• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgement
 A lifetime adventure
 Park responsibilities
 Teacher responsibilities
 Water
 Habitats--wetlands
 Habitats--high ground
 Wiccosukees
 An introduction to Everglades flora...
 Chaperon responsibilities
 Resources






Title: Everglades National Park: Shark Valley Guide
CITATION DOWNLOADS THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/FI06050106/00001
 Material Information
Title: Everglades National Park: Shark Valley Guide
Physical Description: Archival
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- South Florida
 Notes
Funding: Florida International Univerity Libraries
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: FI06050106
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

file1 ( PDF )

file5 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Foreword
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Acknowledgement
        Page 4
    A lifetime adventure
        Page 5
    Park responsibilities
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Teacher responsibilities
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Water
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Habitats--wetlands
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Habitats--high ground
        Page 15
    Wiccosukees
        Page 16
    An introduction to Everglades flora and fauna
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Chaperon responsibilities
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Resources
        Page 32
Full Text





EVERGL)
NATIONAL


r


















We need the tonic of wildness
to wade sometimes in marshes...
to smell the whispering sedge...

At the same time that we are earnest to
explore and learn all things...

we require that all things
be mysterious and unexplorable...
We can never get enough of nature.


Henry David Thoreau


. .. - - -









Table of Contents


A Lifetime Adventure ............................ .............................. 5


Park Responsibilities ........................................................... 6-7
W o rk sh o p s .................................................................................................................................. 6
T transportation ............................................................................................................................ 6
S ched u lin g ................................................................................................................................. 6
Program Evaluation ....... ........... .. ............................................... 6
Ranger Program ....... ..... .. ..................................................... .................. 7

Teacher Responsibilities ..................................................... 8-9
C h eck list ..................................................................................................................................... 8
L g islics ........................................................................................................................ .. ..... ....... 9

Water ..................................... ........................................ 10-11
The W after Cycle .. ................. ........ ....... ..................................... .......... 10
I.im stone .............. ... .................. ............................... 10
T he A qu ife r ....................................................................................... ...... ................................ 1 0
The Everglades Ecosystem ............................ .................................. ......... 11
Seasons ............... ....... ....................................................................................... ... ..

Habitats Wetlands ................... ............................ 2-14
S lo u g h ........................................................................................................................................ ] 2
S aw grass ...................................................... ...................... ................................ ............... 3
Periphyton .............. ... ........ ..... .. ....... .... ......................... ........... ...... 13
A llig ato r H o les ................................ . .. .................. ... .. .. ............................................. 14


Habitats High Ground ..........................................................15
Ham m ock ............................................... ................ .......... .................................................. 15
Bayheads ...................... ... ........... ........................ ........... ............................... 15

Native Americans M iccosukees .......................... .. .. ........16














An Introduction to Everglades Flora and Fauna ....................... 17-29
Food Chains .... ..................... ........... ............... .... ......... ............................ ..... .. 17
A adaptations ..................................................... .. ..... ... ..... ,................................ 18-19
Plants ................ . ............... ........................................................................ .................. 20-21
Fishes and Snails ................ ...................................... ........... ....................... 22-23
Reptiles ,......... ............... ........................... .. ......... ............ ...................... ..... .. 24-25
Birds .................. ..... ..................... ............................... ...... ......... 26-27
M am m als ......... ...... ..................... ....... . ........... ...................................... ...... ... 28-29

Chaperon Responsibilities .......................................... ... 30-31
English ...... -.................... ..... ... ............... .............. ..... ............. .......... .. .. 30
S panish ........ ..... ........ .... ... ........................................ .... .. ............. ... ................... 3 1

Resources ........................................................................ ........... 32










Acknowledgements




This guide is dedicated to those teachers who share their sense of
wonder with their students.




Editor and Layout
Isobel Kalafarski


Artists:
Cover Sandi Olsen
Line Drawings Elizabeth Smith
Cartoons Eva Dienske


V NI unesco


Special thanks to those who reviewed the draft: Dr. William B, Robertson, Ellen Alvin, Helene
Nemeth, Judy Owen, Maureen Walsh Palermo, Connie Washburn, Marta Whitchouse, and Sandy
Dayhoff. Additional thanks to the Soulh Florida Research Center and to Everglades National Park
Education Staff.
(If you would like more information about Everglades Education Programs, please call 305-242-7753.)


The printing of this guide book was made possible through the generous '
support of the Blank Family Foundation and the South Florida National Parks Trust,
Printed on recycled paper. Revised 2005.
otQlfr*


~- ... C~. .. ~ -


Q ASj;j! =


M1B








I F
^_________** 1-^" '*"''.~4 *.*^^*^..rF'_


Since 1971 the National Park Service and local schools have cooperated in the use of Ever-
glades National Park as an outdoor classroom. Park staff, teachers, and school administra-
tors share responsibility for the Everglades Education Program. These partners have agreed
upon the following goals:

To acquaint the students of South Florida with the hammock, slough, sawgrass marsh,
and pincland habitats of Everglades National Park;
To develop an appreciation in students for their total environment, natural and hu-
man-made;
To develop in students an understanding of Everglades National Park's value to the
web of life in South Florida;
To motivate students to participate actively in solving South Florida's environmen-
tal problems.
Although these goals cannot all be achieved during a single trip, classroom lessons can
make even one park visit a significant step toward educating students as caretakers of
South Florida's natural resources.

This booklet is arranged to help you prepare for a field trip to the Shark Valley area of the
park. It serves as a reference for material introduced during the teacher workshop. During
their visit, students will see a variety of habitats and experience first hand the excitement of
viewing animals living in the wild. The booklet includes park and teacher responsibilities,
an overview of habitats that may be seen at Shark Valley, an introduction to the Miccosukee
culture, information on flora and fauna including a classroom activity, and a resource list.


This Shark Valley Site Guide, in conjunction with the teacher workshop, classroom activi-
ties, and the field trip, meet the following new 1997, Dade County curriculum based con-
petencies (CBCs) for 4th Grade.

I The Nature of Science as Inquiry Objective 1

1 Life Science Objectives i, 2 and 3 Competency A

V Interaction orSociety and the Environment Objectives 1, 2, 3, 4, and S
Competency A


Thank
parks


you for your willingness to become a trip leader! We hope visiting your national
will be a lifetime adventure!


5 Everglades Education


II


















a'



I

C)

0

0,
















in



l
=0
* m



a
a
j
*

0


0.



a.
U)
(0



o
(U



a-


Scheduling
Field trip reservations are accepted only via
our website. Workshop quali fied teachers may
reserve their trip by visiting www.nps.gov/
ever/cd, and clicking on the "School Visits
With a Ranger" link. Trip reservations are
filled on a first-come, first- served-basis, and
are finalized in early October. Reply letters
are sent to all teachers who have submitted
reservation requests. As there are usually more
requests submitted than there are available
dates, it is important to request your date im-
mediately! Teachers who are flexible, listing
more than one date, increase their chances of
receiving a reservation. A waiting list is main-
lained in case of cancellations.


Workshops
To help teachers prepare for their class visit,
park rangers conduct one-day workshops at
Shark Valley. A workshop helps teachers to:

- Learn about the program's logistics, and their
field trip responsibilities;
* Acquire a familiarity with the habitats, wild-
life, Irails, and roadways;
* Understand how to relate classroom activi-
ties to the field trip experience.

New teachers, and those who have not par.
ticipated in the program for the past two
years, must attend a workshop.



Transportation
The Dade County School Board has regularly
contracted for the transportation ofits students
to park field trips. For schools receiving this
prepaid transportation, the park will notify the
contracted bus company of the reserved dales.
(All other schools must arrange their own
transportation.) The number ofpeople allowed
on the bus is 65 (59 students and 6 adults).
All field trip participants must be on the
bus, No one is allowed to follow the bus in
private vehicles. The only exception is
when all transportation is provided by pri-
vate vehicles. If such, please try to car
caravan, so everyone will arrive at the
sane time.

Buses paid for by the Dade County School
Board are rented for six hours and depart the
park by 1:30 pm To maximize your time In
the park, please plan to leave from school
as early as possible.


Everglades Education 6


Program Evaluation
The Everglades National Park staff recognizes
that teachers are an integral part of he educa-
tional efforts of the Park Service. To help us
do the best job possible, your rangers will pro-
vide you with an evaluation form to complete.
Specific suggestions and helpful comments,
on what worked and what didn't, are welcome.
Likewise, after your field trip, you will be
mailed an evaluation completed by your rang-
ers. [fat any time you'd like to make a com-
ment or discuss a concern about the field trip
program with a supervisor, please contact the
Everglades Education Office at: 305-242-7753






Shark Valley field Trip Schedule

The rangers look forward to sharing an Everglades Adventure with you and your class! While
the general plan of the field trip remains similar from year to year, circumstances such as
inclement weather, high water, and the program emphasis of the individual ranger can result in
variability. Also, if the tram is out of service, an alternate activity will be conducted via a
walking tour to Otter Cave Hammock, (one mile round trip). Flexibility and adaptability are
the keys to a successful day!












8:30 Bus arrives at school. Be prepared to go! Remember-maximum group size is 65! (1

8:45 Depart school for Shark Valley. Give out name tags, review vocabulary and discuss the
term "impact". Have students count the number of impacts they see on the bus trip,
including exotic plants like Melaleuca and Australian Pine trees, canals, roads, water 0
control structures, and ground and air traffic.

10:00 Arrive at Shark Valley where two rangers will greet you. Student helpers will put lunches 0
on the tram and reboard the bus. Introductions, a quick rules review and a restroom .
break will occur before boarding the tram.

10:30 Ranger conducted tram tour. The quieter the students are, the more they'll sec... -

11:45 Arrive at the Shark Valley tower. Lunch at the base of the lower. Clean up.

12:15 After lunch activities. Each teacher should have previously divided their class into two C
equal groups. Thus there will be a total of four groups, two teacher-led and two ranger-
led. The groups will rotate, each participating in the tower tour (listening to the
Everglades), nature trail exploration, and a restroom break.

12:50 Board tram for continuation of tour and return trip Io the parking area.

1:25 Group boards bus and departs Shark Valley.

2:45 Bus returns to school. Share the story of your Everglades Adventure with others!


7 Everglades Education


k --------







Teacher Responsibility Checklist

Attend a Teacher Workshop if you are new to the program or have not led a Shark
Valley field trip in the last two years.

For field trip permission, follow your school system's regulations. Once your
reservation form has been received, a reply letter will be mailed to you. Have
your principal sign the letter and fax it back to the number provided as soon as
V possible.
4)
S__ Arrange for transportation if you are not a Dade County Public school, or if you
M'W have been asked to provide your own. Compliance with bus capacity and bus
regulations is mandatory!

fl Obtain parental permission forms and, if needed, travel authorizationrinsurance.

__ Select chaperons. One adult is required for every 10 students. Chaperons are
expected to assist with safety and discipline and must participate in all activities.

__ Conduct student pri-sile program preparations: utilize this Guide, the Everglades
Activity Guide, and the Activity Kit, if available.

Remind students that they are not allowed to bring cameras, binoculars, tape
recorders, radios, games, money, or backpacks as these items could get lost and
) tend to distract from the learning experience.

# Go over park rules/regulations. Collecting or damaging any plants or animals is
prohibited. Nothing may be taken from the park. Gum, food and drink items are
L.. not allowed on the bus, tram, or trails. Students must leave a clean picnic area!
Also, there will be other park visitors enjoying the park so voice levels must be
Sept low.






SEastern Indigo Snake


Please tell rangers any special needs of your group before the tram trip
starts. All rangers carry radios and can request emergency medical
assistance. If a student in your group is injured or not feeling well,
notify a ranger immediately.
^ y/


Everglades Education 8








For Your Field Trip

__ Safety is everyone's concern. Safe behavior will guarantee a safe trip!

_ Explain to all program participants that they must come prepared with proper
clothing and foot wear for an outdoor experience. A long sleeved jacket, long
pants, and tennis shoes are best. Absolutely no shorts or open-toed shoes!
Always be prepared for extreme cold weather and windy conditions on any
Shark Valley field trip.

Name lags are a must for courtesy and safety! A piece of masking tape with
the first name written in big letters works well. All name tags should be easy
to read at a distance and should not fall off.

Bag lunches are another must. Except for water, no food or drink is available.
Each teacher should put the bag lunches in boxes that can be stowed under 0
the bus seats. Each teacher may also bring one ice chest. Color code boxes to
match name tags, which will make lunch and after-lunch activities run more
efficiently. Assign student lunch helpers to carry boxes and ice chests.

After lunch each class will be divided into 2 groups, thus making a total of 4
groups. (Two will be teacher-led and two will be ranger-led.) The groups will 0
rotate, going up the tower to the observation platform, exploring the nature U)
trail, and using the restrooms. MO

Purchase non-aerosol insect repellant. Generally, repellant is not necessary, 0
however, it is best to come prepared!

S* Most importantly, have fun! Enjoy your National Park! Ul)
-U
Finally, follow up the field trip with post-site activities. Design food webs,
create Everglades riddles, draw pictures, write poetry, send letters to your rang-
ers having the students explain how they plan to save water, encourage stu-
dents to share the story of their Everglades adventure by creating a mural... .



^U)


9 Everglades Education
















2L

U"















mc .


kii~


Water
Water is the lifeblood of the Everglades and
the staple of our existence, The Everglades
needs water and the population of South
Florida needs water. We're in this together.
Where does this precious resource come from?

The Water Cycle
Have you ever been caught in a rainstorm or
stood outside on a steamy, hot day'? Heat from
the sun draws moisture from lakes, rivers, and
the ocean. This water vapor begins evapo-
rating, rising upward. Plants are also releas-
ing moisture through a process called tran-
spiration. As this moisture rises, it cools and
condenses, and when the conditions are right
will form a rain cloud. Then the lightening
flashes, the thunder roars, and the tropical
downpour begins! South Florida averages 50-
60 inches
of rain per
year. More
than 70%
of this rain r2
fallsduring -
the wet
season ex-
tending
from May i
through -
October.
The rain re-
plenishes
lakes, riv- ---.. ,re -
ers, and -
streams.
Some of
the water
percolates, or seeps, underground and is stored
in the bedrock, which is primarily comprised
of limestone.
Limestone
Limestone is a soft rock that is permeable,
(porous), having many cracks and pockets
where the water collects, It is often compared
to a sponge. (The foundation of your home in
South Florida is built on limestone.) This is a
rock that may tell a story.


Everglades Education 10


A rock tha talks? Limestone is made up ofcal-
dum and often contains fossils of sea life, evi-
dence of shallow seas that once covered this area.
It can be exciting to have your students examine
limestone rocks as they will often find fossils and
thus be able to read the story!

The Aquifer
Imagine a layered cake. Then imagine layers of
limestone. The layers of ock the water moves
through make up an aquifer. The Biscayne Aqui-
fer lies under most of the watershed in south-
caslte Florida. This aquifer is one of the most
permeable in the world, drawing in water over its
entire surface!
The Biscayne Aquifer is the source of drink-
ing water for people in southeastem Florida. Our
wells tap directly into this water. This subterra-
ean water
source
meets the
majority
of the hu-
6d man de-
S / mand for
d1 4 water in

Florida.
I However,
Dal scientists
have
T._-------------= sho w n
S/ that when
t r-- there is
--" insuffi-
cient sur-
face water
to percolate downward to replenish the aquifer,
then salt water from the coastal areas can intrude.
Salt water intrusion contaminates well water,
greatly affecting home owners, developers, and
farmers! Native wildlife and plant populations
would also be severely impacted.

Water Conservation
We all need water, we all use water, How can
this valuable resource be protected?


Il
-






The Everglades Ecosystem
The Everglades ecosystem is actually a river sys-
tem that starts in central Florida, near the city of
Orlando. The northern most pan of the Ever-
glades ecosystem is called the Kisrsmmee River
Basin and encompasses a chain of lakes and a
numberofrivers including the Kissinmee River.
Precipitation falling in the Kissimmee River Ba-
sin combines with the surface water and flows
south, eventually emptying into Lake
Okeechobee, which is the central part of the
Everglades ecosystem. Okeechobee is the local
Indian name given to this vast body ofwater. The
name literally means "waters big".


Historically, when Lake Okeechobee filled, the
water would spill over the southern end of the
lake and weave its way south in a shallow
sheetflow, down through the "sawgrass Ever-
glades", then through the mangroves and out
into Florida Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, As
the fresh and salt water mix they form a brack-
ish waler estuary, a nursery rich with marine
life including crab, lobster, shrimp, and fish.
Seasons are a major factor influencing the Ev-
erglades ecosystem. Unlike up north, South
Florida only has two seasons. The wet season
occurs from May to October with the dry sea-
son extending from November through April.


Changes
The Everglades wetland was once home to huge
flocks ofwading birds along with numerous other
wildlife species. The nesting population ofwad-
ing bids in the park, has declined by 90%, since
the 1940s. The ecosystem has ben greatly al-
tered!
The Everglades is no longer a free flowing river,
it has been drained for farming and home con-
struction. Lake Okeechobee has been completely
diked. Fourteen hundred miles ofcanals, dikes,
and levees divert and drain the water. Three huge
reservoirs, called water conservation areas,
(WCA), trap the once flowing river and have
been tumed into shallow lakes. These water con-
servation areas are being utilized toprevent flood-
ing in east coast cities and to recharge fresh wa-
ter well fields.
Along with diminished water quantity into Ev-
erglades National Park, water quality has also
been affected. As the water flows through the
farming areas it picks up fertlizers which con-
tain nitrogen and phosphorus. The water is also
picking up mercury, from
anundeterminedsource. Ex-
cess amounts of mercury can
be toxic. This polluted wa-
ter has had a detrimental ef-
fect on plant and animal
communities and their re-
lated food chains.

The Everglades Today
Although the Everglades
is no longer a free flowing
river, there is still a part that remains wild and
free! Everglades National Park contains 1/10
of the original Everglades river. Within this shal-
low river, the sawgrass marsh is alive! Picture
an immature alligator sunning on it's mother's
head, a wading bird fishing, and purple pickerel-
weed waving in a gentle breeze. These are a few
of the sights one might find on an Everglades
adven-
ture. Let's
take a
closer -
look at
Everglades National Park.


l1 Everglades Education


I

0





0



0/
-I
'1

o












What is a slough?
Within the sawgrass marsh are channels and
ponds of deeper water that contain water year
round, except in the driest years. The wider,
deeper channels of water are called sloughs,
while the smaller ponds are often maintained
by alligators and thus are called gator holes.

Two Sloughs
There are two major sloughs in Everglades Na-
tional Park. The largest is the Shark River
Slough. The other slough, Taylor Slough, is
located southeast or the Shark River Slough.
The Shark River Slough empties into the Gulf
of Mexico and Florida Bay. Taylor Slough
empties directly into Florida Bay. At one time,
the two sloughs were connected by overland
sheetflow. Today, because canals divert the
water, that connection no longer exists. One
of the goals of Everglades Restoration is to
reintroduce the natural sheet flow.


.-- --.".*..- ; "

Tamiami Trail
Tamiami Trail, U.S. 41, is the road that you
drove on to get to Shark Valley. The highway
crosses the Shark River Slough. Think about
trying to build a road across a river, a very wide
river! Now imagine being a water droplet or a
garfish trying to get from one side of the road


to the other. Tamiami Trail and the white ce-
ment water control gates next to the road, act
like a dam preventing the constant flow of wa-
ter and the movement of wildlife from north lo


...



.
south across the Everglades. When the water
control gates, which are operated by humans,
are open water is able to continue its journey
south along with fishes, alligators, otters, and
other wildlife. When the gates are closed, the
water flow stops.
A variety of other habitats, (homes for plants
and animals), including sawgrass marshes, al-
ligator holes, hardwood hammocks, and
bayheads are found in, and adjacent to the
Shark River and Taylor Sloughs. Let's explore
each of these!


Is sawgrass a plant or a habitat?
Sawgrass is both a plant and a habitat, While
this plant does not have showy blossoms, it is
true to its name and does have sawtooth edges
that can cut.


Everglades Education 12


C


l
(a








I(a




'I-


Slough Wded, deeper drainage channel of
water, flowing through the slow moving
4 River of Grass







Sawgrass Marshes
A grass that cuts?
Take the opportunity
to feel a piece of saw
grass. Look closely at
the saw teeth. Twirl it
in your lingers. Do
you feel three edges?
Sawgrass is actually a
sedge, and "sedges
have edges". Why is
it an advantage for a
plant to have sawtooth
edges? The edges
may serve as a protec-
tive mechanism for
the plant, keeping herbivores and omnivores
from eating it. However, there is a mammal
in the park that does feed on the new growth
ofsawgrass. That mammal is the white tailed
deer. Like the deer, humans can
also eat sawgrass, if they eat the
white tip found at the bottom end
of a blade. Apple snails also uti-
lize sawgrass to lay their eggs on.
During the wet season,
sawgrass marshes are flooded with
water. Fishes and apple snails
move underwater among the
sawgrass stalks. The snails crawl
out of the water periodically to lay
clumps of white, pearl sized eggs on the
sawgrass blades, just above the water line.
Brownish green algal mats, called periphyton,
float on the water surface. Then the dry down
begins ....
How does the wildlife survive?
One strategy for making it through the dry sea-
son is to lay eggs in the periphyton. These algal
mats are comprised of different species of ale
gae and a variety of microscopic animals.


Many small animals including insects,
fishes, and frogs lay their eggs in the mats.
The periphyton provides shade, moisture, and
shelter for the eggs. Although the animals who
laid the eggs may die, their progeny will live
on, hatching out and spreading across the
sawgrass Everglades when the wet season re-
turns.
Perlphyton does what?
Periphyton not only provides protection for the
next generation, but is also the base of the Ev-
erglades food chain, being eaten by fishes and
apple snails, which in turn are fed on by birds,
which may then be eaten by even larger preda-
tors. Periphyton also releases oxygen into the
water, and as it decays, builds soil.
Periphyton has a unique texture. Students
will be given the opportunity to hold and ex-
amine this part of the Everglades food web.
Please instruct students to use their best ob-
servation skills including sight, touch and
smell.


Flying High
Flying above the sawgrass marsh, the endangered
snail kite may be spotted searching for a meal.
While the alligator is an opportunistic feedr,
the snail kite is dependent on only one food
sure. Imagine eating the same food every day
for a week.. a month... and for the rest of your
life! 99% of the snail kite's diet is the apple snail.
This freshwatersnail has a brown shell. The apple
snail is most likely to become a snail kite's din-
ner, when it conms tothe watersurfae to breathe.
The snail kite dives down and swoops up the
snail in its tatons. It transfers the snail to its beak,
alights on a perch, plucks out the meat, and feeds
The apple snail is also eaten by limpkins, ibises,
and alligators.


13 Everglades Education


3:

01







MI



IIIIIIII








.:;t


Alligator Holes
One type of habitat found within a sawgrass
marsh is the alligator hole. These holes or de-
pressions in the limestone may be the size ofbath-
tubs or as big as swimming pools. As the dry
down progresses, these pools hold water longer
than the surrounding sawgrass marsh, and be-
come places of tremendous activity!
A willowhead often forms around a gator hole.
Alligators deepen their holes, ripping out vegeta-
tion and moving mud toward the edges, creating
a mudbank bed for wil-
lows to grow in. Dur-
ing the rainy season,
animals easily move /
back and forth between
the gator hole and the
sawgrass marsh habi-
tats, With the advanc- / \
ing dry season, as the
water levels go down, -
much of the Ever-
glades wildlife begins
to concentrate in and around these gator holes
and in the sloughs, where water is still available.
Fishes and turtles swim in. Egrets, herons, en-
dangered wood storks and other wading birds fly
in to feed on the heavy concentrations of fishes.
Deer, raccoons, bobcats, and other mammals stop
by for a drink.

The Landlord
Alligators are landlords of the gator holes and they
collect rent! Although alligators are cold-blooded
and may appear sluggish, they can move very
quickly for short distances. They generally feed
between dawn and dusk with the rent collection
occurring only about once per week. What does
the alligator eat? The alligator is considered an


opportunistic feeder and will eat insects, snails,
fishes, amphibians, other reptiles, birds and
mammals, immature alligators also eat insects
and apple snails, along with other small prey.
However, during cold spells, if the temperature
falls below 73 degrees, the alligator seldom eats.
When gators go in search of food, water, seller,
or mates they often leave trails. These Irails can
be seen from the Shark Valley road. They pro-
vide slightly deeper waterways which insects,
snails and fishes use.

Nesting
Alligator courtship be-
gins in spring and may
include bellowing,
head slapping, snout
touching and bubble
blowing. After a male
alligator mates, he
---- moves on and may
mate with other fe-
males. It is the female alligator that builds the
nest mound, usually in June or July. The nests
are made from vegetation with the average clutch
size in Everglades National Park totaling 30 to
50 eggs. Sometimes red-bellied turtles also lay
their eggs in the gator nest mound.
The eggs are incubated by the warmth of Ihe
rotting vegetation. The female gator stays rela-
tively close to the nest site for two months, until
the hatchlings emerge. Only I or 2 gators from
each clutch, will make it to maturity because of
the inevitable dangers they face as they grow.
While alligators are primarily found in the low,
wet areas, other species of wildlife inhabit the
higher, drier habitats.


Everglades Education 14


(a






/)






Io


*--


S






A Hammock or a Mountain?
Hammocks are another type of habitat often
found in the sawgrass marsh. Hammocks are
high, dry tree islands. imagine hiking out to
one .






-


You've almost reached the hammock when,
"splash!", you step into a moat that formed as
acids from decaying plants dissolved away the
limestone. These moats provide a ire barrier
as they may hold water even during the dry sea-
son. Once you've splashed through the moat,
you step up onto the hammock, which is a few
inches to a few feet above the surrounding
sawgrass marsh. This slight elevation change
creates a habitat dominated by tropical hard-
woods, palms, and temperate tree species.

Unusual Names
The trees of the hammock have fascinating
names. Gumbo Limbo is a tropical Ircc with
red, peeling bark, nicknamed the sunburn tree.
The Lysiloma is the primary host tree for the
Liguus tree snail, the jewel of the Everglades.
Strangler Figs, air plants, Florida's state tree,
the Sabal Palm, and temperate trees including
oak are also at home in the hammock.
You and the students are encouraged to touch
trees and look closely at and feel the various
shaped leaves on the plants. However, be on
the lookout for Poison Ivy and Poisonwood.
Poison Ivy grows as a vine and has leaflets in
groups of three, while Poisonwood has leaflets
in groups of five. Both plants have oils on them
that on contact, may cause an allergic reaction.
Washing exposed skin with soap and water is
often enough to prevent a reaction.
Most students are fascinated by the thought of
seeing a poisonous plant. Remember to em-
phasize respect rather than fear when teaching
about any poisonous plant or animal found in
the Everglades.


"Whoo" hides in the hammock?
Owls, of course! Barred owls are often heard
hooting in the hammocks at night. Mammals
that may frequent the hammock include the
white-tailed deer, raccoons, opossums, bob-
cats, and the endangered Florida panther. Stu-
dents should be Informed that most of these
animals are very secretive and are ra ,
seen.

Who's easily seen?
Walk into a hammock during the wet season
and you will see, hear, feel and become part of
the food chain.., as you provide lunch for mos-
quitoes! The hammock is a windbreak, mod-
erating temperature and providing protection
and shade for a variety of wildlife species.
Look up carefully to spot the jewels of the
Everglades, the tree snails. During the wet
season, they move up and down the Lysilomas
feeding on lichen. During the dry season, the
snails estivate, attaching themselves to a tree
branch until a rain shower brings them out to
feed.


Bayheads
If the hammocks are considered the mountains
of the Everglades, then the bayheads are its
hills. The limestone elevation of bayheads is
not as high as hammocks, and while ham-
mocks generally remain high and dry during
the wet season, bayheads may get flooded. The
primary vegetation in bayheads includes Red
Bay which has an aromatic smell and can be
used as a spice; Sweet Bay Magnolia which
has a pretty cream-colored flower; and
Cocoplum which has rounded leaves and an
edible fruit. -, a .


15 Everglades Education


C"
0*



















a.






, X -


A Home Without Walls
Could you imagine living in a home without
walls? The traditional home of the Miceosukee
Indian People is called the chicken. This build-
ing is made from cypress poles used as beams,
topped with a thatched roof of sabal palm
fronds. The Miccosukees had a chickee for
sleeping and a second one for cooking.
The Miccosukees are a self governing nation.
The majority of Miccosukees live along the
Tamiami Trail, just west of the entrance to
Shark Valley.


Changes
Primarily due to drainage and the subsequent
lack of water, along with the building of the
Tamiami Trail, the canoe is no longer their
main mode of transportation. Most
Miccosukees have left their traditional world
and have moved into today's "modern" world.
While chickens are still used for traditional
ceremonies, most ;embers of the tribe live in
"modern homes" complete with air
conditioning and modem appliances. Jobs
vary, however, today many tribal members
operate craft shops, offer airboat tours, or work
in tribal and school offices.


The Miccosukee people keep alive their cul-
ture by participating in ihe yearly green corn
dance ceremony and by speaking in their na-
tive language.


Food and Transportation
Traditionally the Miccosukees were hunters,
The game Ihey ate included garfish, large-
mouthed bass, turtles, and deer. Along with
hunting, they supplemented their diet with
gardens, where they grew pumpkin, corn,
tomatoes and bananas. They drank sofkee, a
gruel-like drink made from corn, fruit or other
grains.
They lived on hammocks in the sawgrass
Everglades and traveled primarily by dugout
canoe, Along with poling their canoes, made
from cypress logs, Ihey would also rig sails to
use when the wind was strong enough,


Everglades Education 16


(0
0
0
(0




CE,
O
0
0m







Food Chain


Flora and Fauna
The following pages examine
specific flora and fauna of the
Everglades. As you read the
material think about possible
applications to your classroom
activities. Have your students
design food chains and food
webs. Have them discuss
animal and plant adaptations
and connections among water,
habitats, food sources, and the
wildlife found in each habitat.


Food Web


Ctassroom Activity
Utilize pages 16 25 for a
classroom activity. Divide
your class into 5 groups. Give
each group a definition page
and a picture page. Have
students match pictures with
definitions. Have groups do
additional research, drawing
other Everglades plants or
animals that are not pictured.
Have individual groups make
a presentation about the
plants or animals that they
were assigned to work on.


Interrelationships


17 Everglades Education


'C



3


I







Crocodile
American Crocodle


* Habitats salt or brackish water;
mangroves

* Snout pointed or "V" shaped

* Teeth of both jaws visible when
jaws are closed

* Nest material mud or sand mound

* Range in the U. S., the southern tip
of Florida. Also in Central and
South America and the Caribbean

* Status Endangered reptile species


Alligator
American Alligator


* Habitats fresh or brackish water;
sawgrass, willowheads, mangroves

* Snout rounded or "U" shaped

* Only teeth of upper jaw visible
when jaws are closed

* Nest material vegetation mound

* Range Southeastern United States



* Status reptile species of special
concern due to similarity of ap-
pearance to the crocodile


Everglades Education 18


I


' ''







Birds of Prey


Snail Kite



Characteristics of Birds of Prey/Raptors
SBill short, hooked shape

* Talons for claws used for grasping

All are sight feeders

Includes: snail kite, American
bald eagle, red-shouldered hawk
Status the snail kite is an endan-
gered bird species


Red-Shouldered Hawk


19 Everglades Education


0.





0)



()







1. Sawgrass is the primary plant covering the 'glades. Be careful when you touch it as sawgrass
has tiny sawtooth edges which can cut if rubbed the wrong way. This sedge provides food for
deer and building materials for muskrat homes and alligator nests. Pearl shaped apple snail eggs
can often be found clinging to the stems of sawgrass, just above the water's surface. The while
base of the central leaf bundle is tender and edible.

2. Bladderwort is a free-floating plant found in the sawgrass and cypress dome habitats. Its
feathery green foliage floats in the water and usually displays a single yellow or purple flower
protruding above the water. This plant has no roots! [t gets some of its food from "eating" small
aquatic insects (i.e. mosquito larvae) by means of tiny bladders that trap the insects for food.

3. Cocoplum- is found growing in bayheads and around the edges of hammocks. It is a shrubby
plant with round, waxy leaves and has olive-sized oval fruit which changes from green to purple
(or white) when ripe. These fruits are food for birds and mammals, including humans.

4. Red Bay is a primary component of bayheads. It is a shrubby plant with pointed leaves
which give off an aromatic smell. This plant is related to the commercially sold bay leaf and can
be used as a flavoring for food. The plant leaves are often etched with trails of leaf miners, insects
that feeds within the narrow leaf space between the top and bottom layers of the leaf.

WS 5. Gumbo Limbo is found in the hammock habitat. This tree has leaflets growing in groups of
five or seven and has red, peeling bark. Gumbo Limbo has been given the nickname of tourist
C tree as many Florida visitors get sunburned and thus end up red and peeling, like the tree bark.

S6. Lysilonm is also found in the hammock habitat and is of primary importance to the tree
l snail, the jewel of the Everglades. The snail feeds on lichen found on the tree bark. The tree has
Q compound leaflets of 30 or more per leaf, and when a breeze blows, the leaves seem to dance in
the wind, The hanging seed pods easily identify the tree as a member of the pea family.

7. Strangler Fig is found primarily in hardwood hammocks. This plant can start as a seed from
the ground or more likely, after being eaten, will be dropped by a bird into a tree. From this
location, high above ground, the seed will send out root runners that will wind around the tree
until they reach the ground. The plant also sends shoots skyward. Technically the fig doesn't
strangle its host tree, the fig eventually out competes it for sunlight.

8. Sabel Palm is also called Cabbage Palm and is found in the hnmmock habitat. This is the
state tree of Florida and is the primary tree the strangler fig embraces. The heart or leaf bud of
this plant tastes like cabbage, however, eating it kills the tree. The local Native Americans, the
Miccosukees, use the palm fronds for making the thatched-roof huts they call chickees.

9, Poison Ivy has shiny green leaflets in groups of three and is found in hammocks, bayheads
and the pinelands. This plant grows from a single stalk or as a vine. For those who are allergic to
it, touching the leaves or the vines can cause an itchy rash.

10. Poisonwood has dark green, black spotted leaflets in groups of five and is found in ham-
mocks. Like poison ivy, this shrub/tree can also cause an itchy rash. The berries are an important
food for the threatened white crowned pigeon.
(d-El-6 V-9 'i- 'L-9 '3-S 'H-t 'D-f *r-t 'v- I :!mavI


Everglades Education 20

















o.


3.

.0


21 Everglades Education







Fish characteristics: backbones, gills, fins, scales,
cold-blooded
Mollusk characteristics: soft body usually enclosed
in a shell (i.e. snails), no backbones ,



1. Mosquitofish have one to three rows of spots on their dorsal (upper) and caudal (tail) fins.
They are one of several species of small fishes often called minnows. The mosquitofish eat a
variety of inset larvae, including mosquito larvae! These tiny fish, which only grow to two
inches in length, are attracted to water disturbances and become food for almost anything that
eats fish. Female mosquito fish retain their eggs in their body and bear live young.

( L2. Bream or Sunfish are a favorite food for wading birds and freshwater fishermen. The
redear sunfish has a dark red spot, behind its eye and may grow lo ten inches in length. Bream
("brim") feed on insects and other aquatic life. Specific species include pumpkin seeds, blue-
0 gills, and warmouths.

3. Bass when young have a dark stripe on their sides and are a favorite food of wading birds.
They may grow to twenty inches in length and feed on crayfish and smaller-sized fishes. The
male fish guards the nest which is built by clearing plants from a space on the bottom of a pond
"C or canal. Bass arc being threatened by a more aggressive, non-native fish, the tilapia, which
chases the males off their nest site. Bass are among the first fish to die during the dry season.

0c 4. Garfish have long jaws armed with sharp teeth. Garfish are also called spotted gar as they
have dark brown spots on their long, narrow, needle-shaped body and may reach lengths of
Thirty inches. As a carnivore, their diet includes other fishes like bass and bream. Gar eggs are
Toxic if eaten by warm-blooded animals. The garfish is more likely to survive the dry down
than bass or bream, as they have an air bladder which helps them breathe in stagnant waters.

j 5. Tree Snails are also referred to as Liguus snails and are found in the hammock habitat,
More than 50 different color varieties have been found, thus these snails are often called the
*L jewels of the Everglades. The snails feed on lichen found on trees with smooth bark such as
.l ILysiloma and Jamaica Dogwood. During the dry season, the snails estivate, emerging only
alter a rainstorm. Tree snails breed, lay eggs, and grow more rapidly during the wet season.

6. Apple Snails are brown in color with a spiraled shell. They are an omnivore, with part of
their diet including algae. They have a closeable door, the operculum, which provides some
protection. They are the primary food of the endangered snail kite making up 99% of its diet.
Apple snails are also eaten by limpkins, a large brown wading bird, and alligators.






(H*a a s- ,-' e-a '3-r'v :u lWtt)


Everglades Education 22

























































23 Everglades Education


U


i


.9.


.5


C,



U)






C,








Reptile characteristics; backbone, bony plates or scales,
..cold-blooded






1. American Alligators are black above and light colored underneath. Immature alligators
are black with yellow stripes and are cream colored underneath. The snout is flat and rounded
and holds a total of eighty teeth. As the dry season progresses, more alligators are seen as they
gather at water holes. Alligators seem sluggish, but can move very quickly in the water and for
a short distance on land! Alligators are cold-blooded like all reptiles, eating only about once a
week.

2. Red Bellied Turtle This hard shelled turtle's belly, (plastron), is actually a rusty orange
color. The red-bellied slider is usually seen basking in the sun, or feeding on water plants like
the bladderwort. It is one of Florida's most common turtles. Even the largest ones, over a foot
W long, can be eaten by a hungry alligator.

Q 3. Softshell Thrtle Unlike the red bellied turtle, this turtle eats minnows and other small
aquatic animals. Its shell is a leathery, grayish-brown color, and its neck is r-e-a4-ly long.
SThis turtle is often spotted first by its protrouding nose, sticking out just above the water's
Q surface.

0 4. Green Anole Lizard Some people call this lizard the chameleon because it can rapidly
fl change color from a bright green to dark brown, or even tan or gray. Why? To hide! It is not
as common as it once was due to the introduction of the non-native brown anole. However, you
might find it eating crickets in your yard. It signals to other lizards by extending its dewlap, a
bright red fold of skin, from its throat.

5. Rat Snake In the Everglades, this handsome golden snake might reach seven feet in
length. [t eats small rodents, birds, and their eggs. It is not a poisonous snake. Instead, it kills
its prey by wrapping tightly around it, like a boa constrictor.

6, Cottonmouth or Water Moccasin is a poisonous snake that cats almost any small animal,
even baby alligators! When surprised, it opens its mouth to show its bright white lining and
fangs. The cottonmouth has a dark stripe through its eye. Its back has a pattern of light brown
and dark brown blotches, like several other Florida snakes. It's hard to tell these snakes apao,
so respect the wildlife and don't pick up any snakes or any other animals? The other three
poisonous
snake species found in the park are the diamondback rattlesnake, the pygmy rattlesnake and
the coral snake.



(..011'' "g 'r'a.-'-* I :sVwy)


Everglades Education 24

































ir





U',


25 Everglades Education








Bird Characteristics: have feathers, a backbone
and are warm-blooded



1. Anhinga is also called the snake bird and the water turkey. This bird is often seen with its
wings outstretched, drying and warming itself Anhingas. like ducks, do have a oil preening
gland and webbed feet, however, their feathers are not waterproof. The anhinga is a sight feeder,
diving underwater to spear its prey. After a fish is speared, the anhinga returns to the surface,
tosses the fish in the air, and gulps it down head first.

2. Great Blue Heron is a wading bird with long legs and a long beak. This grayish-blue bird
stands four feet high with a wingspan of over 6 feet. It is a special sight to watch this majestic
bird fly! The Great Blue Heron is a sight feeder, often referred to as the patient fisherman. The
bird can be seen standing perfectly still, gazing at the water. Then, in an instant, it darts out its
long neck and beak and snatches a fish for dinner!

3. Great Egret is a wading bird that has white feathers with a long, yellow beak, and jet black
legs. This bird is also a patient fisherman and a sight feeder. During the breeding season the
Great Egret develops lacy plume feathers. It was these beautiful, delicate feathers that almost
u caused the birds' demise back in the late 1800's as they were extensively hunted for their plumes,
"0 which were worn in ladies hats.

4. Snowy Egret is the bird with the golden slippers. Shorter than the great egret, this white
m feathered bird has black legs and bright yellow feet. The feet act as a lure, attracting fish. The
snowy egret is another wading bird that was also hunted for its plume feathers.

5, White Ibis is the most numerous of Everglades wading birds. It has white feathers, black
wing tips, and a long, curved beak which it uses to probe in the mud to find its food. This touch
feeder primarily eats snails, aquatic insects, and an occasional fish..

6. Purple Gallinule provides a splash of color, having purple, green and blue feathers with a
bright red and yellow candy-corn bill. This bird is similar to chickens, having long scratching
feet which it spreads out when walking across the spatterdocks in search of food. Even though
it lacks webbed feet, the bird is often spotted swimming. A close relative of he purple gallinule
is the moorhen, which also has a brightly colored bill, but in contrast, has black feathers, which
help provide camouflage.

7. Red-Shouldered Hawk is a bird ofprey with a short hooked beak and talons. It eats mice,
frogs, birds, and snakes.

8. Turkey Vulture is a big, black feathered bird that eats carrion. It's a different type of
hunter than a bird of prey, It spends the day soaring in circles, using its sharp eyes and sense of
smell to locate dead animals. The vulture's huge wings make a "V" shape when it's flying. Up
close, one can see its bare, red head which is much easier to keep clean than feathers,

(3-8- L'I' SY -r I-( D I :WuFmwyv


Everglades Education 26





m


=7

ro
0


=r


27 Everglades Education








Mammal Characteristics: have hair or fur, raise young
on milk, have backbones, and are warm-blooded


1. White-tailed deer are hoofed animals, brown in color with a white rump patch and white
hair on the underside of their tails. These deer are found throughout the eastern United States,
however, South Florida deer weigh less than their northern relatives, as they don't need the extra
layer of fat, which deer living in colder climates require. The deer bed down in the hammocks
They arc herbivores, feeding on a variety of plants including sawgrass. Fawns are born in the
spring months.

2. Otters have brown fur which appears shiny black when they are wet. These "playful"
animals are usually seen in the water. They are carnivores, feeding on frogs, crayfish, fish, turtles
and an occasional immature alligator. Otters have webbed feet, a long, muscular tail, and sensi-
tive whiskers which help them to locate fish in murky water. They are primarily diurnal animals.

3. Opossums are the only native pouched mammals, (marsupials), in the United States. They
4I have while faces, pointed noses, coarse fur, and hairless ratlike tails. Baby opossums are tiny at
l- birth weighing only 1/15 of an ounce. Once they are born, they have the most difficult journey of
W their life. They must crawl from their mothers birth canal to her fur lined pouch where they
E spend the next 2 months of their lives, Opossums are nocturnal omnivores. They eat eggs, birds,
small animals, and fruit. If they are threatened by enemies, they may bare their teeth or try to run
E away. If they are trapped, they "play possum" by collapsing and appearing to be dead.

4. Raccoons are the masked, furry bandits oft he 'glades. Like the opossum, they are primarily
CU nocturnal and are omnivores. Their diet consists of almost anything, including immature alliga-
Z tors, birds, fishes, clams, insects, and fruit. Raccoons are highly adaptable, living in a variety of
habitats, including wetlands, hammocks, pinclands, and mangroves. In Shark Valley, the ham-
mock habitat is usually their home during the day.

5. Bobcats are also nocturnal. They have dark spots on their tawny-colored fur and are smaller
than their endangered cousin, the Florida panther. The easiest way to identify the two cats is to
look at their tails. The bobcat's tail is much shorter than the panthers. Bobcals are carnivores
and feed on rodents, marsh rabbits, raccoons, birds, and fawns.

6. Panthers are few in number and are rarely seen. They are tawny brown and have a long tail. Like
the bobcat, they are nocturnal and carnivorous. They feed on rabbits, raccoons, and as adults, they
primarily feed on deer. Food from a deer kill will feed a panther for several days. The panther may
conceal the uneaten portion of its food by covering the food with leaves and dirt.
(o*9'3-,t'V--,' -'a-*i :uao-ry)


SAFETY REMINDER
All animals in the Everglades are wild, no matter how cute they
seem. NEVER TOUCH OR FEED A WILD ANIMAL!!!


Everglades Education 28


























(U)










c,


29 Everglades Education


(---^











Chaperon Responsibli.ie
<______________nsii__ities


EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK
Shark Valley Day Program

Thank you for volunteering to chaperon for an Everglades National Park's
education program. You are an important partner in our program and we
look forward to your cooperation and participation for a successful trip in
the Everglades.

Students took to you to provide leadership and set boundaries. Chaperons are expected to
comply with the same rules as the students, and may be needed to help enforce rules. These
include: wearing long pants and comfortable walking shoes (no sandals), not using the vending
machines, and not using cellular phones and pagers during the trip. Reminder: collecting is not
allowed in National Parks.

Assisting with safety is one of your primary duties. Having an adult at the end of every line
of students and making sure the students stay seated while the Iram is moving will help to
insure that everyone has a safe outing.

Guide the learning process! Please keep the group's attention focused on what the ranger or
teacher is saying. Encourage the students to answer the questions and to listen to others re-
spectfully.

Be an active participant! Joining in on the activities allows you to interact with and set a
good example for the students. You will be accompanying the students on all trails.

Students will need your guidance at lunch and for clean-up. Everyone should be prepared
to sit on the ground. Provide encouraging words and directions during clean-up, however, al-
low the students to do the actual work, including collecting recyclables and throwing out Irash.
This gives the students responsibility and will help the class stay on schedule.







Most importantly... go with the flow, adapt, and have fun in the Everglades!
Students pick up on how you react... if you are having fun, they will too!


Everglades Education 30


F


1
i





i






-9


Responsabilidades 8

-De Los Cha ones

PARQUE NATIONAL EVERGLADES
Paseo a Shark Valley
Graclas por haberse ofrecido como voluntario en los paseos del Parque Nacional
de los Everglades. Usted es un socio important de nuestro program.
Necesitamos de su participation y cooperation para que estos paseos sean
exitosos.

Participe activamente! El involucrarce en las actividades del grupo le permitirA establecer una
mejor interaction con los estudiantcsy servir como un buen ejemplo para elLos. Used acompafiari
a los estudiantes en lodas las caminatas.

Los estudiantes necesitarAn de su gula durante el almuereo y a la hera de limpiar y recoVer.
DAndoles dirccioncs y palabras de aliento a la hora de la recogida y limpieza, pero permitiendo
quc los estudiantes sean los que recojan y limpien, ademas deberan separar la basura de los
desperdicios que puedan ser recidados, esto les dara responsabilidad y ayudarA que las cases se
mantenga en su horario. Todos deben de venir preparados a sentarse en cl suclo.

Los estudiantes esperan que sea used el que establezca limited y prove liderazgo. Se espera
que los chaperones cumplan con el mismo reglamento que los estudiantes y a menudo se les necesila
para hacker cumplir las reglas, como: Ilevar pantalones largos y zapatos comodos (no se permiten
sandalias). no se puede usar las mAquinas de refrescos y comidas, tampoco se permit el uso de
ickfonos celuares o "beepers". Recuerde; solicitar no estA permitido en los parques nacionales.

Ayudar a maniener la seguridad de los estudlantes es uno de sus deberes primordiales. Si un
adulto se manticnc al final de cada fila y los estudiantes sc mantienen sentados mientras el tranvia
esta andando, el resuliado sera una gira segura para todos.

Dirija el process educational! Por favor ayudenos a mantener a los estudiantes atentos a las
cnscnanzas del maestro o guardian dcl parque. Estimule los estudiantes a hacr reguntas y a ser
atentos y respetuosos cuando otros las hagan,





Lo mis importante... sea flexible, adapece a las circumsiancins y divi6rtase en los
Everglades! Los estudiantes se fijan en como used reacci6na... si ousted se esta
divirtiendo ellos tamblen so dlvertirin!!


31 Everglades Education








ATTENTION EDUCATORS:
Ask for the Everglades -. //
Association, Inc. Educator's List.


It is updated twice a year and con-
tains publications and related prod- S
ucts recommended as educational
tools about the flora, fauna, and history of South Florida's National Parks. All items on the
list can be purchased at the Everglades National Park Main Visitor Center, or by mail order
from the Everglades Association, Inc., 10 Parachute Key, # 51, Homestead, FL 33034-6735.
Call (305) 247-1216 or fax (305) 247-1225 for book inquiries or orders. Purchase orders
rrom schools are given a 10% discount.


In Addition to the Resources on Everglades Association (EA) Educator's List:

Andryszewshi, Tricia. Marjorie Stoneman Douglas: Friends of the Everglades.
Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994.

Caduto, Michael J. and Bruchac, Joseph. Keepers of the Earth. Golden, CO: Fulcrum,
Inc., 1988.

George, Jean C. The Missing Gator of Gumbo Limbo. New York: Harper Trophy, 1992.

Gerberg, Eugene J. and Ross H. Amett Jr. Florida Butterflies. Gainesvillc, FL: The
Sandhill Crane Press, 1989. (Sold by EA but not on Educator's List)

Kesselheim, Alan S. and Britt Eckhardt Slautery. WOW! The Wonders of Wetlands. St.
Michaels, MD: Environmental Concern Inc., 1995.

National Wildlife Federation. All Titles of Ranger Rick's Nature Scope. Titles include:
Birds Birds, Birds.i Wading into Wetlands, Reptiles and Amphibians. Endangered Spe-
cies. Washington, D.C.: National Wildlife Federation.

Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991. (Sold by EA but not on Educator's List,)

Ross, Sande. The Nature of Dade County: A Hometown Handbook Miami. Environ-
mental Information Service of Friends of the Everglades, 1990.

Seuss, Dr. The Lorax. New York: Random House, 1971.

Van der Meer, Ron & Atie. Amazing Animal Senses. Boston: Little Brown, and Com-
pany, 1990.
- __.


Everglades Education 32


U)


61
0



U,
0)
Wr




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs