public document was produced at the annual rate of
$3,952.08, or $1.32 per copy in order to educate state visitors
and Florida citizens about the history of Tallahassee, the capital
city, in furtherance of F.S. 266.116(9)(18)&(19).


I -


















































- -- i.







D-"DTVIONS OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Office of the Secretary
Office of International Relations
Division of Elections
Division of Corporations
Division of Cultural Affairs
Division of Historical Resources
Division of Library and Information Services
Division of Licensing
Division of Administrative Services


May 26, 1999


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Katherine Harris
Secretary of State


MEMBER OF THE FLORIDA CABINET
State Board of Education
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund
Administration Commission
Florida Land and Water Adjudicatory Commission
Siting Board
Division of Bond Finance
Department of Revenue
Department of Law Enforcement
Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles
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Mr. Burt Altman
Archivist/Librarian
Florida State University Libraries
636 West Call Street
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RE: Permission to Reproduce

Dear Mr. Altman:

Pursuant to your request of April 2, 1999, the
Department of State hereby grants permission to the Florida
State University Library to reproduce in digital format
Tallahassee, Leon County: A History and Bibliography
(Tallahassee: Florida Department of State, 1986), authored
by Mary Louise Ellis and William Warren Rogers.

Please do not hesitate to contact us if we can be of
further assistance.



Very truly yours,




Debby Kearney
General Counsel




DK/gty


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