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Title: Florida, an advancing state, 1907--1917--1927
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Title: Florida, an advancing state, 1907--1917--1927
Series Title: Florida, an advancing state, 1907--1917--1927
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Bibliographic ID: FS00000028
Volume ID: VID00001
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
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    Main
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    Back Cover
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Full Text


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INDEX

COUNTY MENTION


Alachua County:
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Assessed valuations: 266
Bank Resources: 317.
County mention: 19, 82, 94, 104, 157,
170, 173, 185, 208, 222, 254, 255,
257, 265, 266, 268, 310, 311.
Industries: 25, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railroad mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 19, 20.
Baker County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 157, 173, 175, 208,
222, 254, 255, 257, 264, 265, 266,
268, 310, 311.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Bay County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable, 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 49, 104, 157, 173, 175,
208, 222, 253, 254, 255, 257, 264,
265, 266, 268, 311, 317.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Bradford County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable, 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 157, 175, 185, 208,
222, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 268, 310,
311.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Brevard County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable, 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 104, 157, 170, 175,
208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 268,
311.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Broward County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable, 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 104, 154, 157, 170,
174, 175, 208, 211, 222, 254, 255,
257, 264, 265, 266, 268, 311.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Calhoun County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable, 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 157, 173, 175, 208,
222, 211, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 268,
311.


Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Charlotte County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 81, 104, 157, 173,
175, 208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265,
266, 268, 311.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Citrus County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 19, 104, 157, 173, 175,
208, 211, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265,
266, 268, 311.
Industries: 25, 27, 28, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Clay County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 19, 49, 104, 119, 157,
173, 175, 185, 204, 208, 222, 253, 254,
255, 257, 265, 266, 268, 309, 310, 311.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Collier County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 104, 111, 115, 173,
175, 208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 264, 265,
266, 268, 311.
Industries: 24, 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Columbia County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 19, 104, 157, 173, 175,
208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 268,
310, 311, 317.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Dade County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 81, 104, 111, 115,
157, 170, 175, 208, 222, 254, 255, 257,
264, 265, 266, 268, 311.
Industries: 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
DeSoto County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.










INDEX: County Mention (Continued)


DeSoto County (Con't.):
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 104, 157, 173, 175,
205, 208, 217, 222, 254, 255, 257, 264,
265, 266, 269, 311.
Industries: 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Dixie County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 157, 175, 208, 222,
254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 269, 311.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Duval County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 94, 104, 157, 170, 173,
175, 203, 208, 222, 247, 254, 255,
257, 264, 265, 266, 269, 310, 311.
Industries: 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
Schools: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Escambia County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 82, 94, 104, 157, 170,
173, 175, 208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 259,
264, 265, 266, 269, 310 311.
Industries: 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Flagler County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 157, 175, 208, 222,
254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 269, 311.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Franklin County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 157, 173, 175, 208,
222, 223, 254, 255, 257, 264, 265, 266,
269, 311.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Gadsden County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: .94, 104, 118, 157, 165,
173, 175, 208, 213, 222, 254, 255, 257,
265, 266, 269, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297,
308, 310, 311.
Industries: 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.


Gilchrist County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 49, 104, 157, 175, 208,
222, 254, 255, 257, 266, 269, 311,
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Glades County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 104, 157, 173, 175,
208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 266, 269, 311.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Gulf County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 157, 175, 208, 222,
254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 269, 310, 311.
Industries: 24, 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 253, 247.
Hamilton County:
Acreage cultivated: 16
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 157, 173, 175, 208,
222, 254, 255, 257, 266, 269, 311.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Hardee County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 104, 157, 175, 208,
222, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 269, 311.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Hendry County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 104, 157, 176, 208,
222, 254, 255, 257, 264, 265, 266, 269,
311.
Industries: 24, 25, 27, 29, 31.
Populaiton: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Hernando County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 18, 104, 157, 165, 173,
176, 208, 222, 211, 213, 254, 255, 257,
265, 266, 269, 312.
Industries: 25, 27, 28, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Highlands County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assesed valuations: 266.













r


Highlands County (Con't.):
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 104, 157, 170, 173,
176, 208, 219, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265,
266, 269, 312.
Industries: 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Hillsborough County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 157, 170, 173, 176,
208, 222, 247, 254, 255, 257, 264, 265,
266, 269, 312.
Industries: 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31,
32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Holmes County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 49, 104, 157, 173, 176,
208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 269,
312.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Indian River County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations, 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 158, 170, 176, 208,
222, 247, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 269,
308, 312.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Jackson County:
Acreage cultivated, 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable, 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention, 44, 104, 157, 165, 173,
176, 208, 211, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265,
266, 269, 310, 312.
Industries: 24, 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Jefferson County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 106, 157, 173, 176,
208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266,
269, 308, 310, 315.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Lafayette County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 157, 176, 208, 222,
254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 269, 312.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Lake County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.


Assessed valuation: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 158, 170, 173, 176,
203, 204, 208, 211, 213, 222, 254, 255,
257, 264, 265, 266, 269, 308, 309, 312.
Industries: 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Lee County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 165.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 81, 104, 158, 170,
173, 176, 208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 264,
265, 266, 270, 312.
Industries: 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Leon County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 94, 104, 157, 170, 173,
176, 185, 208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 264,
265, 266, 270, 297, 310, 312.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Levy County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 94, 104, 157, 173, 176,
208, 211, 222, 254, 255, 257, 264,
265, 266, 270, 297, 312, 317.
Industries: 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Liberty County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 157, 176, 208, 222,
254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 270, 312.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Madison County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 157, 165, 173, 176,
208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 270,
297, 312, 317.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Manatee County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 104, 119, 158, 170,
173, 205, 208, 213, 222, 254, 255, 257,
265, 266, 270, 312.
Industries: 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Marion County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Areas, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.


III


INDEX: County Mention (Continued)










INDEX: County Mention (Continued)


Marion County (Con't.):
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 19, 104, 157, 170, 173,
176, 185, 208, 211, 213, 222, 254, 255,
257, 264, 265, 266, 270, 308, 310, 312.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Martin County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 158, 170, 176, 208,
222, 247, 254, 255, 257, 264, 265, 266,
270, 312, 317.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 30, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Monroe County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 81, 104, 120, 157,
176, 208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 264, 265,
266, 270, 312.
Industries: 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 22.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Nassau County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County metnion: 104, 173, 176, 208, 222,
254, 255, 257, 264, 265, 266, 270, 312.
Industries: 24, 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Okaloosa County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 95, 104, 173, 176, 208,
222, 254, 255, 257, 264, 265, 266, 270,
308, 310, 312.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Okeechobee County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 104, 158, 173, 176,
208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 270,
312.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Orange County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County Mention: 104, 158, 170, 173, 176,
203, 204, 208, 213, 222, 254, 255, 257,
259, 265, 266, 270, 312.
Industries: 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.


Osceola County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 104, 157, 170, 173,
176, 208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266,
270, 312.
Industries: 25, 26, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Palm Beach County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 44, 64, 104, 158, 170,
173, 174, 176, 203, 208, 211, 222, 254,
255, 257, 264, 265, 266, 270, 312.
Industries: 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Pasco County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 158, 165, 173, 176,
203, 208, 213, 222, 254, 255, 257, 264,
265, 266, 270, 312, 315.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Pinellas County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 18, 104, 158, 170, 173,
176, 208, 213, 222, 253, 255, 257, 265,
266, 270, 300, 312.
Industries: 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Polk County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 84, 104, 158, 173,
203, 205, 208, 219, 222, 254, 255, 257,
265, 266, 271, 312.
Industries: 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Putnam County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 158, 173, 176, 178,
203, 208, 211, 213, 253, 254, 255, 257,
264, 265, 266, 271, 310, 313.
Industries: 25, 27, 28, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Santa Rosa Coutny:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 95, 104, 157, 176, 208,
222, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 271, 309,
310, 313.


,-~I--~~ --- "-~~-"~~ ~I










INDEX: County Mention (Continued)


Santa Rosa County (Con't.):
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Sarasota County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 46, 56, 64, 104, 158,
170, 176, 188, 208, 222, 233, 254, 255,
257, 259, 265, 266, 271, 313.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Seminole County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 158, 170, 173, 176,
203, 205, 208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265,
266, 271, 313.
Industries: 25, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 256, 257.
Springs: 20.
St. Johns County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 119, 158, 170, 173,
176, 208, 222, 254, 255, 256, 257, 264,
265, 266, 271, 313.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
St. Lucie County:
Acreage cultivated: 14.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 64, 104, 158, 170, 174,
176, 208, 222, 247, 254, 255, 257, 264,
265, 266, 271, 313.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Sumter County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 94, 104, 158, 176,
222, 254, 255, 257, 264, 265, 266, 271,
308, 313.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 256, 257.
Suwannee County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 18, 44, 94, 104, 157,
173, 176, 208, 217, 222, 254, 255, 257,
265, 266, 271, 308, 310, 313.
Industries: 25 27, 29, 30, 31, 32.
Population: 14.


Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Taylor County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 94, 104, 106, 158, 173,
176, 208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266,
271, 313, 315.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Union County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317:
County mention: 104, 157, 173, 176, 185,
208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 271,
310, 313.
Industries: 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Volusia County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 68, 104, 158, 170, 173,
176, 203, 204, 205, 208, 211, 254, 255,
257, 259, 264, 265, 266, 271, 310, 313.
Industries: 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Wakulla County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assesesd valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 19, 104, 157, 173, 176,
208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 264, 265, 266,
271, 313.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Springs: 20.
Walton County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 104, 158, 173, 176, 208,
222, 254, 255, 257, 264, 265, 266, 271,
310, 313.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.
Washington County:
Acreage cultivated: 16.
Area, taxable and non-taxable: 265.
Assessed valuations: 266.
Bank resources: 317.
County mention: 94, 104, 122, 157, 173,
176, 208, 222, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266,
271, 313.
Industries: 25, 27, 29, 31, 32.
Population: 14.
Railway mileage: 104.
School data: 254, 255, 257.









COMMUNITY MENTION


A
Alachua: 268, 325, 341.
Aladdin: 327.
Allandale: 327.
Allentown: 341.
Altamonte Springs: 171, 271, 325.
Altha: 341.
Altoona: 309, 325.
Alturas: 327.
Anna Maria: 270, 325.
Anthony: 270, 325.
Apalachicola: 119, 122, 148, 153, 1
269, 309, 318, 320, 325, 337.
Apopka: 270, 324, 341.
Arcadia: 103, 120, 121, 171, 173, 1'
269, 318, 320, 325.
Arched: 173, 250, 268, 325.
Atlantic Beach: 269, 324.
Auburn: 324.
Aucilla: 341.
Auburndale: 271, 324.
Avalon Grove: 314.
Avon Park: 120, 121, 171, 173, 17
315, 324.


70, 173,

74, 251,


74, 269,


Babson Park: 17, 253, 327.
Bagdad: 325.
Baker: 341.
Baldwin: 103, 120, 269, 325.
Barberville: 325, 341.
Bartow: 120, 121, 171, 173, 174, 250, 251,
271, 318, 326, 337.
Bay Harbor: 326.
Bayport: 19.
Bee Ridge: 327.
Belleair: 171, 270. 326.
Belle Glade: 106, 123, 198, 243.
Belle Isle: 270, 326.
Belleview: 270, 326.
Benson Springs: 326.
Beresford: 326.
Bithlo: 270, 326.
Black Point: 327.
Blountstown: 173, 211, 268, 326.
Boca Grande: 147, 150, 152, 153, 171, 337.
Boca Raton: 171, 270, 326.
Bonaventure: 327.
Bonifay: 173, 269, 326.
Bonita Springs: 270, 326.
Bowden: 103.
Bowling Green: 269, 326.
Boynton: 270, 326.
Bradenton: 109, 119, 120, 121, 148, 168,
171, 173, 174, 213, 251, 270, 318, 326.
Bradenton Beach: 327.
Bradley: 271, 326.
Brandon: 327.
Branford: 271, 326.
Bristol: 270, 326.
Bronson: 270, 326.
Brooksville: 120, 172, 174, 251, 269, 308,
326.
Brownville: 326.
Buena Vista: 326.
Bunnell: 269, 326.
Bushnell: 120, 171, 326.
C
Callahan: 103, 270, 326.
Campbell: 327.
Campbellton: 269, 326.
Cameron City: 327.
Camp Walton: 327.
Canal Point: 198, 243, 341.
Canaveral: 106, 152.
Captiva: 171.
Carrabelle: 148, 153, 154, 173, 174, 269,
326.
Cedar Key, 98, 148, 149, 170, 173, 174,
193, 270, 326.
Center Hill: 271, 326.
Century: 251, 326.
Chapman: 327.
Childs: 120.
Charlotte Harbor: 268, 326.
Chattahoochee: 120, 252, 327.


Chiefland: 270, 326, 341.
Chipley: 247, 271, 326, 341.
Choctawhatchee: 150, 309.
Chosen: 123.
Chuluota: 327.
Citra: 270, 326.
City Point: 206, 326.
Clearwater: 120, 121, 153, 154, 171, 251,
270, 326.
Clermont: 174, 269, 326.
Cleveland: 268, 326.
Clewiston: 106, 120, 123, 199, 243.
Cocoa: 171, 268, 326.
Coconut Grove: 171, 225, 326, 341.
Coleman: 120, 271, 326.
Collier City: 106, 148, 150, 152, 162, 173,
268, 326.
Conway: 26.
Coral Gables: 168, 171, 225, 268, 251, 326.
Coronado Beach: 271, 326.
Cortez: 270, 326.
Cottondale; 269, 326.
Country Club Estates: 268, 326.
Crawfordsville: 271, 326.
Crescent City: 173, 174, 271, 326, 341.
Crestview: 210, 251, 326.
Crooked Lake: 171.
Croom: 326.
Cross City: 269, 326.
Crystal River: 268, 326.
Cypress: 269.
D
Dade City: 120, 171, 213, 270, 326.
Dania: 268, 326.
Davenport: 171, 206, 271, 326.
Davie: 174.
Daytona: 318, 326.
Daytona Beach: 99, 109, 120, 168, 171,
204, 205, 238, 247, 250, 251, 253, 271,
326.
Deerfield: 268, 326.
De Funiak Springs: 120, 171, 173, 253,
271, 326.
De Land: 109, 120, 171, 173, 204, 251, 253,
271, 318, 326, 337.
DeLeon Springs: 171, 326.
Delray: 171, 270, 326, 341.
Delray Beach: 270, 326.
Denham: 327.
DeSoto City: 269, 326.
Dover: 326.
Dundee: 271, 326.
Dunedin: 121, 270, 326.
Dunnellon: 120, 270, 326.
E
Eagle Lake: 271, 326.
East Fort Myers: 326.
East Palatka: 326.
Eau Gallie: 268, 326.
Edgewater: 271, 326.
Eldridge: 327.
Elfers: 270, 326.
Elkton: 326:
Ellaville: 154.
Ellenton: 270, 326.
Eloise: 327.
Englewood: 271, 326.
Enterprise: 171.
Esto: 269, 326.
Eustis: 121, 171, 173, 174, 269, 326, 341.
Everglades: 115, 120, 148, 268, 326.
F
Falmouth: 19.
Federal Point: 173, 271, 326.
Fellsmere: 174, 269, 326.
Fenholloway: 173, 174.
Fernandina: 18, 97, 98, 103, 122, 125, 126,
131, 148, 149, 153, 168, 171, 173, 247,
270, 318, 326, 337.
Flagler Beach: 269, 326.
Flamingo: 174.
Floral City: 120, 326.
Floranada: 268, 326.
Florence Villa: 171, 326, 338.
Florida City: 268, 326.










INDEX: Community Mention (Continued)


Florosa: 171.
Folkston: 120.
Fountain: 326.
Ft. Barrancas: 173, 251.
Ft. Jefferson: 174.
Ft. Lauderdale: 18, 123, 150, 154, 155,
171, 174, 251, 268, 320, 324, 326, 341.
Ft. Meade: 173, 271, 326.
Ft. Myers: 102, 103, 120, 121, 122, 123,
148, 150, 153, 168, 171, 173, 174, 250,
251, 270, 318, 320, 326.
Ft. Ogden: 269, 326.
Ft. Pierce: 103, 121, 150, 152, 171, 174,
247, 251, 271, 326, 341.
Ft. Payne: 326.
Ft. White: 19, 341.
Frostproof: 271, 326.
Fruitland Park: 171, 269, 326.
Fruitville, 327.
Fulford: 268, 326.
G
Gainesboro: 327.
Gainesville: 120, 121, 171, 174, 178, 184,
185, 187, 192, 202, 251, 253, 268, 318,
326, 337, 173.
Gardner: 327.
Garniers: 173.
Georgiana: 326.
Glen St. Marys: 173, 174.
Glennwoodl: 326.
Goulding: 326.
Goulds: 326.
Golden Gate: 327.
Gonzales: 34.
Graceville: 269, 308, 326, 341.
Green Acres City: 270, 326.
Green Cove Springs: 171, 268, 326.
Greensboro: 269, 326, 341.
Greenville: 120, 270, 326.
Greenwood: 269, 326.
Griffin: 174.
Gross: 103.
Groveland: 269, 326.
Gulfport: 270, 326.
Gulf Stream: 326.
H
Haines City: 120, 171, 250, 271, 326.
Hallandale: 268, 326.
Hampton: 120, 171, 268, 326.
Hastings: 271, 326.
Havana: 120, 269, 326.
Hawthorne: 268, 326, 341.
Hernando: 268, 326.
Hesperides: 327.
Hialeah: 103, 106, 121, 171, 268, 326.
Highland City: 271, 326.
Highland Park: 171.
High Springs: 19, 103, 121, 268, 326, 338.
Hilliard: 173, 326.
Holly Hill: 271, 314, 326.
Hollywood: 123, 150, 154, 155, 171, 251,
268, 326.
Homeland: 326.
Homestead: 115, 174, 268, 326, 341.
Homosassa: 171, 327.
Howey: 171, 269, 326, 314.
Hopewell: 327.
Hopkins: 327.
Hypoluxo: 174, 329.


I
Indialantic: 327.
Indian River City: 268, 326.
Indianola: 326, 327.
Indian Rocks: 327.
Indiantown: 270, 326.
Inglis: 324, 326.
Island Grove: 327.
Inter Ocean City: 327.
Inlerlachen: 271, 326.
Inverness: 120, 121, 171, 173,
Isleworth: 173.
J


268, 326.


Jacksonville: 20, 59, 67, 83, 86, 94,
109, 118, 120, 121, 122, 125, 126,
146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 153, 168,
173, 174, 175, 235, 242, 247, 250,


103,
133,
171,
251,


253, 259, 260, 263, 269, 279, 287, 293,
297, 312, 318, 326, 336, 338.
Jacksonville Beach: 269, 326.
Jasper: 109, 173, 269, 326.
Jennings: 269, 326.
Jensen: 270, 326.
Johnstown: 173.
Juliette Station: 19.
Jupiter: 171, 174, 203, 270, 326.
K
Kathleen: 271, 326.
Kelsey City: 171, 270, 326.
Kendall: 326.
Kendrick: 327.
Keystone Heights: 171, 268, 326.
Key West: 99, 100, 103, 111, 120, 121,
122, 125, 126, 139, 146, 147, 148, 153,
165, 170, 171, 174, 214, 230, 231, 237,
251, 260, 263, 270, 293, 318, 326.
Kissimmee: 120, 121, 171, 173, 174, 250,
318, 326, 337.
L
LaBelle: 121, 269, 326.
LaCrosse: 268, 326.
Lady Lake: 269, 326.
LaGrange: 326.
Lake Alfred: 271, 326.
Lake Avalon Grove: 313.
Lake Butler: 271, 326.
Lake City: 109, 120, 121, 161, 165, 171,
173, 174, 251, 268, 318, 326.
Lake Hamilton: 271, 326.
Lake Helen: 271.
Lake Jem: 327.
Lake Jovita: 121, 173, 174, 270, 326.
Lakeland: 103, 120, 121, 168, 171, 173,
250, 251, 253, 271, 315, 318, 326, 337,
338.
Lake Maitland: 270.
Lake Marys: 326.
Lake Monroe: 326.
Lake Placid: 269, 326.
Lake Wales: 121, 168, 171, 225, 251, 271,
326, 315, 341.
Lake Worth: 171, 192, 270.
Lantana: 270, 326.
Largo: 270, 326.
Larkins: 326.
Laurel Hill: 236, 270, 326, 341.
Lawtey: 120, 268, 326.
Lecanto: 268, 326.
Lee: 270, 326.
Leesburg: 120, 168, 171, 172, 203, 213,
269, 309, 315, 326, 341.
Lemon City: 326, 338, 341.
Little River: 326.
Live Oak: 120, 172, 173, 253, 271, 318,
326, 337.
Lockhart: 326.
Long Key: 174.
Long Wood: 271, 326.
Lucerne Park: 173, 327.
Loughman: 327.
Lynne: 173.
Lynn Haven: 172, 268, 326.
M
Madison: 173, 174, 270, 326, 341.
Maitland: 326.
Malabar: 174, 268, 326.
Malone: 269, 326, 341.
Mammoth Groves: 314.
Manatee: 251, 270, 326.
Mango: 327.
Marianna: 120, 121, 153, 173, 174, 211,
251, 252, 269, 326, 337, 341.
Mason: 341.
Masaryktown: 313.
Mascotte: 269, 326.
Mayo: 269, 326.
Mayport: 173.
MacClenny: 268, 326.
McDonald: 173.
McIntosh: 120, 270, 326.
McMeekin: 327.
Melbourne: 172, 268, 314, 326, 341.
Melbourne Beach: 326.


VII










INDEX: Community Mention (Continued)


Melrose: 173.
Merritt's Island: 174.
Monticello: 173, 174, 269, 326, 310.
Montverde: 269, 326, 338, 341.
Moore Haven: 120, 173, 243, 269, 326, 341.
Mountain Lake: 172, 327.
Mount Pleasant: 173, 341.
Mount Bora: 121, 172, 269, 326.
Miami: 95, 99, 103, 106, 115, 120, 121,
122, 123, 125, 126, 136, 146, 147, 148,
149, 150, 153, 161, 162, 168, 172, 174,
192, 199, 211, 214, 223, 224, 225, 242,
247, 250, 251, 253, 268, 293, 318, 324,
326, 337, 338, 341, 320.
Miami Beach: 168, 172, 247, 251, 268, 326.
Miami Shores: 268, 326.
Micanopy: 120, 173, 268, 326.
Middleburg: 173.
Midway: 120, 327.
Millville: 326.
Milton: 120, 271, 326.
Mims: 268, 326.
Mineral City: 210.
Minneola: 269, 326.
Mission City: 271, 326.
Molino: 173, 269, 326.
Mulberry: 120, 271, 326,
Mullet Key: 173.
N
Naples: 172, 206, 268, 326.
Naranja: 329.
New Augustine: 326.
Newberry: 268, 326.
Newport: 173.
New Port Richey: 172, 270, 326.
New Smyrna; 103, 121, 150, 152, 172, 173,
174, 271, 326.
Niceville: 326.
Nocatee: 326.
Nokomis: 172, 326.
Noma: 369, 326.
0
Oak Hill: 271, 326.
Oakland: 172, 270, 326.
Ocala: 103, 120, 121, 133, 172, 173, 174,
211, 251, 252, 253, 270, 318, 326, 337,
338.
Ocoee: 270, 326.
Odessa: 327.
Ojus: 269, 326.
Okahumpka: 326.
Okeechobee: 18, 120, 121, 173, 174, 237,
270, 318, 326.
Olustee: 120.
Olympia: 121, 172, 327.
Olympia Beach: 172.
Orange City: 173, 271, 326.
Orchard Park: 268, 326.
Orlando: 106, 109, 120, 121, 152, 168, 172,
173, 174, 175, 213, 250, 251, 270, 314,
315, 318, 326, 337, 338, 341.
Orlando Beach: 172.
Ormond: 225, 326.
Ortega: 326.
Ona: 269, 327.
Oneco: 206, 326.
Opalocka: 268, 326.
Osprey: 326.
Osteen: 271, 326.
Oviedo: 271, 326.
Oxford: 271, 326.
Ozona: 326.
P
Pablo Beach: 326.
Pahokee: 270, 326.
Palatka: 103, 120, 121, 153, 172, 250, 251,
271, 318, 326, 337.
Palm Bay: 268, 326.
Palm Beach: 120, 121, 148, 150, 152, 172,
203, 211, 224, 225, 270, 326.
Palm City: 326.
Palmdale: 48, 121.
Palma Sola: 326.
Palmetto: 109, 120, 172, 250, 270.
Panama City; 148, 150, 152, 172, 174, 268.


Paola: 327.
Parrish: 326.
Pass-a-Grille: 270, 326.
Pembroke: 327.
Penney Farms: 368, 326, 341.
Pensacola: 18, 89, 91, 94, 97, 102, 103, 106,
109, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 126, 144,
146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 162,
165, 168, 170, 172, 173, 174, 242, 251,
269, 318, 326, 337, 341.
Perrine: 326.
Perry: 271, 326.
Phosmico: 327.
Pierson: 203, 271.
Pinecastle: 270, 326.
Pinellas Park: 121, 173, 270, 326.
Plant City: 172, 173, 174, 269, 318, 326,
341.
Plymouth: 326.
Polk City: 271, 326.
Pomona: 271, 326.
Pompano: 268, 326.
Ponce de Leon: 269, 326.
Port Everglades: 150.
Port Inglis: 154.
Port Orange: 271, 326.
Port Sewall: 150, 152, 172, 270, 326.
Port St. Joe: 121, 148, 149, 152, 170, 269,
326.
Port Tampa: 147, 269, 326.
Princeton: 326.
Punta Blanca: 148.
Punta Gorda: 18, 120, 152, 153, 172, 173,
193, 224, 268, 308, 320, 324, 326.
Punta Rassa: 153.
Q
Quincy: 98, .119, 120, 172, 173, 269, 293,
294, 297, 318, 327.
R
Raiford: 252, 271, 327.
Raleigh: 327.
Reddick: 120, 270, 327.
Redland: 327.
Rio: 327.
Ritta: 173, 174.
River Junction: 269, 327.
Riviera: 210, 270, 327.
Rockledge: 172, 268, 327.
Rockwell: 173.
Royster: 327.
Rubonia: 327.
S
Safety Harbor: 270, 327.
Salerno: 270, 327.
Samoset: 270, 327.
Samsula: 204.
San Antonio: 120, 213, 327.
Sanderson: 120.
Sand Key: 174.
Sanford: 103, 120, 121, 153, 172, 173, 192,
205, 206, 271, 318, 324, 327, 337, 338,
341.
San Mateo: 271, 327.
Sarasota: 120, 148, 150, 152, 153, 167, 168,
172, 251, 271, 327.
Satsuma Heights: 173.
Scottsmoor: 268, 314, 327.
Sears: 327.
Sebastian: 269, 327.
Sebring: 121, 168, 172, 269, 327, 341.
Seffner: 327.
Seville: 271, 327.
Sneads: 269, 327, 341.
Sopchoppy' 341.
Sorrento: 327.
South Bay, 120.
South Jacksonville: 204, 205, 247, 269, 318,
South Miami: 268, 327.
Southport: 199.
Sparr: 327.
St. Andrews Bay: 153, 173, 327.
Starke: 56, 120, 258, 327.
St. Augustine: 97, 109, 121, 122, 150, 151,
172, 173, 174, 202, 230, 247, 250, 251,
252, 253, 271, 318, 327, 337, 338.
St. Cloud: 173, 199, 270, 327, 341,


VIII










INDEX: Community Mention (Continued)


St. Joseph: 153.
St. Marks: 97, 103, 122, 271, 327.
St. Marys: 324.
St. Petersburg: 103, 118, 119, 120, 121,
122, 147, 148, 151, 153, 154, 168, 172,
173, 213, 225, 242, 247, 251, 270, 318,
327, 337, 338.
Stuart: 121, 123, 168, 247, 251, 270, 327.
Sulphur Springs: 120, 327.
Summerfield: 341.
T
Taft: 270, 327.
Tallahassee: 75, 97, 103, 109, 120, 121, 124,
172, 173, 174, 247, 250, 251, 253, 270,
318, 327, 337, 338, 341.
Tampa: 84, 99, 102, 103, 110, 115, 118,
119, 120, 121, 122, 125, 126, 141, 146,
147, 148, 149, 151, 153, 168, 172, 173,
174, 188, 202, 226, 250, 251, 260, 261,
269, 279, 287, 293, 318, 327, 337, 338,
341.
Tampa Shores: 270, 327.
Tangerine: 327.
Tarpon Springs: 120, 172, 173, 174, 231,
270, 327.
Tavares: 172, 250, 269, 327.
Temple Terrace: 327.
Templeton: 327.
Terra Ceia: 327.
Tice: 327.
Titusville: 121, 124, 172, 174, 192, 202,
268, 327.
Torrey: 327.
Trenton: 269, 327, 341.
Trilby: 327.
U
Uceta: 338.
Umatilla: 250, 269, 327.
Useppa Island: 172.
V
Valrico: 327.
Valparaiso: 172, 270, 327.


Vamo: 327.
Valencia: 301.
Venice: 120, 154, 168, 172, 188, 271, 327.
Vernon: 271, 327.
Vero Beach: 121, 172, 247, 269, 327, 341.
W
Wabasso: 269, 327.
Waldo: 120, 204, 206, 268, 309, 327.
Warrington: 327.
Wauchula: 120, 269, 327.
Wausau: 173.
Waverly: 327.
Webster: 271, 327, 341.
Welaka: 237, 271, 327.
Wellborn: 271, 327.
West Lake Wales: 327.
West Palm Beach: 102, 110, 121, 172, 247,
251, 270, 318, 320, 327, 338, 341.
West Tampa: 318.
Wewahitchka: 269, 327, 341.
White City: 327.
Whitfield Estates: 327.
White Springs: 269, 327.
Wilbur: 327.
Wildwood: 103, 120, 271, 327.
Williston: 211, 270, 327, 341.
Wimauma: 269, 327.
Windermere: 327.
Winter Garden: 172, 270, 327.
Winter Haven: 121, 168, 172, 236, 237,
250, 271, 315, 327, 341.
Winter Park: 172, 250, 253, 270, 327.
Y
Yalaha: 213, 327.
Yankeetown: 270, 327.
Yulee: 327.
Z
Zellwood: 247, 327.
Zephyrhills: 270, 327.
Zolfo: 327.
Zolfo Springs: 269, 327.


ALPHABETICAL INDEX


A
Absentee ownership: 315.
Airports: 121.
Albizzia Lebbek: 46.
American Legion: 315.
Arms, Dr. B. L.: 243.
B
Bagasse: (see sugar): 198, 199.
Baker, Harry Lee: 53.
Bank resources: 316.
Beautification: 163, 315.
Beef, baby: 307.
Beinhart, E. G.: 295.
Blackmon, H. G.: 310.
Boat and shipbuilding:
Building: 29, 33, 38.
Cruising: 168.
Motorboats, licensed: 165.
Brand, Edward A.: 189.
Bulbs: 201.
Bureau of Railway Economics: 286.
Burwell, Grace: 341.
C
Canning: 25, 33, 37.
Cattle industry: 306.
Cellulose: 41.
Celotex (see sugar): 42, 198, 199.
Chemistry and Research: 41.
Christensen, Dr. B. V.: 17&.
Citrus canker eradication: 304.
Citrus fruits: 249, 277-9, 298.
Colonization: 313.
Communications: 159.
Concrete: 37, 224, 226.
Cook, Arthur E.: 258.
Concannon, C. C.: 309.
Co-operation; 314,


Corpening, H. C.: 341.
Crates, boxes and barrels: 29, 36, 72, 81.
Cullen, Elizabeth 0.: 97.
D
Dacy, G. H.: 184.
Diatomaceous earth: 212.
Drainage: 44, 62, 156, 327, 329.
Dry Docks: 32.
Dublin, Dr. L. I.: 241.
Duval, Governor W. P.: 293.
Dupuy, Wm. A.: 275, 298.
Dunham Report: 64.
E
Education:
Industrial chemistry: 256.
1 ocational: 252, 338, 340.
Electric power: 318, 320, 322, 325.
Electricity, places using: 325.
Fxpress shipments: 286, 287.
F
Federal Government: 113, 123, 124, 153,
162, 288, 337.
Fertilizer: 31, 32, 37, 40, 42, 211, 214, 248,
258, 283, 291.
Field Crops introduced: 209.
Fire, forest: 49, 53, 54, 55, 57.
Conrol costs and protection: 57, 63, 76,
77, 88, 95.
Prevention: 306.
Fisheries and sea products:
Commercial fisheries, number: 25.
Canning, clams, shrimp, oysters, turtles:
24, 27, 231.
Florida fish: 163, 226, 227.
Florida A & M College: 338, 341.
Florida Power Corporation: 324, 325.
Florida Power & Light Co.: 324, 325,


.___ ,___ _1_ ~










INDEX: Alphabetical (Continued)


Florida Public Service Co.: 324, 325.
Forest products: 7.
Cut-over lands: 67.
Distribution, domestic: 68.
Dunham Report. 64.
Future production: 67.
In general: 49.
Low grade lumber utilization: 73.
Lumber for railroads: 83.
Lumber production statistics: 50, 51.
Lumber products, etc., 36.
Pine shipments: 41.
Pine oil manufacturing: 32.
Pine timber potentialities: 57.
Profitable timber growing: 53.
Reforestation: 49, 56.
Rosin sizing: 32.
Second growth timber: 69.
Timber consumption: 67, 83
Timber for mines: 81;
Timtber for fuel and building: 86.
Using small growth: 72.
Wood utilization industries: 23, 28, 29,
33.
Hardwood: 56.
Freeze effect: 301.
Furniture: 29, 36, 95.
G
Garden clubs: 315.
Gardner, Henry A.: 184.
Gardner, I.: 297.
Gorrie, Dr. John: 320.
Griffin, J. A.: 316.
Grapes: 279, 285, 309.
Gregory, Geo. B.: 296.
Gulf Power Co.: 325.
H
Health (see tourist and climatic values):
161 to 176 and 241 to 247.
Holley, C. O.: 338.
Honey: 24, 310.
Howe, Harrison E.: 40.
I
Income and other federal taxes: 336.
Industries: 25,-!', 29, 31, 32, 220, 319, 330.
Classified: 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33.
Statistics: 38.
Ranked by importance: 39.
Vegetables, undeveloped: 44.
Insurance data: 17.
L
Leather, hides, etc.: 32, 81. 178, 189, 190,
191, 192, 193.
Lumber (see forest products)
M
Manufacturing: 8, 21, 34.
Marketing: 8, 28, 96, 106, 272, 275, 279.
Marks, H. A.: 288.
Medicinal plants: 178, 181, 183.
Miles, C. M.: 339.
Mills: 25, 29, 65, 67, 80, 85.
Minerals: 30, 37, 210, 211, 213, 215, 220,
222, 223, 224.
Mosquito control: 245, 247.
Municipalities: 267, 268, 328, 329.
Munroe Mark W.: 295.
Murrell, G. E.: 201.
N
Naval stores: 29, 32, 36, 41, 49, 54, 55, 56,
57, 59, 62, 71, 74, 76, 78, 86, 87, 88,
89, 91, 95, 258.
Newell, Dr. Wilmon: 303.
Nurseries: 23, 27, 178, 201, 207, 208, 303.
O
Oil wells tested in Florida: 336.
Ormerod, Geo. A.: 238.
Oxholm, Axel H.: 69.
Oysters: 24, 229, 230.
P
Papyrus (see paper): 46.
Payne, Henry Mace: 210.
Peat (see minerals and their uses) : 42,
214, 221.
Phosphates: 31, 40, 147, 212, 215, 219,
220.


Pine (see forest products) : 32, 41, 50, 51,
53, 56, 57, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 68, 76,
79, 81, 82, 83, 85, 87, 91, 94, 95, 258.
Plant quarantine: 305.
Plants, new introduction: 306.
Pledger, J. Hinton: 248.
Population:
By counties: 14.
Conditions: 13.
Forecast: 10.
Printing and publishing: 23, 26, 27, 37.
R
Radcliffe, Lewis: 227.
Railroads (see transportation and com-
merce): 96.
Rainfall: 53, 173.
Research: 198, 199, 220, 223, 244, 256.
Rhodes, L. M.: 287.
Riparian rights: 330.
Royall, J. B.: 236.
S
Shaddock, Capt.: 300.
Smith, Ernest N.: 108.
Spanish war veterans: 315.
Speh, C. F.: 87.
Stewart, Paul W.: 34.
State board of health: 241, 243, 244, 245,
246.
State marketing bureau: 283, 287, 308.
State plant board: 207, 241, 303, 308, 309,
310.
Stone & Webster: 325.
Sugar: 24, 41, 42, 48, 178, 195, 201.
T
Taxes: 49, 55, 113, 114, 264.
Tench, J. H.: 334.
Tisdale, Dr,: 295.
Tobacco: 23, 27, 37, 217, 260, 261, 293,
294, 295, 297.
Tourist pleasures: 111, 162, 165, 167, 168,
170, 175, 176, 236, 328.
Transportation: 96, 97, 106, 121, 122.
Tung oil trees: 44, 178, 184, 186, 189, 209.
U
University of Florida: 13, 303.
V
Van Norman, Louis E.: 148.
Vegetables and food products: 270 to 287.
Beans: 211, 274, 287.
Cabbage: 275, 286, 287.
Canning and preserving: 37.
Carrots: 286.
Celery: 272, 286, 287.
Corn: 286.
Cucumbers: 274, 287.
Edible, classified: 23; unclassified, 24, 25.
Egg plant: 286.
Industries undeveloped: 44.
Inedible: 26, 27.
Lettuce: 279, 285, 286, 287.
Onions: 286.
Peas, green: 286, 287.
Peppers: 286, 287.
Potatoes, sweet: 279, 285, 286.
Potatoes, white: 274, 286, 287.
Romaine: 286.
Shaded growths: 291.
Shipments: 84, 280.
Tomatoes: 273, 279, 284, 286, 287.
Vegetables, introduced: 209, 286.
Vocational home economics: 341.
Vocational rehabilitation in Florida: 341.
W
Water resources: 18, 19, 20, 42, 318.
Williams, D. E.: 342.
Williams, J. C.: 306.
Williams, J. F. Jr.: 340
Williamson, G. F.: 184.
Wittig, G. F.: 322.
Woods, J. B.: 57.
Womens clubs: 315.
Y


Young, R. A.: 306.
Errata:
Page 20: Chumuckla Spgs.,
Co.)


(Santa Rosa


4,




-


17



A:


FLORIDA


An Advancing State


1907-1917-1927


AN INDUSTRIAL SURVEY


AUTHORIZED
BY THE LEGISLATURE OF 1927
AND CARRIED THROUGH
UNDER THE DIRECTION
OF
NATHAN MAYO
COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA


'.I


ISSUED IN 1928


I


9/7s'9
pG~6/ `
pa~M~e~-
d~y~7


- c ----~-- ----- -- I


Lt
I
~


---




















LETTER OF TRANSMISSION



To His EXCELLENCY,

HONORABLE JOHN W. MARTIN,

GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA.

SIR:
Herewith is transmitted to you the Industrial Survey of Florida,
ordered by the Legislature of 1927, per Senate Bill No. 440, Chapter
11811, approved by you June 6, 1927.

Respectfully,


NATHAN MAYO,

Commissioner of Agriculture.


June 6, 1928.











TABLE OF CONTENTS



Letter of Submission ...........-----------..........---------.......- .
General Introduction .......... .................... ................
Population Forecast ........ ............ -....... ...... .. ............
Florida as a Whole (8 articles) ..-......--..-.......-....-......
Manufacturing in Florida (4 articles) -----...----..........---- ........ .. .........
Major Industries, Undeveloped.... ...................----... ....
Tung Oil ................................-...... ............ ...... 44
Peanut Oil ............ ---................-... ...... ..............
Paper Materials ...-....................................
Syrups ..........---......----------.. .............
Rubber ------... -. - .. .... ... ..... --............. ---
Fibers ........--........ ....................... ...-......
Sugar ------.-- -- -. ........ .............. .. ...... ............... 48
Forest Products (16 articles)--------------------.................................
Transportation and Commerce (30 articles)...........--............ ...........
Drainage Districts --------------..----- --..... ---.....-----............
Communications by Mail and by Wire (3 articles)..............................
Tourist and Climatic Values (17 articles) ...--.--.......-....................
Industries, Based on Vegetation (6 articles)....-................ ................
Minerals (5 articles) ...-............................................. ............
Fisheries (4 articles)............................. .... ----
Human Factor in Florida (9 articles).............-..... ........---..........
Municipalities ......---------.......... ... ......... ...............
Marketing (9 articles).. ....----------.. ----............................... .............
Agricultural Features in General (12 articles) ................ ..- ......
County Details --....----.........- ...... .- ...................
Colonization --- .------.... .............. ............
Beautification ..............-----....................
Bank Resources ..-- ---.......................... ..............
Electric Power '(2 articles)---..-----........... ....-...........
Concluding Recommendations ---- ............... .- -.......
Appendix --- .......----- ----- ...-........-... ..................


ILLUSTRATIONS AND DIAGRAMS


Effect of Fire on Pine..................-......
State Road Map............-.......... .....
Turpentine and Rosin, Raw Material
Turpentine and Rosin, Finished Prod-
uct ..........................--- ...... .......
Tung Trees and fruit.........................
Sawmill in Florida .............................
Lumber Export Diagram ----------..---
Naval Stores Export Diagram---...........
Tamiami Trail.........................- ... ...
Jacksonville, City of..--......................
M iami, City of............................ ....
Key West Car Ferry to Cuba..............
Tampa, City of ....- ........-......-........
Pensacola, City of .------..................
Fishing in Florida.........................
Bok Singing Tower...........................


Sarasota, City of....................
Game, Map of Preserves, etc.........
Medicinal Plant Map..---.. ............
Sugar Movements, Cuba and U. S.......
Sugar Cane Growing in Everglades....
Suger Mill, Clewiston, Fla................
Sugar Factories and Refineries Chart
Phosphate Exports, 1926-27 .............
Fertilizer Industry Chart.............
A Spanish Mackerel Catch..................
Cigar Factory -- ....
Tarpon Fishing....... ............
Citrus Fruit Packing House...........
Citrus Distribution..................
Water Power Site........................
Electric Distribution...................
Transmission Lines..............................


4
7
10

21
44
184
44
46
47
47
48
195
49
96
156
159
161
178
210
226
241
267
272
290
310
313
315
316
318
327
332


=_~__~


I








4 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


LETTER OF SUBMISSION

Hon. Nathan Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture,
Tallahassee, Florida.

It is my privilege to place in your hands the manuscript arising from
the Industrial Survey.

The Legislature of 1927 ordered such a survey by the following act:

"AN ACT TO AUTHORIZE THE COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE TO CON-
DUCT AN INDUSTRIAL SURVEY OF THE STATE, TO EMPLOY SUCH ASSISTANTS
AS MAY BE NECESSARY TO CARRY ON THE WORK, AND TO MAKE APPROPRIA-
TION FOR SAME.
"BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA:
"Section 1. That the Commissioner of Agriculture be and is hereby empowered and
directed to conduct a comprehensive industrial survey of the state for the purpose of
ascertaining the kind, character and location of industries now in operation and the
opportunities for other industries of every kind and character that may be established
in the state, together with complete statistics regarding commerce, both by land and
water, and the opportunities for commercial expansion in the future, and to employ
such assistants as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act.
Section 2. That the Commissioner of Agriculture shall make report of said survey
to the governor within one year from the date of this Act, giving the results of the
finding and recommendations based thereon.
Section 3. That the sum of fifteen thousand ($15,000) dollars or as much thereof
as may be necessary, be and the same is hereby appropriated and set aside out of the
general inspection fund, not otherwise expended, created by Chapter 10,149, Acts of
1925, to carry out the provisions of this act."

ORIGINAL PURPOSE-After the Legislature had placed the responsibility
of the Industrial Survey on the Department of Agriculture you invited me
into conference with your permanent associates. When we came to con-
sider the law as set forth, we found that it could, if carried out exactly,
lead mainly to a mass of statistics; yet the idea regarding an Industrial
Survey which you presented in Miami in 1F26 had a broader purpose than
mere figures and was aimed at correcting the condition of the Florida mind
as affected by the unfortunate depression following the excitement which
ran through most of 1925 and a considerable portion of 1926. Therefore,
it was agreed that the small amount provided for the Industrial Survey-
ample if devoted solely to statistics collected by mail-should also be spent
in an endeavor to reach the whole Florida mind with a sense of the true
conditions and outlook of the state.

"INDUSTRIAL" DEFINED-You are reminded also that in the beginning
of the work in connection with the Industrial Survey a letter was sent by
you to editors, bankers and other leading men, asking if they approved of
applying the word "industrial" to those features of production in the state
that required capital and transportation to reach the consumer. The ver-
dict of your correspondents was practically unanimous. In the Industrial
Survey are, therefore, included details concerning large production of fruits
and vegetables, nuts, etc., thus interpreting "industrial" beyond the mean-
ing of "manufacturing."

HUMAN ELEMENT-You will find also that the report contains consider-
able material in reference to the human being as the most important con-
sideration when viewing the State as a whole; for without the human be-
ing, his education, ambition, work, and his temporary or permanent interest


~P^zl I I Brs~--i







LETTER OF SUBMISSION


in the state, Florida would at the present time have no meaning to itself
or to the nation. The report, therefore, covers the leading human interest 3
of Florida as expressed by cities, counties, schools, organization, marketing,
etc. These are'regarded as pertinent because they explain the progress that
has so far been made by Florida and are necessary to an understanding of
the future of Florida, as called for by the Act quoted above.

COMPARISONS AVOIDED-It was our understanding also that in the
preparation of the Industrial Survey we should avoid, as far as possible, any
comparison with other states-either favorable or unfavorable. Therefore,
you will find in the report as submitted little mention of other states. It
was felt that Florida, through knowledge of itself, should stand on its own
feet and use its own best judgment in relation to the changes and the ad-
vances that are possible in the future through a statesmanlike consideration
of such advantages or disadvantages as we have.

CONTRAST BY DECADES-We agreed that if we omitted practically all
statistics of 1925-1926 (which were abnormal) and compared the Florida
of 1907, 1917 and 1927, we should be able to prove to the people of Florida
that there has been a steady advance in many lines during the past 20 years
and that, therefore, we could count by inference upon a similar steady up-
ward progress in the years to come. Florida, as a whole, is progressing,
as these contrasted figures will show. Florida, as the home of human be-
ings, has weaknesses, of course; some of these will be mentioned, but
features of weakness cannot be corrected by mourning over the past of local
or even state-wide disappointment, or by waiting for others to come into
Florida to help us and to work for us.

PROOFS OF STRENGTH-There were submitted to you early in our dis-
cussions evidences that outside capital was still pouring into Florida along
lines of investment that for success must be based upon a coming develop-
ment of the state foreseen by these heavy investors. The data submitted
related particularly to railroad expansion, inter-connecting electrification,
the purchase of bonds for county and municipal improvements, the in-
creasing spread of telephone and telegraphic conveniences, and the large
amounts that were being invested in various port developments. It was also
shown to you that one of the great public utilities based its entire expen-
diture in Florida on a forecast that the population in Florida by 1940 would
be twice that of 1927-or about three million people.

ALL COUNTIES VISITED-With these facts before you, you authorized
me to visit each county in the state to secure local assistance in preparing
necessary statistics, but beyond that also to explain the truths of Florida
to as many citizens-men, women and children-as could be reached in
public meetings. On a low estimate nearly 100,000 people in every part
of the state heard those conditions affecting Florida which should encourage
them to turn back with better spirit to their own local efforts as influencing
the entire outlook of the state.

IN GENERAL-Because without our population no value would attach
to Florida, we have taken the opportunity to work out the parallel between
human, plant and animal life. The purpose is to emphasize the importance
of preventive and curative methods as applied in all directions since the








FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


more favorable our climate is for all life, the contest of the human being
with destructive life necessarily becomes keener and calls for constant
vigilance.

Much material that cannot be included within the limits of this Survey,
but nevertheless essential to a complete understanding of Florida, will be
classified and turned over to the Department of Agriculture for future use.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS-It is impossible- to make a complete list of those
to whom the state is indebted for co-operation given in preparing the In-
dustrial Survey. This can and should be said: That in the divisions of your
department, and in all other offices of the state, and in practically every
county, enthusiastic aid has been given, as soon as it was understood that
the Industrial Survey was actually a stock-taking of Florida for the pur-
pose of showing what we have had, what we have done with our respon-
sibility, and what still lies ahead in the future of the state. Among organi-
zations of a state-wide character the same aid has been given without re-
serve. All branches of the Federal Government aided when requested. As
a result a volume of significance in relation to Florida's future is placed in
your hands for submission to Governor John W. Martin.

However, I ask the privilege of naming one man without whose patient
and continuous cooperation the work could not have been completed. I re-
fer to Forrest H. Johnson, who traveled with me probably 20,000 miles
hither and yon over Florida, and who specifically assumed the task of gather-
ing county statistics. His assistance has been invaluable.

GROSVENOR DAWE.

June 6, 1927.



20





01,4

1


!2
W ~
Lr (0


1921 1924

FIRE'S EFFECTS ON PINE GROWTH







INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER 7


GENERAL INTRODUCTION
This volume represents a sincere endeavor within the limit of time
granted and of the appropriation made, to help Floridians know Florida
with its advantages and its present weaknesses.
It is a "stock-taking"; looking over our shelves for what we have to
sell or what we are running out of, or how we ought to "window-dress"
for better results. The explanation why contributed articles are largely
from men living outside Florida is that no suspicion of special pleading
for Florida may be suspected and thus hinder belief.
1907-1927-One of the reasons for selecting the year 1907 for comparison
with the present was that, by 1907 general knowledge of the victory over
yellow fever had covered the United States. Prior to that time in mid-
summer and early autumn there had been throughout all the Southern
states, and even in the Northern states, a feeling of unrest in relation to
this dangerous disease. Since the brilliant work of Drs. Reed, Agramonte,
Carroll and Lazear in Cuba in 1898 and our own Dr. J. Y. Porter here in
Florida, there is now no cause for any fear of a disease that frequently
paralyzed effort in tropical and sub-tropical areas, afflicted with one of the
many species of mosquito. The advancing South, including Florida, has
moved forward greatly in this century, because health and energy are as
sure here as anywhere within the United States.
FOREST PRODUCTS-There is more emphasis on forest products in this
volume than on any other single topic. Our forests have been our strength
and now must be managed or they will prove to be our weakness. Great
though we think we are, we produce only one-thirty-sixth of the lumber
cut of the nation.
The most important single problem in Florida is to make the many
millions of acres of cut-over land produce for each owner a net income, at
the very least, of $1.00 per acre per year. Such a return would enable
him to keep up taxes on cut-over acreage and at the same time secure for
himself some return on the original investment. It cannot be done except
by study and application of sound principles. If not done, this acreage,
burned over and neglected, and annually increasing, is a mill stone around
the neck of the state-a liability instead of an asset.
The fate of the major portion of the state is involved in the attitude
of mind of a minority of the people; for the greater number of our forest
fires are started by rural dwellers. These fires are the most destructive
element in the state and are a constant drain upon its present and future
wealth. It will be years before there are three million acres in cultivation
in Florida. This leaves over thirty million acres of forest, prairie and
muck or peat lands that must be as sacredly regarded by the rural public
as if each acre personally belonged to someone who, for selfish reasons,
wished to make that acre productive. Burned areas leave dead and black-
ened trunks, reduce the productivity of turpentine operations, kill millions
of seedlings, produce stunted growth in surviving trees, destroy fledgling
birds, and consume soil and muck that has been brought into existence
by Nature's long effort.
Important information in relation to cut-over timber land will be
gained by reading the articles of Harry Lee Baker and Axel H. Oxholm.
Both these articles are filled with encouraging thought, but both stress the


MINE-- __








FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


future of the state as dependent upon the prevention of forest fires. Mr.
Baker shows that profits are possible, and Mr. Oxholm shows how to make
fuller use of what we have, by improving saw-milling and merchandising.
The future of our important naval stores industry is also intimately
connected with this presentation of our timber acreage. Naval stores and
lumbering must be in harmony; the first scientifically extracted will make
the second safe.

AGRICULTURE-It may be distasteful to hear the truth, which is that
without a working knowledge of the chemistry of soils, of plant and animal
life, the farmers of Florida, the same as many living on other cultivated
areas of the world, will find themselves out-distanced in striving for success.
Because of the diversity of crops and the over-lapping of seasons of culti-
vation there is greater need for scientific agriculture in Florida than in
many other of the states. Therefore attention is called to the statement
appearing in this report pointing out the disturbing fact that among the
2,075 winter students at the University of Florida, only 133 this year
attended the College of Agriculture. This is a very disproportionate num-
ber in view of the constant statements in the press and elsewhere that
agriculture is the permanent basis of Florida's greatness. (See Appendix,
for letter by Dr. Wilmon Newell).
The scientific day is doubtless approaching when every farmer will
realize that the destruction of any vegetation by fire on the surface of his
fields is robbing the field. In this matter Florida has for a long time been
committing slow suicide. Some of the remarkable results secured by Dr.
J. Petersen on his mulched groves in the Redlands District show this.
Attention is also drawn to the phosphate article written by Harry C.
Butcher, and particularly to the last paragraph, showing that chemical re-
search will make our phosphate riches increasingly valuable to the state.
In a general way it may be repeated that chemistry and research will affect
the entire future outlook of the state.

MARKETING-In the volume are various analyses in relation to market-
ing, proving that Florida has yet much to learn in the direction of suc-
cessful distribution of its products. The analytical tables regarding the
distribution of sweet potatoes, lettuce, grapes, cantaloupes, tomatoes and
watermelons indicate that many important cities of the United States are
not reached at all and cannot be reached satisfactorily until the growers
along all lines work together co-operatively, in selling at least.
Close and persistent organization will become more necessary as Florida
strives to increase its output of fruits and vegetables. Only thus will it
be possible for all parts of the state to understand exactly the competi-
tion with which we are confronted. Even Florida itself is frequently short
on what is produced within it abundantly; this is defective distribution.

MANUFACTURING-Time will show the significance of 1927 in our manu-
facturing history. To that year belongs the beginning of cement manu-
facturing, the spread of electric power for industries and the use of No. 0
hacks for turpentining, which will prolong the life of the tree for turpen-
tine and timber. An analysis of our manufacturing industries shows that
we are as yet only slightly developed; for many lines of production, such
as baking and beverages, are not more than for local consumption and
therefore do not bring us into the industrial calculations of the United


~111 -


Ell"







INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER 9

States. There are some notable exceptions-cement, naval stores, wood
products of all kinds, canned grapefruit and juices, canned clams, oysters
and fish, syrup and tobacco. Many new lines of miscellaneous manufacture
are opening up, and the outlook is good for an increase because of the
availability of electric power and of amended rates for transportation.
Sugar from Florida will begin to reach national influence this year.
It can be truly said that with preparation of mind for work scientifi-
cally applied, there is an important industrial future for Florida-not only
in products manufactured here for our uses and for Northern states, but
also in products to be exported to the world by means of our very unusual
port facilities.
OUR CHALLENGE-Careful consideration of the various parts of the
following report will show that Florida has in it a splendid challenge to the
best thought of the present generation now controlling affairs, and to the
youth now being prepared to take the place of these leaders. The challenge
put in the following way shows its size: Fewer than one million and a half
acres are now under cultivation for fruits, truck and general farming.
This means that, from the viewpoint of the future, 96% of the entire
Florida area must be carefully considered as to permanently profitable
uses. Applied science and hard work lie ahead.
A second important thing that we need to realize is that Florida in
\ extent alone is a tremendous state-it is larger by 9,000 square miles than
the empire state of New York, yet on the basis of the 1927 estimate of
1,363,000 people it has only one inhabitant to every twenty-five acres,
notwithstanding the large populations gathered at Miami, Jacksonville,
Tampa, Pensacola, Orlando and other important points. It is still a pioneer
state.
The third thing to realize is that this vast state is a water-front state
and is destined to be in contact with the ports of the world, after helping
meet the needs of the nation in fruits, vegetables, forest products and manu-
factured articles. (See article on Exports and Imports related to regions
south of us; our eyes will be opened).
To understand Florida. involves a large view of personal responsibility
for its betterment by each of us where we are, so that the state may pro-
gress; for nothing of value arises from solitary endeavor-we live only as
we live with others. We must remember that Florida in past years has
grown by external forces-the needs of the nation and the world. Rail-
ways, steamships and other forms of communication have been possible
only through external influences. Bell and others made the telephone for
us; Edison and others the electric light; Bessemer and others, our steel;
Disston, our recovery from an empty exchequer; Plant and Flagler and
Warfield and Walters, our railways; Ford and others, our vehicular speed;
Fulton and others, our steamers; Morse and others, our telegraph. Much
have we received and little have we yet given through inherent creative
ability except in fruit and vegetable development. However, the future
is bright if we will but lift up our eyes and move forward. There is a
regenerative power in frankly facing an obligation.
GROWING UP-When we become men we put away childish things. For
More than three generations Florida has suffered much by reason of un-
stinted and unreasoning praise. Words of caution or warning have been
distasteful. We have been told that our resources are limitless-(they

6



.--=:: .-, ---^ .__ ..-,-^_ ..-; ; ~ \ ^~ .. .-cr-a-F








10 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

are not); that our entire peninsula is a thing of perennial beauty-(it is
not, when we burn over millions of acres); that we are capable of self-
support even if cut off from all other states. These are misleading ideas
and have prompted the feeling that we were favored above all and that
good things would come to us without effort directed by good sense, in-
dividual and collective. We have lost sight of the fact that forty-seven
other states-not to mention the rest of the world-have their relation
to us; and without them, their needs and their interchanges with us we
should perish in our potential plenty-in fact, we should have no plenty;
as plenty comes from demand for what we can produce and market suc-
cessfully, and not from self-admiration.

SUMMING UP-In this volume decreed by the Legislature of 1927 as an
Industrial Survey, tables of figures are used to illustrate the truth of the
article to which they are related rather than grouped indigestibly as an
appendix. All leading features of production in Florida-mineral, forest,
animal and cultivated vegetation, and all features of progress-have been
brought together. The purpose has been to provide for Florida a fair
foundation upon which to stand and face the future. We have material
for a book twice the size of this; however, such a volume as it is should
increase faith and determination in Florida. By hard work Florida will
be greater in the years ahead. Florida the state will go on-so will hu-
manity. Our importance as citizens is measured solely by our devotion
to principles of material and moral progress. The effort of the individual
can count but little; the efforts of a people count for much.



POPULATION FORECAST OF FLORIDA BY
GEOGRAPHICAL SECTIONS

West Florida 1900 1910 1920 1925 1930 1940
Population.................. 183,180 238,902 266,149 273,017 295,500 341,500
Per Cent Increase-..... 30.4 11.4 2.6 6.2 15.5 ......
Per Cent 6f State....... 34.7 31.8 27.5 21.1 15.0 10.9
Density..................... 12.6 16.7 18.4 18.9 20.4 23.6
East Florida
Population ................199,419 256,727 288,227 339,644 408,000 560,000
Per Cent Increase...... 28.7 12.2 17.9 11.0 37.2 ...-
Per Cent of State....... 37.7 34.1 29.8 26.1 21.2 17.9
Density....................- 18.0 23.2 26.1 30.6 36.8 50.6
Middle Florida
Population ................. 107,202 183,798 264,298 414,329 677,000 1,140,000
Per Cent Increase..... 71.4 43.7 56.8 63.1 68.4 -- ..
Per Cent of State...... 20.3 24.4 27.3 32.0 35.1 36.5
Density..................- .. 9.3 15.9 23.0 36.0 58.7 99.0
South Florida
Population................ 36,742 73,192 149,796 270,276 553,000 1,085,000
Per Cent Increase..... 89.0 105.0 80.0 105.0 96.0 ...............
Per Cent of State....... 7.3 9.7 15.4 20.8 28.7 34.9
Density.......... ...... 2.2 4.1 8.3 15.2 31.0 60.9
STATE
Population............... 528,543 752,619 968,470 1,297,266 1,933,500 3,126,500
Per Cent Increase... 42.0 29.0 33.9 46.6 61,7 ...
Density.................... 9.0 12.3 16.5 22.1 32.9 53.4
The above forecast was made before one of the National Public Utilities decided
on large expenditures in Florida.
The first percentage line relates to the total population of the next decade. The
second percentage line shows the relation of that part of the state to the whole popula-
tion. The fourth indicates density of population per square mile.
From what has been learned during journeys through West Florida, we are inclined
to set the figures higher for that part of the state. Electrification will bring there an
enlarged industrial population, at the leading city Pensacola particularly, and the char-
acter of industry in many cases will be large employers of labor. See article on "Power."






FLORIDA'S STATE ROADS





(SEE HIGHWAYS ARTICLE)
'
ut "












(SEE HIGHWAYS ARTICLE)


, ), I


-------;--- -- ---- ---" ~i-, ~,,,


~ .------ --- c-
-~----- - ---


II -----


; ~ ,~
S,~Z8~,







FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


FLORIDA AS A WHOLE

At the annual convention of the Realtors of Florida in Lake-
land, November 5, 1925, a Declaration for Florida was adopted and
made public, to a limited extent. This Declaration was aimed to
cover the main characteristics of Florida. It is included in this
volume for the purpose of producing the necessary condition of mind
which must prevail in the state-an affirmative attitude toward Florida
and its future.

A DECLARATION FOR FLORIDA
MADE BY THE FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF REAL ESTATE BOARDS
AT ITS CONVENTION IN LAKELAND, NOVEMBER 5th, 1925
Our country, being a sisterhood of sympathetic states, we, the Realtors
of Florida, rejoice in the superb development that has come to the nation
during the past century and a half; and we commend each state that through
the daring and vision of its people has made known to the world the attrac-
tions and resources that have justified the developments which now glorify
the varied parts of this great Union. Because of the mutual dependence
and joint interest of all, we ask the people of the United States to consider
certain definite affirmations which we make regarding Florida. We shall
express these without either exaggeration or boastfulness.
WE AFFIRM AND KNOW that the State of Florida has a longer coastline
associated with more indentations of bays, estuaries and rivers than any
other state in the Union.
WE AFFIRM AND KNOW that as the Atlantic Ocean lies on the east of
Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico on the south and west of Florida, these
tremendous bodies of water do so modify the climate as to render violent
extremes of temperature unusual.
WE AFFIRM AND KNOW that the most northerly line of Florida is further
south than the most northerly line of Mexico and that therefore the state
of Florida having an undulating surface but no mountain ranges, represents
an ideal place to realize the agricultural advantages and personal comforts
which come from a long, equable growing season.

WE AFFIRM AND KNOW that the high and firm-margined lakes of Florida
number many thousands and that these are well distributed over the state,
from Lake Okeechobee (the largest fresh water lake lying wholly within
any one of the states of the Union) around to Pensacola, and that these
lakes are a characteristic feature of the scenery and beauty of the state.
WE AFFIRM AND KNOW that the artesian water supply of Florida and
its countless springs, medicinal and otherwise, ranging in size from river
heads, like Wakulla Springs in Wakulla County, and Silver Springs in
Marion County, down to the rills of the hills, do guarantee for Florida a
fine naturally filtered water supply.

WE AFFIRM AND KNOW that the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf and the num-
erous rivers and lakes of the state contain a remarkable variety of fish
for sport and food.








FLORIDA AS A WHOLE 13

WE AFFIRM AND KNOW. that as the Florida waters are the winter home
of northern water fowl, and that as the forests still hold plentiful wild life,
both bird and animal, Florida is a mecca for sportsmen.

WE AFFIRM AND KNOW that the soil varieties of Florida are as remark-
able as the extent of the state itself, being favorable to early winter vege-
tables, to tropical and sub-tropical fruits and plants, and yet adaptable to
those general agricultural products which are usually considered to be the
chief heritage of the central and northwestern states of the Mississippi
Valley. Consequently we affirm and know that under modern systems of
cultivation men and women can secure, an agricultural income from com-
paratively small acreage in Florida.

WE AFFIRM AND KNOW that the mineral resources of Florida are suited
to the needs of the nation's agriculture, to the nation's program of building,
to highway construction and to many other uses yet to be evolved through 'in-
creasing industrial development.

WE AFFIRM AND KNOW that the educational system of Florida is pro-
gressive and expanding rapidly to meet the remarkable influx of a new
population. The University of Florida at Gainesville, and the Florida
State College for Women at Tallahassee, stand high* in the esteem of the
educational authorities of the nation.

WE AFFIRM AND KNOW that Florida by means of its State Highway
Department, is rapidly co-ordinating all features of highway development
in co-operating. counties at the same time that it is carrying through to
completion several preferential trunk lines, both with and without federal
aid.

WE AFFIRM AND KNOW that the state has carried forward many of its
great plans of internal improvement without incurring any bonded debt,
and that Florida as a state is therefore peculiar in its freedom from debt
and in the lightness of its general burden upon its citizens.

These affirmations and expressions of knowledge are set forth in order
to assure the people of all other states that Florida is not attempting to
detract from others but is simply desirous of making its contribution to
the greatest of the whole United States. Written by Grosvenor Dawe, 1925.

Onward from this general declaration regarding the physical, mental
and governmental facts of the state, the plan of the volume is to give
exhaustive attention to manufacturing, commerce by land and by sea, and
transportation. Many subjects of importance will be found omitted
because of the limit of the law and of the page capacity of this book.


FLORIDA'S POPULATION CONDITIONS

One of the sources of strength in Florida is that its population is so
mixed. In a sense it makes one think of Oklahoma where, under the in-
fluences between 1889 and 1914 Oklahoma's population became 2,000,000
men, women and children-in 25 years-from all parts of the Union, by
deliberate choice. They were therefore people with sufficient energy of
purpose to pull up stakes where they were and move to a new location.
This is true in relation to Florida. So large a proportion of its people


1 I -- ~L ` ----~;-;'--









14 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


POPULATION
Information from 1925 Report State Department of Agriculture

1910 1920 1925
Alachua .....................................-- .........-............ 34,305 31,689 ;2,584
Baker ...................................................................... 4 805 5,622 5,561
Bay .................... ........... .......... .............. ..-..... 11,407 11,873
Bradford ...............- ...........-.....---- .............-...----- 14,090 12,503 7,024
Brevard .................................................................. 4,717 8,505 12,841
Brow ard ..................................... ........................... ........ 5,135 14,242
Calhoun ................................................................. 7,465 8,775 11,365
Charlotte ..................------------....-....-........ -- ---...... -.--..... 3,390
Citrus----------------------6,731 5,220 5,374
Citrus ................................................................... 6,731 5,220 5,374
Clay ..............................--- -- -- - --- - --.... .. .. .------ 6,116 5,621 4,85 5
Collier .......-------- ................................-..-- ..----....-- ............. 1,256
Columbia ..........................--........-----....--...... 17,689 14,290 15,551
Dade ....................................................................... 11,933 42,753 111,352
D e Soto .................................................................. 14,200 25,434 8,061
Dixie ... ---......... ...-......... ...---....... ...- ...... ....-. ........ ..-... 4,236
Duval .......-.......-- ...................-- ..... .-- ........... 75,163 113,540 123,481
Escambia ................... .............. ........... ........----.. 38,039 49,386 43,457
Flagler ...........-...--..-......-- ............- ----.. ..-- -- .--..... 2,442 2,203
Franklin ................................... ........- .......-- 5,201 5,318 5,239
Gadsden -.............-............-...... ....-..--......-...-.. 22,198 23,539 24,935
*Gilchrist .
Glades ..........................- ... . .... ..- ......-- ... ........ 3,467
*Gulf ................................ .----------- ---- -- -
Hamilton .................................... .............. 11,825 9,873 9,904
H ardee ...................... ..... ......................... .... ................ 10,178
Hendry ........... ........ ........................... .....-- ....... ........ 1,111
Hernando ..................... ......... ................. 4,997 4,548 4,723
H highlands ................ .. .... - .... ...... ... ............... 6,752
Hillsborough ..........----------------------.......--------------............ 78,374 88,257 133,384
H olm es ....................... .................................. 11,557 12,850 12,422
*Indian River ................. ------- ... .
Jackson ........................................... .... ... ....... ---- 28,821 31,224 33,122
Jefferson ................ ..... ............................---. 17,210 14,502 13,827
Lafayette .-..-....... .... .............. ....... .. 6,710 6,242 4,694
Lake ...............------- .............. .........---------........... 9,509 12,744 18,870
Lee ...........~.~-...- ................- .... ................ 6,294 9,540 12,154
Leon ...................................................................... 19,427 18,059 xx21,305
Levy .................................................................- 10,361 9,921 10,636
Liberty .......................... ....................................... 4,700 5,006 4,849
Madison .............. --..........-........ -- ..-- ...- ....... 16,919 16,516 15,549
M anatee ......................................... .........--- ....-..... 9,550 18,712 23,056
M arion ................................................................... 26,941 23,968 27,152
*M artin ... ............ -... ----- .---- -
Monroe .. ---------------------------------------21,563 19,550 14,260
N assau ............................................. .................... 10,525 11,340 9,643
Okaloosa ................................ ----..-.--.--... .......-....... 9,360 9,793
Okeechobee ...................................................... ....... 2,132 4,163
Orange ....--............-...........- ............--- -----. 19,107 19,890 38,325
Osceola .................................................................. 5,507 7,195 10,755
Palm Beach ..................................... .. ......... 5,577 18,654 37,137
Pasco ................ ............................... ............---- 7,502 8,802 xxll,825
Pinellas .............................----.....----- ...---- ..-....- ........ 28,265 xx68,168
Polk --...-........-...-----------............ .................. ..... 24,148 38,661 xx79,053
Putnam ............................................. ................... 13,096 14,568 17,027
St. Johns .................-........-....------.... ....- 13,208 13,061 16,426
St. Lucie .......... ............................- .......-- ---- 4,057 7,886 11,778
Santa Rose ............................... -----.......--...... 14,897 13,670 14,599
Sarasota .................................- ........ ........... .. ...... 10,050
Seminole ................................... ......----------- -- .. ....... 10,986 14,738
SSumter ..........-.................-......----- ....-----... ...-- .... 6,696 7,851 7,916
Suwannee ............................................ ............ 18,603 19,789 16,205
Taylor ... ................................................................. 7,103 11,219 13,113
Union ...................................---------..- ..------------ ---.- -... 4,873
Volusia -- -............................................. ............. 16,510 23,374 40,165
W akulla ------.................................................... 4,802 5,129 5,811
Walton ............-..-- .....---- ..---------- ...-..-.-..- ...-- 16,460 12,119 13,664
Washington ............-------------- --...- -----..-- 16,403 11,828 10,420

Totals ..........................--------------------------.. 752,619 968,470 1,296,613
Federal estimate as of June 30, 1927 ..--..----------------- --------.................. 1,363,000

* Indicates County not organized at date of census.
xxSpecial state count, 1927.


were not born here that they serve to modify those tendencies to become
stabilized, where populations remain unchanged for a long period of time.
The original Floridians-1821 to 1850-were few in number. It may
be truly said that less than 100 years ago there was no Florida, in the


---~ I I~EBP~








POPULATION CONDITIONS 15

sense that we now understand it, and the comparatively few families that
originally moved into the state have been constantly in contact with new
arrivals, year after year and decade after decade, through the 107 years
which have elapsed since Florida became a territory.

To confirm this it is only necessary to remind our citizens that in the
year 1850 there were 87,445 people in the state of Florida. The increase
by.decades has been gradual, to 1900, when in fifty years we had grown to
528,542t largely by arrivals from old residences in different parts of the
United States.

NEW PURPOSES-It is interesting to note that the population in 1900 was
less than what is called the native-born population of the present time, which
Runs over 600,000. Through the decades, therefore, each Floridian has
been subject to attrition with new minds, new purposes, new darings, new
enterprises, and therefore has not a fixity of mind that resists all change.

The outlook in relation to population is encouraging. There is not the
narrowness of ideas which would be found in a population long rooted in
the state. Each new arrival has some definite idea as to why he is coming
to Florida, even if he is coming merely to spend the end of his days. Orig-
inal ideas, therefore, are welcome in the state and already show in some
of the details regarding manufacturing, under the general head of industries,
to which the reader is referred.

DOUBLE IN SIGHT-The new arrivals are more interested in the future
than in the past-though not unmindful of Florida's history-and will be
found by 1940 to have brought about an almost complete change in the
whole state, because, at that time on a fairly conservative basis, the popu-
lation of Florida will be twice what it is now. In other words, where we
Shave 600,000 native-born Floridians at the present time, we shall by 1940
probably have a population of more than three million; and the new ar-
rivals will be found in activities still undreamed of in many ways, but
mainly along industrial and productive lines.

OUR MELTING POT-According to the census of 1925, natives of Florida
numbered 664,628. Over 300,000 residents come from the states of Alabama,
Georgia, North and South Carolina, as follows:

Alabam a .................. ..... ..- ...- .... 63,185
Georgia ... ............... ........ -. .. 196,220\
North Carolina .................. ......... ... 19,943
South Carolina -... ....... ... .....- 40,414

319,762

Of the remaining states contributing to the population of Florida and
running over 10,000 are the following:

Illinois .........---..-...... -. .. ........ ... 15,930
Kentucky .............. ~........ .... .... 11,293
Indiana ...-.............-... . .. .......... 12,271
New York ............... ..... ....... ....- 23,401
Ohio .................-.. ... ....... .. 19,486
Pennsylvania ..................... ............. 17,224
Tennessee ....................... ... .- ...... 12,976


- ---
p~L_91~D~~~ --li; -~--1_;-_~__~ -_ ~.~F-1--~--i
L --I-L--------L---











16 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


ACRES IN CULTIVATION IN

County 1907
Alachua .......................................... ................................. 91,014
Baker .................................................. ..................... ......... 7,850
B ay rd ......................... .... ..................... .......... 1
Bradford 39,128
Brevard -. 4,154
Broward ........................................ ... ................ 4,154...
B r o w a r d .................................... ............................................ .. ........
Calhoun ......................................................................... 11,783
C h a rlo tte ..............................................................................
Citrus ........................................................4,393
C lay ......................................................................... .... 4 ,4 2 1
C o llier .............................................................. ...................
Columbia ........................................ ................................ 78,012
D ad e ............................... .... .................... .......................... 3 5 ,6 0 9
De Soto ......................................................... ...... .... 13,339
Dixie ............................................................................................................ 4,914
Duval .................................... .......................... 4,914
Escambia ............................................ .................. 6,926
F la g ler ................................................. ........................... ..................
Franklin .......................................... .. .......... 514
Gadsden .................................................... 43,904
G ilch rist .................................................. ................... ..................
G la d es .................. .............................................. ........ ..................
G u lf ............................................................................................. ..................
Gulf
Hamilton ............................................... ....................... 32,830
H a rd e e .................................................................. ... .... ................
Hendry ........... ........................... .........
Hernando ..................... .............................................. ... 6,582
Highlands ............................................................................ .................
Hillsboro ........................................................................ 19,101
Holmes ................................ ...................... ................ 28,479
Indian River ................................................... ............ 86,482
J a ck son ............................................................ ......................
Jefferson .............. .............. ... ...... .105,236
Lafayette ... .................................................................... 15,058
Lake ................................................ .... 15,622
Lee .................. ......... ......... .............. 5,368
Leon ............................................... 160,070
Levy .................................19,460
Liberty ............... ....................... ..................................... 3,683
M adison ..................... ............. ............. 144,595
M anatee ................................................................ ..... ... 8,720
M arion ............. ..................... 92,978
M a r tin ........................................................................ ........ ..... .......
M on roe .............................. ...................................................... 2 ,5 0 0
M onroe ............... .. ------ ----------------------------------- 2,500
N a ssa u .......................... ............................................................. 1 ,4 89
O k a lo o sa ............................................................................ ..................
Okeechobee .................................... ............................ ..........
Orange ............ 16,762
Osceola ... ..................... ........... ........................ ... 2,570
Palm Beach ........................................................ .. ..........
Pasco .................................................... 12,321
Pinellas ......... ........... ............................ .................
Polk ..................................................... ................. 15,603
Putnam ......................................................................... 8,594
St. Johns ......... ..... ............................................... 4,522
St. Lucie ........................... ..................................... .. 3,244
Santa Rosa ................................................................... 3,579
S a ra so ta ............................................................................... .................
Seminole ...... ............ ...... ......................... ..............
Sumter .................................................... .. ................... 15,531
Suwannee ............................. .............. .............. 60,755
Taylor ............ ..... ............................ ......... 3,473
Union ............ -
Volusia .................................... ................................ 8,058
W akulla ...... ... ........... ............ .. ...................... 18,560
W alton ...... ..... ............ ............................ 8,208
W ashington ....................................... ................. 45,420

.Totals ..................................................... ............ 1,320,964


FLORIDA
1917
123,351
19,781
3,909
59,413
1,572
13,300
31,662

8,045
8,875

83,969
9,751
34,468

6,740
20,778
5,513
462
46,572


63,597

8,625

28,617
59,899
155,046

76,086
58,818
6,136
2,994
92,653
39,381
7,952
73,334
11,918
92,199
185
5,930
40,712
30,085
11,206
2,034
27,213
15,345
1,652
14,739
17,008
36,115
4,239
22,761
8,255

88,753
15,275
12,301
18,235
30,562
30,769

1,636,983


1927
61,994
11,110
5-622
13,886
10,271
5,111
16,032
1,612
5,778
8,380
.. *
69,989
59,312
4,731
1,941
3,930
15,372
4,201
22
43,555
9,601

2,333
31,552
16,326

6,774
16,680
33,467
45,027
2,047
163,590
69,003
11,502
14,618
13,171
37,740
35,190
3,930
54,739
14,268
46,815
3,363

5,068
22,358
1,488
13,257
4,547
10,835
5,158
13,069
10,939
12,671
11,754
3,866
33,027
4,385
13,020
18,235
40,378
2,066
16,890
25,050
7,158
18,598
23,850

1,440,452


Certain marked reductions in acreage are due to the creation of new counties from
parts of earlier ones.
* In some cases, returns were not made. Table based on agricultural enumeration.



The balance of the states are all represented in Florida, beginning with
Massachusetts, 9,525, and ranging on down to Nevada with only 62.

The surprising feature of the 1925 population of the State of Florida
is it had 60,556 born outside of the United States. The Bahama Islands
contributed 11,219, Canada, 6,585; Cuba, 6,700; England, 5,451; Germany,





--i
C-.








INSURANCE FIGURES 17

3,979; Italy, 4,780; Spain, 4,360. The countries represented in our foreign
born population are Africa, Alaska, Austria, Australia, the Bahamas, Bel-
gium, Bohemia, Canada, Central America, Cuba, Denmark, England, East
Indies, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holland, Iceland, Ireland, India,
Italy, Mexico, Middle Europe, Norway, Panama, Portugal, Palestine, Poland,
Rumania, Russia, Scotland, South America, Spain, Syria, Switzerland,
Sweden, Turkey, West Indies. Even the oceans contribute to our popula-
tion, for it is recorded that 18 of our citizens were born at sea.
Part of the future movement to Florida will be explained by the doub-
ling of national population before 1978, and the need of each maturing
youth to find outlet for his activities or his special training, in competition
with the trained or untrained already here.
Part of Florida's increase in population will also come from the realiza-
tion of increasing thousands that the climate of Florida actually does
increase the expectancy of life in both summer and winter temperatures.
Part of the doubling of population, forecast to be within the limits
of Florida by 1940, will come from rapid manufacturing expansion. Part
from increasing agricultural production.




INSURANCE FIGURES
The following figures showing premiums by various classes of insur-
ance companies on business in the State of Florida for the years 1907,
1917 and 1927 respectively, are a safe measure of increases in population
and general financial strength.

Class 1907 1917 1927
Fire and Marine.............................. $2,238,946.98 $ 3,821,742.56 $15,742,797.28
Life .. .................................... 2,078,600.00 3,933,190.17 25,496,363.17
Miscellaneous ...................................... 253,866.85 913,529.39 7,702,958.38
Sick and Funeral Benefit.................... 316,927.72 774,479.42 893,610.62
Reciprocals --....-..................-...-...................... 141,709.63 396,862.60
Fraternal Benefit............................ .................... 807,886.78 1,184,920.05
Totals....................... ...................... $4,888,341.55 $10,392,537.95 $51,417,512.10

Prior to 1915, Reciprocals were not authorized to write insurance in
this state and no reports were required of Fraternal Benefit Societies, which
will explain the absence of figures for these classes of associations for 1907,
Sick and funeral benefit insurance is a form of insurance limited by
law to $250.00 death benefit on any one person and is written principally
amongst the negro population. Between 1917 and 1927 a number of the
larger sick and funeral benefit companies qualified as life insurance com-
panies, which will explain the relatively small increase in the business of
sick and funeral benefit companies as shown in 1927 over 1917.
Figures for 1927 are subject to minor changes upon a final audit of
the annual statements of insurance companies and associations filed with
the State Treasurer, of which there are more than 400, and the inclusion
of figures of several companies which have withdrawn from the state; but
the figures as shown above may be taken as correct for all practical pur-
poses. (Statistics compiled by A. H. Roberts, Assistant Insurance Com-
missioner).


- __ ___ :--- I m,- 4. 11 ___ "m.


----------- -- ---








i 18 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


TOTAL CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS
Five Years-1923 to 1927

The following figures were compiled by the F. W. Dodge Corporation
of New York and show that in the five years from 1923 to 1927, Florida
as a whole, placed construction contracts amounting to $890,557,900.
It is to be borne in mind that the Dodge Corporation does not include
residences costing less than $5,000.00. In the absence of building permits
or other forms of records in many of the smaller incorporated places in
Florida it was impossible to bring together the building records of 1907
and 1917 for the purpose of comparison with the conditions of the last
five years.

1923 1924 1925 1926 1927
January...... $ 5,995,500 $ 7,897,000 $ 7,474,100 $ 26,158,800 $ 15,606,100
February.... 3,312,300 6,758,900 15,194,300 26,441,400 13,255,900
March......... 5,153,200 6,196,400 13,368,800 34,049,700 16,489,900
April............ 3,888,500 9,880,200 13,515,200 25,954,700 8,356,000
May---.......... 10,927,500 11,535,900 29,559,300 21,328,200 10,343,800
June-..-...- ... 5,778,700 8,109,300 30,598,300 16,287,000 9,657,700
July............. 8,085,100 11,908,900 39,939,100 15,309,400 11,180,500
August........ 6,875,600 10,874,900 27,593,700 13,287,400 7,561,400
September... 7,426,300 12,011,200 < 51,671,100 15,030,700 9,094,500
October....... 5,582,500 11,692,900 39,189,600 19,215,300 7,296,100
November... 5,014,800 9,651,500 29,443,100 20,526,800 7,304,300
December.... 7,996,600 9,408,700 32,643,800 13,913,800 4,755,700
Total....... $76,036,600 $115,925,800 $330,190,400 $247,503,200 $120,901,900
Residential Public Works
Buildings and Utilities All Others
1923........................................ $ 36,475,800 $17,513,700 $22,047,100
1924-----......------------------. 51,751,900 30,777,300 33,396,600
1925........................................ 169,007,100 71,135,400 90,047,900
1926........................................ 88,397,200 67,073,700 92,032,300
1927........................................ 31,192,800 47,120,200 42,588,900



UNDERGROUND AND SURFACE WATERS
(Omitting Lakes)

For domestic, industrial and agricultural (irrigation) purposes, and
excepting the Keys that extend from the mainland south to Key West and
jii a portion of the extreme south end of the Peninsula, Florida is abundantly
I possessed of underground water.

ARTESIAN FLOW-Due to underground formation, artesian water is one
of the great riches of the state and obtainable over an enormous stretch
I of country. In West Florida, flowing wells can be secured along the Gulf
Coast from Pensacola eastward as far as the mouth of the Ochlockonee
River, in, places rising to a height of as much as 22 feet above sea level.
Along the East Coast from Fernandina to Ft. Lauderdale is found a flowing
well area that extends back from the coast line for a varying distance of
10 to 35 miles. From Punta Gorda to Okeechobee and along the north
shore of Lake Okeechobee, thence to the East Coast is an immense area
where artesian water is also found. Then a more or less narrow strip of
the same territory extends along the West Coast from Punta Gorda north
to the upper end of Pinellas County, while many smaller areas, especially
in the Peninsula section, are found. South of a line drawn across the state
from a point near Ft. Lauderdale to the mouth of Lostman's River artesian
water has not yet been found.
It is not an exaggeration to speak highly of this great natural gift


_I~~~~~~~~~~ -_ ~ _1_ _1








UNDERGROUND WATERS 19

to Florida. It solves in many places all difficulty of irrigating winter crops,
growing in the months of light rainfall. Some curious adaptations of power
from artesian wells were found in searching the state-household and farm
lighting by controlling the flow to run motors-operating vegetable cutters
-direct power in a garage-current for pumping other water to greater
heights.
The words "artesian water" do not necessarily imply that it rises to
the surface of the ground with force, but rather that it will rise in a well
above the depth to which the well was drilled.

RAIN WATER-The immediate source of potable water is the moisture
falling from the sky. The annual rainfall in Florida is abundant but.var-
iable in, amount, as will be seen by the weather tables printed under "Tour-
ist and Climatic Values." Except among the Keys at the south end of the
state the averages range from 53 to 59 inches. Falling rain is disposed
of in three ways-by evaporation, direct run-off, and absorption. The
amount which evaporates is unimportant in this consideration. It will be
seen that the supply of surface and absorbed water is renewed each year.
As long as Florida's needs are small,*compared with the present available
supply, and annual additions are made by bountiful rainfall, it is assumed
there is no water problem to be considered in relation to domestic, indus-
trial purposes, or irrigation. However, as increases occur in demand caused
by larger population, by industries using large supplies, and by the in-
creased needs of agriculture, a diminution in the stored supply underground
will probably begin to be felt.

SSPRINGS-The remarkable underground drainage in many parts of Florida
has given rise to many springs at places where streams emerge from sub-
terranean channels, sometimes to disappear again after a short surface
run. The springs of Florida vary from mere seeps to discharges which
give rise to creeks and in some cases rivers large enough to float good-
sized passenger and freight steamers. The best known of these is the
great Silver Springs in Marion County, pouring out a large stream of re-
markable clearness and beauty. Of probably equal volume is Wakulla
Spring in Wakulla County. Among other large springs in Florida is We-
kiwa Spring, the source of the river of the same name; Suwannee Sulphur
Spring near Suwannee; Blue Spring, near Juliette Station, in Marion Coun-
ty; Green Cove Spring, on the St. Johns River in Clay County; Itchatucknee
Spring, near Fort White in Columbia County; Poe Springs, near. High
SSprings, in Alachua County; Crystal River Springs in Citrus County, the
source of Crystal River; Weekiwachee Spring near Bayport, Hernando
County, and Newland Spring, near Falmouth in Suwannee County.

QUALITY OF WATER-Analyses from every county in the state
except two and representing 458 specimens, show the general suitability of
of Florida water for industrial use, for use in steam boilers, and for com-
mercial or home laundry work, and are found in "Water-Supply Paper
696-G, U. S. Geological Survey, 1928," which may be secured on applica-
tion to that source. The State Geologist and the State Chemist, both of
Tallahassee, have made many analyses of water from various portions of
the state, and their services are available in this connection to analyze
waters of the state. Waters in some particulars not suitable for drinking


II---~~ I=










20 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


on account of excessive mineral content are also described. Some Florida
waters are hard and would need softening for industries requiring soft
water.


MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES-Elsewhere in this volume appears a
list of municipalities having waterworks systems. Many analyses have
been made of such supplies by the State Departments-Geologist, Chemist
and Board of Health (headquarters in Jacksonville) from either of which
sources specific information may be secured. Jacksonville has artesian
supply exclusively. Some cities draw from springs directly and more will
do so. Waterworks in certain cities are perfectly equipped.


MINERAL WATERS OF FLORIDA-The mineral content varies as the
sub-surface formations vary; in some places water is found loaded with
certain minerals; in others, and even nearby, quite different mineral qual-
ities are found. This is peculiarly so at Panacea Springs in Wakulla
County.

The bottling and sale of mineral waters in Florida is a comparatively
undeveloped industry, amounting if 1925 to 1,680,895 gallons valued at
$151,366. Thirteen such industries reporting their sales to the State
Geologist in 1925 were in the following counties: Escambia, Taylor, Ham-
ilton, Duval, Pasco, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Manatee, Dade and St. Lucie.

Springs and wells with curative values or notable for purity are:


Blue Springs................................ M arion
Bracks Panacea Soft Water
Springs.......................... .... M anatee
Chumuckla Springs............... Escambia
Crystal Mineral Springs........... Duval
Crystal River Springs................. Citrus
Crystal Springs...................... .. Pasco
Deep Rock Springs...................... Manatee
Egret Springs........-...........--. St. Lucie
Elder Springs............................... Seminole
Elixir Mineral Springs............... Clay
Esperitu Santo Springs-......... Pinellas
Fenholloway Springs-................ Taylor
Flamingo Springs ............... Volusia
Good Hope Mineral Springs ........ Duval
Gra-Rock Mineral Waters.......... Dade
Green Cove Springs.................. Clay
Hampton Springs................ Taylor
Heilbronn Springs..................... Bradford
Itchatucknee Spring .................. Columbia
Kissengen Springs................ Polk


Manatee Springs.......................
Newland Spring.....................
Orange City Mineral Springs. -..
Palm Springs...........................
Peerless Springs.......................
Pipkins Mineral Well...............
Poe Spring.................................
Purity Springs...............-..........
Qui-Si-Sana................. ............
St. Nicholas Mineral Springs...
Silver Spring.............................
Su-No-Wa..........................-......
Suwannee Sulphur Spring........
Ultrafine Spring....................
Wakulla Spring.........................
Weekiwachee..... .................
Wekiwa Spring...........-............
White Ridge Water Company..
White Sulphur Springs............
Wizard Water Company...........
Worthington Springs...............


Manatee
Suwannee
Volusia
Seminole
Dade
Pinellas
Alachua
Hillsborough
Clay
Duval
Marion
Nassau
Suwannee
Dade
Wakulla
Hernando
Orange
St. Lucie
Hamilton
Putnam
Alachua


a ~_~




I 1


MANUFACTURING IN GENERAL


MANUFACTURING IN FLORIDA

By means of travel and correspondence there has been brought
together for the first time in its history the total of industries engaged
in actual manufacturing in Florida. The following pages are so
classified as to enable those interested in either location or product
to get at information desired. The lists of industries are substantially
correct.

MANUFACTURING CHANGE-Florida has not been a manufacturing
S state to any large extent because emphasis has been placed chiefly on get-
ting out the crude materials of the forest and mine, or caring for tourists.
Certain large cities have been until recently built on tourist expecta-
tions. However, under pressure of the rapidly increasing population manu-
facturing plants have begun to spread over the state; first, to meet local
needs, as in the case of bakeries, printing establishments, household sup-
plies, etc. The manufacturing situation until within a year or two was
having but slight effect upon the industrial total of the United States.
But as stated elsewhere, and repeated here for emphasis, the year 192'7
began to show an industrial or manufacturing revolution taking place in
Florida. In that year began the manufacture of cement; the inter-connect-
ing power system approached completion; sugar production based upon sci-
entific research came into sight; the method of hacking turpentine trees
was modified and improved on; gang saws became multiplied; and several
broad plans of rail transportation were carried through to completion.

WHAT WE HAVE-In two essentials to every manufacturing enterprise
anywhere Florida is well situated:
1. Power (electric) is available through a network of wires reached at a
distance of not over 20 miles from any point of importance in the state.
2. Transportation facilities in triple form are here;

a. PORTS-Florida's physical shape is such that the most distant
point in the state is not over 72 miles from salt water. It can therefore
be readily seen that no point in Florida is far from either deep ports as
existing at present, or as will be brought about by the creation of more
and better ports and inland canals. In fact by modern blasting and dredg-
ing water depth can be secured anywhere necessary along a protected coast.

b. RAIL transportation facilities are far in excess of present demands.
With a network of rails in Florida in practically every county, Florida's
rail facilities-already adequate, and capable of further expansion as
needed-are superb.

c. HIGHWAYS-Elsewhere in this volume are articles showing that
Florida's hard-surfaced highways take high rank among the states of the
Union in total mileage and permanency of construction. They render truck
hauling advantageous for many products.
Considering the availability of power and transportation at almost
every point in the state, factory locations may follow the modern trend of
avoiding congested city areas, and factory towns may be located at points







22 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE










MANUFACTURING IN GENERAL


1927 LIST OF FLORIDA INDUSTRIES AS CLASSIFIED

FOR THIS PUBLICATION ONLY

Number of
Group I. Edible Vegetable Products and Food and Kindred Products. Establishments
Miscellaneous, including 15 products.... ...... ........ .... ......... 55
Bakery products, bread, etc...--...-.......... .... -- ..----- -.. 507
Bottlers of beverages -- .... -----................. ...........-- .....-- 254
Candy and confectionery manufacturers ................................................................ 56
Coffee roasters .......................................... ---........... - --........ ............. 32
Dairies with 10 or more cows....... --- ................................................ -- 1,098
Commercial fisheries .-................... ... -............ .- -.- ....... 298
Fruit and vegetable preserving and canning ----................. 111
Grist mills-- --..............---.--.......... 140
Ice cream manufacturers... ---------.............. 149
Manufacturers of ice---... ........................ 18
Meat packing houses ....-- -- ..... .......... .............. ---- .-- 24

2,917
Group II. Inedible Vegetable Products (Except Wood and Textiles).
Miscellaneous, including three products-. --- ..-- ----- -.- 19
Tobacco manufacturers, cigars and cigarettes 6... ..................... .. '*05
Nurseries, general, commercial----------.. ......................... 275
Florists........--........................................---- --....................... .............. -- 110

709


Group III. Textile Products.
Miscellaneous, including four products.
Mattress manufacturers.....................
Moss, dried and cleaned...............
Tents, awnings and sails.................-..


Group IV. Printing and Publishing.
M miscellaneous, including one product ....................................................
Printers (job and book).............................. ----......... ...........
Newspapers and periodicals .... .......................
Daily new spapers ................................................-- ......................................................
Daily newspapers.............................................


Group V. Wood Utilization and Lumber Re-Manufacture.
Miscellaneous, including nine products ....... ---..........................-.-
Cooperage, barrels, staves and hoops.........-........................---...........
Baskets, boxes, crates and veneer manufacturers... .......................
Furniture: (wooden, rattan and willow-ware) .......... ...........
Millwork (including cabinet work) ......--.................
Planing mills...- ...............----- ..........-- ..... ..
Sash, doors, blinds and windows .......... .... ......
Shingle mills....................................... .......... ....-- ...........
Sawm ills ............................................................................... .. ........
Bodies : (wagon, auto, truck).....- ... ...........--- .........
N aval stores .........................................-.......---................ -.... .......................................
Boat builders......... ............ ...........................
Ship yards ..........................................................................................................
M marine ways ..... ............. ... ..... .... .... ....


Group VI. Metal Working and Metal Products.
Miscellaneous, including sixteen products ..................
Foundries and machine shops.................-.................
Sheet metal, roofing and tinners.......... ...........


Group VII. Products of Mines and Quarries.
Miscellaneous, including six products .............. ---
Brick manufacturers.. .....................................
Clay and kaolin mining....................... ---......
Cement and concrete products-.........-.. .......---
Fertilizers, mixed .............................-----
Phosphate mining ..........................-.... .......
Limerock mining. .. ....................... .
Sand, gravel and shell-- ....... ......................
Septic tanks................................
Marble, stone and tile.......................................


Group VIII. Miscellaneous Industries not Classified, 52......................................

Grand Total....................... .................. ...........................................


26
47
5
94

172


25
279
244
43

568


..... ........ .... .... 25
.................................... 173
.... .........------ 192

390


14
51
16
233
42
29
69
56
23
104

637

265

7,517


- 1.~ II ::1


itt


............................................
................. -------------_--------
------- ----------------------- -----------
----- ------ I .............................
- ---------- ----------------------------
----------- ------------- ------ ......
.............................. ------------
.................. ...... __ ........... -
..................... ....... -_ ..........
- ------- -11_ ....................... -










24 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE



1927 FLORIDA INDUSTRIES

Group I. Edible Vegetable Products, and Food and Kindred Products.
Unclassified Miscellaneous Industries
Cheese: Dade, 2.
Macaroni: Hillsborough, 4.
Mayonnaise: Dade, 1; Lake, 1; Polk, 1; Volusia, 1; Hillsborough, 1.
Potato Chips: Dade, 1; Hillsborough, 1; Orange, 1; Pinellas, 1.
Vinegar: Hillsborough, 1.
Pickling: Jackson, 1.
Honey, bottled: Gulf, 1.
Peanut Products: Duval, 3; Gadsden, 1; Highlands, 1; Jackson, 5; Pinellas, 1.
Clams, canned: Collier, 2.
Shrimp, canned: Nassau, 9.
Oysters, canned: Franklin, 4; Nassau, 2.
Turtles, canned: Monroe, 1.
Mills, Sugar: Hendry, 1; Palm Beach, 1.
Mills, Rice (small) : Union, 2.
Mills, Cottonseed Oil: Duval, 1; Escambia, 1.
Total
Establishments
Total number unclassified industries, Group I, 15 ...................-.......-- 55
On following page, is given, by counties:
Bakery products, bread, etc.... .. e.... ..... ..... ............... ........................ 507
Bottlers of Beverages ........... ................. .. ........... ........ ........ 254
Candy and confectionery manufacturers ------.................. ......... 56
Coffee roasters-........................ ......................................- 32
Dairies (with ten or more cows)..............-.... .................. ..- 1,098
Comm ercial fisheries........................................ .... ....................................... ... 298
Fruit and vegetable preserving and canning --................ ........ ... 111
Grist m ills and corn m ills.......................................................... ................. 140
Ice cream manufacturers and creameries......................- -......................................... 154
Manufacturers of ice......----........ .. --.....-- -..-- 189
Meat packing houses-...-.................. 24
Grand Total-Group I, Edible Vegetable Products and Food and Kindred
Products-..................... ..... .. ......- ..... ...... 2,917
*Cane Syrup manufacturers are omitted from this list because there is not available an
enumeration which distinguishes between the hundreds of small farm mills and the
comparatively few larger power mills. However, Cane Syrup production is no incon-
siderable item, for in 1927 there were produced 1,805,337 gallons valued at $1,312,189.
Note from Senator Singletary of Marianna states that there are at least six large syrup
plants in the state.

considered most desirable for raw materials, for materials used in factory
treatment, and for markets.
To all of which may be added Florida's climate with mild open winters
and small demand for domestic fuel or thick clothing. Almost any indus-
try that can find the essentials for success in Florida may be established
or expanded here with more advantage than in states not so fortunately
situated with reference to the three essentials mentioned-power, trans-
portation by land or sea, and climate.

ANALYSIS NEEDED-Within the limits of this small volume, attention
can only be directed in a general way to industries which, already having
available power and transportation (with the added climatic advantages)
obviously appear able to find other essentials such as markets, raw ma-
terials and labor. We point however to the necessity of careful investiga-
tion and analysis before expanding present existing industries or initiating
new ones; for every prudent investor, considering the use of the informa-
tion submitted, must first make a careful analysis of his project to determine
whether the necessary factors for success are under his control. It is re-
grettable that in the past, many industries have been established which were
predestined to failure because such essentials were not properly weighed.
Because of this lack of "insurance" there are found scattered over this
state (as well as every other state) evidences of dead industries.
With these cautionary remarks and bearing in mind the almost limit-
less electric power recently provided, the unusual transportation facilities










MANUFACTURING IN GENERAL


Group I. Edible Vegetable Products, etc.


.35


Alachua .............. 8
Baker.................. .....
Bay---.................---. 4
Bradford ......... 1
Brevard............ 6
Broward.............. 12
xCalhoun............... 1
Charlotte.......... 2
Citrus...... ...... 3
Clay............... 2
Collier.. --...............
Columbia----............. 2
Dade.................... 61
DeSoto--......-..... 2
xDixie..............-..... 2
Duval...--...... 15
Escambia......-..... 8
Flagler....... 1
Franklin........ 2
xGadsden......... 1
xGilchrist -....... ....
Glades................. 1
Gulf..................... 2
xHamilton............ 2
Hardee.......... 2
xHendry............... 2
Hernando -..-. 1
Highlands- 5
Hillsborough. 57
xHolmes............... ....
Indian River........
Jackson......... .... 1
Jefferson........ 1
Lafayette.......... 2
Lake.-..-.......... 11
Lee............... 11
Leon.................... 4
Levy.................... 2
xLiberty............... ..
Madison............. 1
Manatee........- 9
Marion............ 6
xMartin-..-....- 1
Monroe........ 17
Nassau ........... 2
Okaloosa 1
xOkeechobee..-..- 2
Orange................ 18
xOsceola-........... 4
Palm Beach..... 46
Pasco -.......... 7
xPinellas.......... 60
Polk............... 32
Putnam............... 4
xSt. Johns............. 6
St. Lucie.............. 3
Santa Rosa .......... 2
xSarasota........ 11
Seminole............ 5.
Sumter ......7...... 7
xSuwannee........ 3
xTaylor................. 2
xUnion .... .........
Volusia............... 18
Wakulla..............
Walton-........... 1
xWashington....... 2

Totals......... 507


as





4

2 .... 1
1 .
3 ....
5
1 .

2 1 .
1 1

2
19 11 5

1
15 10 3
6 1 -1
2 ....

S 1 ....

1- ....
S 1 ....
2 .
3 1





12
16 7 12
...... .... ....
...... .... 1
5 1
1 .
2









I ---- --
2 ---. .---
5 .

3 .... 1
4 .... ....
4
1
1
6 .... ....
7 1 ....
2 -.... ....
2 .... 3
2 .... ....
1
2 ....
4 1 2
3 .... ....
10 1 1

12 6 ....
28 1
3 2 ....
5 .... ....
2 .... ....
3 .... ---
4 1 -
5 2 -
1
4 .... ....
3 .... ....
3

17 3 ....
..... --- ---
2
2 1 12

254 56 32


53
1
5
3
20
15

2
6
4


66
6

141
58
16

13

1
1
16

2
7
15
1
4
6
18

15
14
28


17
18
48
6
9
3

7
67
13
51
22
74
57
17
12
10
9
13
16
9
6
4
50

3
1

1,098


4 4
.... .. 1 ......
12 3 ... 2
.. 7 .
12 2 ...... 2

...... ..... 8 --
2 .... ..... 1

1 I
1 1 ......
S. . 3 2


9 12 1 20
I 1 2
2 --- ------
589 6 7
3 2 ...... 3
15 .. ... 1
--.. 1 10 1
.... .. . 1 ...
3 --- -. --



1 1 ..... 1.....
...... ...... 1 -
... 1 1
1 2 ..... 1
43 8 ..... 10
.... 2 --


.... 15 2
----- ...... 4 ....
... ...... ..... 3
3 4 ... 2
1 2 9 2
9 ...... 2 ....
3 ------ ----
2


7 8 1 4
3 3 2
6 ...... ..
6 .. ... .. .. .. .
5 1 -.
16 1
2 ...... 16 ......
2 -
4 --...... 7
2 -- ---- 3
11 2 ...... 7
4 2 ..-.... 2
10 10 ...... 14
1 11 2 15
8 .- -...... 1




5 3 ...... 2
...... .... ...... 1
6 1


..... .. 15 2
11 2
S....- 2

6 3 ..... 10
12 ..- 2
2 ... 11 1
.. 1 3 1

298 111 140 154


xWhere this mark is not shown, figures have been verified by Chambers of Commerce or
leading citizens of respective counties. Every county was given the opportunity to
verify.


4 ....







1 ---
3 2




1



15 3
1





4
1

1











17 5


2 .

5 ..
2 --
1
2


1 1
5 1

3 ....
1
1











10






1 --
2 ....

2
1
2























8
1






















189 24
189 24


_ ___1_ _~_








I
26 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

Group II. Vegetable Products, Inedible, Except Wood and Textiles.
Unclassified Miscellaneous Industries
Brooms: Columbia, 1; Dade, 2; Duval, 4; Flagler, 1; Hillsborough, 3.
Boxes, Paper: Orange, 1; Hillsborough, 1.
Palmetto Fiber and Brushes: Duval, 3; Levy, 1; Osceola, 1; Volusia, 1.
Total
Establishments
Total number unclassified industries, Group II, 3........ ................................ .. 19
On following page is given, by counties:
Tobacco and cigar manufacturers ................................... -- ...--.............-... 305**
N urseries, general ................................ -..... ... ........................... 275*
Florists .......-..... ............. .. ... .-........... 110
Grand Total-Group II, Inedible Vegetable Products, except wood and
textiles ................................................................................................... .... 709
*Additional nurseries, not general, but growing specialties, numbering 2,070, are not
shown herein; nor are bulb and fern growers.
**Only finished products manufactured are included; however, leaf curing and processing
as carried on in Gadsden and Madison Counties is an important industry, employing
an average of more than 1,000.


Group III. Textile Products.
Unclassified Miscellaneous Industries
Bags, Cloth: DeSoto, 1; Orange, 1.
Curtains: Pinellas, 1; Hillsborough, 1.
Rugs: Duval, 1.
Wearing Apparel: Dade, 4; Duval, 6; Highlands, 1; Hillsborough, 3; Lake, 1; Lee, 1;
Manatee, 1; Orange, 1; Palm Beach, 1; Polk, 1; Union, 1.
Total
Establishments
Total number unclassified industries, Group III, 4.......................................... 26
On following page is given, by counties:
M oss, dried and cleaned ........................................................................ .... ..... 5
M mattress manufacturers.......................... ........................................................ 47
Tents, awnings and sails................................................................................. .. 94
Grand total; Group III, textile products....................................................... *172
*Cotton gins numbering 62, and located in 20 counties, not being defined as belonging in
Group III will be found in Group VIII (Miscellaneous Industries).


Group IV. Printing (Job, Newspaper and Periodicals).
Unclassified Miscellaneous Industries
Photo-Engravers: Duval, 1; Hillsborough, 1; Pinellas, 1.
Total
Establishments
Total number unclassified industries Group IV, 2 ......................................- 2
On following page is given, by counties:
Commercial (or job) printing, not including newspapers or periodicals...... 279
Newspapers and periodicals (and incidentally, in most cases, commercial
or job printing.......................... ....................... ......................................... 244*
D aily new spapers.................................................................. ................................ 43
Grand total: Group IV, printing, (job, newspapers and periodicals)............ 568
*Daily newspapers included.

now existing, and the favorable climate conditions, there is hardly an item
in the following list of industries which does not suggest a proper expan-
sion for a Florida market, or a market in the sister states, or a foreign
market; or, where conditions do not justify expansion of the identical in-
dustry mentioned, then a higher degree of manufacture is suggested.
Under the influence of increased facilities in the state, there is in all
parts of the state a very proper desire to see manufacturing increase. A
correct location depends upon a complete analysis of the situation by the
party at interest, or by the industrial men of power companies, railroads
or Chambers of Commerce, seeking to place an industry.

CHANGED CONDITIONS-In the days of 50 years ago, it was thought
that the development of an industry depended upon raw materials, labor,
transportation, finance for distribution, and marketing, in the order named.
In the present day, with the enormous industrial expansion of the United








L__ ____





El______


MANUFACTURING IN GENERAL


Group II. Vegetable Products Inedible












Alachua .................. 1 3 3
Baker ....... ... .. ... 4
Bay ... .. 2 4






Bradford ............
Brevard ..... 3 2 2
Broward ... 7 2
Calhoun ................. .. 1
SCharlotte . ...... 1 2
Citrus ...................... 2 2
Bay kr----------.---- .... 2
Clrady rd .................... .... .. ..




Collier ............- ...- ..- 2
Columbia .............. 1... 7 2
Dade ............-..-.... 11 40 10
DeSaoto .--.......-...... 1 2 ..
xDixie -............ .. ... ..
Duval ...................... 23 7 10

Escambia ................ 2 5 7
Flagler ..- .... ............ .
Franklin .......... 1 1
xGadden ......... 1 1 .
xGilchrist -.-...... ....
Glades ................ .... 1
ulf .....................2 ....
DuxHamilton ................. 2 7 10
Hardeeam ................ 12 1
F lagler ----------- -- --- -






xaendry .............. 1
Hernando ...........- .. ....
Highlands ...........
Hillsborough ... 161 25 13
xHolmes .................. .... 2
Indian River .... 1 3 1
Jackson .......-......... ....
Jefferson ......-.... . 14
Lafayette ...........-- ... 12 1
akendry ....................... 2 4 1
Lee r o ........... 1......
Leon ro ... ..... .. 2 4 23
Levy ............. .. 1 .
xLiberty
Madison River --------- 3 1
Manatee .................. .... 3 1
M arion .................. 2 6 3
xM martin ....................... 1
Monroe 49 1 1
Nassau ........ 1 .. 1
Lee .................... 3 8 1








Okaloosa ....... ...... 2 3
xkeechobe ----------- -....
xliberty --------- -- --i --
M adison --------






Orante .................. 13
asiceola .................. 2
Palm Beach .... 1 9 5
Pasco ................. .... 4
Pinoella ... 6 7 11
aPolk .-...--. 9 23 5
OkPutnamloosa --...-.....--......... ---- 31
xSt. Johns ............ 8 2
O at Luie ................ 3
Santa osa ...... ....... .... 2
xSarasolm Beta ----........-- 1 9 5
Seminole .................. ----2 6
Sumter ........ ....
xPinellas ................ 6 7 11



oTaylor -...---......... 9 23 5.
Unionam-- .. ---................. 2 1 ....



VoluxSt. Josiahns ............. 8 26
Wakulla L ........-....... .- 1
SWalton .................. 3 -


Totalsor ...--............. 305**275 110
Totals ..~................ 305**275 110


[lGroup III. Textile Products Group IV. Printing







11 II Si bI




I 2 1 .... 2 8 2

2 23
S3 ...-

1 -2
3 7



-... .... .... ----
1





4 1 26 10 2
3 1

2 2 7 3 2
.... 3 ....




.-- 2
1 ... 3
1-- - -- --- 2 -

1 3 5
S 1 19 37 10
... 1 .


1 3
2



1 3





33 3
9
... .. ....

2 12


1 1

--- 1 1
2 2







S 47 94.
5 47 94


1 1
1 8

4 9
4 3 2
2 3 2
2 S
1 2


5 7 1
1 2 1
3 3 1
2 2

1 2
1 1
13 10 4
S 4 ....



1 4

1 1
4 4 2

-. 6 ---
2 4 --


1 1 --
1 2
2 3

279 244* 43


x Where this mark is not shown, figures have been verified by Chambers of Commerce or
leading citizens of the respective counties.
*Includes dailies.
** Does not include nurseries, not general, but growing specialties, numbering 2,070;
nor are bulb and fern growers shown.


SI- --









28 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

Group V. Wood Utilization and Lumber Re-Manufacture.
Unclassified Miscellaneous Industries
Boxes, Cigar: Franklin, 1; Hillsborough, 6: Monroe, 1; Pinellas, 1,
Baseball Bats: Hernando, 1.
Cedar Slats: Citrus, 1; Duval, 1.
Cross-Arms: Duval, 1.
Creosoting Plants: Alachua, 1; DeSoto, 1; Duval, 1; Escambia, 1.
Cypress Tanks: Putnam, 1.
Handles: Gadsden, 1; Polk, 1; Seminole, 1.
Ladders: Seminole, 1.
Laths: Volusia, 1.
Excelsior: Alachua, 1; Escambia, 1.
Total
Establishments
Total number unclassified industries, Group V, 10...............--. ...... 25
On following page is given, by counties:
Cooperage, (barrels, staves and hoops)-- --................................... 85
Baskets, boxes, crates and veneer manufacturers ............................. ............... 66
Furniture, (wooden, rattan and willow-ware)............................ .... 19
Millwork (including cabinet work) ..................................... ..-. ...... 174
Planing mills ....................... .................. 74
Sash, doors, blinds and windows ....-- .....- .. .... ..-- .- ......- 32
Shingle M ills ........... .~... ...........-................ ... 26
Saw m ills ....................................................... .......... ...... ...... 595*
Body-builders, (wagon, auto and truck)....-..-... ............... -........ 39
Naval stores, (turpentine and rosin) ............................................................... 602*
Boatbuilders -...- .. .. --- ...- ....- ....-.............. ... 7
Shipyards ....... -............ ........... .............. .....- ... 24
Marine ways .--......- ------ ............ ............. ........... -.. .. 25
Grand Total: Group V. Wood utilization and lumber re-manufacture.... 1,859
Included in these figures are a large number of movable plants, occupying temporary
locations only.


States, it is absolutely necessary for any proposed industry in Florida to
ascertain first if there is an outlet or market for what it will produce. To
make and not sell only chokes an enterprise, no matter how favorably
located.

MARKETS HERE-The first market for any industry in the state is the
Florida market. We are 1,363,000 people now. By 1940 it is estimated
we shall be 3,000,000. What are the requirements of our population?
How are those requirements being met? Could they be met in Florida?
If so, how and from what point? Where would raw material be secured?
What is the best location for distributing over the state? Every one of
these questions would have to be considered before either an outside in-
dustry would come here or a Florida man would venture on the establish-
ment of a new industry. The openings are here, but they have to be
studied out.

WIDER MARKETS-If industries are to be established in Florida that
are to supply other states, it again becomes a question of market first.
The same thing can be said if we think of manufacturing for distribu-
tion through the ports of Florida to the ports of the world. We must know
market possibilities, market changes and market trends. Just to illustrate:
We think of Argentina, in terms of 50 years ago, as a cattle country.
Within recent years, corn has been imported into the United States from
Argentina, when it would seem that the United States ought to be the pro-
ducer of corn for the world's extra needs.
Should we endeavor to reach a world market, or particularly the
market in South America, it needs close analysis. Other people have made
those analyses and are in that market. An illustration will suffice: Some
years ago the writer of this report summed up for the Department of
Commerce at Washington the consular reports on the paper trade of the




i I










MANUFACTURING IN GENERAL 29


Group V. Wood Utilization and Lumber Re-Manufacture.





Alachua 1 2 1 2 .... 1 15 2 18
-- -0 a


... 1 ..2 .... 3 ....0
aI 1 | 0 1 3 .1 |
A AQ > h a (

Alachua......... 1 2 .- 1 2 .... 1 15 2 18
Baker- 1- --- --.... .2... 3 .... 6
Bay.......-... 1 .. .... 4 3 1 2 7 .... 26 2 1 2
Bradford-....... 1 .4 .... 8
Brevard .......... .. ... 3 1 .. 8 .... 1 5
Broward -...... .... 2 .. .... ...... 1
xCalhoun... .. --- 1 .... 5 6 ... 17
Charlotte.--.... ... . .. ..... .. .... .... 3 5 1 1
Citrus-........... .... 2 -. 1 1 .. 6 .. 4 4 ...
Clay .....---.. -. I .... .... 2 ..- ..- 8 .... 3
Collier..... ... .... .... ...... .. .... .... 3
Columbia ....... 1 2 1 .... 11 ... 13 1
Dade- ..--.....- 1 7 ........ ...... 5 1 10 2 1
DeSoto.............. 2 1 ...... 2 2 ..... ...
xDixie-. ...... 3 .. .. ..... .. .... .. 3
Duval ........... 4 2 1 4 2 16 23 7 6 2
Escambia--.... 3 .... .... 3 .4 7 1 17 1
Flagler .. -. 3 .. ... ..... -- .-. 3 8 .
Franklin .... .... 1 2 1 ... 6 ... 11
xGadsden...- 1 2 ...... 1 .... .... 32 .... 5
xGilehrist....... 2 ...... 1-- .... .... 1 .... 31
Glades...... ... ...-.... .... .... 2 .... .. 2 .- - 1
Gulf......- .........- ............- ...... 1 .... 1 2 -.... 12
xHamilton......... 1 .... -... ... 1 .... 1 1 10 1 ...
Hardee ---...---- ..... 1 2 2 ... 10 -. 15
xHendry.. .......... .... .. .... .. -- 11 --.... ..
Hernando .... 1 1 .... .... 2 .... 1 .
Highlands ....... .... 5 .-.......- .... 7 .... 4 1
Hillsboro...... 1 1 4 11 .... 13 .... 16 .... 6 4 2
xHolmes............. ..... ..... ... ...... .... ---. 6 -... 6
Indian River.... .... .... 2 2 .... ... 1 1 1
Jackson.......... 1 1 1 2 .... 19 -- 23 .
Jefferson.......... 6 2 .... ...... .... 19 .... 4
Lafayette ........ 5 1 ...... ...... .. 5 .. 13
Lake ........ .... 1 ... 4 1 ... .... 20 .... 2 2
Lee ...... - ---- 21 ---- ---- ... 10 1 -. 6
Leon-......... 1 1 .... 2 4 1 ... 20 1- 13 ..
Levy-.... --. -... 3 ....--...... 13 1 11
xLiberty..... .. .... 1 .... 11
Madison........... 6 1 .... 1 2 12 13
Manatee........... .... 2 .... 3 1 -- -2 11 -- 6 1 1 1
Marion............. 1 7 .... 2 2 2 .... 24 1 12
xMartin.................... - ... ....-- ..... --- --- 2 ---- 3 1
Monroe... .... ... 3 .... .... ... 2 .. ...... 2 ... 2
Nassau............. 5 .... .... ...... 1 .... ... 7 13 2 .... 2
Okaloosa -....- ..... 1 1 3 11 .... 10 3
xOkeechobee -.... .... ... ..... 2 -- 1 1
Orange ............. .... 6 ....- 17 1 ........ 9 3 1
xOsceola ............ .... 3 .... 2 ..- 4 1 6
Palm Beach....... .... 2 15 3 .- 4 1 .... 3 4 2
Pasco .......-..-- ...... .... 1 1 .... ... 1 14 .... 5
xPinellas...... 1 1 1 12 ........... 7 2 3 2 4 2
Polk............ 2 2 8 5 .... ... 21 1 3 I 1
Putnam....... 6 2 .... 3 .... 1 15 9 1 .... 1
SxSt. Johns........ 3 .... .... 4 ...... .- 4 1 11 1
St. Lucie.......... 2 1 .... 1 1 1 ..... ..... 1
Santa Rosa... .....- 1 ...... --- 9 .... 11 1 1
xSarasota..... .. 1 ...... 1 --... .., 2 1 1 1
Seminole....- ...... 3 .. 5 6 1 ... 7 .. 2 2
Sumter................ 1 .... ..... ... ... 1 4-
xSuwannee...... 2 2 .... 1 2 ... 2 12
xTaylor...--- ..... .... .... ...... 6 ...... 10 .. 6
xUnion... .. 7 .... .... .... ... 1 10 .. 7
Volusia............ .. 1 -. 14 1 2 .... 20 2 7 3 2 .
Wakulla....... 2 ....- .--. 2 .- 1 12 .... 11 1 -
Walton............. 9 -.... ... 33 13 -
xWashington.. 1 1 .... 1 .... 1 7 1 11

Total ....... 85 66 19 174 74 32 26 595 39 602 73 24 25


xWhere this mark is not shown, figures have been verified by Chambers of Commerce or
leading citizens of respective counties.


U'r..










30 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

Group VI. Metal Working and Metal Products.
Unclassified Miscellaneous Industries
Stoves (grove heaters): Duval, 1; Pinellas, 1; Suwannee, 1.
Plows: Duval, 2; Union, 1.
Wire Works: Hillsborough, 2.
Wire Nails: Duval, 1.
Metal Fence: Hillsborough, 1.
Steel Works: Dade, 2.
Steel and Iron Works: Duval, 1.
Ornamental Iron Works: Orange, 1.
Smelters: Dade, 2.
Hardware Manufacturers: Dade, 2.
Knives: Highlands, 1.
Band Saws: Pinellas, 1.
Slide Rules: Martin, 1; Monroe, 1.
Shovels: Orange, 1.
Conveyors: Hillsborough, 1.
Automobile Tag Factory: Union, 1.
Total
Establishments
Total number unclassified industries Group VI, 16 ...... ...-- ... ................. 25
On following page is given, by counties:
Foundries and Machine Shops-.......................... -.- -.----. 173
Sheet Metal, Roofing and Tinners ....-- ------................................ 192
Grand Total, Group VI, Metal Working and Metal Products............................ 390*

*Repair shops of all kinds including garages, blacksmiths, plumbers, etc., are omitted.
However, though these industries do perform some small degree of manufacture on
occasion.


Group VII. Products of Mines and Quarries.
Unclassified Miscellaneous Industries
Asphalt Paving Blocks: Dade, 1; Hillsborough, 1.
Asbestos Manufacture: Hillsborough, 1.
Glass Manufacturers: Duval, 1.
Gypsum: Dade, 1.
Mines: Fullers Earth: Gadsden, 5.
Mines: Ilmenite and Zircon: St. Johns, 1. Total
Total
Establishments
Total number unclassified industries, Group VII, 6................. ....... 14
On the following page is given, by counties:
Brick Manufacturing ----.. ..-..-- ....--.-----.--. -- --....---..... 51
Clay or Kaolin M ining.............. .... .... .... ........................ ................... 16
Cement and Concrete Products .............................-.... .......... .. . - 233
Fertilizers, M ixed...................................... ............................... .......... ..... 42
Phosphate Mining............ ........................... ...........-........ ........... 29
Limerock Mines.....................-.-.......-............--- ..............--- -........ 69
Sand, Gravel and Shell.---............. -...........-- .........-- -......... 56
Septic Tank Manufacturers..-.-.... ............. .- - -.. ..................... 23
M arble, Stone and Tile...................-........... .... .... -. ............ .................... 104
Grand Total, Group VII: Products of Mines and Quarries............................ 637

world. In South America particularly those reports showed close attention
to details by the German commercial travelers. At a small island off the
coast of Chile a certain gilt paper was used for mourning. That gilt paper
was there-from Germany.
In connection with exporting manufactured articles to the world par-
ticular attention is drawn at this time to the tables appearing elsewhere
in this volume regarding commerce; for it will be found that Florida's in-
fluence in commerce as related to the Southern Hemisphere is so small as
to be almost negligible, yet that great region is our nearest continental
neighbor.

SMALL INDUSTRIES-Those who study the following pages will perhaps
find their chief interest in the unclassified and miscellaneous industries of
each group as indicating most of the manufacturing daring of the past few
years in Florida. They represent novel things; things that the average
person does not dream of as being made here. When these unclassified








-











MANUFACTURING IN GENERAL


Group VI. Metal Working and
Metal Products







gsg s|




Alachua ------ 5 3
Baker .
Bay -_.....---- 2 3
Bradford ..----
Brevard ----- 3 7
Broward ...----- 2 5
xCalhoun 2.
SCharlotte 2 3
Citrus C-
Clay -------- -
Collier ..------ -
Columbia -.... 1 2
Dade ------------ 22 24
DeSoto .------. 1 4
xDixieo ----- 3
Dural .--------- 23 29
Escambia ...-.---- 9 5
Flagler -.... ---- 1
Franklin -- -
xGadsden ------ --- 1
xGilchrist---
Glades ------- 1 3
Gulf ...- -
xHamilton .
H ardee ................ 1 2
xHendry ------
Hernando -
Highlands .--- 3 1
Hillsborough 9 12
rHolmes -- 2 2
SIndian River--..... 1
Jackson .o------- 2 1
Jefferson ............. 3 1
Lafayette .n------ 1
Lake .....------- 3 2
Lee ------------- 1 3 4
Leon 2 1
Levy I-------- -.
xLiberty 2............. -
M adison .......... ..1
Manatee -- 1 2
Marion ......... 1 5



Okaloosa -........--
xOkeechobee
Orange ------------ 7 6
xOsceola 2
Palm Beach --- 12 5
Paseo .2
xPinellas -81---- 14
J Polk .-1------- -- 12 6
Putnam ...... .. 2
xSt. Johns ---..... 1 7
St. Lucie --..--- 1 3
Santa Rosa ..--- 1
xSarasota ....... 2 5
Seminole 3 4
Sumter
oxSwannee -- 2 1
xTaylor ....--............ 2 -
xUnion
Volusia ----- 4 13
Wakulla ....--
Walton -
xWashington --

Totals -- 173 192


Group VII. Products of Mines, Etc.



' 0
0 0
: 0 0 1 0

.0 0 6 1, 0 o
.N .i 1. ).V










66 6
2 .... .... N. o x 3 S J .. ..











2
3 -41 1 -6 2 4 19
2 --

4 17 3 1 10
1 1 3 4 21

1 2
',.,, ,.,, 2 --- --- --- --- --- ---







1---- --- --- 2 -- ---


I 2
1 2

18

1
18
2



3 5
1




5
4


1 13

1 1 10

1 23
5 1 15
8 1
3
2

11
5
2
1


1 -1- 28




51 16 233


1

2 7
1
5 2 9 6 9

1



1 1
S- 1
1 1 --- --- 1
1 --1
13



1 10 16 1 2 2
1

2


2 1 5

3 3 -... 10

1 5 3 7
8 8 5 5 .. 7
5 1

1

1 1 1 3
2 9
-1 ---


S1 ... 7 7




42 29 69 56 23 104


r Where this mark is not shown, figures have been verified by Chambers of Commerce or leading
citizens of the respective counties.


ElI-~c-,l-`----


El









32 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

Group VIII. Miscellaneous Industries Not Classified.
Armatures: Hillsborough, 2.
Artificial Flowers: Brevard, 1; Hillsborough, 1.
Beads: Pinellas, 1.
Bed Springs: Dade, 1; Duval, 1; Hillsborough, 1.
Caskets: Alachua, 1; Dade, 2; Duval, 2; Hillsborough, 2.
Chemicals: Dade, 5; DeSoto, 1; Duval, 6; Hillsborough, 5; Levy, 1; Monroe, 1; Orange,
4; Palm Beach, 4; Pinellas, 2; Polk, 4; St. Lucie. 1; Sarasota, 1.
Coat Hangers: Duval, 1.
Corn Cobs: DeSoto, 1.
Cosmetics: Brevard, 1.
Cotton Gins: Alachua, 3; Calhoun, 1; Columbia, 4; Duval, 1; Escambia, 3; Hamilton, 4;
Holmes, 3; Jackson, 10; Jefferson, 7; Leon, 6; Levy, 1; Madison, 4; Marion, 1; Oka-
loosa, 4; Santa Rosa, 3; Suwannee, 4; Union, 5; Wakulla, 1; Walton, 1; Washington, 1.
Dental Supplies: Duval, 3.
Drugs: Duval, 2; Hillsborough. 4; Lake. 1; Polk, 2.
Dry-Docks: Dade, 2; Escambia, 1; Flagler, 1.
Dry Kilns: Duval, 1.
Extracts: Collier, 1; Duval, 2; Manatee, 1.
Fertilizer, Muck: Glades, 1; Indian River, 1; Polk, 1.
Fertilizer, Fish Scrap and Oil: Gulf, 1; Nassau, 1.
Fireworks: Orange, 1.
Fountain Pens: Lake, 1; Hillsborough, 1.
Furnace Lining: Duval, 1.
Golf Balls: Pinellas. 1.
Harness: Duval, 1.
Hydraulic Pumps: Brevard, 1.
Insecticides: Broward, 1; Dade, 2; Duval, 4; Escambia, 2; Hillsborough, 6; Manatee,
1; Orange, 4; Palm Beach, 4; Pinellas, 2; Polk, 4; St. Lucie, 1; Sarasota, 1.
Jewelry: Orange, 1.
Lamp Shades: Dade, 1.
Life Preservers: Palm Beach, 1.
Medicine: Dade. 1: Duval. 5; Pinellas. 2: Polk, 2; Putnam, 1.
Mops: Hillsborough, 1.
Packing House Machinery: Pinellas, 1.
Paint: Dade, 3; Duval, 2; Hillsborough, 4; Lake, 1; Marion, 1; Orange, 1; Pinellas, 2;
Leon, 1.
Perfume: Broward, 1; Duval, 2.
Picture Frames: Hillsborough, 1.
Pine Oil: Escambia, 1; Duval, 1; Calhoun, 1; Bay, 1.
Reliners: Duval, 1.
Rosin Sizing: Escambia, 1; Duval, 1.
Rubber Tires: Palm Beach, 1.
Shoe Polish: Duval, 3; Hillsborough, 2; Palm Beach, 1.
Showcases: Hillsborough, 1.
Soap: Dade, 1; Duval, 2; Hillsborough, 1.
Shoe Uppers: Leon, 1.
Sporting Goods: Seminole, 1.
Stump Pullers: Duval, 1.
Talking Machines: Brevard, 1.
Tallow: Duval, 1.
Tanning (and Taxidermy): Charlotte, 1; Dade, 1; Lee, 1; Monroe, 1.
Toilet Articles: Duval, 1.
Toys and Souvenirs: Brevard, 1; Duval, 1; Lee, 1; Pinellas, 1.
Trunks: Dade, 2; Hillsborough, 1.
Umbrellas: Duval, 1; Hillsborough, 1.
Window Shades: Dade, 2; Hillsborough, 2; Pinellas, 1.
Wooden Shoe Soles: Escambia, 1.
Total
Establishments
Total, Group VIII: Miscellaneous industries not classified, 52............................ 265



are considered with the miscellaneous classified industries, a picture is
given that is most encouraging, particularly to those who came into Florida
equipped with superior learning and experience and who here dared to
establish some small industry along the line with which they were already
familiar. Let us take toys, shoe polish, lamp shades, slide rules, certain
paints, sporting goods, etc., merely as illustrations. Many of these are
known to the writer and use fewer than five employees; yet they are doing
a good sound business without asking favors from anyone, and by reason
of their familiarity with the market at the other end are sending products
out of Florida to different parts of the United States.


HI










MANUFACTURING IN GENERAL 33


We have shut out from this carefully prepared list, all activities that
could not measure up to the following definition of manufacturing: "Manu-
facturing, by hand labor or by machinery or both, changes over for sale
raw or partially prepared materials." A farmer boiling syrup for his
family is not a manufacturer; yet there is an important syrup industry
in Florida. Because they were in a twilight zone, we have also omitted
the totals of butchers, blacksmiths, and repair shops. The grand total even
under such rigid lines will surprise Florida.
In connection with general mention of the manufacturing future of
the state, attention is drawn to another part of this report in which is a
brief description of freight rates by rail, supplemented by a quotation
from the Florida Railroad Commission.




BRIEF NOTES ON INDUSTRIES

CANNING-Briefly stated, when grapefruit and orange products canners join together
for advertising, for a standard pack, and for standard quality, there will be a large manu-
facturing field opened up. Different processes and different products now in vogue need
to be standardized. It is the size of the field for distribution, when the public once
understands the products are right, that should challenge attention.
Canning must not be regarded as confined chiefly to citrus fruit. Vegetables, ber-
ries (including wild berries), syrup, shellfish products, all come under the general subject
of canning. So far as canning vegetables, as long as truck growers raise solely to get
peak prices and then lose interest in crops when prices get low, no canning industry can
be safely built upon such a condition of uncertainty. The one thing necessary to suc-
cessful vegetable canning in Florida is a canning enterprise undertaken in a large way,
working a large territory where supplies can be depended upon, and planned so as to keep
products coming to the cannery the greater portion of the year. Such an organization of
production can be made.
Go into any grocery store in the state and a Florida label on any product is so rare
as to be noticeable.

DAIRIES-Most of the large cities of Florida have an over-production of whole milk for
domestic consumption at seasons of the year, though at peak periods of the tourist season
it has been necessary to bring in milk, some from Georgia and Alabama last season, and
even some cream from Wisconsin. The seasonal over-production should be handled by
the making of cheese, butter and other milk products, including possibly drying or can-
ning during the season of over-supply. However, costs of production in comparison with
the great producing states must be worked out and down.

MEAT PACKING-No large packers operate in the state except as distributors. Where
small packers operate in Florida on specialty products of the sausage type and in cer-
tified meats, they are doing well, using the highways and refrigerator trucks for ever
widening distribution.
WOOD-Under this general heading there is almost limitless opportunity for working
new ideas in production. As an illustration, we mention a factory in Clearwater occupied
with manufacturing collapsible tables, ironing boards, chairs, etc., to put into modern,
compact houses. Practically all of this manufactured material leaves the state. Ideas
meeting human requirements will result in expanding our wood utilization. At one point
we found 3-ply pecky cypress boards being fastened together with casein for "antique"
doorways in imitation antique homes. (For pulpwood and woodpulp see "Major Unde-
veloped Industries".)

FURNITURE-We have woods suitable and other woods can be brought here by water
and rail as cheaply as we can send away. Many millions of dollars were spent in Florida
last year for furniture of all kinds. Manufacturing can be done in Florida, provided we
meet conditions of artificial weather and waterproof glue.

GLASS-Under the "Unclassified Industries" there is much room for expansion. Our
enormous supply of sand suitable for glass could under the present possibilities encourage
more manufacturing of glass; for our own people first and then for shipment to points
south of us. There is only one glass factory in Florida.

BOATS-The connection of many of our lakes, the expansion of sport interest in water-
ways, canals, lagoons and the gulf and ocean for hunting and cruising should lead to an
expansion in the boat building business.


El









34 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


MANUFACTURING PROGRESS IN FLORIDA

PAUL W. STEWART
U. S. Department of Commerce

(The article as originally submitted by Mr. Stewart included figures for 1914, 1919,
1921, 1923 and 1925. In view of the abnormal conditions in 1919 as the result of the
war, particularly in the direction of shipbuilding and of shipping, the article has been
edited so as to make a contrast in the main between 1914 and 1925. The present in-
dustries of Florida as of 1927-28 have been brought together by the Industrial Survey
and should be considered in connection with the article by Mr. Stewart. G.D.)

Manufacturing in Florida in recent years has expanded at a rate ex-
ceeding that of the growth of industry in the United States as a whole.
The value of manufactured products in Florida in 1925, the latest year for
which figures are available, was three and one-third times greater than that
of 1914, while the value for the entire country was a little more than two
and one-half times greater. This trend was even more noticeable in the
most recent census period from 1923 to 1925 because the value of the out-
put of Florida manufacturing establishments was 44% more than in 1923,
while it was just slightly more than 4% for the country. The output value
of Florida industries has shown a constant increase since 1914 with the
exception of 1919, when prices were out of all proportion to those before
or since. It is striking, therefore, that even with decline in prices the Florida
industries in 1925 not only came up to the 1919 figure but exceeded it by
about $56,000,000. To be sure, the growth in the number of wage earners
has not kept pace with the increase in the value of products but this is
probably due to better methods of production and the increase in relative
importance of more advanced stages of manufacture.
The United States census reported forty-five industries separately for
Florida in 1925 and all of these show increases in value over 1914, except
cooperage. In some instances this increase represented growth of a very
high per cent, notably in the manufacture of awnings, tents and sails, and
of concrete products. Among other industries showing outstanding gains
were bread and other bakery products, illuminating gas, ice cream, manu-
factured ice, lumber made in planing mills, mattresses and bed springs, pav-
ing materials other than brick, printing and publishing, and ship and boat
building. It will be noted that the majority of these are industries which
might normally be expected to grow in a community where the population
was increasing and the purchasing power ample.
A growing diversification in the manufacturing industries of Florida is
evident in this rise in importance of industries which did not, until recently,
have a prominent place in the state. While values in general have shown a
rise and while the three leading industries in 1914 (tobacco, lumber and
timber, and turpentine and rosin) have also experienced a growth, the in-
crease in the latter three industries has not been at the same rate as that
of the smaller or diversified industries. These three industries in 1914 made
up almost three-fifths of the total value, while in 1925 they represented
only a little more than one-third of the total.
Another striking fact disclosed in an analysis of the 1925 census figures
is that the percentage of value added to commodities during the process of
'| manufacture is greater for Florida industries than for those of any other
state in the Union. Concerning this item in manufacturing statistics, the


--C~4 "





a -a- -


FLORIDA MANUFACTURING- 914-1925
SUPPORTING MR. STEWART'S ARTICLE
Average Number
Industry Wage Earners
Alphabetical Index of Industries Numbered 1914 1925
1. Awnings, tents, sails and canvas covers...............- ......-.. ----.- ... ..- 1 23 187
2. Baskets and rattan willow ware, not including furniture -.........-..... --- --- 2 224
3. Beverages ----------............................ ----- ------..------------------------- 3 271 624
4. Boxes, cigar, wooden ............. ............................................ 4 457 677
5. Boxes, wooden, except cigar boxes..................-------------.- 5 807 1,780
6. Bread and other bakery products-................--.......-..........---- 6 672 1,416
7. Brooms.....--------.. ........ -------. ------------------ ------ 7 88
8. Canning and preserving fish, crabs, oysters, etc.~..---...... ........--- ----- 8 162 284
9. Canning and preserving fruits, vegetables, pickles, etc........-.-----......-----.......- 9 32 107
10. Car and general construction and repairs, electric railroad repair shops...........................-- 10 77 90
11. Car and general construction and repairs, steam railroad repair shops ...........----.------- 11 2,311 4,151
12. Clay products other than pottery, including non-clay refractories.--.--..--- --.---- 12 222 154
13. Concrete products..---------...............------------ ---- ------------------- 13 197 921
14. Confectionery-- ..............................................-- - - ......-- 14 23 46
15. Cooperage....-..... --... ---..-.... ---..-.... --...............................------------ ------------ 15 191 75
16. Copper, tin and sheet metal work, including galvanized iron works............... ... .-- 16 124 251
17. Fertilizers .............................................. ----------- -- -- ------ 17 781 972
18. Flour, feed and other grain mill products.............--.-----........... 18 22 11
19. Food preparations not otherwise specified-- --................... --- ----- 19 23 13
20. Foundry and machine shop products not elsewhere specified--............ --- ----- .. 20 561 822
21. Furniture ................... ... ........................- ----- 21 8 162
22. Gas, manufactured, illuminating and heating...................- --- ---- ----- 22 349 505
23. Ice cream ...................................- --.............. ----............. ------------------ ---- ----------- -- 23 49 290
24. Ice, manufactured .... --..... ........ .... ------ ----- 24 760 1,149
25. Lumber and timber products not elsewhere specified- --................ ....----- 25 16,392 17,777
26. Lumber: Planing mill products not made in mills connected with sawmills ..........--- ----.. 26 1,159 3,054
27. Marble, slate and stone work.........-......--------.............. -----........ -------------- 27 47 57
28. Mattresses and bed springs-............---------. .---- ----------28 60 200
29. Minerals and earths, ground or otherwise treated.............-..............---- 29 220 457
30. Motor vehicle bodies and parts........ ................ -----...---- 30 78
31. Paints and varnishes.................--......... --------------- -------- ----- 31 8 16
32. Patent medicines and compounds- --............................... 32 24 54
33. Paving materials other than brick...................... ------ - - --.. 33 124 474
34. Photo-engraving not done in job-printing establishments.-...----------------- --- 34 64
35. Printing and publishing, book and job ............................- -----.. 35 340 774
36. Printing and publishing, newspapers and periodicals .....-..........---------- 36 880 1,933
37. Sand-lime brick......................... -- ------------------- --- 37 80 92
38. Ship and boat building, steel and wooden, including repair work...............--. .-..-- 38 486 985
39. Slaughtering and meat packing, wholesale ....................----- -- --- 39 54 145
40. Structural and ornamental iron work, not made in rolling mills- ---..................... 40 -- 144
41. Tobacco, cigars and cigarettes .................... ............ -- --- ......................... .. ...... 41 10,761 11,644
42. Turpentine and rosin.......................................... 42 15,466 10,890
43. Wall plaster, wall board and floor composition -...--, ............. ---- 43 ...... 101
44. Wood distillation and charcoal manufacture. ..... ....... ....----------------.----- 44 .... 298
45. Wood preserving .............................. -------------- ---------- ----------------------- 4 ....... 305
46. All other industries............-....... ................----------....-------------.-- - -- 46 1,249 1,663


Value of Products
1914 1925
$ 67,759 $ 1,425,312
...... 209,362
1,049,518 6,405,547
635,385 1,948,550
932,554 3,603,320
2,169,320 10,093,255
187,331
378,832 718,979
39,089 416,984
96,282 220,319
2,589,930 12,895,731
287,974 325,340
304,587 4,499,457
57,189 217,139
434,273 415,573
398,741 1,543,750
6,995,051 12,132,107
166,237 177,383
59,799 120,082
1,127,354 3,974,736
13,638 763,058
1,049,132 4,501,689
288,818 3,825,722
2,202,769 8,937,835
17,574,752 43,030,860
2,949,592 21,315,526
170,941 322,521
177,061 1,794,120
270,670 1,123,044
280,730
48,886 323,837
115,893 746,603
105,974 2,155,559
523,368
783,204 5,030,560
2,233,936 23,001,311
108,221 328,202
804,399 3,380,555
925,386 2,708,907
715,188
19,385,659 40,488,308
9,573,083 14,110,363
S 307,753
.. 1,895,399
3,730,824
3,629,754 20,137,060


L


1_~1~








36 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

U. S. Census of Manufactures states: "The economic importance of the
process of manufacture must be judged, not by the quantity or the value
of the products leaving factories, but by the addition to the utility or the
money value of the material. The value created by the manufacturing
processes is in most cases substantially the difference between the cost of
materials and the value of the products. In comparing the manufacturing
industries with one another this relation between the value of finished
products and the cost of materials should be kept constantly in mind. The
products of one industry may be valued at the same amount as those of
another but the one may have added several times as much value to the
materials as the other, and may, therefore, have been of correspondingly
greater economic importance."
For convenience, the industries of the state have been divided into
thirteen groups, according to the United States Census of Manufactures.
The lumber and allied products industries constitute the principal manu-
facturing group in the state and accounted for one-third of the total value
of output in 1925, but represented more than one-half the wage earners.
These industries, as a whole, have shown a constant expansion since 1914,
except for the year 1921, when business everywhere suffered a slump. While
valued at two and three-quarters times as much in 1925 as in 1914, they
did not keep pace with the growth of the general manufacturing in the
state. One of the significant facts about the trend in the industry is that
the value greatly exceeded even the inflated totals of 1919.
Employment within the industry for the entire period was fairly
steady, the number of wage earners having been only slightly greater in
1925 than it was in 1914. The two leading individual industries in the
group; lumber and timber products, and turpentine and rosin, accounted
for 31,858 wage earners out of a total of 34,480 in 1914, in compariosn with
31,667 out of 34,944 in 1925. A greater discrepancy in values, however,
is shown; these two industries made up one-third of the total value of
products in the state in 1914 and only a little more than one-fifth of the
value in 1925. An increase of 175 per cent in the value of planing mill
products is shown, which is of a more advanced stage of manufacture.
The latter industry showed a total value six and one-quarter times greater
in 1925 than in 1914. Its relative share of the total value of output of the
state rose from 3.7 per cent to almost 8 per cent.
The turpentine and rosin industry ranked third in importance in the
state in 1914 but in 1925 it had dropped to fourth place and was relatively
less than one-half as important in the latter year as in 1914. The number
of employees declined almost one-half over the twelve-year period but on
the other hand the value increased nearly one-half. Wood preserving is
one of the newer industries which has shown a decided increase in im-
portance. It was the fourth most important in this industry group in 1925
and was reported separately for the first time in that year. The wooden
packing box industry has also grown steadily from less than $1,000,000 in
1914 to over $3,600,000 in 1925. The other branch of the box industry,
that of cigar boxes, experienced a similar trend. The manufacture of fur-
niture, while still relatively unimportant, showed a tremendous growth be-
tween 1914 and 1925. Cooperage manufacture is the only industry in this
group which registered a decline over the entire period but this industry-has
never made up a large portion of the total. (See elsewhere in this report
for cooperage data.--G. D.) The making of baskets and rattan and willow-









MANUFACTURING PROGRESS


ware was the smallest of the lumber and allied products industry group and
while it has been reported only since 1921 it has shown some growth.
The tobacco industry, which produces cigars almost exclusively, ranks
second in the state, rivaling the lumber and timber industry. While its
value in 1925 was more than twice as great as in 1914, engaging about 900
more wage earners, it has not experienced the relative growth which has
characterized most of the other industries. It is an interesting fact that
when industrial depression and unemployment prevail the consumption of
tobacco does not suffer materially. The position of Florida, with its ex-
tensive tobacco industry, is in this respect decidedly advantageous, since
in periods of depression the industry can be depended on to still supply em-
ployment to a considerable number of workers.
The canning and preserving of seafoods is relatively small. The same
is true of canning and preserving of fruits and vegetables. (See elsewhere
for canned grapefruit.-G. D.) Both industries, however, show a decided
increase over the 1914 figure. Slaughtering and meat packing is very
largely confined to small plants supplying in part the national packing
houses and has not shown much change since 1921.
The printing business has shown one of the most outstanding growths
of any industry in the state, having mounted from a value of $3,000,000
in 1914 to $28,504,000 in 1925, or about nine and one-half times; in the
two years preceding 1925, the value almost doubled. Newspapers and
periodicals contributed by far the largest share of the total and ranked as
the third individual industry in the state.
The chemical and allied product group of industries, of which fer-
tilizers are the most important, while two and two-fifths times larger in
value, declined in relative importance from third place to fifth place in the
period between 1914 and 1925. The fertilizer industry with practically
doubled value between 1914 and 1925 is typical of the industries which
employ less advanced stages of manufacture and which have declined con-
siderably in relative importance, but at the same time have shown a real
gain in values.. This industry ranked fourth among the individual industries
of the state in 1914, but seventh in 1925. The manufacture of illuminating
and heating gas, like the food-stuffs industries, responded to the increase
in urban population, being more than four times greater in 1925 than twelve
years previous and reflected a particularly large gain in the last two years.
Wood distillation and charcoal manufacture, reported for the first time in
1919, showed a sharp falling off in 1921, but in the last two census years
registered successive gains and in 1925 the value approached the 1919
figure. The manufacture of patent medicine compounds, and of paints and
varnishes is comparatively unimportant, the former showing about the same
values in 1919, 1923 and 1925.
The output value of steam-railroad repair shops shows great gain be-
tween 1914 and 1925. (See elsewhere for 1927 figures.-G. D.) The
value of work in electric railway repair shops indicates that this type of
transportation is not extensive, probably owing to the rapid strides in motor
bus travel.
The making of stone, clay and glass products has not shown much
progress up to 1925. The manufacture of concrete products shows a tre-
mendous growth since 1914, gaining from $304,587 to $4,500,000. The
grinding and treating of minerals and earths was the other leading industry
in this group and showed a slight decline from 1919. There are four other


^









38 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

industries in this group of approximately the same importance, each with a
total value of products of a little more than $300,000 for 1925.

Foundry and machine shop product values experienced a growth a
little above that of industry in the state as a whole, being three and one-
half times as great at the end of the twelve-year period as at the beginning
and increasing from $1,125,000 to almost $4,000,000. The growth in value,
however, was largely in the period from 1914 to 1919, with a slight re-
cession in 1921, but a nominal growth since that time.

Copper, tin and sheet iron work showed a consistent gain over the
whole period and was slightly above the average in rate of growth. The
manufacture of awnings, tents, sails and canvass covers, starting in 1914
with a very small figure, recorded a phenomenal gain. Structural and or-
namental iron work was not reported separately until 1925 when it regis-
tered a value of $715,000. Among the miscellaneous group of industries
the increase in the manufacture of paving materials other than brick, re-
flected the growth in road construction. Mattresses and springs manu-
facture increased about ten times over the entire period and showed an
especially large increase in the last two years. The manufacture of brooms
was small and did not show much change over the twelve years.

Transportation equipment industries ranked next to machinery in value
in 1925 and embraced the manufacture of motor vehicle bodies and parts,
and ship and boat building, including repair work; the first of these is
comparatively unimportant.


Average Number Total Value
of Wage Earners of Products
1914 1925 1914 1925
All Industries .................-...-- --- ....- 55,472 66,204 $80,201,642 $267,009,159

Group IV. Lumber and Allied Products.... 34,480 34,944 32,113,277 89,127,436
(2 ) Baskets and Rattan and Willowware,
not furniture............---... .. ----. 244 .................... 209,362
(4) Boxes, Cigar, wooden ...-.......... 457 677 635,385 1,948,550
(5 ) Boxes, wooden, except Cigar boxes-... 807 1,780 932,554 3,603,320
(15) Cooperage: ....................------ ...----- 191 75 434,273 415,573
(21) Furniture ...............-....---- --..-- ...- 8 162 13,638 763,058
(25) Lumber and Timber Products, n. c. s. 16,392 17,777 17,574,752 48,030,860
(2,6) Lumber: Planing Mill Products, sep-
arate from saw mills.................. 1,159 3,054 2,949,592 21,315,526
(42) Turpentine and Rosin....-........-..--- 15,466 10,890 9,573,083 14,110,363
(45) W ood Preserving.......................- - 305 .................... 3,730,824

Group XI. Tobacco Manufactures.
(41) Tobacco: Cigars and Cigarettes .... 10,761 11,644 19,385,659 40,488,308

Group I. Food and Kindred Products....... 7,336,957 33,621,833
( 3 ) Beverages -.................... 271 624 1,049,518 6,405,547
(6 ) Bread and other bakery products ... 672 1,416 2,169,320 10,093,255
( 8 ) Canning and Preserving, fish, crab,
oysters, etc.....................----- 162 284 378,832 718,979
9 ) Canning and Preserving, fruits and
vegetables, pickles, etc .................... 32 107 39,089 416,984
(1:4) Confectionery ...................................... 23 46 57,189 217,139
(18) Flour, Feed and other grain mill
products ............. ..- ..... 22 11 166,237 177,383
(19) Food preparations, n. e. s................... 23 13 59,799 120,082
(23) Ice Cream ................................................ 49 290 288,818 3,825,722
(24) Ice, manufactured ....----............ 760 1,149 2,202,769 8,937,835
(39) Slaughtering and Meat Packing,
wholesale ..--..................---- --- .54 145 925,386 2,708,907

Group VII. Printing................................. 3,017,140 28,555,239
(34) Photo-engraving, not in printing
establishments ..-.- -- ........ 64 ........ ... 523,368
(35) Printing and Publishing, book and job 340 774 783,204 5,030,560
(36) Printing and Publishing, news and
periodical .--------.............................--- ---........ 880 1,933 2,233,936 23,001,311









MANUFACTURING PROGRESS 39


Average Number Total Value
of Wage Earners of Products
1914 1925 1914 1925
Group VIII. Chemicals and Allied
Products .......................................... 8,208,962 19,599,635
(17) Fertilizers .............................................. 781 972 6,995,051 12,132,107
(22) Gas, manufactured, illuminating and
heating ..............-....................... . 349 505 1,049,132 4,501,689
(31) Paints and Varnishes...........~............. 8 16 48,886 323,837
(32) Patent Medicines and Compounds.... 24 54 115,893 746,603
(44) Wood distillation and Charcoal manu-
facture ............................................... .......... 298 .................... 1,895,399

Group XV. Railroad Repair Shops----... 2,686,212 13,116,050
(Car and General Construction and
Repair)
(10) Electric railroad repair shops............ 77 90 96,282 220,319
(11) Steam railroad repair shops ............ 2,311 4,151 2,589,930 12,895,731
1927-Employes .. .. 4,982
Pay Roll.............. $7,846,318

Group IX. Stone, Clay and Glass Products 1,142,393 6,906,317
(12) Clay (not pottery) and non-clay re-
fractories.......... .......................... 222 154 287,974 325,340
(13) Concrete Products............197 921 304,587 4,499,457
(27) Marble, Slate and Stone Work........ 47 57 170,941 322,521
(29) Minerals and Earth, ground or other-
wise treated.................. -............ 220 457 270,670 1,123,044
(37) Sand-Lime Brick.................................. 80 92 108,221 328,202
(43) Wall Plaster, Wall Board and Floor
Com position..................................... .......... 101 ................. 307,753

Group XVI. Miscellaneous Industries ..... 283,035 4,137,010
(7) Brooms-...... ....................... -.... 88 -- ... 187,331
(28) Mattresses and Bed Springs---...... 60 200 177,061 1,794,120
(33) Paving Materials, other than brick-... 124 474 105,974 2,155,559

Group XII. Machinery, but not Transpor-
tation Equipment.
(20) Foundry and Machine Shop Products,
n. e. s.............. --............................ 561 822 1,127,354 3,974,736

Group XIV. Transportation Equipment,
Air, Land and Water...................... .......... .......... 804,399 3,661,285
* (30) Motor Vehicle Bodies and Parts .... ....... 78 280,730
(38) Ship and Boat Building, including
repair work................................... 486 985 804,399 3,380,555
Group X. Metals and Metal Products,
not Iron and Steel.
(16) Copper, Tin and Sheet Iron Work..... 124 251 398,741 1,543,750

Group II. Textiles and Their Products.
( 1 ) Awnings, Tents, Sails and Canvas
Covers..............-....--.... -.................. 23 187 67,759 1,425,312

Group III. Iron and Steel Products, not
Machinery.
(40) Structural and Ornamental not from
rolling mills.......-.............- ----- ...-. 144 ...... 715,188




INDUSTRIES RANKED BY IMPORTANCE
Rank Per Cent
1. Group IV Lumber and Allied Products ......... 33.39
2. Group XI Tobacco Manufactures -.-- ... 1.16
3. Group I Food and Kindred Products -.... ---.......... -....... 12.59
4. Group VII Paper and Printing .................-- ........... ..-...... 10.69
5. Group VIII Chemicals and Allied Products ....................... 7.34
6. Group XV Railroad Repair Shops ...................-- .. ....... 4.91
7. Group IX Stone, Clay and Glass Products ..--..........---.--- 2.59
8. Group XVI Miscellaneous Industries ............................................ 1.56
9. Group XII Machinery, not including transport equipment.......... 1.49
10. Group XIV Transportation equipment, air, land, water ................ 1.38
11. Group X Metals and Metal Products other than iron and steel .58
12. Group II Textile Products ...-- --.. .... ............ ...... .53
13. Group III Iron and Steel and their Products, not include. machy. .27

92.48%
All Other Industries .................................... 7.52
100.00


"IR~)IF~








40 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES IN FLORIDA'S FUTURE
HARRISON E. HOWE
Editor, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
Washington, D. C.

The part that chemical industry is to play in the future of Florida
must be based upon the natural resources of the state, power and other
facilities needed for their efficient utilization, and the market demand
created by the local population.
Florida's ability to produce or furnish raw materials for a diverse
chemical industry is impressive. A retarding influence has been the scar-
city of sufficient dependable and cheap power, but today electricity pro-
duced from either oil or pulverized coal, is available at all important points.
The proximity of Florida to oil and coal fields, as well as the availability
of electric power promises a new era of industrial activity.

PHOSPHATES-Because of the greatness of Florida's phosphate rock de-
posits, the chemist at once thinks of the potentialities, should cheap power
be available, or when some one of the chemical methods for treating this
rock is perfected, giving it greatly added value. To the majority, phos-
phate still conveys only the idea of the acid or super-phosphate of present
fertilizer practice, but there is increasing interest in those concentrated
fertilizers which require phosphoric acid as one of the ingredients. Am-
monium phosphate is of this type and in its manufacture, ammonia is ab-
sorbed in the phosphoric acid in very much the same way as it is now ab-
sorbed in sulfuric acid for the production of ammonium sulphate. While
there is still much to be done in perfecting the process, enough progress
has been made to demonstrate that what is needed to make phosphoric acid
itself direct from phosphate rock is cheap electric power, for large quan-
tities of the acid for food purposes are now being made in the electric
furnace and also in gas-fire furnaces.
However, efficient utilization of phosphate rock may not depend
wholly upon cheap power; for experiments in which suspensions of phos-
phate rock have been treated with the oxides of nitrogen made from am-
monia show that chemical methods may soon be commercially available.
A contributing factor is the advent of abundant supplies of anhydrous am-
monia at low prices. Today synthetic ammonia made by the fixation of
atmospheric hydrogen, using hydrogen derived from coal gas, is approach-
ing a price of five cents per pound in large contract prices-only a fraction
of its cost but a few years ago and low enough to enable its use on a large
scale as a raw material or re-agent in manufacturing.

INSECTICIDES-The control of insects and fungi through chemical means
will be of immense importance in the future of Florida, and the market for
this material, which could be manufactured in the state, extends far be-
yond her boundaries. It seems inevitable that our combat with insects and
fungi must grow more acute. It is not generally appreciated that but for
the service of our birds, the human race would probably be overcome by
famine, due to the inroads of insects upon food supplies, within a single
decade. Insecticides and fungicides are used in great volume annually and
in many sections of the country could be used to a much greater extent
with marked profit and economy. It is recognized that the best of our


~ ~_____~__~__~_~_ ____


_L iil~l








CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES


insecticides and fungicides are far from perfect, and that certain insects
by their mode of life and habitat resist to a remarkable degree all efforts
to poison, smother or otherwise destroy them by chemical methods. This
presents a problem that is both interesting and important. The effort to
develop profitable new insecticides and fungicides is not confined to im-
provements upon present materials, but calls for the development of new
types, more efficient in securing desired results, and less objectionable
from the standpoint of accumulating upon the soil such inorganic poisons
as lead, arsenic and mercury.

PINE PRODUCTS-Another natural resource is the great number of pines,
the basis of Florida's naval stores industry. At first somewhat looked
down upon, through chemical research the turpentine made by the steam
* and solvent methods has been steadily improved in yield and quality, so that
today this material is winning and holding its share of the market and those
operating the processes find it profitable to bring pine stumps and fat wood
considerable distances to their plants. The chemistry of turpentine is still
not sufficiently understood and there are many who believe that a fraction
of the amount of research that has been applied to coal tar, if applied to
the basic constituents of turpentine, might yield entirely new series of com-
mercially valuable chemical compounds. It is not an absurd dream, there-
fore, to envisage the time when the pine trees of Florida and her neigh-
boring states may yield a raw material for the use of such local chemical
plants.
STARCHES-Wherever starches and sugars are produced in abundance,
there would seem to be an opportunity for the manufacture of industrial
alcohol. Transportation by water enables the shipment over great dis-
tances at small cost and, with the development of the South, may be ex-
pected to come a demand for this raw material, and should give Florida an
opportunity, particularly if sugar is successfully produced within the state,
since the residual molasses find their principal utilization as raw material
for alcohol manufacture.

PAPER-The extent to which paper may be made by chemical processes
in Florida will depend on suitable raw material, needed in great quantities
for this industry. Success lies in the processing of woods in a way to
yield a fiber satisfactory in strength and color that can compete with that
made from the trees of the spruce type. Florida would have the advantage
in a program calling for the growth of trees for paper-making purposes,
because of the shorter time required to produce a tree large enough for
use. It is an industry concerning which it is difficult to prophesy, for the
number of variables in the equation is great. (See article on Major Un-
developed Industries. G. D.)

CELLULOSE-The growing importance of cellulose as a raw material for
many industries, must not be overlooked in considering the chemical indus-
try in Florida's industrial future. Cellulose is the building material of
Nature and is made by all vegetation from the carbon dioxide of the air
and moisture with the help of the sun and the green material of the plant.
Industrially, cellulose is already the basis of many things, such as rayons,
laquers, artificial leathers, viscose sausage casings, films and others. The
best known sources of supply are wood pulp and cotton linters. It is be-
lieved that the next generation may see wonderful strides made in the use


~- -7.-


-~li~u;r --------








42 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

of cellulose as a basic raw material from Florida and it may well be that
certain types of plants may come to be grown primarily for their ability to
produce cellulose, which will then be prepared in chemical plants for ulti-
mate use in all sorts of ways.
The demand for various synthetic boards has given rise to a number
of excellent products made, for the most part, from waste materials. Some
of these boards are designed to insulate against sound and changes of
temperature. Others are pressed hard to give a density more suitable for
outside construction and finishing purposes. Still others carry enough
gypsum or cement to make them flameproof. If, as now seems possible,
the sugar-a chemical-industry may find a home in Florida, a board,
"celotex" which is made from the bagasse, can be made on the spot to-
serve a growing demand for building materials in Florida and for ship-
ment outside the state.
The possibility of using peat as a raw material as in the preparation
of a fertilizer material, and perhaps for some type of activated or de-
colorizing carbon, should receive the attention of those interested in
applying chemistry to the state's raw materials.
DRY ICE-The advent of carbon dioxide in the field of refrigerants should
make Florida attractive for the location of such plants. Carbon dioxide gas
is produced by burning coke or some other suitable fuel in a way to produce
the utmost carbon dioxide in the flue gases. The gases are then cleaned
by scrubbing, the carbon dioxide is absorbed in an alkaline solution, from
which it is driven in a pure form by heat for the subsequent operations of
compressing and cooling until it becomes a liquid. The liquid gas is then
cooled by the simple process of leading it through tubes around an ex-
pansion chamber into which the cooled gas expands, forming a snow. This S
snow falling to the bottom of the chamber, is compressed into blocks, in
which form it is ready to perform efficient service as a refrigerant. It is
generally known as "Dry Ice" since, in performing its work as a refriger-
ant, it passes directly from the solid to the gaseous state, leaving no trace
except the small amount of moisture that might condense upon the block
from the air. The absence of any water, salt or other material ordinarily
left by the melting of ice, makes it possible to use this refrigerant for a
variety of things where ice will not do; as for example, the shipment of
materials by parcel post. Its efficiency makes it attractive as a refrigerant
for cars where long distances are to be traversed, since re-icing can be
dispensed with and greater cargoes per car transported. Surely Florida
which already ships so many thousands of refrigerated cars of produce,
will soon list within its borders plants producing this new refrigerant.
Florida possesses several remarkable springs, some having marked ad-
vantages for advertising campaigns which it would seem can properly be
connected with such chemical industries as the manufacture of ginger ales
and other soft drinks. Chemical supervision of product and persistent na-
tionar advertising have made other springs, no more worthy than the springs
of Florida, the source of considerable revenue, and an important part of
extensive local industries.

SCIENCE HELPS-The extent to which industry in general in using the
assistance which science offers makes it apparent that those interested in
the development of Florida must not be blind to the help which the chemist
and the chemical industry may render. On every hand we find products in


7~4~









46 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

Therefore at the present moment, from the viewpoint of peanut oil, a'
expansion of the state's production has scarcely begun. It is right to assume
that from the cooking-fat side of the subject, plus present uses, Florida by
scientific methods could safely produce peanuts from 500,000 acres. This
also must be borne in mind that the shelled peanut from which oil has been
taken leaves a flour high in protein and of high value as a feed for do-
mestic animals and as a food in dietaries. Peanut butter, peanut confections,
as well as salted peanuts, and the shells all count in the value of such a
crop. WitTi our natural advantages for peanut culture, it is surprising to
find that certain chain-store systems import their peanuts from China.

PAPER MATERIALS-In the report will also be found carefully compiled
evidence that the consumption of paper in the United States in total runs
over 12,000,000 tons a year. The pulp woods and woodpulp necessary
for such an enormous production are very largely imported. Put in another
way, it can be stated that the United States uses up for newsprint, wrap-
ping paper, boards, fine papers, etc., 30,000 tons of material a day.
It has already been proved that thinning out of second-growth pine
produces a satisfactory pulp wood for Kraft paper. Mills at Bogalusa,
Louisiana, carry on this form of manufacturing in thinning their second-
growth stands and in using waste from the saw-mills. The same thing
has been proved in Orange, Texas, in relation to mill-waste. Some ex-
periments have been made in Florida, but no production of importance
so far exists.
In addition to pine, there are paper-making materials now growing in
the state of Florida that warrant the expectation that we can enter into
production of material for the United States in a large way.
Spartina Grass, a native of Florida, grows near the coast in large
areas; it will grow on high land, can be cut four times a year in Southern
Florida, produces a paper easily bleached, and will fill requirements up to
book papers. Sawgrass has been proved.
The Japanese Bamboo (to mention only one of the large family of
bamboos) is growing well in Florida. The Chinese have for ages made
paper from bamboo, and partly from the bark of the White Mulberry, also
growing in Florida. The bamboo is self-renewing.
Papyrus is growing in ponds on the Potter Palmer estate in Sarasota
County. Any pond or lake in South Florida could grow papyrus. It floats
on the surface of the water and grows with extraordinary rapidity up to
15 feet high, and chokes out other vegetation.
Napier grass used by some farmers for stock feed, grows readily in
Western Florida, and particularly rank in South Florida. It is a perennial.
In addition to these grasses mentioned as potential producers of paper
and already here, a full investigation of certain quick-growing trees is
recommended. The albizzia lebbek, an Asiatic tree, is grown for shade at
many points in South Florida. This tree in eight years produces a trunk
larger than a man's arms can reach around. Three other trees that grow
with extraordinary rapidity-certain of them on dry land and certain of
them on moist land- should be investigated. These are enterolobium
cyclocarpum, eucalyptus robusta, and gumbo-limbo. Without describing
the habits of these trees, but taking into consideration the various growths
referred to, there can be no error in Florida looking forward to a pro-
duction of 12,500 tons of pulp a day; thus entering into the future paper
outlook oT the United States, and utilizing 500,000 acres for the purpose.


gy; U








44 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


MAJOR INDUSTRIES-VEGETATION

-UNDEVELOPED

It will have been noted elsewhere in this report that the cultivated
area of Florida (other than for forest products) is less than 1,500,-
000 acres. In that connection, it has been stated that years will go by
before the state will have 3,000,000 acres under cultivation for gen-
eral farming or fruit and truck crops. This limit has been placed
because we cannot count upon a normal increase of the population of
the United States as more than 2% per annum. Good advertising
methods linked up with a thorough system of marketing might even P
in the face of this slow growth of population increase the consump-
tion of our products in the United States 10% a year.
Assuming this forecast to be correct-for naturally it is only a
forecast-an important increase in the wealth of Florida from culti-
vated areas could lie along the lines of large acreage, producing ma-
terials that will not flood the national or international market. There
are several such lines that justify research and action.
TUNG OIL-In view of the poor quality of the Chinese Tung Oil, and in
view also of the increased world demand for paint and varnish materials
it is stated on authority that 400,000 acres in tung trees, if in production,
would not outrun consumption. Associated with that production would be
the manufacturing methods necessary for the production of crude tung
oil, and its refinement to a point where it is fit for use in paints and varn-
ishes. A careful statement as to Tung Oil cultivation will be found else-
where in this report.

PEANUT OIL-In view of the increasing use of cellulose for textiles-
rayon in particular-it is not improbable that there will be a gradual de-
cline in the cotton acreage of the United States. Associated with that
decline in the growth of cotton would be a lessened supply of cottonseed
oil now largely used in the form of edible fats-salad oil, cooking com-
pounds, etc.
An important discovery of recent years is the fact that hydrogen
gas will solidify oils to make cooking fats. In Florida already on the
Brown Plantation in Palm Beach County, advances have been made in
raising peanuts as producers of oil for cooking fats only. Peanut oil,
hydrogenated, produces a hard fat that will stand tropical temperatures I
without melting. It is possible therefore to foresee the day when such
a hard fat will be popular for cooking purposes in tropical areas around
the world, leaving out the use of such fats in the temperate zones. The
experiments in this direction so far being conducted will ultimately affect
70,000 acres, the growing being done under the problems presented by
sawgrass muck and drainage.
According to the agricultural enumeration of 1927 peanut crops are
shown in 48 counties; Jackson County having planted 50,670 acres and
Suwannee County 31,592. The total peanut acreage was reported as 214,-
969. Much of the crop was fed to hogs, after peanut hay had been har-
vested. The Jackson County product largely went into shelled goods.







MAJOR INDUSTRIES IN VEGETATION









MAJOR INDUSTRIES IN VEGETATION


The growth, harvesting and preparation of such pulp material to be either
shipped away or manufactured in the state involves a large industrial ac-
tivity and population.

SYRUP-Again quoting from the agricultural enumeration of 1927, we
mention that there were last year 10,524 acres planted for the purpose of
producing cane syrup. The gallons resulting were 1,805,337, valued at
$1,312,189. It is not important to know whether these details are exactly
correct or not; the important thing is that assuming their correctness, the
total production of sugar cane syrup in Florida was insufficient to provide
the entire population with 3 ounces of syrup per person per week. Again
assuming that all syrup grown in Florida was consumed in Florida (which
is incorrect) then there was introduced into Florida all that was consumed
* in excess of this small amount (three ounces per person per week). Cor-
recting the preceding assumption, it is right to say that a large part of
the syrup made in Florida went out of the state to be canned and dis-
tributed back to Florida. With our range of territory suitable for produc-
ing syrup, with attention to a disease-resistant type of cane, Florida can
safely look forward to the time (and not in the remote future) when the
product of 100,000 acres could be marketed as syrup alone, to be con-
sumed here or distributed to other states in the Union or exported.

RUBBER-Thomas A. Edison, the genius to whom the world is in debt for
many valuable inventions and discoveries, has now been for two years
carrying on experiments in Florida seeking for a source of rubber "in case
of war." He wants the United States to be guarded against the cutting
off of our supply through war with us or through the influence of war
* upon us. His attitude toward this subject is one that looks ahead over
twenty years of experimentation.
It must be pointed out that peace rather than war needs considera-
tion, for the industrial outlook of the United States should to kept to the
forefront. The rubber statistics for 1927 show that the imports of rubber
to the United States in 1921 were 179,678 long tons, and increased by
1927 to 403,472 long tons. In the same years the world imports of rubber
were 300,562 long tons and 627,789 long tons. These figures show that
practically two-thirds of the entire consumption of crude rubber of the
world is in the manufacturing processes of the United States, as affecting
a stated 30,000 different uses.
The source of rubber for the United States is on the other side of
the world, and only incidentally in the Amazon Valley, which in 1927
) exported to the United States 28,782 tons.
Mr. Edison has indicated that he has already found plants and shrubs
that have rubber potentialities; among them goldenrod, bignonia, oleander
and cryptostigia Madagascariensis. The problem is to find a shrub or plant
that will grow in Florida equal to producing rubber per solvent methods at
a price in competition with recent world prices. It would involve means
of mechanical operations and immense acreage. Last year the United
States reclaimed 246,000 tons of rubber for re-use or for combination with
new rubber. Assuming an acre in Florida to produce 30 tons of shrub
material and to produce 600 pounds of rubber to the acre, it would require
over 800,000 acres to equal this comparatively small tonnage of reclaimed
rubber. Such a condition must arrest the attention of those who are in-


-I









48 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

terested in finding uses for our vacant acres and are willing to participate
in a thoroughly scientific research.
If rubber should prove to be a profitable product in Florida, the in-
dustrial outlook of Florida would change overnight.

FIBERS-Sisal and henequen will grow on any well drained land in South
Florida. It goes into binder twine and is essential to harvesting. The
imports of sisal and henequen in recent years have ranged over $20,000,000
a year, in which Mexico's share is $17,000,000. The leading import points
for this Mexican material are Massachusetts, New York and Louisiana. Su-
perior samples of sisal and henequen have been produced near Lemon
Bay. Experiments made at Pine Island have resulted in the plants growing
wild and needing no care.
The attitude of manufacturers on the subject of Florida twine ma-
terials is that they will be glad to take it from Florida if it can compete
in quality and steady production with foreign sources. The difference be-
tween cheap foreign labor and labor in Florida would have to be met by
machine methods.
Very successful experiments have been made with the fiber of the
palmetto leaf but nothing in a large or continuous way has been so far
accomplished. The price range, however, between palmetto matting and
grass matting i,s enough to justify research. Reference to the fiber of
palmetto roots appears in the article regarding leather.
Jute grows in Florida. It can be found on the west bank of the
Ocklawaha River between Welaka and Lake Griffin. It is a dry land plant.
A variety of true hemp growing in South Florida is the Ceylon hemp.
It also grows on dry land.
Members of the pineapple family are a valuable source for textiles.
The Pino cloth made in the Philippines and very durable, is from the fiber
in pineapple leaves. From Hayti into South Florida have been introduced
Gramelia Sylvestris and Gramelia Magdaleni, wild varieties of the pine-
apple. The twine made from Gramelia Magdaleni is exceptionally durable.
Samples of these have been seen in connection with the Industrial Survey.
There is no question as to the climate of Florida being adapted to
various fibrous growths both cultivated and uncultivated. A thorough study
of the subject should be made; for if economically correct it would result
in a great permanent, easily handled industry on large acreage in the south-
ern part of the state.

SUGAR-This important subject is treated separately, as it is a subject that
has interested the state greatly in the past, both with failures and suc-
cesses.
If the production of sugar goes forward progressively in the next few
years, it will bring Florida into entirely new relationship to the nation
for an essential and to the world in a realm of real competition.. It will
likewise result in greatly increased employment within the state and the
productive use of great acreage.







FLORIDA'S LUMBER OUTPUT


FLORIDA'S FOREST PRODUCTS

By a method of guessing Florida a few years ago was credited
with 59 billion feet of pine. By 1919 a re-estimate was made setting
it at 36 billion. The Dunham estimate of 1924, which is reprinted
in full, and which will be found referred to in the article by J. B.
Woods, of the Long-Bell Co., has come to be relied upon as the most
carefully constructed estimate in the history of the state. His figures
for 1924 stand at 24 billion. For ties, poles, posts, crate material,
and lumber in general it is believed by experts that Florida's pine
stand is disappearing at more than 2 billion feet a year. Owing to
S the set backs which timber receives from fire it is doubtful if there
is 20 billion feet in sight, even by raking over the state for the thinnest
stand of logging size.
Consequently, as stated in the introductory chapter and reaf-
firmed here, the most vital question before Florida, in relation to its
major area is reforestation, protection of timber lands, management,
selective systems, so that all second growth may play its part in bring-
ing back wealth to the state: 1 By thinning for posts and pulp wood
(which implies that there will be paper manufacturing located in
Florida in the early future). 2 Turpentining selected trees to be
killed for a second growth thinning. 3 A third thinning for poles, and
for ties from trees of unthrifty growth. 4 Turpentining to precede
lumbering. 5 Lumbering. 6 And all the time grazing by supervised
cattle. And so on in a perpetual cycle. The time can come when a
forty-acre wood lot will carry a turpentine crop-10,000 cups.
There is no need to be afraid of the words "conservation of
resources." Conservation in forests means using to the full and not
leaving unused to die of old age. Conservation means also thought
for the generations yet to come. Conservation, therefore, is racial con-
science: There is no state in the Union in which there has been less
racial conscience than in Florida, speaking from the point of view of
forests and forest fires.
Even at the risk of appearing to repeat in certain of the follow-
ing articles, the purpose is there-to arouse the thinkers of the state
to knowledge of the dangers approaching if large areas relapse into
non-use and abuse. Lands good for something serve to pay taxes-
the price of government. Lands producing nothing of value will
certainly be heaped up to the embarrassment of the state.
Though the State Forestry Board has been in existence only a
few months, already plans are complete for fire towers and protection
in Clay County and steps are being taken for the same advances in
Bay, Holmes and Gilchrist. Before the end of 1928 a million acres
will probably be under protection.
In closing this introduction to Forest Products it may be said
to Florida that if she will she can have her forests productive until
that remote time when the human family demands the use of all
fairly level land surface for essential foods. She can if she will-
she must if she is to survive in the great rural stretches which at the
present are good for nothing else but supervised tree growing and
cattle grazing on improved grass cover.


MI


JC __ L ----















LUMBER PRODUCTION-FLORIDA: REPORTED QUANTITY BY KINDS, ALSO LATH AND SHINGLES, SPECIFIED YEARS, 1899-1925
LUMBER

1899 1904 190 1906 | 1907 1908 ] 1909 1910 1911 1912 | 1913 1914
Kinds of wood (368 mills) (176 mills) (123 mills) 1(278 mills) (302 mills) (279 mills) (( 491 mills) (345 mills) (295 mills) (397 mills) 1(203 mills) (381 mills)
I I I I I
Softwoods: M ft. b m M ft. b. m. M ft. b. m. Mf ft. b M ft. b.. M ft. b. m. | M ft. b. m. M ft. b. m M ft. b. m. M ft b. m. M ft. b. m. M ft. b. m.
Cedar----- ------.. _ 2,1601 8,000 2,767 1,261 1,275 6021 997 ...--- 500
Cypress -------- 85,028 66,221 55,569 82,834 66,3981 61,429 84,811 66,117 92,259 101,429 100,7231 119 820
Yellow pines (eastern) 701,677 745.641 601,374| 800,844' 761,8901 664.132 1,110,840 921.323 887,698| 960,735| 923.873 942,231
Total --------- 786,7051 811.862 656,94 t 885,8381 836,2881 728,328 1,196,912 988.7151 980,559[ 1,063,161 1,024.596 1,062,551 ,,
Hardwoods. I I I
Ash ------ 4621 167 85[ 3701 3701 113 282 238 208 290 2,042 964 -
B tc-h I ----- I -- 0 -
Cottonwood --------- 38 80 845 133 307 240 376 55 2,396 1,387
Elm_ .--------.- - .------ ------- 3 ----- ------- ----- .. .... 5 ------ .................- 2------- --------
Hickory -. 377 81 5531 6841 697 1.3931 1,119 942 624 1,1006 1,532
Maple. ---.......-- ----- ---------- -----------------...- - -- ---.------- I 11 ....... 31 .
- - - - -I I . . 3 1 - - - - - I - - - - -
Oak----- ,172------- 731 68| 1471 921 1,3001 298 105 430 3,2621 519
Red gum --- 129 352 283 2841 93 33 2601 11 737 803 12,4771 2,141
S y cam o re ......... .. .... ....... ...... ........... ..... . --.............. I -------------- 3]..... .... 5 9 ......] i-
Tupelo t .- ..-- .... .. ... 137 83 17 73 71 153 47 9461 7,603 1,603 )
aYllow poplar .....0 312 359 8 1281 614 608 1,268 1306 830 647 1,571 1,062
All other -..----- .. 5 8 ------------- ------- I ..........-.... 15 4 2,062
Total ------ 2,2001 831 1,0641 2.2991 2,7701 2,578 4,8221 3,376' 3,2653 4,3641 30,451 11,270
Unclassified: 1,468| I -- - I ---... ---------- -- ------ .
All woods .. ----- ." I ,


LATH AND SHINGLES

Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands
Lath ----- 21,761 20.9751---- ---- 41,4491 44,498 55,741 42,404 52,609[ 51,078]
Shingles-- 177.123 188,652 154,524] 175,7201 112,3421 156,291 120,958 171,421 167,371 309,0811-- [ ..-----
S l 172 188.652 I I 7.37( Ir













LUMBER (Continued) 1


Kind of wood


Softwoods:
C edar -. .- - --- -- --
Cypress ---
Yellow pines (eastern))
Total.
Hardwoods:
Ash -___ ------
Birch--------------------
Cottonwood --- -----...
Elm ..............
H ickory ----------- --
Maple----------
Oak --- ---
Red gum .------
Sycamore ..........
Tupelo ----- -----
Walnut .........----------------.
Yellow poplar ..... ....
All other ------
Total-
All woods -- --






LShges...-----------
S h in g les ... ......... .......... .... ...


1915 1916 1917
(193 mills) (225 mills) (212 mills)


I I I I 1
1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925
(191 mills) (446 mills) (204 mills) (261 mills) (195 mills) (222 mills) (220 mills) (229 mills)


M ftr.. .m. | ft. b. m. M ft. b. m. M ft. m. M fr. b.. m. M ft. b. m. M ft. b. m. Mft. b. m. M ft. b. m. M ft. m. M ft.b. m.
1721 203 241 1321 ___ --.... -- .. 604 5 901 1001 69
161,123 188,799 166.857 85,376 120,4331 105,329 160,840 180,440 183,026| 235,7071 257,125
830.8151 976,516 946,096 765,9121 1004,766| 744.373 753.216 786.857 911,0501 836.988 793,730
992.1101 1.165,518 1.113.1941 851.420 1,125,199| 849,7021 914,660 967,3021 1.094,166 1,072,795 1,050,924

2,163 1,765 2,185 1,537 1.4571 1,498f 531 1.747 1,346 1,305 1,067
8 2 1 -------.........---------.------------- 3 ------- -------
1.932 1,586 2,468 1,626f 1,3701 550 634 700 1,432 471 180
.. I ---- 11..------------ ------ 58-- 1 2 47 ------.. 3 9
114 917 5 511 1,402 1,214 1,006 1,137 1.631 1,580 1,002
--..--.------ 1 - .-------------I 224| --.------ -. 552 179 2 15 42
758 895 527 1,3371 1,232 60 1 02 909 807 832 1,160
4.127 7.070 5,735 4,683 4.294 7,2551 1,988 6,335 1,0981 3,488 3,146
6 J--- ----- -- -- -- -.---------------- ..-I .I ..I 3
1,4991 1,137 1,917 1,1511 1,388 1.9831 821 560 4.4251 4.471 4,355
----- i -----.- -------- 151 -- --- I -------.. I -------- ---- -- -------- 201-------
1.454 804 1.314 300 655[ 1511 225 710 3,607 4,369 1.428
11 5 13| ---1531 600 811 388 61,8161 60 560
S 12,0601 14.199 14.165| 11,160| 12,2331 13,311 7,6721 12.7121 16,1671 16634 12.952
S1,004,170 1,179,717 1,127,5591 862,580 1,137,432| 863,013 922,332 980.0141 1,110,333 1,089,4291 1,063,876

LATH AND SHINGLES


Thousands Thousands Thousan ds Thousan ds Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands Thousands
| 89,860 85,187 97,954 55,171 76,402 89,948 102,275 153,329 144,713 159,004 147,867
116.054 131,795 143,792 102,72S5 128,286 67,689 77847 43,2951 52,4671 48,8491 47,130


SPrevious to 1899 no segregation was made by kinds of wood. All available census
data for the Florida lumber industry are given herewith:
Year f Dollars [ Year I M ft. b. m. Dollars
1839 ---- ---- 20,346 1869 ----- 158,524 2,235.780
1849 ....._ 391,034 1879 --------- 247,627 3.060,291
1859 1,476,645 1889 ------ 411.869| 5,514.879


'Reported as gum.
3 Reported as poplar.
4 Reported as beech,
5 Includes 8 M feet reported as basswood.
8 Includes 44 M feet reported as beech.


, 4 . . .


ILI -





Ui


I .Ill








TIMBER GROWING FOR PROFIT


PROFITABLE TIMBER GROWING

HARRY LEE BAKER
Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D. C.

Timber growing as a business enterprise is not unlike any other thriv-
ing industry. Fair money returns are required in either case. Shrewd
business men take little interest in timber growing, unless they can see
profits within a few years. In the South today a number of such men are
actually engaged in the timber growing business. The ideas that prompted
their investments are the inspiration for this article. In fact, profitable
timber growing is the only kind of forestry that falls within the scope of
this discussion.
If timber can be grown profitably anywhere in the United States, that
place is Northern Florida. Here the warm climate, long growing season and
heavy rainfall are all favorable for tree growth. Pines reproduce themselves
in great abundance and the baby trees grow like weeds, if not destroyed by
fire. The important thing is to protect and manage young stands of timber
with greater care than has been practiced in the past.

While no records are available concerning a crop of timber, protected
and managed by man, there are ways to make a fairly good estimate of
crop production. Nature has grown full crops of timber in some places re-
gardless of man's inclination. These stands have been measured and con-
servative estimates of the crop producing power of the land have been made.
The investment interest and revenue items can be determined. We have,
after all, a fairly good basis for the discussion of timber growing as a
business enterprise.
Some owners of cut-over lands take little interest in timber growing as
a business because they expect no greater yields from young timber than
they have seen cut from virgin stands. In most virgin forests a thinning
process has been going on for many decades. Old age, fire, insects and dis-
ease have attended to this. The net result is large unproductive openings
in the forest with a heavy reduction in the final yield. Losses of this kind
are not nearly so great for second-growth stands. Where timber is grown
as a business, blank spaces are as impossible as "boarder hens" on a profit-
able poultry farm. After about 60 years tree growth begins to slow down
and thereafter the annual growth does not compare favorably with the
growth of young timber. No one would expect four-year-old steers to in-
crease in weight as rapidly as six-month-old calves. Why, then, should
we not expect more in the way of returns from young forests? The two
propositions are essentially the same.

ACRE GROWTH-An acre of medium land well set with longleaf pine
trees will produce 14,000 board feet of timber in 50 years. In the same
length of time slash pine will produce 28,000 feet. High quality sites will,
of course, produce more than medium land. It has been known to run as
high as 49,000 feet. Well-stocked stands of young timber, if given a little
care, will in 40 to 60 years, produce twice as much timber as can be cut
from virgin forests 150 to 200 years old.


El









54 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

The yields here mentioned are believed conservative for the reason that
most computations necessarily have been made for stands of timber where
growth has been slowed down by woods fires. It is indeed difficult to find
tracts of young timber where there have been no fires. But when burned
and unburned forests can be found side by side a marked contrast in the
rate of growth is nearly always apparent. Investigation in one case over a
period of nine years showed an average height growth for longleaf pine of
6% feet on burned land as against 18 feet for the trees that grew on an
adjoining unburned area. This contrast is drawn for two extremes-fire
every year and no fire at all. Under the conditions in Florida brought about
by the periodic burning of the woods, the average rate of growth probably
is 20 to 30 per cent below what it would be if fires had never occurred. In
like manner gum yields can be increased appreciably if fires are kept out.
Just how much cannot be proven by experiments. It is known that one tur-
pentine operator gathered a third more gum from unburned land than he
obtained from burned land; the same number of trees being cupped in each
case. Fires unquestionably retard tree growth and, since most measure-
ments have been made where fires have occurred, timber growers can expect
to produce more timber from carefully managed young forests than has
been accomplished by nature in its struggle against over cutting, destructive
turpentining, and fire.
The idea that one must wait 40 to 60 years for money returns is a fal-
lacy that should be discounted at the outset. Land owners cannot be in-
terested in this kind of a proposition. But this is only necessary when
trees are planted or where the new generation of trees is brought about by
the natural reseeding of the land, following the clean cutting of virgin
stands. Even under such unfavorable conditions, returns from turpentining
can begin before the twentieth year.
Profitable timber growing necessarily must start with well stocked, un-
even aged stands of young timber or with advanced even aged stands that
will soon produce gum, and wood products derived from thinnings. Under
such conditions annual money returns can be realized from the sale of gum
and periodic returns can be had from thinnings cut into cordwood, posts,
poles, piling and ties. Such an income will be possible long before the "trees
of place" intended for sawmill operations reach the proper size. Most young
forests in Florida are uneven aged and a large percentage of the trees have
reached or are approaching the turpentining age. This makes it possible to
obtain money returns at the outset or in five to ten years. There is no such
thing as compound interest from the zero hour to maturity for the kind of a
timber growing proposition that will interest business men.
The growing power of Florida's cut-over lands exceeds by far the belief
of many casual observers. These people have been prone to think in terms of
old, slow growing forests, understocked young forests, and yields common to
burned over land. The compound interest theory no longer should scare
away investors. It is no more fair to the timber growing idea to harbor
such beliefs than it would be to think of growing farm crops profitably under
methods and market conditions common to the age of the oxen and the
wooden plow.
What is needed most in Florida is a better understanding of what
young, well-stocked stands of timber will actually produce under good man-
agement. Only when the land owners and investors fully understand the
potentialities of the cut-over lands, when given half a chance, will they have
courage to go into the timber growing business.










4 TIMBER GROWING FOR PROFIT 55

ESTIMATED PROFITS WHERE TIMBER IS GROWN AS A CROP FOR
A 50-YEAR PERIOD-Let us now scrutinize the estimates made by com-
petent forest engineers for a property that has actually been placed under
forest management. An area of 1,088 acres is involved, but all appraisals
are made on an acreage basis.
The land was purchased for $8.26 an acre.
Interest is figured at 6 per cent, compounded annually.
Taxes are computed on the basis of 9 cents per acre, the present rate,
for the first nine years, and are increased at approximately eight-year in-
tervals until a maximum of 25c per acre is reached at the end of 50 years.
Fire control costs are estimated at 20 cents per acre the first year and
at 15 cents a year thereafter.
The cost of management or supervision is placed at 15 cents per acre.
On large tracts the cost of supervision and fire control would be approxi-
mately one-third the amount used in this computation.
A perpetual turpentine operation will be in progress during the rota-
tion. One face will be worked at a time, the minimum diameter limit being
set at 10 inches and the minimum cutting limit at 12 inches. Poles are to be
cut after the trees have been worked three four-year periods.
The per acre stand table is based on a 10 per cent cruise of the prop-
erty. The revenue from turpentine has been figured at 20 cents a face for
a four-year period of operation, and the revenue from poles based upon
present stumpage values of about 1% cents a foot for 35-foot poles and 2
cents a foot for 40-foot poles. The average haul to a water landing being
2 miles.
Proper deductions are made for non-surviving and cull trees, and for
dry faces.
The estimated expenses and income for a 50-year period are to be found
in the following tabulations:

OPERATIONS AND INCOME FOR THE AVERAGE ACRE
Turpentine Operation Logging Operation
Number of Number of Income Number of Income
Year trees faces Less 10% trees removed Less 10%
1928 ............. .......... ........... 7.7 10.0 $1.80 -....
1932 ..... 9.78 $4.59
1937 .......................................... 12 12 2.16 -- -
1943 ............. ....................... 28 33 5.94
1947 ...............- .......... . ...... ---- .----- 13.5 9.72
19 0 .......................................... 33 33 5.94 -- -.
1957 ................ .......... ... 110 110 19.80
1962 ....................-..--.... ... .. -- -- --.. .- -- 60 43.20
1967 ........................................ 140 175 31.50 ..---.
1972 ....................... ...... ... 140 130 23.40
1977 .......-- ..........--- .... .. ..... ..... .... 140 100.80

EXPENSES AND REVENUES FOR THE AVERAGE ACRE
(At 6% Compound Interest)
Estimated Revenue
Estimated Expenses Operation End Revenue
End Cost at and At 6% Com-
6% Compound Year pound Int.
Item Interest Turpentine .................1928 $33.16
Purchase price of land ....... ($8.26) $152.15 Logging ...................---1932 63.16
Taxes 1927-36 ................- -..... (9c) 11.23 Turpentine ......... .........1937 22.23
Taxes 1936-45 -...-... ............... .(12c) 8.91 Turpentine -.....-..... 1943 43.06
Taxes 1945-53 ........... .......- (15e) 5.99 Logging ................... 1947 55.79
Taxes 1953-61 .. ................. (18c) 4.52 Turpentine ......................1950 28.63
Taxes 1961-69 ............. ........... (21c) 3.31 Turpentine ...-... ....... 1957 63.50
Taxes 1969-77 ............. ----... (25c) 2.48 Logging -........-..---.- 1962 103.68
Protection 1928 ..-.................. (20c) 3.68 Turpentine .................1967 56.38
Protection 1927-77 ...................... (15c) 40.95 Turpentine ................... 1972 29.48
Management 1927-77 ................(12c) 43.55 Logging ........ ............1977 100.80
Total ... .................... ............ $276.77 $599.87


U'









56 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

NET PROFIT PER ACRE
Pine ......................... --.. --..... ....... ..........--....... -- $599.87 less $276.66 $323.10
Land Value ... ......... ..-... ...........-...-..-..- ....-- ...----- 5.00
Hardwood, 5M @ $5.00 ..............................-.... -.....- ----- - -- 25.00
Total Net Profit per Acre ...-..... -...--.. ...... ----. .-.... -......... -... $353.10
Average Annual Profit per Acre -- ........ .. --... -- ......... ........-.- $ 7.06

The operation is covered in considerable detail in order to emphasize
the point that good forest management requires careful planning based upon
a thorough appraisal of the situation. One interested in timber growing as
a business enterprise should by all means determine the taxes he will have
to pay and the interest, compounded for this and other investment items.
He should select well stocked stands and have a pretty good idea concerning
the growth, yield and income that can be expected under simple manage-
ment methods. The accessibility of the tract is also an important con-
sideration, as it affects logging costs.

ESTIMATED RETURNS FROM ONE ACRE OF SLASH PINE IN A
DENSE STAND 37 YEARS OLD-At the age of 37 years a dense stand of
slash pine near Starke had 16,700 board feet per acre. Of this stand, 275
trees were cupped for gum. The trees produced 4.4 barrels of gum a year
worth $10 per barrel, which gave an annual return of $44 per acre. This
yield could have been sustained for an eight-year period beginning with the
29th year, resulting in a gross return of $352. Prorated against the life of
the crop the returns for the gum amount to $9.51 per acre per year. The saw-
logs should bring $12 per thousand at the mill or $200.40, which on an
annual basis amounts to $5.42 per acre.

RETURNS FROM ONE ACRE OF SLASH PINE IN A DENSE STAND
37 YEARS OLD, NEAR STARKE
Annual Annual
Gross Stumpage returns Gross
returns or leasing for annual
37 years value labor returns
Gum ..................... .---. $352.00 $3.17 $6.34 $9.51
Sawlogs ..--...... --...-- --..- 200.40 2.25 3.17 5.42
Totals .......................... $552.40 $5.42 $9.51 $14.93

The annual returns from the above-mentioned acre are above the aver-
age. For Northern Florida the returns will run between $5 and $16 per
acre per year, about one-third of which may be considered as the leasing or
stumpage value of the trees, the balance representing the returns for labor.

WHAT A LUMBERMAN SAID-The man who is secretary, sales manager
and stockholder in one of the biggest operations in the South is the origi-
nator of the figures below:
He was asked if the company had any lands, cut-over, that had a crop
of pine on them now.
"We have," he said. "I wish we could try an experiment in reforesta-
tion-wish we could afford to."
He took a pencil and paper.
"Why, we have 240,000 acres of land, and if we could afford to just cut
the big timber we could keep running forever.
"Let's see"-the pencil was active-"We are getting eight thousand feet
per acre off our lands. If we could leave the small stuff, say cut 5,000, leav-
ing 3,000, at the rate pine grows here, we could double what we leave every
15 years-at the most, every 20 years.








TIMBER GROWING FOR PROFIT


"Now, that pine is worth, at the least calculation, $5 a thousand.
"The whole area, given 20 years, would produce 720 million feet of pine,
new growth. Seven hundred and twenty million at $5 a thousand is worth,
m-m-m-$3,600,000. Lord, Gosh!" He began to get excited. "Over 31/
million dollars produced out of NOTHING. Then, here too, that stumpage
value in 20 years would be at least tripled. That would make that poten-
tial 720 million feet worth over $10,000,000. Right on the stump.
"Then, here, too." The pencil was flying. "That 720 million produced
out of nothing would benefit the world, not only by giving them a supply
of timber cheaper than if they had to send to foreign lands for it, but in
the money paid out in its manufacture. Um-um, it costs us $20 to $25 a
thousand to manufacture now-it can't go lower. Let's say $25 a thou-
sand-why, man, that's $17,000,000 we would turn loose in the world in the
manufacture of the pine that we would get from growth alone in 20 years,
AND NEVER TOUCH OUR PRINCIPAL, our capital stock of 3,000 feet
to the acre!"
In my judgment, the opportunity for profitable timber growing already
exists widely throughout Northern Florida. It may not be an inviting
business proposition in some instances where nature has been waging an
uphill battle against over cutting, destructive turpentining and fire, or
where the land is not adapted to tree growth. But for selected areas timber
culture will come more and more to be considered a business enterprise. "It
deserves," in the words of Colonel William B. Greeley, Chief of the Forest
Service, United States Department of Agriculture, "the same sort of critical
study as the manufacturing or merchandising of lumber. I believe that it
holds in store financial rewards, opportunities for industrial stability, and
gains from the constructive application of commercial foresight fully equal
to those realized by the pioneer lumbermen who appreciated the opportu-
nities offered by the South thirty or forty years ago. Forestry undeniably
involves certain risks in such matters of fire losses and inequitable taxation.
Its return cannot precisely be calculated. But such as these drawbacks may
be, I doubt if they are any greater than the handicaps and uncertainties
encountered in the earlier development of the great lumber manufacturing
industry of this region. In the one instance as in the other, business fore-
sight and grasp of the essential economic facts as to timber supply and
timber values are the key to success."


PINE TIMBER POTENTIALITIES OF FLORIDA
J. B. WOODS
Forest Engineer, Long-Bell Lumber Co.
The pine forests of Florida have been somewhat a mystery to those
people whose business is to amass statistical data about natural resources.
Several attempts have been made since 1900 to determine the extent
of Florida's pine timber reserve, but until quite recently such surveys have
been superficial and because of the peculiarities of these pine stands not
entirely reliable.
The state's land area is slightly more than thirty-five million acres,
and except for the Everglades, open savannahs and occasional swamps,
originally was covered with a stand of pine timber. In those counties
west of the Apalachicola River the pine forests were fairly dense, con-
taining large and tall trees of exceptional quality. Naturally such stands

























































EXPORTS OF LUMBER FROM THE CUSTOMS DISTRICT OF FLORIDA, 1926-27. THE WEIGHT OF THE LINES INDICATES
THE PROPORTIONATE TONNAGE BY COUNTIES








PINE TIMBER POTENTIALITIES 59

were sought out early in the present century by lumber men and grouped
into large holdings for the orderly processes of manufacture. We per
haps should add that to a limited extent the old-time water loggers who
worked along the raftable streams of Alabama looked with favor upon
the timber south of the state line. But their inroads were scarcely notice-
able, and the beginnings of pine logging in these western counties may
be said to have come with the twentieth century.

MIXED WOODS-Extending eastward across this gently rolling state
to the Atlantic coastline was a somewhat variegated pine forest designed
by Providence to occupy the divers sites that nature provided. On the
gentle slopes and better drained flats were stands of longleaf, while along
the watercourses and in lower spots loblolly and slash pine competed with
gums and cypress for survival, frequently holding their own. Seen from
the back of a horse or a buggy-seat as one rode through, these park-like
stands delighted the eye and impressed the observer with their vastness.
From Jacksonville the early lumber manufacturers worked west-and-
southward, logging from the better forests, and their progress was quite
rapid. For in reality these, park areas were not so heavily timbered as
had appeared. But the practical problems of long log-hauls limited the
scope of sawmill men's activities to the more accessible tracts.
However, these interior parks were well adapted to production of
resinous gum from pine trees. So within a few years after 1900 another
timber using industry, with its long history in the seaboard states to north-
ward, moved into Florida and swelled the exports of Jacksonville with
the world commodities turpentine and rosin. Naval stores operators worked
gradually southward through pine stands that had little or no realizable
saw-timber values at the time. And as the long-needled pines greatly pre-
dominated this naval stores business grew to large proportions, and in fact
appeared to overshadow the slower growth of the lumber industry.
But great forces were moving in Florida. The good judgment of those
pioneers who recognized in this region an ideal winter playground was
amply vindicated by events. Development of boldly conceived transporta-
tion facilities brought thousands from the Northern and Middle Western
states'to play and also to buy and build, in fact to rear a far-flung coastal
resort establishment. And this by no means was all. The warm winter
climate was favorable for growing citrus fruits and countless other delicacies
which could be placed upon the tables of winter-bound city dwellers. So
a great fruit and truck business came into being.
INCREASED CONSUMPTION-Naturally such developments required
forest products for their execution. Materials for construction of rail-
roads and highways; timbers and lumber for city and farm; boxes, barrels
and crates for products of the soil; all were needed in vast quantities. The
census of 1880 gave the state's yearly lumber output as slightly less than
250 million board feet; equivalent let us say to the annual cut of five typical
large southern mills of the present day. By 1925 the annual yield of
her forests was estimated at two billion board feet or more of
pine alone! It was said that the quantity of pine lumber used for packing
fruit and vegetables in 1925 was greater than the total lumber output of
1880! The state actually was obliged to import lumber by the shipload
to carry on her building projects.
The remote stands, many of them previously worked over for resin


- -----









60 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

gum, have come into merchantability and are being logged. Shortleaf
forests, formerly considered comparatively valueless and therefore ignored
as a source of building materials, have assumed importance and are being
converted into lumber. The organization of this lumber industry is di-
vided probably about equally between large milling companies and small
operators using portable mills or even broadaxes. Tie making by manual
labor comes in this second category and is a sizable enterprise in itself.
It is estimated that the quantity of pine ties produced in 1925 was not
less than two-thirds of a billion board feet!
Of the small operators, many were financed and controlled by dis-
tributing interests maintaining central assembling, refining and distributing
stations for forest products. It is quite possible that this scheme of or-
ganization will increase to much larger proportions. Such trends have
been markedly noticeable in other South-Atlantic states.

SOME QUESTIONS-Now several questions naturally arise. What does
this great activity mean to the state as a contribution to its future well-
being? Will the forests disappear from the land, leaving their record only
in the structures into which they have gone? Will more intensive soil
uses replace the forest growth use? How long can the present forest using
industries carry on, with the timber now remaining? And lastly, is it
possible and worth while to maintain a perpetual forest industry, yielding
timber products and naval stores?
It is well to begin such a discussion by stating that forests undoubtedly
have, been given us by the Creator for our use. For we know that if left
uncut trees finally decay and die. Moreover, we may admit also that
many sorts of land under certain conditions are more productive and use-
ful under agricultural crops than under timber. But there are land areas
in every state that are better suited to tree growing than for other use.
And, of course, land utilization is a progressive matter, changing with
times and conditions; today we may grow trees on'a given tract because
it is remote and unpeopled; a generation hence it may be urgently needed
for orchards and farms. Generally, however, we should recognize that
idle land is a wasted asset, and that tree growing is a wise economic enter-
prise on most idle areas.

DUNHAM REPORT-In 1924 a trained observer, working under direction
of the Southern Pine Association, surveyed the, pine timber resources of
Florida and obtained some very interesting and valuable data. He ar-
rived at the conclusion that the remaining stand of pine in the state ag-
gregated about 24 billions of board feet of merchantable material. This
timber stood upon a very large area, in other words the average stand per
acre was quite small; in fact less than two thousand board feet. A
goodly portion of this reserve in the northern portion of the state was
second growth, matured since the light logging of early days.
If we should take this total and divide: it by the estimated yearly
production of two billion board feet we might declare that the pine lumber
industry will be extinguished by the end of 1937. But of course, such
a statement would be entirely misleading, for many good reasons. So far
as the writer can ascertain no such statement has been made by any well
informed agency. Ownership of these forests is distributed among many


I -








PINE TIMBER POTENTIALITIES 61

groups and individuals. Some mills have only small reserves upon which
to draw, and will be obliged to suspend operations long before 1937.
Others have large tracts and will operate long after that year has passed.
Two National Forests in Florida contain large quantities of pine, and the
understood policy of the Federal Forest Service is to hold timber extrac-
tion down as nearly as practicable to the annual growth increment. Such
forests should remain permanently productive.
It is stated that there are forests in the state whose owners will not
sell them for conversion at present at any price. And while such tracts
cannot constitute a large portion of the reserve, yet their influence may be
felt in the future whenever cutting does begin.
Then there is the. growth factor to consider, for trees grow, old stands
as well (though possibly not so fast) as young. Nobody can approximate
an estimate of the annual growth increment of Florida pine. But cer-
tainly it is considerable. The United States Fore,st Service in 1919 haz-
arded a guess of fifty-two and one-half million board feet per year, which
possibly was a low figure, reflecting a pessimistic view of actual increment
under conditions of unfavorable fire protection, and destructive logging
methods. Paradoxically it may be assumed that as logging proceeds, growth
rate will increase, if cutover lands are given better protection from their
most common enemy, fire. Young trees grow quite rapidly in Florida,
while older stands do not appear to keep pace in the actual accretion of
wood material volume per acre. Under favorable logging and protection
this annual growth can be increased very considerably, in fact, fifty fold.
The effect of low priced lumber from the Pacific Coast appears to be
felt in all southern states, retarding production of pine from smaller trees
wherever such manufacture is difficult and costly by making low grade pine
unprofitable to manufacture. In the long run this will benefit the timber
growers of these states, because trees left to grow will become much more
valuable later.
Considering these factors of ownership, growth and imports, one is
led to the conclusion that Florida's pine output will decline slowly over
a period of several years, until it reaches the level at which annual growth
increment equals output by manufacture. Thereafter production may
continue to decline as more and more young forests give way to farms;
or it may increase markedly under wise management of forest lands for
timber growing. We should remember that experience in older countries
has shown that man-tended forests can yield greater quantities of wood
in rotation periods of fifty or more years than uncared for stands.

REPLACEMENT-There are three clasess of land which today may be
considered suitable for forest production in the state; undeveloped areas
now inaccessible or at least not yet needed for farming; swamps and stream
margins; and unimproved farm areas. We may estimate the first class
to contain fifteen million acres. At present on much of this area there are
virgin and second growth stands of pine. If we take into account the
small timber now growing and the young trees that will seed in and grow
after logging, providing they are protected from fire, we can say that this
vast area is capable of producing by growth a yearly total volume equiva-
lent to two billion board feet.
While the area of swamp lands and stream margins is quite large,
the portion occupied by pine is relatively small. Great drainage projects
are under way to convert such swamps into highly productive agricultural


II








62 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

land. But it is an interesting fact that shortleaf pine seeds rapidly upon
such lands after the water recedes, and thrives amazingly. During the
inevitable development stage when settlers are moving into such tracts there
will remain portions not put under plow for quite long periods, and we
may see much pine grown upon reclaimed lands as a sort of interim
crop, made ready for use in rotations of thirty years or less. Stream
margin stands will continue to be fairly important for a long time in
certain localities. It is not unreasonable to estimate that half a billion
feet of timber can be produced yearly from such lands, under deliberate
management for tree culture.

FARM AREAS-According to the census of 1920 there are more than
3,700,000 acres of unimproved farmlands (1925-2,657,336 acres. Depart-
ment of Agriculture Enumeration. G. D.) in the state. Not an alarm-
ing total at all when we consider the proper relation of farm woodlots to
cultivated areas, because most of this is classed as woodlots. The farmer
has use for wood in a variety of forms and sizes from kindling on. It is
a fine thing for the farmer to be self-supporting as to fuel and building
materials. And it is entirely reasonable to expect that in time he will
develop his woodlot to the point of yielding merchantable materials for
sale. In fact many farmers in all southern states are doing well with
their woodlots already. Probably the output from such forests can be
built up to and sustained at half a billion feet per year, of which half
may be available for commercial use off the farms.
We are given to thinking of timber as a crop requiring one or more
centuries to mature. And of course, our virgin stands are usually two
hundred years old, or more. But at least half of the present wood prod-
ucts output today in Florida can be made from trees of small size and
few years, providing they are reasonably accessible and of good quality
for their size and age. Crates, dimensions, ties, and other forms are
produced from second growth trees. And second growth trees grown under
sylvicultural management are of better quality than most untended forests.

LOOK ABROAD-Under the system developed in Europe, naval stores
can be produced while new forests are growing, by cupping a portion of
the young stand, after which the bled trees are removed to make more
room for the selected survivors. The naval stores industry can be given
a new lease of life in Florida if desired. And it should be stated in passing
that the Forest Service and certain more progressive private operators have
been experimenting for several years, with favorable results in the main,
to work out adaptations of the European methods of cupping young trees,
suitable to southern conditions. One may ask whether a permanent naval
stores industry spells prosperity for a community, even upon the less de-
sirable lands. In southern France, where pine crop rotation for cupping
is a large enterprise built up on lands that a century ago were buried in
shifting sands from the Bay of Biscay, they have a terse way of expressing
their views. Fifty years ago the Frenchman would say of this region, "If
a bird would fly across the Landes he should carry his rations on his
back." Today the same Frenchman whether in Bordeaux or Paris says:
"If you would become a gourmand, go to the Landes." In brief the resi-
dents of that locality are famed for their 'eats.' It is a very productive







PINE TIMBER POTENTIALITIES


country, with good gardens and vineyards scattered among the pine groves,
but the basis of their prosperity is the pine tree.
We have indicated that the pine lands of the state are capable of
producing a permanent yearly timber output of three to four billion board
feet. Such a level of production cannot come for many years unless a
state-wide movement toward orderly reforestation and protection swings
into effect in the immediate future. But matters have a way of going
ahead rapidly in Florida; the yeast is working even now, and one would
be rash to dismiss such a possibility as remote. With its variety of con-
structive activities, its climatic advantages, and wealth of lands adapted to
growing trees, the state offers to lumbermen, naval stores operators and
land owners in general, who wish to look far into the future for permanent
production, a challenging opportunity to undertake such enterprises.
If the people of Florida desire to maintain a permanent timber in-
dustry and will work to make conditions better for protecting such stands
from depredations of fire and range hogs, such a business can be main-
tained on a scale greater than the present lumber output. Cattle can be
ranged under growing forests in great numbers without appreciable damage
if care is given to protect newly seeded areas and if over-grazing is pre-
vented. A combination of cattle and pine would be quite advantageous
to the state upon much of the interior area, yielding double income fr.m
the land.
One may ask whether forest growing offers any real promise of
profit to individuals or public, in face of present market conditions sur-
rounding the lumber business. Is there good reason to desire to increase
the yearly output of a commodity which at present may not be profitable
to manufacture except under favorable operating conditions? Faith in
two things is required of him who would answer affirmatively: faith in
the future of the state of Florida; belief in her destiny of continued ex-
pansion and population gains, with much to come in the way of develop-
ment and building. Faith also in the habit of humans to prefer wood for
thousands of uses. All through the ages the uses of wood have increased
as men grew more civilized. Wood is the material from which the typical
home-loving American builds his castle. It enters every phase of his
daily life.
Florida imports lumber. But she also is ideally situated with respect
to the eastern markets of America, and with European ports before her,
to continue to ship forest products outside her borders in growing volume.
There is every sound economic reason to expect that a permanent timber
growing business will produce profits more and more satisfactory as time
goes on.

CONCLUSION-Visitor, to Florida find in her park-like forests a pleasing
prospect and health-giving background for their recreation. It would be
profitable as well as praiseworthy for the cities of the state to acquire and
protect large forest areas for the perpetual use and entertainment of their
winter visitors. Some of the most charming spots in Europe are city
S forests, where conditions are quite natural and unspoiled and where log-
ging goes on undisturbed by there thousands who tramp the trails and roads
S with pack and camera.


ml












64 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE



THE DUNHAM REPORT ON LUMBER IN FLORIDA,

JUNE, 1924

Florida is the second state in area east of the Mississippi River with its 35,000,000
acres closely approximating the area of Georgia, with an acreage of 36,500,000.
With exception of the Everglades and the open savannahs in the southern portion
of the peninsula, all of Florida carries stands of longleaf. Of the original stand, about
24,000,000,000 feet remain, 21 billion feet of which is longleaf and three billion feet is
shortleaf, the latter being principally what is locally called "Black Pine," growing in
heavy stands along the water courses and at swamp edges.
With exception of a few small areas in the extreme western part of the state,
adjoining Alabama, the timber stands of Florida have never been heavy, and only a few
of the remaining stands will average 7 M to the acre over any considerable area.
Vast areas of the state have stands averaging only from 1,000 to 1,500 feet to the
acre. This, perhaps, explains the large percentage of virgin timber (ex-boxing) (11,000,-
000,000 feet or 42%) shown as uncontrolled by mill operations.
When the state was reported in 1919, the reserve timber of the state was reported
at 36 billion feet, of which 10 billion feet was shown to be represented by the thin stands
in the southern counties referred to, as follows:

TIMBER STANDS IN SOUTHERN FLORIDA COUNTIES AS REPORTED IN 1919


County
St. Lucie ----..-...............
Palm Beach. ...................................
Broward............................. ......
Brevard........ .................
Dade........-...........- ---
Monroe.... .......------- ---.-- ---
Okeechobee...........--------.----------*- ---------
Osceola .......----------- --..-- --. .-----
Polk ...... ...--- ... .. ----- ...
DeSoto ................... ---....-
Lee................ .... ........
Manatee......... .......------------ .......


Acres
689,280
1,624,330
775,680
656,000
1,292,160
704,000
478,080
867,840
1,220,480
2,375,000
2,335,000
855,680

13,873,530


Pine Timber
560,000,000 feet
1,153,000,000
87,000,000
313,000,000
86,000,000
25,000,000
538,000,000
1,246,000,000
882,000,000
2,096,640,000
2,188,000,000
1,243,000,000

10,417,640,000


Very little of this timber was then owned by mill men, and it was then thought
that the logging expense of operating it would keep it in the reserve column for many
years, but the review of the situation just made indicates that nearly half of it has been
bought up by the St. Andrews Bay Lumber Company, J. M. Griffin Lumber Company, Rio
Lumber Company, Manatee Crate Company, Wauchula Development Company, and others,
and the situation in the southern counties of the state was in the year 1924 much as
follows (allowance must be made for timber represented by operations that are really in
counties adjoining on the north):

TIMBER SITUATION IN SOUTHERN FLORIDA COUNTIES, JUNE, 1924


County
St. Lucie.........................
Palm Beach..............
Broward.......................


Monroe .-- -----------
Brevard..........................
Dade (1)........................
M onroe...........................
Okeechobee...................
Osceola-.................
Polk ....................--- ------
DeSoto)I -------..----.-
xHardee ( ------------.-.::::::
xHighlands .
xGlades ...................
xCharlotte ------..-
Lee ... m-) .
xxHendry
xxCollier .................
Manatee .. ..... -.
xxxSarasota -.---.I -.-.-


Less in other counties.........


Total.... .. ...................


Timber Represented
Acres By Operations
689,280 100,000,000 feet
1,624,330 201,000,000
775,680 11,000,000
656,000 171,000,000 "
1,292,160 100,000,000 "
704,000
478,080 526,000,000 "
867,840 536,000,000
1,220,480 822,000,000
197,000,000
266,000,000
70,000,000
2,405,560
14,000,000
198,000,000 "
2,579,840 9,000,000
23,000,000
605,000,000
855,680 178,000,000

14,148,920 4,027,000,000
........................ 500,000,000

3,527,000,000
...... ....... 8,392,000,000 B. M. feet


"Other Timber"
340,000,000 feet
524,000,000
34,000,000
275,000,000
35,000,000
15,000,000
50,000,000
630,000,000
200,000,000
45,000,000
154,000,000
80,000,000
125,000,000
411,000,000
542,000,000
391,000,000 "
677,000,000 "
75,000,000 "
262,000,000 "

4,865,000,000 '


4,865,000,000 "


As against the 10,417,640,000 feet reported in 1919.

xNew counties formed out of old DeSoto County.
xxNew counties formed out of old Lee County.
xxxNew county formed out of old Manatee County.
(1) Drake Lumber Company of Miami says, April 16, 1928: "Hurricane damage, 1926,
standing yellow pine now negligible.










THE DUNHAM REPORT 65


No considerable amount of timber has been cut in the above counties since they
were reported in 1919. The discrepancy of two billion -feet is due to these scattered
stands having been overestimated by their owners and others. Such mill men as have
been cutting in this section have not been able to get footage from the saw equivalent to
the cruise under which they bought the timber.
The shortleaf pine of Florida, referred to as "Black Pine," wherever found, runs to
heavy stands, sometimes as high as 20 M to 25 M to the acre. Stands have run as high
as 40,000 feet to the acre, but this is by no means average or even usual. This timber
is of very rapid growth in the low lands, trees growing to great height, and reaching
diameters of four feet, often 50 feet to the first limb, and producing 30% of clear lumber
A few years ago this timber had but little value, many mills refusing to bring it out of
the woods. Now, the many small tracts of this timber, passed over by the large operators
are proving very attractive and profitable to the smaller operator, and a large number of
new small mills have been set up in this timber in the past two years. The large mills
are also buying it. This quality of stumpage has been selling at from $1.50 to $2.00
per M, but it is rapidly advancing in price.
The stand of this timber ("Black Pine," spruce pine) was underestimated when the
report was made in 1919. This timber is elusive, standing as it does in the river bot-
toms and swamp edges, and the estimates furnished for 1924 are probably well within
the actual.

RE-GROWTH RAPID-Recovery of Florida forests is very rapid in the earlier years,
especially in the flat lands, which constitute a very large per cent of the state's area, but
the rapid initial rate of growth is not maintained, and the average rate of growth is less
than in many other parts of the South. Excepting the extreme western part of the
state, trees do not reach the size nor growth as thick in stand as in other sections. This,
perhaps, is due to the extreme thinness of the top soil, which does not appear to be able
to furnish nourishment for a thick stand of large trees. This does not apply to the
shortleaf growth found on the alluvial lands of the river bottoms and at swamp edges.
In 1919, there appeared to be a tendency to under-estimation in the northern and
northwestern part of the state, probably due to the custom of buying under loose esti-
mates. In earlier years only included trees 12 inches and up, and no trees would be cut
that would not yield 1,000 feet to three logs; while in 1919 all logs of sawable size
were brought in, the old custom of loose estimation still had its influence on the judg-
ment and statements of the "old timers" from whom information was obtained.
On the contrary, in the southern counties where the 10 billion feet on 13,000,000
acres was in 1919 noted, the private owners displayed a tendency to exaggerate their
holdings.
Now, in 1924, this tendency to exaggeration of timber stands appears to be gen-
eral all through the state, except on the part of a few large operators, whose statements
may still be regarded as conservative.

LIFE OF FLORIDA PINE MILLS JUNE, 1924








L. Lf. S.. Lf. Total
5 .01 1 year 10 1 11 .008 11,000,000 feet .0005
37 .08 2 82 10 92 .07 178,000,000 .008
27 .13 3 23 16 39 .10 117,000,000 .013
164 .44 4 192 46 238 .27 946,000,000 .05
42 .52 5 110 20 130 .36 650,000,000 .08
121 .75 6 98 37 135 .46 810,000,000 .11
11 .77 7 45 24 69 .51 483,000,000 .13
45 .85 8 43 12 55 .54 440,000,000 .15
2 .86 9" 8 8 .55 72,000,000 .153
51 .95 10 125 28 153 .66 1,530,000,000 .22
20 .99 11 to 15 369 13 382 .93 5,079,000,000 "' .42
3 .99 16 to 20 72 2 74 .98 1,364,000,000 .48
1 100 over 20 15 3 18 100 396,000,000 .495
529 1,192 22 1,404 12,076,000,000 "
Timber not reported under operations............................... 12,272,000,000 100
Total Timber Stand........................................................ 24,348,000,000 "
Longleaf timber reported under mill operations................ 10,687.000,000 "
xLongleaf timber not reported under mill operations........ 10,695,000,000 "
Total Longleaf.................................................... ..... .. 21,382,000,000 "
Shortleaf timber reported under mill operations........ 1,389,000,000 "
Shortleaf timber not reported under mill operations.... 1,577,000,000 "
Total Shortleaf ... - .. .............................. 2,966,000,000 "

Total Timber ................. .................................. 24,348,000,000 "
Production by 58 large mills ..................... ............... ... 960,000,000 feet 68.4%
Production by 471 small mills.................... ................... 444,000,000 feet 31.6%
xIncludes second-growth timber on cutover lands that will probably not be cut by
present operations,
Voa h rla................ ,6,0,0
roa i h r................. 2~4,0,0
PrdutonbyS lrg ils..~................... 96,0000fet6U4



37 .08 2 82 10 92 .07 17 8,000,000 .008 wil pobaly ot e ct b
27 .8 323 6 3 .10 117000000 .01


II


I












66 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


LIFE OF FLORIDA PINE MILLS-LONGLEAF ONLY


5 .01
31 .08
22 .13
137 .44
35 .50
91 .70
9 .73
43 .83
2 .84
48 .94
20 .99
3 .99
1 100


2"
3 "
3
4
5 "
6
7
8
9
10
11 to 15 years
16 to 20
over 20


447
Longleaf timber not reported under
operations........................... ..... .........

Total Longleaf ........ .......... .


Cs 5 B
i1 55 ^




10 .008 10,000,000 feet
82 .08 158,000,000 "
23 .10 69,000,000
192 .26 762,000,000
110 .35 550,000,000
98 .43 588,000,000
45 .47 315,000,000
43 .50 344,000,000
8 .51 72,000,000
125 .63 1,250,000,000
369 .92 4,911,000,000
72 .98 1,328,000,000
15 100 330,000,000

1,192 10,687,000,000 "

S10,695,000,000 "

21,382,000,000 "


1919-1924 PRODUCTION COMPARED

In 1919, the pine cut of Florida was reported by the Southern Pine Association at
1,438,000,000 feet, as against 1,404,000,000 feet above reported as of 1924. The dis-
parity between these figures is actual slightly greater than appears, for the reason that
the cut reported in 1924 includes the following operations:

Rio Lumber Company, Rio.-. ..................... ....... .. .. 12,000,000
St. Andrews Bay Lumber Company, Okeechobee -0............-.-...-.....- 36,000,000
J. M. Griffin Lumber Company, Holapaw..................-------- -- 24,000,000
McWilliams Lumber Company, Slater.................. -- ---..........- 12,000,000

Total ... ... .............-- .. .................... ... ............... 84,000,000 feet

All of these are new operations this year. and one of them, the St. Andrews Bay
Lumber Company, will not likely be producing lumber until sometime in 1925. Both the
Griffin and St. Andrews Bay operations claim larger capacity than above reported, but
they are in thin timber, and it is doubtful if their annual output will greatly exceed the
figures above given.


REVISION OF ESTIMATES OF SOUTH FLORIDA TIMBER STAND

Five years ago but little was known about the scattered pine timber on the vast
area of the Southern Florida counties. In the intervening period, much of this timber
has changed ownership, and the earlier estimates on these stands have been more or less
checked, and there is a general tendency on the part of local authorities to revise all
these estimates downwards. In some counties radically so. Mill men who have set up
in this timber are not getting the footage out of it which they expected to get. This ac-
counts for the discrepancy between the timber stand reported in 1919 at 36,000,000,000
and the present stand reported at 24,000,000,000. It is obvious that the gross production
by saw mills in this period of about 6% billion, plus tie and pole depletion estimated at
about two billion feet, does not make up for this discrepancy, which is further increased
by the shortleaf pine stand in the northern part of the state having been underestimated
in 1919 by at least 1% billion feet. This shrinkage is all in the timber on the 14,000,000
acres in the extreme southern counties above referred to.

ESTIMATED BY GUESS-It is interesting to note that the Department of Commerce and
Labor, in its review of "The Lumber Industry" (January 20, 1913), gives the stand of
pine timber in Florida in 1910 as 59,000,000,000 feet. When the survey was made in
1919, the writer was unable to find anything like the stand of timber that should be in
the state in 1919, if there had been 59,000,000,000 feet in 1910. Production of lumber
ties and piling could not possibly account for the 23,000,000,000 feet difference between
the 36 billion feet estimate of 1919 and the Government's findings of 59 billion feet in
1910. Disturbed by this inconsistency, I hunted up Mr. Nelson C. Brown, who did the
field work in Florida upon which the data put out by the Department of Commerce and
Labor was based, and asked him how he had arrived at his figures for Florida's large
timber stand. In the northern and central counties he had used the same methods em-
ployed by the writer, but, as he told me, had not visited the southern counties and ob-
tained his figures by spreading an average over the entire area. When asked what
average he had used, he replied 2,000 feet. As the acreage involved is some 14,000,000,
this would give a stand of 28,000,000,000 feet in these counties, as against the 10'/z
billion feet reported by the writer on the same area in 1919, and which has been still
further decreased in the present review.
In this interim there has been no lumber produced to speak of in this section, and
tie production has not been heavy. In fact, these thin stands in Southern Florida were,
until a year or so ago, regarded as unprofitable to operate, The great development iP


.0005
.008
.01
.047
.07
.10
.11
.13
.14
.19
.42
.48
.50


100











THE DUNHAM REPORT 67

South Florida of recent years, and the resulting stimulus to construction, has entirely
changed the situation. The local market now absorbs all the lumber cut from these thin
stands at good prices, and the high cost of getting the logs to the mill is more than
compensated for by the nominal freight rate paid to point of use.

FLORIDA NOW CONSUMING MORE LUMBER THAN IT PRODUCES
There is relatively more development activity in South Florida than in any other
part of the country, as a consequence of which Florida is now using more lumber than
it produces; while much lumber is shipped from Florida, this is more than compensated
for by shipments in from Alabama and Georgia. Further, the demand for crate material
calls for over 250 million feet of Florida's annual pine lumber production.

DEPLETION THROUGH TIE CUTTING
Tie cutting is a very considerable factor in the reduction of Florida's timber
stand, and contributes to the shrinkage in the present estimate below that of 1919. Mr.
Mark Fleishel, of the Putnam Lumber Company, says that he believes that the shipment
of ties from the Port of Jacksonville is nearly the equivalent in board feet to the amount
of lumber annually produced in the state. These shipments include ties produced in
Georgia and Alabama, as well as Florida, and while no figures are available for the tie
shipments originating in Florida, probably 700,000,000 feet or more of Florida's timber
stand is being converted into ties annually. This added to the annual depletion through
lumber production would bring the total depletion up to somewhere in the neighborhood
of 2,000,000,000 feet a year.

CUT-OVER LANDS IN FLORIDA
It is the opinion of the writer that Florida has the least to offer of all the pine-
bearing states of the South in the attractiveness of her cut-over lands for purposes of
agricultural development. Taken as a whole, with exception of the hammock lands, the
soil is thin and poor and an observer sees many instances of agricultural failure. Nature
is not kind to the agriculturist, and only those well supplied with money, permitting
the development of a citrus grove, or with specialized skill in growing some crop that
finds a ready winter market, such as celery, tomatoes, etc., seem to have any success
from their endeavors to win a living and a profit from the soil.
The excessive heat of the sun's rays prevents the growing of vegetables, except-
ing in the winter months. This has its compensation in the fact that at this season they
command the highest price if they can be profitably gotten to the market, but they are
a long way from the market. The heavy lands of the Everglades, of great depth and
extreme richness, appear to be too strong for growing the ordinary products of agricul-
ture, and the cultivation required to keep the planted crops free from the rank growth
of wild flora, native to the country, is very costly.
CATTLE-The industry that appears to offer the greatest certainty of profit on the cut-
over lands of Florida is the cattle industry. No other pine lands of the South supply
such abundant pasture, and the tales that are told of the number of head of cattle that
may be grazed on 40 acres of St. Lucie grass are hardly to be credited, but they come
from so many reliable sources of information that they must have some foundation in fact.
The tendency of stock to run small can and is being overcome by the importa-
tion of heavy bulls, and once tick free, Florida should become a much larger producer
of beef than it now is.
With millions of acres of more productive land elsewhere available in the Southern
Pine region, and in climate more suitable for the growing of a wide range of crops, if
the interest of the prospective settler is to be best served, he should not be encouraged
to colonize in Florida, unless equipped with the means and knowledge to take up citrus
growing, cattle raising, or some other specialized industry, for which the country has
been proven or will be proved to be adapted.

FUTURE LUMBER PRODUCTION OF FLORIDA
As has been above explained, the apparently large reserve of timber in Florida is
deceptive; much of this is in thin stands of turpentined timber in the southern counties,
remote from transportation; another considerable part is in the nature of second-growth
on the cut-over lands of the large mill companies in the central, northern and western
parts of the state. Most of this is young longleaf, which has been cut out too recently
to have developed any large diameters, and it is believed that replacement of the present
operations by other mills will be less in Florida in the next six years than in any other
southern state. Ten or fifteen years from now will probably witness a big spurt in
production by small mills. During the period between now and then, large areas of young
timber will have matured to saw-log size. Much of this area is in large ownerships, run-
ning into tens of thousands of acres. With higher prices of stumpage established, as
will be, the owners of these lands will encourage timber growth, and there will be less
disposition to let the turpentine operators in on these tracts prematurely. But, this will
not be in the near future.
Of the 396 mills cutting out by the end of the year 1930, 23 are mills of the larger
class, with a production of 329 million feet (average 14 million feet), and 373 mills are
mills of the smaller class, with a production of 316 million feet (average 850,000 feet.)
There will be a little replacement by mills of the larger class, possibly 6 mills in the
thin timber in southern counties, with an average production of 15 million feet, 90 mil-
lion in all-making a net decline in production by mills of the larger class of 239
million feet.
The 373 mills of the smaller class may be replaced by 200 mills of a lower average
of 600,000 feet, 120 million in all, making a total net decline in production by mills of
this class of 196 million feet, or a total net decline of 435,000,000 feet, on which is based
the assumption that the


YiliL.jh iL.-












68 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


PINE LUMBER PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA BY THE END OF THE YEAR 1930

will be in the neighborhood of 975,000,000 B. M. feet.

ADDENDA, NOTES ON FLORIDA

Lumber cut from Cuban pine in Southern Florida does not make good finish; difficult
to dry without warping. Makes fine dimension, and by milling same as oak flooring (end
matching and boring), would make an excellent quality of flooring. Cuban pine has the
same specific gravity as oak.

VOLUSIA COUNTY

Much timber has matured on cut-over lands in Volusia County in recent years.
Volusia County now has better pickings for small mills than any other county in South
Florida. This county at one time carried good stands of timber. When the county was
cut, 15 or 20 years ago, only the large trees were taken, and the matured growth of the
trees that were left is pretty well distributed over the country.
-DUNHAM, FOR SOUTHERN PINE ASSOCIATION.
(This report has never hitherto been made public, according to H. C. Berckes,
Secretary-Manager, October 7, 1927.-G. D.)





DOMESTIC LUMBER DISTRIBUTION

(As Affecting Florida)


Softwood and hardwood distribution in 1924 within the United States
showed that Florida was at that time receiving from other states. In 1925-
26, the movement from other states was greatly accelerated as will be
shown elsewhere. The figures herewith were prepared by the Federal For-
est Service.

FLORIDA'S RECEIPTS FROM UNITED STATES


Feet b. m.-000 Omitted
Alabama ..................................... 6,789
California ................................... 1,177
Georgia ....................................... 126,332
Idaho .......................................... 61
Louisiana ........ ...................... 322
Mississippi ............................... 187


Feet b. m.-000 Omitted
North Carolina ......................... 18
Oregon ....................................... 449
South Carolina ........................... 148
Tennessee ........................... 512
Washington ............................. 464
Wisconsin ................................... 23

Grand Total ....................... 141,482


The total domestic distribution from Florida to other states in the
same year was 891,331,000 feet, as follows:


FLORIDA'S SHIPMENTS TO UNITED STATES


Feet b. m.-000 Omitted
Alabama ......................................
Connecticut .....- ...............
Delaware .......... ...............
District of Columbia................
Georgia ............-.... ..............
Illinois ............................ ...........
Indiana ............-...................
Iow a ..... ................. ................
K ansas .......................... .............
Kentucky ..................................
Louisiana ....................................
M aine ..................... .................
Maryland ..................... ..
Massachusetts .... ...............
Michigan .............................
Mississippi .......................


23,119
13,503
1,673
2,271
14,591
25,938
20,253
593
101
11,799
806
10,351
33,829
36,009
6,988
73


Feet b. m.-000 Omitted
M issouri .......... ............ 1,440
Nebraska ................... 171
New Hampshire ................ 1,093
New Jersey ................................ 30,109
New York ............................ .. 81,251
North Carolina .......................... 3,927
Ohio ............................... 53,535
Pennsylvania ............. ... 48,068
Rhode Island ............. .... 9,384
South Carolina .......~.......... .. 4,661
Tennessee ............................... 6,027
Vermont .................. ........ ...... 344
Virginia ................... .............. 8,218
West Virginia ....................... 5,130
W isconsin ............................. 965
Florida Intra-state..................... 435,111


The Southeastern states excelling Florida in this 1924 distribution
were: Alabama, 1,766,095; Georgia, 1,128,340; Mississippi, 2,338,819,








SECOND GROWTH VALUE


FLORIDA'S FUTURE FOREST INDUSTRIES MUST
DEPEND UPON SECOND GROWTH TIMBER
AXEL H. OXHOLM
Director, National Committee on Wood Utilization
Washington, D. C.

Second-growth timber, growing twice as fast as timber in many other
states now enjoying a surplus of virgin stands, will be Florida's main
asset as a producer of forest products. Soil and climatic conditions in
Florida are ideal for raising species not easily grown elsewhere in this
country, but the Florida forest industries and its people must settle on an
I intelligent policy of wood utilization, embracing intelligent forest manage-
ment and efficient conversion of wood into finished products involving im-
proved wood-using practices.
VIRGIN TIMBER NO LONGER A NECESSITY-It may seem to most
people that Florida as a forest products producer is working under a handi-
cap because of the small number of remaining stands of virgin timber.
Other states are more richly endowed in this regard, possessing standing
timber of century-old growth which has been acquired at low cost. De-
pendency of our forest industries on virgin timber is one of the greatest
fallacies in this country and the impression prevailing that with the gradual
disappearance of the remaining virgin stands our forest industries will
vanish, is false.
As a matter of fact, we are using more second-growth than virgin
timber at the present time. Furthermore, the most profitable operations are
those based on a perpetual supply of second-growth, and the least profitable
are often found in the regions where virgin timber predominates. Let us
for a moment analyze the change which has taken place in wood using prac-
tices during the last twenty-five years in order to show how science and re-
search have aided in adjusting requirements to the supply of second growth.
Virgin timber has the advantage of large dimensions and a high per-
centage of wood free of defects. In building and construction, we formerly
used timber of large dimensions; today, we have learned to build up girders
from smaller dimensions, gluing or nailing these into desired dimensions
of structural timber, thereby making a product which for many purposes
is more suitable than the solid wood because the new product may be bent
or shaped. This so-called "laminated" construction has for years success-
fully been used in the old world where virgin timber disappeared long ago.
For covering purposes, it no longer is necessary to use the wide stock
and long lengths adhered to in Colonial days. By providing lumber with
tongues and grooves on all four edges, any desired width and length may
be had. Specially constructed machines enable the joining of even small
pieces of wood so skillfully that the seam cannot be detected with the naked
eye, and when this material is subjected to test the wood will break before
the joint.
The veneer and plywood industry which has made such rapid progress
during the last quarter century produces thin layers of wood by sawing or
slicing the log into sheets. These sheets then are glued on veneer core made
up of such material which would admit blemishes that otherwise would make
the stock unsuitable for high-grade purposes. In this manner, the veneer-






mmons--- --


II








70 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

ing process enables the covering of forty to fifty times the surface for which
solid wood formerly was used. The new product has many other advantages
in that it brings out the beauty of the grain to far better advantage than
solid wood and also produces a better material from a structural point
of view.
The heartwood, which constitutes the greater part of virgin timber, is
more resistant to decay and insect attack than sapwood and formerly was
considered ideal structural timber. Today, sappy second-growth timber is
saturated with preservatives, and inasmuch as sapwood is just as strong as
heartwood of the same texture the product not only is equally as strong as
heartwood timber, but it will last longer.
The industrial trade has insisted on choice material of long lengths and
wide widths to be cut into desired sizes at the consuming point. Today, it is
found that by using second-growth timber and cutting out clear material
between the defects, at the sawmill, the trade can be satisfied. In short,
there are few uses for virgin timber for which second-growth cannot be
substituted, provided that consumers and producers are willing to co-operate
on the proper utilization of wood. There are very few civilized countries
in the world today which depend on virgin timber. What was considered
as waste yesterday, today is turned into valuable forest products.

REFORESTATION DEPENDS ON UTILIZATION-We raise cattle be-
cause it is profitable to do so. The packers are not merely selling the
choicest part of the beef and wasting the balance. Mineral resources, which
a few years ago were considered of little or no value, today are exploited
because new processes have been developed enabling extraction of ore at a
very low cost. Old refuse dumps at coal mines are worked over for the
same reason, and all these activities are stimulated by efficient methods of
utilization, coupled with the development of a demand for the materials
produced. The forest industries in the United States still are suffering
from an incomplete utilization of the raw material and lack of a stable
demand.
Considering conditions in the country as a whole, we hardly are utiliz-
ing more than one-half of the timber as it stands. In many cases only 25
to 30 per cent of the tree is converted into marketable products. It, there-
fore, is evident that the perpetuation of our timber supplies has met with
practical difficulties, because reforestation based on utilization of less than
one-half of the raw material cannot be profitable.

WOOD INDUSTRIES MUST BE CO-ORDINATED-A study of the or-
ganization of our forest industries will show immediately that there is an
almost total lack of co-ordination between the various branches now all de-
pending on standing timber for raw material. The lumberman, the pulp
and paper manufacturer, the wood chemical producers and a number of
others all compete for standing timber, whereas proper co-ordination of
their raw material policy would result in a closer utilization of timber.
With the lumbermill as a center, these by-product industries should be
built up, because top logs, small timber and what is termed "sawmill
refuse" well could be utilized for pulp purposes. Such raw material which
may not lend itself to the pulping process would serve the wood chemical
industry equally as well as the standing timber which now is used.
While there are a few isolated examples of such organizations in this
country, we must look to Europe for a general application of these prin-


... Il







SECOND GROWTH VALUE 71

ciples. It was brought about by necessity and was found to be the only
solution of the reforestation problem. Theoretically speaking, this plan
would cause a complete utilization of the timber, including roots, bark and
branches; but in practice, it may not always work out to this extent, due to
the difficulty of finding a market for the materials produced. It is use which
creates value, and unless the utilization of timber is more complete than it is
today, reforestation will not be commercially feasible except in special cases.

SELECTION OF LAND AND SPECIES-Wood utilization does not start
at the manufacturing plants. It must begin in the forests. Much land in
Florida, while eminently suited for forest growth, is too valuable for this
purpose. Therefore, a careful classification of land must precede any ef-
fort along reforestation lines. It is the sandy soil and drained swamp lands
which undoubtedly offer the best possibilities for tree growth. It is a mis-
take to believe that nature provided each locality with the species best
suited for growth and of the greatest economic importance. While Florida
has many valuable indigenous species, some of these are slow-growing and
can be raised to better advantage in other states. The forest industries of
Florida, therefore, should take advantage of the sub-tropical climate and
excellent soil conditions to grow such species which may not come into
serious competition with trees grown in other parts of the country. Fur-
thermore, some species are faster growing in Florida than elsewhere, and
are valuable for various purposes. The forest industry in the past has
been synonymous with the lumber industry but in planning a program of
reforestation it undoubtedly would be advisable to consider the entire range
of forest products from lumber to pulp, paper, and wood chemicals. Other
industries have found that the greatest profit does not lie in the primary
products, but in utilization of so-called waste. The term "waste" is a mis-
nomer, because every part of the tree except the moisture is a potential
raw material.
Trees are living things and in many cases their utilization is con-
fronted with the same problems which face other living beings. A doctor, a
lawyer, or a member of any other profession may make a poor laborer and
vice versa. It is necessary for each one to find his place in life, and so also
with trees. Certain species which in the past have been regarded as prac-
tically worthless for lumber purposes today are considered very valuable for
pulp, naval stores and wood chemicals.

REFORESTATION DOES NOT MEAN HAND PLANTING-Often we
read in the press that we should follow the example of the advanced Euro-
pean countries in forcing the timber owner to plant two trees for each
tree he cuts down. As a matter of fact, there is no important forest
producing country which has passed such laws. Reforestation does not
mean hand planting or hand sowing. No one can compete with Nature
and intelligent forest management calls for as great a dependence on Nature
as is possible for the reproduction of forests. Hand planting and hand
sowing only are resorted to as an auxiliary measure. It would be just as
absurd to rely on immigration and adoption of children for perpetuation of
the American race as it would be to rely on hand planting and hand sowing
for the restocking of our forests.
With a proper understanding of the value of timber which is bound to
result from a closer utilization, no restrictions or laws will be needed re-
garding cutting or raising. Farmers do not have to be told to raise cattle


___l__i_









72 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

as long as it is profitable for them to do so. There is, furthermore, a psycho-
logical element involved in utilization of second-growth timber, as consider-
able money and effort have been expended in these enterprises. The owner
has seen the trees grow up and he is more reluctant to waste them than he
would be if he had obtained virgin timber grown by Nature without much
expense or effort.

DUAL RESPONSIBILITY IN WOOD UTILIZATION-The public has been
prone to blame the manufacturer of forest products for deliberately wasting
our forest resources. This attitude does not seem to be justified fully, be-
cause it stands to reason that a manufacturer having already expended a
considerable amount of money in hauling the logs to the conversion plant
would like nothing better than to turn as large a percentage of the log into
marketable products as he possibly can. If he has been unable to do so in
the past, the reason partly must be one of lack of markets. The respon-
sibility, therefore, must rest on the consuming public as well as on the manu-
facturer of forest products.

IMPROVEMENTS AT MANUFACTURING PLANTS-A brief discussion
already has been given regarding the co-ordination of the raw material
policy of the forest industries. It may be of interest to consider some of
the outstanding wastes which easily may be corrected.
Since the lumber industry is the principal of all forest industries, we
may view the question of cutting lumber. Admittedly we have developed the
best machinery for the conversion of logs of large dimensions, but we have
neglected utilization of small logs, and until recently this material was not
considered worth hauling to the mill. Today, the circular saw is the typical
equipment for conversion of small logs into lumber, but there hardly is a
circular saw of practical application which will cut lumber accurately;
circular saws are wasteful, to say the least, sometimes wasting as much as
one-third of an inch in sawdust. Circular saw lumber is usually not good
lumber and this product is depressing the lumber market and is not gen-
erally giving the consumers the satisfaction to which they are entitled.
Other countries have developed better machinery for this purpose than we
have, and millions of feet of European lumber cut on European gang saws
are imported into the United States annually. The logs in Europe range
from three to twelve inches in top diameter; the lumber is cut to exact
dimensions and of such a smooth surface that yard lumber never is dressed
one side and one edge to insure uniformity of size. Our yard lumber must
be sized by this process, which in reality means the covering up of defective
manufacture.
In this manner we are dressing off perfectly good wood, turning it into !
chips which at best may bring $1.00 to $1.50 per ton if used for fuel, while
if left on the board would net at least ten to fifteen times that amount. In
the box and crate industry alone an improvement of our sawmill machinery
to permit use of rough lumber as such would save more than 1,000,000 feet
of wood per annum.
Today, only a small percentage of short lengths are purchased as such,
but efficient sawmill practice results in the conversion of 20% to 25% of
the log into short lengths due to the tapered form of the log and the neces-
sity of eliminating defects in long lengths in order to make the product more
useful to the consumer. While certain quantities of short lengths may be
worked into box shooks and used for other purposes, the lumber industry so


__ _ ____







SECOND GROWTH VALUE


far has failed to find an outlet for more than a small percentage of the
potential output of these dimensions of softwoods.
All softwoods, and in some cases hardwoods, are cut to multiples of
two feet in length and two inches in width, but there is a demand just as
good for intermittent feet and inches. While this largely is a merchandising
problem, the industry has not been progressive enough to create a definite
demand for these dimensions.
Lately, about twenty mills in the United States are turning out soft-
woods of the end-matched variety, whereby each piece of lumber is provided
with a tongue at one end and a groove at the other, enabling the joining of
two or more lengths. By this process, the question of standard length is
dispensed with totally and the lumber is produced in any lengths with sole
regard to proper utilization of the log.
I By producing short lengths, odd lengths, odd widths and end-matched
lumber, an increase in utilization of saw logs of between 30% and 35%
would result easily.
Sawdust, which is considered as an unavoidable waste by most mills,
may be utilized to good advantage. It may be turned into wood flour-
which is ground sawdust-or it may be used as a packing material. There
are hundreds of important uses for this product; nevertheless, we are import-
ing more than 6,000 tons of wood flour per year and, strange enough, most
of it comes from Europe, which is considered timber poor.
Mention already has been made of wood preservation. By a chemical
treatment such as the use of creosote, zinc chloride and other chemicals, the
lasting qualities of wood may be greatly enhanced. Second-growth timber
absorbs chemicals with a greater ease than old-growth material and wood
preservation perhaps would be one of the greatest factors in making wood
more useful to the consumer. It also must be added that these treatments
generally render the wood resistant and in some cases immune to the attack
of insects, which is a matter of importance in many sections of the United
States.
Wood is a bulky raw material and in shipping any great distance freight
charges will amount to more than the value of the product. For this rea-
son, wood should be refined to the greatest extent possible close to the source.
The same principle already has been applied in many other lines; at the
stone quarry, building stone is manufactured to exact sizes ready for in-
stallation, but lumber still is shipped at times thousands of miles to the con-
suming plant where defects are eliminated and smaller pieces are cut ready
for final machining before use. Progressive sawmills are cutting so-called
"small dimension stock" at their plants, thereby eliminating freight charges
on defective material. This is a very important movement and in more
than one respect will save the consumer a great deal of money. It also will
permit the utilization of lower grades of lumber at the sawmills.

UTILIZATION OF LOW-GRADE LUMBER BECOMING INCREASINGLY
IMPORTANT-Second-growth timber will not produce more than from
5% to 10% high-grade lumber, but consumers still are adhering to wood-
using practices originating at the time when virgin timber was plentiful.
The public must be made to realize that it cannot proceed in this manner and
still enjoy a liberal use of wood. For instance, floors frequently are painted,
covered with linoleum or rugs, and interior finish is painted or stained;
nevertheless, lumber free of defects is often specified in such cases where
tight, knotty stock or blue stained lumber would be just as serviceable as if


M i









74 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

it had been free of blemishes. In the industrial trade, strong objection is
made to brown colored hardwood and insistence is made on securing white
sapwood for such purposes as handles, turning squares and other purposes.
Official tests have shown that the heartwood is just as strong as the sap-
wood. It is, therefore, just a question of appearance which, after all, does
not count in most cases because the finished product is painted. This clearly
is a case where consumer prejudice is accountable for a very great waste in
the utilization of timber.

FURTHER RESEARCH IS NEEDED-Those intrusted with the responsi-
bility of growing timber in Florida should have in mind strongly that re-
search and a further extension of markets for the full range of forest
products are essential in the successful carrying out of their programs.
The experience and development in other states and abroad must be fol-
lowed and the results applied to conditions in Florida. Of recent years
discoveries of the greatest importance made elsewhere have received little
or no attention. The Florida operator in general does not know much about
development on the Pacific Coast and vice versa. Few ever have made a
thorough study of foreign conditions, yet sulphite liquor, considered as one
of the greatest wastes in the pulp industry, today is turned into yeast in
Sweden, printer's ink in Norway and used for binder in briquetting saw-
dust, coal dust and other materials in Germany.
Florida naval stores exported to Germany are re-exported in the form
of synthetic camphors to the United States; we imported more than 4,000,000
pounds of this article last year. Improved auxiliary equipment of sawmills,
planing mills and wood working establishments have been developed in
England, Sweden, France and Germany, yet they only are applied in a few
instances in the United States. Germany, cut off from a source of tropical
woods during the war, treated its own common hardwoods with chemicals,
thereby enabling them to increase the hardness and weight of their woods so
as to make it possible to substitute this material for lignum vitse and other
tropical woods. We just have started to import finished articles, such as
shuttles, from Germany made from this material. Florida producers of
dogwood and persimmon undoubtedly will feel this competition in the future.

WHAT THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON WOOD UTILIZATION IS
DOING-In 1924, President Coolidge called a conference in Washington of
manufacturers, distributors and consumers of forest products to consider
a program of wood utilization as a means of making possible a reforesta-
tion on a commercial scale. The President asked Mr. Hoover, Secretary of
Commerce, to organize the National Committee on Wood Utilization, with
headquarters in the Department of Commerce. This committee now has
more than 100 members, representing all branches of manufacturing, dis-
tributing and consuming of wood products.
J. Baker Arnold, vice-president of the J. Ray Arnold Lumber Company,
Groveland, and 0. H. L. Wernicke of Gull Point, past president of the Pine
Institute of America, are the representatives on this committee from Florida.
The committee, of which Secretary Hoover is chairman and Col. Wm.
B. Greeley, Forester of the United States, is vice-chairman, is taking up the
questions mentioned in this article. The committee's slogan is "Utilize
Wood and Save the Forests." This slogan has been selected in order to


I








SECOND GROWTH VALUE


dispel the common belief that by importing forest products and by using
other materials than wood our remaining timber resources will be conserved.
It is not conservation in the sense of non-use for which we must strive,
because such a negative attitude on the part of the public will cause a de-
crease in timber values and there will be no incentive for the growing of
timber.
If a tree is felled, it should be utilized to the greatest extent. If there
is no use for the products of the tree, then it should be left standing. Florida
should take full advantage of its natural facilities for tree growing, but its
people must settle on an intelligent plan of utilizing the raw material, and
practice conservation by a wise use of forest products.

(Mr. Oxholm's article was submitted by Mr. Mayo to several lumber men.
SThe following taken from one of the replies has much interest. G.D.)

This article has been read with a great deal of care and thought. In
the first place, it has been my privilege to work with Mr. Oxholm, the
author of this article, and knowing of his great ability and his thorough-
ness in preparing such matters I would state in the offset that his conclusions
are arrived at after a most careful survey of the conditions.
The virgin timber in Florida is now all in the hands of active lumber
manufacturing concerns and in a period of less than ten years over 50%
of the present production of lumber from virgin timber in Florida will
have ceased, due to the mills cutting out tracts of timber. For Florida to
have a source of supply of timber it is absolutely necessary that we look
toward the second growth.
R This article lays a great deal of stress on the value of short length
lumber and conclusions are absolutely correct, as it has been proven beyond
any question of a doubt that short length lumber can be utilized by the
lamination process to equal success with the longer lengths. As an idea as
to what can be done with short length lumber, I would specifically refer
you to the construction of a garage in Tallahassee, which has a total span
of about 200 feet, in which there are no posts whatever and the longest
piece of lumber used in the work is 8 feet. I would like for you to visit
this garage, as it would give you a much better idea of the subject.
There are certain industries in Florida today that are wholly dependent
upon Florida's timber supply. There are other industries in Florida that
are looking to forest products as their sole means of shipping, and should
Florida fail to carry on proper reforestation program it will mean that
these forest products must come from out of the state. The shipment of
fruits and vegetables alone is consuming annually over 200,000,000 feet
of lumber worked into containers of various types. It is predicted that in
ten years from now the shipment of fruits and vegetables will double in
quantity and should the manufacture of lumber and like products decrease
50% in quantity, as it is suggested, it is very readily seen that in that
length of time it will take the total production of virgin timber in Florida
alone for the manufacture of these fruit and vegetable containers.
As working up low grade timber into a high grade product, we are
today putting all of our low grade pine lumber into clear flooring strips
running from 18" to 72" in length, and for which we have a ready market.
These low grade logs can be worked into endless items of flooring and for


k


1









76 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


Florida to fail to put on a proper reforestation policy they are doing pos-
terity the greatest injustice imaginable. Of course, you and I naturally
are great advocates of our state, but we must realize that several millions
of acres of land that are not fitted for agriculture are fitted for timber
growing and they should by all means be utilized in this respect.



PINE TREE WEALTH OF FLORIDA
J. C. WILLIAMS
Manager of Development Service Southern Railway System

Pine trees are among the most valuable assets of Florida, and by proper
management, can be made a source of perpetual income. This is especially
true when the pine forests are seeded to carpet grass-the most valuable
pasture grass of the coastal plain-and the profits from cattle are added to
the profits from the forest.
While several varieties of pines are represented in the state, longleaf,
slash and loblolly-the three most valuable southern species-far out-
number all others. More than two-thirds of all of the lumber cut in the
state is made up of these three varieties. Longleaf and slash are found
from the, northern boundary to Key West, but south of Tampa slash pre-
dominates, in some localities in Southern Florida constituting practically
one hundred per cent of the pines in the forests. From Tampa north long-
leaf and slash are found in varying proportions. Loblolly is most abundant
in the northern counties, especially on the silty soils along the streams. Each
of these species is valuable.
The loblolly is a rapidly growing tree, reaching saw-timber size much
sooner than longleaf. Data published by the, United States Forest Service
shows that loblolly trees will reach a diameter of from eight to thirteen
inches, varying with the quality of the soil, in twenty-five years, while it
takes at least sixty years for longleaf trees to make the same growth.
But the loblolly does not yield turpentine and produces no revenue for the
forest owner until it has been cut.
Longleaf, while slower in growth, is suited for lands that arei too
dry for the best growth of loblolly or slash and will yield a substantial
return from turpentine while growing to saw size. Longleaf seedlings
and young trees are much more fire resistant than either loblolly or slash.
Slash is the most valuable of all the species of pine. Its average cate
of growth is almost, or quite, as rapid as that of loblolly. In fact, under
favorable conditions, it may even exceed loblolly. Mr. W. R. Mattoon, of
the United States Forest Service, has reported a diameter of seventeen
inches at twenty-two y(ars of age in Southern Georgia. Its yield of crude
turpentine is larger than that of longleaf and, on account of its more rapid
growth, it can be worked for turpentine at a much earlier age.
Because slash, when protected from fire, will grow more, rapidly Ihan
longleaf, will yield larger amounts of naval stores, can be turpentined
earlier and will produce a somewhat better quality of lumber, forest owners
in Florida will generally find it more profitable to grow slash, except on
the higher and drier ridges in the northern part of the state) where long-








TIMBER AND CATTLE 77

leaf may do better. Best results from either species can only be expected
when adequately protected from fire, but this is especially important for
young slash trees.
Forest lands so managed as to produce successive crops of trees will
constantly increase in value, especially will this be true of longleaf and
slash prie forests.
In this connection attention may be called to a decided advantage
which the growers of longleaf or slash pine, with carpet grass pastures,
have over the growers of other kinds of timber.
In Florida, as elsewhere, successful forestry is primarily dependent
upon fire prevention. It is surprising how much fire mature pine trees of
all three varieties will live through and, where there are heavy longleaf
seed crops, even on lands that are burned over frequently, some of the
longleaf seedlings will pull through, but with their growth greatly retarded.
Fires are absolutely destructive of slash and loblolly seedlings and retard
the growth of all varieties and ages of trees in the forest, both by burning
off their foliage and by destroying the ground cover of humus on which
the trees depend for part of their food and which, by absorbing rainfall,
provides water in dry times. The effect of fire on growing trees is so
marked that, by an examination of the growth rings, it is possible to tell
in which years there have been forest fires.
Fortunately, adequate fire protection is not unduly expensive and in
southern pine forests it may be made a source of increased direct profit.
Carpet grass, the best of all southern pasture grasses, grows well under
moderate shade, and, especially when closely grazed, is an effective fire
barrier. By sowing carpet grass throughout the forest and plowing fire
3M lines to facilitate localizing any fire that may start, it is possible to reduce
the fire hazard to a minimum and, with the long grazing season available
in Florida, cattle may be pastured in the forest practically all the year. At
the Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station carpet grass pastures have
been grazed at the rate of more than one head of cattle per acre for 270
days. It is said that no other pasture grass known in the United States has
such high carrying power over such a long period of time. If fire is kept
out and if enough seed trees have been left on the land, the crop of
seedlings will be so dense that such thinning as will result from the killing of
a few seedlings by cattle will be beneficial to forest growth rather than
hurtful.
A slash pine forest with a ground cover of carpet grass affords at
least three sources of revenue-the sale of lumber, the sale of naval stores
and the sale of cattle. In fact, the Timber Products Company, operating
86,000 acres of slash pine at Cogdell, Ga., with carpet grass in part of the,
forest, has four distinct sources of revenue. The mature trees are cut for
lumber; growing trees are conservatively worked for naval stores; beef
cattle are raised and sold, and the stumps of the trees cut for lumber are
removed and sold to the extract plant of the Hercules Powder Company at
Brunswick, Ga.
There are still other possible sources of revenue. If markets are avail-
able, the tops of trees cut for lumber and smaller trees cut out in thinning
operations may be sold for pulpwood or cordwood. Saw mill slabs may
also be sold for cordwood. The Timber Products Company is planning for
still another source of revenue by leasing shooting privileges for an amount
sufficient to pay all taxes. Such a lease, would be dangerous, however, un-








78 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

less shooting should be restricted to times when the forest was thoroughly
wet, for, even though the carpet grass may be fire resistant, there would
be danger of setting fire to the tops left in the forest from lumbering
operations.
From the abovq it may be thought that the management of a slash
pine or longleaf forest as a perpetual operation can not be made profitable
from the beginning unless it carries a fair stand of saw timber or, at least,
trees large enough to be turpentined. This is not a fact, for the reason
that satisfactory profits may be made by pasturing beef cattle or dairy
cattle on carpet grass irrespective of whether there are trees on the land
or not.
On most cut-over lands in Florida there are more or less young trees
coming along and generally a few trees of seed-bearing age have been left.
Under such conditions all that is necessary is to fence the land, sow carpet
grass, keep out fires and turn in cattle.
If a combination forest and pasture shall be started from bare ground
or with a sparse stand of young trees the only source of revenue for some
years will be from the pasture. When a good stand of young trees has been
obtained, either by natural seedings or artificial planting, some thinning
will be desirable when the trees are about eighteen years old. The trees
to be cut out should be selected three years before, when fifteen years old,
and should be turpentined for three years. When cut they should be made
into cordwood. Further thinning will be desirable when the trees are
twenty-three years old and the trees to be cut should be, selected when
twenty years old and turpentined for three years. As the market is
taking lumber from smaller and smaller trees, if the forest has had a
thrifty growth many of the twenty-five-year-old trees that are cut in thin- 1
ning operations will be large enough for small saw-timber; others can be
made into pulpwood. The twenty-five,-year-old trees that are left on the
land at this thinning will all be select trees and will be large enough for
conservative turpentining. Throughout the forest young trees of various
sizes will be coming along under the larger trees, so that, in relatively a few
years after the large saw-timber has been cut off in any block in the for-
est, another crop will be ready for cutting.
As the trees that have, been left after the last thinning will continue
to yield naval stores as well as increase in size, it will generally be desirable
to allow them to grow to at least forty or fifty years of age before cutting
for saw-timber. The size at which trees are to be cut will be determined
by several considerations. The larger the tree the more valuable will be
the lumber, the smaller will be the cost per thousand board feet of logging
and sawing and the greater the net profit per thousand. As trees that
have reached good saw-timber size at forty or fifty years of age will still
continue to increase in size and will still be yielding naval stores it might
be profitable to let them attain an age of from sixty to seventy years be-
fore cutting. On the other hand the larger trees, by shutting out light
and air, may retard the growth of the younger ones growing beneath them
to such an extent as to make it profitable, to cut them earlier than would
otherwise be desirable.
From forty to seventy years would be a long time to wait if there
were no returns coming in until the trees were cut, but, even starting from
bare ground, with the carpet grass, there would be a continuing profit from
the pasture supplemented in a few years by increasing returns from naval








TIMBER AND CATTLE 79

stores and from pulpwood, cordwood and small saw-timber cut out in thin-
ning operations. However, on most cut-over lands there will be enough
mature trees or trees that are approaching saw-timber size to make logging
operations on a large or smaller scale possible from the start or almost
from the start and, in relatively a few years, the forest can be organized
on the block system, with trees of varying ages coming along on the
different blocks so that continuous and systematic turpentining and cutting
can be done. This is the system that is being carried out successfully in
the Landes district in France, a region that less than 100 years ago was a
barren sand waste without a tree of any kind. All of the forests in this
region, embracing about 1,500,000 acres, had to be started from bare
ground. These forests were planted with maritime pine, a tree that is
similar to slash in rate of growth and yield of naval stores but the lumber
from which is inferior to either slash, longleaf or loblolly. Notwithstanding
thq inferiority of the lumber produced these forests are highly profitable
and the practically worthless land on which they were planted is now highly
valuable.
Southern Railway Company has about 20,000 acres of land in several
tracts in South Carolina acquired to furnish fuel for wood-burning locomo-
tives when the line from Charleston to Augusta was built many years ago.
This land is generally wet and has been unsalable for farming purposes. In
1925 it was decided to use a tract of about 11,000 acres near Pregnall,
S. C., as a demonstration that similar lands on the Coastal Plain would grow
trees profitably. This land had been cut over from time to time, but there
was a good stand for loblolly and longleaf trees of saw-timber size, smaller
amounts of various kinds of hardwoods and a few scattering slash trees.
S Fire lines have been plowed and a fire patrol maintained. Two sawmill
operations have been carried on-one by contract and the other by the
forest forces-and a turpentine operation has been started. Small plantings
of slash pine have been made and more extensive ones have been planned.
Carpet grass has been planted on the fire lines, but, as the land is not
; fenced, it is not being pastured. Careful accounts are being kept, and,
S notwithstanding the present unsatisfactory markets for lumber and naval
stores, the project is showing a profit over all expenses, including necessarily
large initial expenditures. It is expected that, after a few years, the rec-
ords of this demonstration will be of great value to all owners of similar
lands.
The experiences of the lumber companies and data assembled by the
S United States Forest Service and others show that reforestation, if carried
out along proper lines, is profitable. The work of the Mississippi Agricul-
tural Experiment Station at McNeill, Miss., and the experience of many
farmers have demonstrated the high value of carpet grass.
The opportunity for profit from pine trees, carpet grass and cattle is
not limited to the owners of large tracts of timber land. There should be
dairy cows on every farm in Florida and beef cattle as well on the larger
farms. With pine trees and carpet grass the farmer can have an ideal
woodland pasture. On the smaller farms this may not be large enough for
a profitable turpentine operation, but it will supply the wood and timber
needs of the farm and afford cordwood and occasionally a few saw logs
Sfor sale.
-- (Note-The articles by Messrs Baker, Oxholm and Williams fit together.
It must be added for public consideration that in visiting each county of








80 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


Florida only three sawmills of size were found to use selective logging-
which means that out of the several hundred mills operating in the state
the greater number clean everything possible as they go, many not leaving
even a seed tree per acre. Part of this condition arises from leased land, in
the future of which the lessee takes no interest whatsoever. Part also arises
from that spirit which says "What has the next generation done for me"?
-G. D.)



PULP WOOD IN FLORIDA'S FUTURE

The amount of paper manufactured in the United States in 1926 was
10,000,000 tons; the amount consumed 11,807,000 tons, or 202 pounds per
capital. The wood pulp produced in the United States in the same year
was 4,394,766 tons.
Dividing now the 10,000,000 tons of paper manufactured in the United
States in 1926 we find that newsprint represented 1,686,000 tons; book
paper 1,411,000 tons; paper board, 3,650,000 tons; wrapping, 1,450,000
tons; fine paper 500,000 tons; all others 1,303,000 tons. The common papers
therefore-wrapping, paper boards and newsprint represent a consumption
of 6,786,000 tons. Including book paper the total is 8,197,000 tons.
To give an idea of the growth of the paper industry it is necessary
only to state that in 1910 the cord wood cut for wood pulp in the United
States was 3,106,540 cords, or less than one-half of the year 1926; 6,766,007
cords.
The main reliance at present for pulp wood is spruce, poplar, hem-
lock, various pines, balsam fir, slabs and mill waste. Of spruce the do-
mestic cut was 2,415,870 cords, imports, 1,013,155; of poplar, domestic
212,178 cords, imports, 210,133 cords; of hemlock, chiefly domestic, 1,-
075,363 cords; of pines, 822,310 cords; of balsam fir, mainly domestic,
277,114 cords; of all other wood, 539,217 cords; of slabs and mill waste,
180,667 cords. Total domestic, 5,489,517 cords; total imports, 1,383,619
cords, and grand total, 6,766,007 cords. The wood pulp mentioned above
and the pulpwood equal the paper manufactured broadly speaking.
The states where manufacturing is going on are California, Maine,
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, North
Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia, Washington,
West Virginia and Wisconsin. These states are converting cord wood into
woodpulp by various mechanical and chemical processes that do not need
to be explained in this article.
The prices for pulpwood per cord f. o. b. mill, show that pines in
general stood at $6.45 in 1907. Yellow pine stood at $12.15 in 1920; and
$8.82 in 1925. Poplar was $7.85 in 1907; $9.69 in 1917; and $14.88 in
1925. Jack pine, $10.45 in 1917; and $11.04 in 1925. Cotton wood,
$8.94 in 1917; and $11.20 in 1925. Slabs and mill waste, $4.63 in 1917;
and $10.60 in 1925. In 1926 we imported by kinds of wood pulp 1,735,-
733 tons, and of pulpwood 1,383,619 cords averaging $10.25 in value.
Our total domestic and imported use of wood pulp was 8,042,000 tons
-about one-half produced in the United States. It is evident therefore
that at the present time the main dependence of the United States is on
imports of pulpwood and wood pulp. It is certainly a subject to which
Florida can give earnest scientific attention.







FLORIDA'S LUMBER OUTPUT


MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS OF WOOD

TIGHT COOPERAGE-Florida is not an important source for the United
States of tight cooperage, either staves or headings.
SLACK COOPERAGE-Florida's production in 1925 was 16,734,000 staves
out of a total in the United States of 937,597,000; 906,000 headings out of
a total in the United States of 71,371,000. The export cooperage stock
from the United States in 1925 was 81,928,277 staves and of headings
4,827,820. There is therefore opportunity for Florida in this direction.

VENEERS-In the matter of veneers Florida has increased from 5,598,000
board feet in 1905 to 29,990,000 board feet in 1925. The domestic woods
used in the United States for making veneer are: Red gum, yellow pine,
birch, cottonwood, tupelo, yellow poplar, Douglas fir, walnut, white oak,
maple, elm, basswood, spruce, red oak, sycamore, cypress, cedar, beech,
magnolia, western pine, ash, chestnut and willow. A large proportion of
veneers made in Florida goes into crates, boxes and various fruit and vege-
table containers.
CROSS-TIES-The number of cross-ties purchased in the United States in
1925 was 111,341,759, of which total the Southeastern states produced
about 25 per cent.
POLES-The purchase of poles, telephone, telegraph, steam railroad, elec-
tric railroad, and light and power lines in 1925 totalled 3,281,514. The
sources were cedar, chestnut, oak, pine, cypress and miscellaneous.

FUEL WOODS-The latest figures are for 1925 and show Florida then cut-
ting 600,000 cords for all purposes. U. S. 1924, 36,476,414 cords.

TANNING MATERIALS-Florida does not yet appear in the producing
column but will after further research in relation to scrub palmetto roots,
mangrove, and certain trees now being experimented with in South Florida.
The total of tanning materials used in the United States were as follows:
Crude, 1899 in tons 1,616,065, and in 1925 in tons 398,204; extracts,
1899 in pounds 33,521,500, and in 1925 in pounds 415,557,587. At present
small quantities of tanning materials are used in Charlotte, Dade, Lee and
Monroe Counties in preparing alligator and other skins. The tanning in
Raiford is mainly chemical. The future of the leather industry in Florida
is considered important enough to be treated in a separate article else-
where.
MINE TIMBERS-Round and sawed timbers for mines in the United States
used an estimated total of 285,500,000 feet in 1923-used for props, ties,
crossbars, lagging, cribbing, etc., in coal, metal and fine clay mines.

FENCE POSTS-Bureau of Agricultural Economics estimates 685,591,800
used on United States farms in 1923.

RAYON-This comparatively new product will compete with cotton and
silk. Being made by intricate processes from cellulose, it represents an
increasing demand on various woody products, and Florida will share in
future production through its managed forests and canes suitable for pro-
ducing the raw material of Rayon.


___ ~dl










FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE


EXCELSIOR-Excelsior is manufactured from cottonwood, yellow pine,
basswood, white pine, yellow poplar, tamarack, willow and various other
trees unspecified. The chief excelsior factories are in Georgia, Iowa, Michi-
gan, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Wis-
consin. As will le seen by reference to the industries of Florida, excelsior
is manufactured only in Alachua and Escambia Counties.


PRICE RANGE IN 25 YEARS


The average value of various Florida woods per thousand
measure has been between 1899 and 1924, as follows:


feet board


YELLOW PINE


Year
1899
1904
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910



Year
1899
1904
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910



Year
1907
1908
1909



Year
1899
1907
1908
1909



Year
1899
1904
1907
1908
1909


Year
1911
1912
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919


Price
$ 9.38
10.91
16.63
14.98
13.48
13.23
14.43



Price
$14.34
21.31
24.35
23.40
16.86
24.69
21.51



Price
$44.38
30.00
41.78



Price
$15.20
35.82
24.93
28.09



Price
$17.92
17.16
14.73
15.60
15.00


Price
$14.00
14.35
12.29
13.85
18.34
24.21
29.60


CYPRESS


Year
1911
1912
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919


Price
$22.00
20.00
20.99
22.24
24.51
34.69
37.26


CEDAR


Year
1910
1915
1921



Year
1910
1911
1915
1919


Price
$47.03
30.00
35.00


OAK
Price
$27.00-
17.50
17.41
37.64


RED GUM


Year
1910
1911
1915
1919
1920


Price
$18.50
15.50
15.50
35.29
34.45


Year
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924





Year
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924





Year
1922
1923
1924



Year
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924


Year
1921
1922
1923
1924


Price
$35.77
22.13
24.03
33.36
29.01





Price
$52.27
44.24
44.87
55.17
49.45





Price
$60.00
41.67
37.00



Price
$35.00
38.85
41.13
28.50
25.81


Price
$26.46
26.73
19.22
33.97


According to the Forest Service the total soft wood cut in Florida in
1925 was 1,050,924,000 feet, of which pine supplied 793,730,000; cypress,
257,125,000; cedar, 69,000.
In the same year the hardwood cut in Florida was 12,952,000 made
up as follows: Oak, 1,160,000; red gum, 3,146,000; maple, 42,000; yellow
poplar, 1,428,000; tupelo, 4,355,000; elm, 9,000; beech, 1,000; basswood,
20,000; ash, 1,067,000; cottonwood, 180,000; hickory, 1,002,000; sycamore,
3,000; all others, 539,000 feet.
According to the above statistics the total of soft and hardwood cut
in Florida in 1925 was 1,063,876,000. It will have been seen elsewhere
that the total distributed within the land areas of the United States was


U








RAILROADS AND LUMBER


891,331,000 feet, and that therefore Florida appears in the export of
lumber to foreign countries to the extent of 172,545,000 feet. The aggre-
gate of all woods cut in the United States in 1925 was 38,338,641,000 feet,
of which Florida produced a little over one-thirty-sixth.

THE RAILROAD MARKET FOR LUMBER
The following figures are interesting as showing the demand for timber
resources by the Florida railroads, in maintaining tracks, switches and
bridges in 1927.
LUMBER IN FEET: New
Switches and Bridges Replacements Construction
Untreated ..................--....--........ .. 2,593,037 1,733,576
Treated ........ ------.............. ------- ----. 1,006,172 850,652

Total feet lumber used .....---................. 3,599,209 2,584,228
CROSS TIES:
Untreated ....................--........----------... 1,071,739 302,194
Treated ..........-........------- --------- 437,837 106,306

Total cross ties used ............................ 1,509,576 408,500
"Treated" indicates the growth of preservative methods with creosote
and other chemicals.


STANDARD CONTAINER MANUFACTURING
Perhaps the most carefully organized form of wood manufacturing in
n Florida is that related to the production of crates, boxes, baskets and
hampers of various standard forms and sizes for the shipment of fruits
and vegetables. Those producing these commodities, with some exceptions,
are members of the Standard Container Manufacturers with a secretarial
office in Jacksonville, under the management of Russell W. Bennett.
COMPUTING IN ADVANCE-The secretary's office is in touch with the
State Marketing Bureau and all other sources of information so as to esti-
mate as accurately as possible months in advance the number of boxes,
crates, baskets and hampers that will be necessary to move an oncoming
crop. Also each member of the Association keeps the secretary advised
as to stock in hand. The plan is to avoid carrying over to another season
unnecessary supplies of finished containers.
It is estimated that this line of manufacturing uses yearly from 160,-
000,000 feet of timber upward, some of it sawed, but a great deal of it
turned into the form of veneer. Until recent times pine has been the
main reliance, but there is now considerable supply of raw material com-
ing for softwoods like gum, magnolia, eac. Others estimate 250,000,000.
CAPACITY-It is stated by the secretary that in Florida and immediately
adjacent to Florida there is a present capacity among the Container Manu-
facturers equal to double the requirements. An idea of the variations to
which this industry must adapt itself will be understood when it is said
that in one year recently there was a falling off of 13,000 carloads of citrus
and in another year an increase of 11,000 carloads of vegetables.
The industry requires the closest oversight and management in order
to have ready, and on time at the packing house, the tens of thousands








84 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

and hundreds of thousands of containers that may be necessary when crops
begin to move.,
The citrus boxes used for 1907-17-27 were as follows:


1907

3,250,000


1917

5,581,309


1926-27

16,588,800


We have also a comparison of vegetable containers between 1911-12
and 1926-27 as follows:


1911-12

6,572,700


1926-27

14,211,000


Both sets of figures taken in connection with the knowledge we have of
present fruit and vegetable acreage and the acreage of citrus coming into
increasing bearing, year by year, it is evident that container manufacturing
will increasingly use timber as our totals of fruits and vegetables increase
in volume of shipment.


TABLE OF PACKAGES PER CARLOAD
Shipments from Florida
Cabbage
Barrel Crates ----------------
1 2 bu. Hampers -- -------------- --------.
Pony Crates (12"xl8"x22") -----------
Cantaloupes
Standard or pony -------__...----------- --------------------------
Flat Crates ---------------
Flat Crates (Georgia) ..--- ------ --- -----
Cauliflower
1 Y2 bu. Hampers ------- -------------------------------
Celery
Large Crates ----------------
Small Crates -------- ---------
Cucumbers
Bushel Crates ----------- -------------- -------
1 bu. Hampers --
7/8 bu. Hampers ---. -------------------------
Eggplant
1 3-5 bu. Pepper Crates------
Grapefruit
Boxes ..------...-----------...---.--- ---
Lettuce
Crates (7'xx18x22) ------ --- -----
1Y bu. Hampers --.. -- -------------------- ----------------.
1 bu. Hampers ------------- .-------------------- ---- .-- --- ---
Onions
Standard Bushel Crates --- ----------
Bushel Hampers ...... ----------------------...
Oranges
Standard Box -------------- -----


Range
200 to 220
400 to 600


800 to 900

300 to 356
320 to 360
572 to 650
460 to 510
572 to 650


Usual

400
360
720

400

350

572


350 to 400 350
360 to 432 360
350 to 400
350 to 425 400
500
590
460 to 510
360 to 432 360


The six year average from 1921-27 inclusive has been of citrus 47,530
cars; of vegetables 40,922 cars; or a total average of 88,452 cars.
PACKING CASE NOTE-The Bartow Informant issued July 21, 1883,
said among other things, commenting upon the citrus crop of that day:
"Polk County will produce this year 5,000,000 marketable oranges." The
paper was puzzled as to where the 40,000 crates would be produced to
carry out the crop. "The question of interest to our people is how to reach
the greatest profit from this vast crop. We will say that the old plan of
piling the fruit in large wagon beds and hauling over palmetto roots, jolt-
ing, bruising and bursting the fruit on the way to Tampa is the best; but
as is well known there is great loss in this way and the merchants that buy
are sure to lose notwithstanding they are abused for not paying a fair
price. If the fruit is packed in crates it will net from 11/2 to 2c to the
producer while loose it only pays from % of a cent to Ic."


I








PRODUCTION IN 1925 85


1925 AND TIMBER CONSUMPTION
The year 1925 brought about a stimulated consumption over produc-
tion and consumption for the preceding year. It was placed at 3,290,-
000,000 feet and is interesting to compare with the production of 2,000,-
000,000 feet now set forth in various articles in this Survey as Florida's
present lumber output. The 1926 estimate on 1925 production and con-
sumption follows:
PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION FOR FLORIDA
Lumber and other Forest Products
(Tentative for 1925)
Production Consumption
Million Million
Lumber, Lath, Shingles Ft. B. M. Ft. B. M.
p Yellow pine organized mills, 1,150 million -------------------------- 1,300
Yellow pine, small mills, 150 million --.- --- ----- ------ 2,500
Cypress -------------------.-.. . ..-------------------------------..... 313 J
Hardwoods (gum, tupelo, ash) ----- -------------------------- 17
Wooden packing boxes or crate material ---- ....----.- ---------------- ----- 160 160
Wood distillation
373 cords per day for 8 plants running 360 days a year, 98,280 cords..- 49 49
Ties 5,000,000 pieces (twice this amount in 1924) ------- ---------- 250 125
Poles and piling 206,000 pieces ------------------ -- -------------- 77 96
Timber used on farms
Posts, 60,000 farms at 100 per farm 6,000,000 posts --. --- 36
Fuel, 60,000 farms at 10 cords per farm, 600,000 cords -- 300 360
Building material 500 ft. B. M. per farm ------------------------------ 30
TOTAL ........-- ..--.. .---- ------------- ------------- ----- 2,526 3,290
EXPLANATION OF PRODUCTION

YELLOW PINE-The estimated production of 1,300,000,000 feet of yellow
pine lumber is based largely upon figures prepared by Mr. F. V. Dunham,
who made an intensive survey regarding the life of Florida's pine mills
for the Southern Pine Association as of June, 1924. He listed 529 mills
which exceeds by 309 the number shown in the census reports. The
estimated production was placed at 1,400,000,000 feet. When all factors
are considered it seems proper to use Mr. Dunham's figures, especially
since they are lowered by 100,000,000 feet.
CYPRESS-The estimate of 313,000,000 feet was obtained from a repre-
sentative of the Gress Manufacturing Company.

HARDWOOD-The estimate of 17,000,000 feet is that made by the Census
Bureau in 1924, rounded off to the nearest million. This figure seems justi-
fied in view of the stimulated cut during 1925; also because it represents
approximately 1 per cent of the estimated total cut of lumber. In 1919
hardwood production represented 1.1 per cent of the total. This percentage
went as high as 1.5 per cent in 1923.
CRATE MILLS-The estimate used was obtained from Russell W. Ben-
nett, Secretary of the Standard Container Manufacturers Association. He
stated that the crate mills did buy some lumber which might be included in
other estimates but that this was more than offset by the fact that they
manufactured some lumber themselves which probably never got into the
figures on lumber production.
TIMBER USED ON FARMS-Worked out in co-operation with the State
Marketing Commissioner, Mr. L. M. Rhodes. According to the U. S. Census
timber produced on farms in 1919 was valued at $4,035,934 by 13,120
reporting farms, or 24.3 per cent of the total-average value per farm,


I__ __








86 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

$249. When one considers the great development since 1919, the figure
used in the table appears conservative. They were computed as follows:

Posts: An average of 1% miles of fence per farm or 500 posts;
20 per cent replacement, or 100 posts per farm per year. This figure
is believed conservative when new construction is considered.
Fuel: By fuel is meant wood that is used for heating groves, firing
tobacco, cooking syrup, and for heating and cook stoves. Ten cords
per farm per year is believed conservative for the state, especially
when one considers that wood used in town and cities for fuel is left
out of consideration.
Building Material: This item covers logs, rived shingles, and other
timbers used in the construction of farm buildings.

WOOD DISTILLATION-The estimate was obtained from F. L. Fogarty,
Manager of the National Turpentine Products Company, Jacksonville,
Florida. The production is estimated as follows:

Newport Turpentine & Rosin Co.,
Pensacola, Fla. (Solvent plant) ................----- ....-..--- 75 cords per day
National Turpentine Products Co., Jacksonville, Fla.......... 75 "
Gull Point ..................................................... ................... 50
Southern Wood Products Co., Blountstown, Fla................ 10 "
Jernagan Tar and Turpentine Co., Milton, Fla.....----.......... 10 "
Plant at Panama City -.......... .-----------------. 10 "
Southern Pine Extracts Co., Pensacola, Fla.................-------.... 8 "
Gainesville Plant .-----------................... -- ...---.... 35 "

Total--------- --............. ------.................273 "

Mr. Fogarty stated that the mills ran 365 days in a year. The estimate
is based upon 360 producing days in order to be conservative.
TIES-Mr. E. H. Vrieze, manager of the Eppinger and Russell Treating
Plant, Jacksonville, Fla., is the authority for the estimate of 250,000,000
feet. It is understood that this company has the largest treating plant,
which treats more than one class of timber, east of the Mississippi River. I
was under the impression that Mr. Vrieze was very well qualified to make
these estimates. Mr. Dunham, in his report to the Southern Pine Associa-
tion, stated that the equivalent of 700,000,000 feet of lumber is manufac-
tured into ties in Florida each year. This checks pretty well with Mr.
Vrieze's estimate as he states the production has fallen off to a marked
degree since 1924.

POLES AND PILING-This estimate was obtained through Mr. E. H.
Vrieze and the Consolidated Pole Company.

EXPLANATION OF CONSUMPTION

Florida became a large importing state during the year 1925. Buyers
from the northeastern states were many prior to 1925, but there were not
many of them during 1925. Representatives of the Florida Retail Lumber-
men's Association estimate that at least 2,500,000,000 feet of lumber were
consumed in Florida in 1925. There are two hundred dealers who are mem-








NAVAL STORES INDUSTRY 87

bers of this association. Approximately the same number do not happen
to belong to the organization. It is estimated that the two hundred out-
siders sell approximately as much lumber as one hundred of the larger
dealers who belong to the Association. In other words, Florida's consuming
capacity is represented by the equivalent of three hundred retail dealers
such as those belonging to the Association. It is estimated that these
dealers averaged a turnover of ten million feet of lumber per yard in 1925.
On this basis Florida consumed 3,000,000,000 feet of lumber. In order to
be conservative the dealers themselves arbitrarily placed the estimate at
2,500,000,000 feet. R. W. B.


THE NAVAL STORES INDUSTRY IN FLORIDA

C. F. SPEH
Secretary-Manager Pine Institute of America, Inc.
Jacksonville, Florida

The naval stores industry should be looked upon as one of the key
industries of the state. It definitely creates wealth, furnishes employment
to a large negro population, which is skilled in no other line and which
if not employed for production of naval stores would soon become a
burden to the state. It furnishes a large payroll, practically all of which
is spent within the state. Most important of all, it furnishes the means
of reforesting vast areas of lands which would be used for no other pur-
pose, thereby making such lands productive of taxes. It also permits the
carrying of growing timber over a longer period of years, through a cur-
rent income, thereby providing a revenue to the state in the future. Any
attempt to analyze the problem of reforestation or existing timber supply
of Southern Yellow Pine without taking into consideration the naval stores
industry would be wrong. The growing of pine and the production of
rosin and turpentine are definitely linked together.
There is every reason to believe that the future of the naval stores
industry in Florida is brighter than the past. Cost of production will be
lower, volume of production increased, and volume of consumption in-
creased. It is expected that the industry will increase its payroll, num-
ber of employees, taxable property, and new wealth created. This belief
is based upon the indications of rapid reproduction on large areas of
second growth.

HISTORY-The production of turpentine and rosin in the United States
started as a real industry in North Carolina. At that time it was believed
that the timber south of Cape Fear River would not be suitable for pro-
duction of naval stores. However, as timber became less plentiful, the
industry through necessity moved southward and westward through South
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and into Texas.
The reduction of the supply of available timber in the Mississippi Valley
territory is now compelling a return eastward to Georgia and Florida as
centers. This trend is well defined and is due essentially to the ease of
reproduction of the pine in these states. It is logical to expect a reproduc-
tion, although somewhat slower, in the western edge of the belt.
During this period of migration there have been many changes in the
industry, all of which have been for the purpose of adopting improved








88 FLORIDA, 1907-27; AN ADVANCING STATE

methods of operation. We are witnessing the rapid acceptance by the
producers of any change which increases production per crop and con-
serves the timber supply. We have seen an increase of at least 30%
in the yield per crop in Florida within a period of five years, and this in-
crease has come even though the timber being worked is on an average
much smaller. There will unquestionably be further increases in the yield
per crop through the adoption of other improved methods and also as the
idea of ceasing to work small trees becomes more generally accepted.

MUTUAL INTEREST-The reforestation program has developed favorable
public sentiment and is gaining momentum. The naval stores industry
is interested in such a program, as it is only by this means that the in-
dustry can be assured of a perpetual adequate supply of its raw material
-the pine tree. The real test of reforestation will come when it is sought
to determine whether growing of trees will pay. It will then be realized
that it will be necessary in practically every case to have an assured cur-
rent income to carry the burden of taxation, interest and fire protec-
tion. Such an income must be derived from co-products which will not
destroy the tree for other purposes. Such co-products in the case of pine
are found in naval stores. It is possible to work timber for naval stores
in such a way as to have a minimum effect upon rate of growth and at the
same time yield an income which will meet all of the expenses, besides
paying a profit. Under such conditions the problem of reforestation is
simplified and becomes more attractive to capital and present landowner.
From evidences now being offered, it seems certain that we will have
from second growth timber an increased number of trees per acre, and
through more efficient methods of operation, an increased yield of naval
stores per crop. This means an increased production of naval stores in
general, as the area which will be reforested will make this certain. Such
an increased volume in production makes it necessary to develop markets
for both turpentine and rosin which will absorb the entire production
each year, no matter how great, at profitable prices. Without such out-
lets the naval stores industry cannot be in a sound growing condition and
without a sound naval stores industry, reforestation becomes much less
inviting.

DISTILLATION-Included in the naval stores industry is the wood-tur-
pentine industry, which produces turpentine, rosin, and pine oil, by the
steam process; turpentine, pine oil, charcoal, tars, pitches, and tar oils, by
the destructive distillation process. The raw material for this industry is
the dead down lightwood and the stumps covering a vast number of acres.
In procuring this raw material, the land is cleared and de-stumped, making
it available for agricultural purposes. The owner of such land not only
saves the expense of such clearing, but also is paid for the privilege. An
improvement in the market demand for these products will unquestionably
increase the revenue into the state, besides making large acreages avail-
able for farming.

P. I. A.-Recognizing the necessity of the development of such markets,
the Pine Institute of America, an organization representing the naval stores
industry in all its branches, is concentrating on the development of new









NAVAL STORES, 1927-1928 89


and expanding present markets. This is being done through chemical and
industrial research and advertising. Research will discover new products,
new uses, and better methods of using naval stores than at present.
The success of such a program of market development will assure a
sustained adequate reforestation program, carried on until there has been
definite development in the pulp industry in the South, and a develop-
ment of stable markets for such products as poles, posts, ties, etc.
Appreciating also that the problem of efficient production needs at-
tention this particular phase is being studied, wasteful methods being dis-
carded, and wastes eliminated. This includes the selection of suitable trees,
the adoption of less destructive methods of "chipping" or scarifying the
trees, improvements in methods of stilling, such as is now offered by the
steam still.



NUMBER BARRELS OF ROSIN AND TURPENTINE

1927-28

Compiled by R. M. SASNETT, Supervising Inspector of Naval Stores for Florida


B... .....-- 3,090
D.............. 5,644
E.... ......... 12,539
F............. 34,714
G ............ 61,734
H ....- ... 96,584
I................ 91,952
K ................ 70,504
M ......... 48,794
N ............... 33,287


2,923
5,486
16,293
90,561
36,955
28,769
14,214
7,545
4,857
3,102


S


1,252
1,048
2,758
8,303
14,982
29,537
33,589
32,782
19,954
14,288


WG............ 20,956
WW.......... 15,189
X ............... 3,169
OP............. 182
SD............. 13
BB............. 4
DROSS.... 3,349
Rec'd. but
not worked
R ................ 10,120


a
1,812
1,339
319
85
7
5
7


10,876
11,758
888
19


..........


*Remarks: Included in above are 1,200 barrels wood turpentine. Rosin shown above
as received, but not worked, probably inspected elsewhere.
"*Remarks: Included in above, 59,872 barrels wood rosin and 10,501 barrels wood
turpentine.
***Remarks: Included in above are 1,899 barrels if wood turpentine.



RECEIPTS OF NAVAL STORES BY MONTHS


1927
April.....................
May............. ....
June ............-......-
July......................
August.................
September............
October................
November...........
December.... ........


Jacksonville
Rosin Turp.
35,818 11,549
55,329 16,409
64,416 19,125
56,926 16,020
52,507 15,670
52,430 15,285
49,384 13,779
53,991 12,399
47,923 10,911


1928
January............... 17,401
February............. 14,547
March.................. 11,142


3,155
2,275
3,194


Pensacola
Rosin Turp.
15,944 5,217
22,860 7,105
28,977 7,422
22,726 7,633
23,308 6,796
20,488 6,243
20,338 5,903
23,443 5,888
15,420 4,111


Interior Points
Rosin Turp.
19,205 2,341
19,070 6,565
16,113 5,148
18,150 6,405
18,433 3,824
20,621 3,808
18,402 2,485
22,159 3,642
11,514 5,578


8,501 2,487 5,998 825
9,514 2,024 8,066 488
8,265 1,215 4,303 1,475


Total................ 511,814 139,771 214,784 62,044 182,034 42,584
Grand Total, Season 1927-28-Barrels: Rosin, 908,632; Turpentine, 244,399.
In Federal Statistics turpentine is quoted by gallons-50 gallons to the barrel.




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