Title: Water for South Florida: Teacher's Guide
CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/FI05110301/00001
 Material Information
Title: Water for South Florida: Teacher's Guide
Physical Description: Archival
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- South Florida
 Notes
Funding: Florida International Univerity Libraries
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: FI05110301
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

Binder1 ( PDF )


Full Text
AiWLt STcAAwf (0C4


- a


F 14 1'
Mc44HugS
"eOJIDO


NN


izi m4~


Freddy the Alligator, here...Protector of the Everglades and a very
rad reptile. You know how sometimes we get wet weather to the
max, and other times super dry spells? Well, that's why one of my
main jobs is making sure we have enough water...and not just for
the gang in the swamps, either. Homes, businesses and agriculture
are all using more water than ever... Florida's growing for reaL
So what? Let me show you. Grab a skateboard and let's jam.


CL<


.~h-







Introduction
Florida is called the Sunshine State. but it could just as
easily be nicknamed the Water State. Florida is blessed with
a bountiful supply of freshwater: an average annual rainfall
of 55 inches: countless rivers, lakes, wetlands and springs-
and a vast underground system of aquifers,
But despite this seeming abundance. Florida's unpre-
dictable climale results in an uneven distribution of its vital
water resources. Seasonable weather patterns can bring
periods of prolonged drought or torrential downpours. In
addition, rapid population growth and economic expansion
jeopardize the integrity and availability of freshwater. In-
creased consumption feads to saltwater intrusion and con-
tamination ofwelllields. Pollution from agricultural and urban
runoff and toxic wastes severely threatens the Quality of our
water supply.
Florida's concern for protecting its water resources led
to a series of legislative acts in the t970s and '60s designed
to improve resource management and preserve Florida's
highly water-dependent environment. Foremost among such
legislation was the Water Resources Act of 1972 which
created five regional Water Management Districts, The
Districts, whose boundaries are drawn on hydrogeologic
basins, are charged wilh managing water resources to ensure
water quality and supply and protection against flooding.
Over the years, the Districts' responsibilities have grown to
include permitting of surface water management and con-
sumption, land acauisilion and management, and environ-
mental enhancement and preservation.
Today, Florida is recognized as a leader in water man-
agement and resource protection. Challenges and pressures
trom development are great. but the desire to preserve the
natural beauty of this Water State is even greater,
The purpose of "Water for Soulh Florida" is to intro-
duce water education to students and facilitate understanding
and learning in an entertaining, but educationally sound,
format. This endeavor originated out of concern for the
waler resources of South Florida and is sponsored by the
South Florida Water Management District.
This workbook and teacher's guide have been designed
to accomplish a variety of goats. Most importantly, the work-
book provides a basic water education, with an emphasis on
water conservation. The teacher's guide offers a selection of
flexible implementation formats, allowing you to choose the
instructional plan that's best for your class. We encourage
you to use any or all o1 the material in your classroom to
achieve desired educational objectives and foster positive
environmental attitudes in your students.
The material is intended lor use in grades six, seven
and eighl However, its usefulness for any given class should
be determined by the individual teacher, Sometimes, the
abilily level of the students dictates a different implementa-
tion approach. If the tasks are too difficult, you might con-
sider lengthening the amount of time devoted Io the activities.
e.g., teaching Ihe three day unit over live days.
Water lor Soulh Florida" stresses the acquisition of
basic water education, the need Io use waler wisely and the
importance o1 protecting our water resources Beginning
with the building o1 water awareness and appreciation, the
material emphasizes cognitive objectives, showing the
students how they can save and project water. in addition.
they learn why they should be concerned about waler
problems. Identifying. evaluating and selecting appropriate
solutions for water problems all serve ultimately to validale
the success of the program,


To help you use these materials most effectively, the
Lesson Notes provide answers to workbook activities, coded
curricular concepts based on the Department of Education's
"Uniform Student Performance Standards' and step-by-step
procedures Ior conducting the lessons. Often, additional
suggestions are offered which add to the flexibility of the
material and underscore the open-endedness of the program.
Finally, other more subtle concerns have been ad-
dressed throughout the material. The drawings and aclivilies
used in "Water for South Florida" seek to achieve specific
goals in the areas of cross-cultural awareness, avoidance
of role stereotypes, career orientation and a cognizance ol
the inter related nature ol all aspects of the environment.



Implementation
The workbook activities are to be used in one of two
implementation lormats, In the firsl, the teacher selects
workbook lessons and/or activities which best fit his/her
prevailing curricular setting. Since specific uniform per-
formance standards are staled for each activity under the
lesson headings, this approach enables teachers to select
the lessons which help fulfill the goals for their grade level
and course. such as those sel forth by the Stale Department
o1 Education. Each activity is designed to stand atone, allow-
ing students to achieve the objectives without relying on any
other workbook exercise lor its successful completion.
The second implementation option is a unit format,
Three possible units three, five and ten day are outlined
below and feature specific lessons which have been selected
to achieve a combination of water objectives, Generally, the
suggested sequence introduces the students to the topic of
water, explores its sources, investigates its uses, and under-
scores its value and the need for ils conservation and
preservation. However, if time is available, the subject can
be studied in greater detail for a stronger impact: the live
and ten day units provide more complementary lessons to
reinforce the key waler concepts.
The unit format matrix and the individual lesson plans
have been constructed to assist you in identifying suitable
activities to achieve many goals. Particularly. the workbook
was written to provide a blend of interdisciplinary emphases
(such as science, social science, math, reading, writing) and
instructional objectives. Therefore, the activities themselves.
as well as the lesson notes, permit the teacher to make the
final determinallon,
Study the matrix and choose the unit format that's best
for you. Each lesson plan offers several student learning
objectives, based on the uniform student performance
standards, which cover all of the following activities. The
specific activities. cited under the PROCEDURES' section,
are highlighted and designated as to their until format ap-
plicability. It a particular activity is not included in your
selected unit format, simply proceed to the next activity.
'Water for South Florida" has been designed with a
flexibility ol choice. so lhal you. the teacher, can put it to
your best use. It can serve in any situation, whether through
lhe suggested unils or by the selection of individual lessons
which meet particular instructional needs, We hope that you
and your students enjoy the materials.






"To Water or Not to Water" Simulation Activity

This activity requires you to weigh the pros and cons of water usage under cer-
lain circumstances. Read the values and the story and then discuss what you
think you would or could do in such a situation.

Value 1.
GREEN, HEALTHY GRASS ADDS TO NEIGHBORHOOD PROPERTY VALUES,
Green, healthy grass increases properly value. Brown, sparse grass lowers pro.
perty value. An ugly lawn reflects poorly upon the entire neighborhood.

Value 2:
CONSERVATION OF WATER IS A COMMUNITY PROJECT. Conservation of
water usage during hot, dry summer days helps to maintain an adequate supply
for ail. Unlimited use of water by a single community dweller limits the supply of
water available 1o other residents.

STORY

Frank Robinson, a long-lerm resident of your community, lived in a home in
the heart of a nice neighborhood. He had noticed thai this particular July the
weather had been unusually dry. Therefore, he felt it was his obligation as a
member of the community to severely cut back on Ihe watering of his lawn in
order to save water.


A L : '- .'y f L
II'I I I dl i'


!L
Ii L " i ; .I 'P




'.ifflm '" 0S r '
!,A, '" "i I *
~, .,,
.' i... :~ .
L., =I .r ,I
i II "
i ,' .. ,, ;
_' , ,'
.',4 I ,, ,..


From Walenways: Exptoriog Northwest FoAidL's Waer Resoures copyrghl I 987, Nohrp F rMrda Warer Managmani DisTrict






ACTIVITY CONTINUED


Other residents did not follow his example. They did not think the problem
was Ihat bad- They continued to water their lawns on a regular basis. By rnid-
August, rain had not fallen. It was reported that the water table had dropped con-
siderably,
Most of the people who live in the neighborhood stay about two years at the
most. Within a year most of the residents are transferred to other areas in the
state. These residents are interested in maintaining high property values. After
all, they bought the property in order to make a profit upon resale.
Late August arrived; still no rain. Mr. Robinson's grass noticeably turned
brown and some bare spots appeared.
Some of the residents complained of Ihe loss o water pressure but continued
to use water unwisely. John Dixon, next door neighbor to Frank, placed his
house on the market, John had been transferred to a new location; he was
anxious to sell his property.
Prospective buyers of John's property looked elsewhere in town. The property
next door was in bad shape. There was no excuse for such lack of care given to
that lawn,
John Dixon and some other residents met with Frank Robinson to discuss the
problem. Frank refused to listen and tried to explain that his conservation of
waler would, in the long run, benefit his community,

DISCUSS BOTH SIDES
Do values 1 and 2 conflict?


Was Frank unreasonable?


How would you react if you were Frank? Explain.


How would you react if you were John? Explain.


What are some alternatives that might please both sides?







Unit Formats


Im i
MUWMIOU)


L4son SIMrt ay
Notu Bik


U18=1


Nolas SBOk
Ih~saW


1 IlhlldeluM
Classroom Poster
Introduction
ITs MSlSat Case
"Water and Wealher"
Watr Semn
"Where Does All That Rain Go?"
"Down inlo the Ground"
"Porosity"
"Permeability"
Waln adl N Lad
"Water and Ihe Land"
2 fhmial Water SWtem o l lth FeMa
"Natural Waler System of South Florida"
"Who Lives Where" Aclivily -optional
"Water Glossary"
fPLWg-WMl $wg Si Soed Fbidda
"South Florida's People-made
Water Syslem"
"Growing Water Needs"

"Water Treatment"


FRl-D ayll FOrmal


p.6 pp.2-S


p.4
pp.5-6
p.6
pp.6-7


p.B pp.B-9


p.9
P.9
p.9


p.10
p.10


pp.10-11
repro
repro


pp.12-13
p.13


p,12 pp.14-15


3 WaLr a U
"Water, Water, Water"
"Home Water Audit"

"Cleaning Up the Wastewater"
4 Wter Oaint a 1 PIile1s
"Pollulion and Solutions"
War Sai PuSy n
"Floods and Droighls"
War Sop*i Sa am
"Finding More Water"
5 Wal er -Cwmt-
"Soulh Florida's Wacky Wildlife"
"Give Me a Break"
"Water Trivia"

Conclusion
CldSSroom Poster
"Water Crossword'" Puzzle


p.13
p.13


pp.16-17
pp.18-19


p.14 pp.20-21

p,14 pp-22-23

p.15 pp.24-25

p.15 pp.26-27


p.16
p.16
p.17

p.18
p.18
p.18
p.18


pp.28-29
p.30
p.31



p.32


TOitlay nMg FWrml


1 LatradMe
Classroom Poster
Introduction
"How Much Water Does II Have?"
Experiment
2 The HnIrSrlNC C Cle
"Walet and Weather"
Water Siewa
"Where Does All That Rain Go?"
"Down into the Ground"
"Building an Artesian Aquifer and
Well" Activity- opt.
3 Wialr Sara
"Porosily"
"Permeability"
"Freddy's Fabulous Soils Experimeni"
Wat ad the Lad
"Water and the Land"
"Nalural Water Pollution"
Experiment optional
4 alnral Witt SL"im of S1Mal FIlR
"Nalural Water System of Soulh Florida"
"Who Lives Where" Activity-op-ional
"Water Glossary"
5 fPallmada S s S d a fSmil
"South Florida's People-made
Waler System"
"Growing Water Needs"
"Hidden Waler Names" Puzzle


p.1

repro


p.6 pp.2-3


p.4
pp,5-6

repro

p.6
pp,6-7
p.7


p.8 pp.8-9


p,8

p.9
p.9
p.9


p.10
p.10
pp.10-11


repro

pp.10-t1
repro
repro


pp.12-13
p.13
repro


I WaLr WIlmnt
"Waler Treatment"
"Waler Trealmenl" Experiment
Waler b use
"Water. Waler. Waler"
"Home Waler Audi'"
7 wtfalw tmmllag
"Cleaning Up the Wastewater"
Yigr siaiy M Pfillr
"Polrution and Solulimos"
"Groundwater Pollution" Experiment
optional
I Wta Smlw N1rab1ms
"Floods and Droughts"
wlar Suln Staum
"Finding More Water"
0 Wlt bmnrato
"South Florida's Wacky Wildlife"
"Give Me a Break"
"Waler Trivia"
1I Cienscln
Conclusion
Classroom Poster
"Water Crossword" Puzzle


p.12
p.12

p-13
p.13


pp.14-15
repro

pp.16-17
pp.18-19


p.14 pp.20-21

p.14 pp.22-23

p.14 repro

p-15 pp-24-25

p.15 pp.26-27


p.16
p.16
p.17

p.18
p.18
p.18


pp.2- 29
p.30
p.31



p.32


Dar


-


---'








RFttIl W Ul ll Un rm


Classroom Poster
Introduction
"How Much Water Does It Have?" Experiment
The INmlk Cle t
"Water and Weather"
Wkr Seareas
"Where Does All That Rain Go?"
"Turbidity" Experiment
WIWr Smlar
"Down inlo the Ground"
"Building an Artesian Aquifer and Well" Activity-opt.
itWr SNrmes
"Porosily"
"Permeabilily"
"Freddy's Fabulous Soils Experlmenl"
Wit Sl the Land
"Water and the Land"
"Building a Terrarium" Activity-optional
"Natural Water Pollution" Experiment
Nital Wltw Srstm il S1111 HFkir
"Nalural Water System of South Florida"
"Who Lives Where" Activity optional
"Water Glossary"
PMsrulai Stom f Soft FlMi
"South Florida's Peop4e-made Water System"
"Growing Water Needs"
"Hidden Water Names" Puzzle
Wter litMIMat
"Water Treatment"
"Water Treatment" Experiment
WerM ( Ita
"Water. Waler, Waler"
"Home Waler Audit"
Wa slls l a11--
"Cleaning Up the Wastewaler"
wtlam ulb sl PdLsk
"Pollution and Sotutions"
"Groundwaler Pollution" Experiment

"Floods and Droughts"
WtOW Sllit SpIlhm
"Finding More Water"

"South Florida's Wacky Wildlife"
"Give Me a Break"

"To Water or Not to Water" Simulation Activity
"Waler Trivia"

Conclusion
Classroom Poster
"Water Crossword" Puzzle


p.1
repro


pp.2-3


p.4
repro


pp.5-6
repro

p.6
pp.6-7
p.7

pp.8-9
repro
repro

pp.10-11
repro
repro

pp.12-13
p.13
repro

pp. 14-15
repro

pp.16-17
pp, 18-19

,p,20-21

pp,22-23
repro

pp,24-25

pp.26-27

pp.28-29
p,30


repro
p-31


p.32


p-10
p.10
pp.10-11


p.12
p.12

p.13
p.13


p,14
p.14
P1 14

p,15

p.15

p.16


pAl7
p.16

P-17

P-18
p.18
p,.18


p.32







Introduction
Stunt Booki Page 1
Minimum Student Performwane Standrdns:
Reading
A. The sludent will demonstrate knowledge of a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list. {1, 2)
C. The student will demonstrate literal comprehension skills. (12, 16)
Writing
J. The student will write legibly. (8D)
Mathematics
G. The student will multiply whole numbers, (56)
H. The student will divide whole numbers. (61)
I. The student will add, subtract, and multiply fractions. (67)
M. The student will measure time, temperature, distance, capacity, and mass/weight. (90)
T. The student will solve measurement problems. (139)
Science
A. The student will apply basic process skills as lools for scientific investigation. (16, 22, 35)
C. The student will know basic life science concepts and facts, (53)
D. The student will apply basic life science concepts and lacts, (120)
I. The student will appropriately employ scientific materials, equipment and techniques. (269. 271, 273)
K. The student will describe the interactions among science, technology and society, (282, 284)
Introduction. This activity serves to introduce the class to a water unil which should bring an understanding of the
importance of this resource into their homes and onto their campus. By using a classroom poster, the initiating activity
focuses attention on water, its potential as well as its problems. Thus prepared, the students are ready lor an in-depth look
at this vital resource.
Prooedurs:;
1. Introduce the unit by bridging from the study of water in the regular curriculum to a focus on Soulh Florida's
water picture.
2. Begin the lesson by asking the class to suggest some important qualilles of water as a resource, e.g.:
a. Water is essential to life.
b. Water is a finite, but renewable resource.
c. Water can only meel our needs if It is in consistent and adequate supply.
d. Water can only meet our needs if it is of acceptable quality,
e. Water can only meet our needs if it is accessible when and where we need it.
f. Polluted water negatively affects the natural environment, as well as our developed environment
g. Too much water can be a problem (floods).
h. Too little water can be a problem (drought).
If Ihe students can identity a majority of these "water truths:" you are well on your way to a successful unit.
3, Clasmreon poster (5.10,15)
a. Without supplementing the students' list, proceed to put up the classroom poster and allow the students a
few minutes to study it,
b. Ask the students if the poster suggests any more water qualities to add to their list; i1 so, add them.
c. If time permits, refer to the Poster.Fact Sheel and use the information provided to expand the discussion.
4. Introductlon (5,10.15)
a- Hand oul the student books, Explain that this publication contains information about water, especially
Soulh Florida's water.
5. How Much Water Does tt Han? (10,15)
a, If time permits, have small groups of sludenis conduct this experiment, which can be reproduced from
page 19 in this guide.
b. Once the students have completed this aclivily, have each group report its findings and discuss the
results.
6. Conclude the lesson by having the students write a one-page summary on the value of water as a resource and
the responsibilities of humans to protect it. You mighl also ask the students to start clipping articles about water
in South Florida from newspapers, magazines and newsletters. These can be used to make a Water Scrapbook.


_ ____




p. --


The Hydrologic Cycle
Student Bookf Pages 2-3
Minimum Student Perfmuvn o. Sl4ndmrdu:
Reading
A. The student will demonstrate knowledge of a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list. (1, 2)
C. The student will demonstrate literal comprehension skills. (12, 16)
F. The student will demonstrate the appropriate skills for obtaining information, (25, 26)
Writing
A. The student wil compose grammatically correct sentences. (3)
G. The student will spell correctly. (55)
H. The student will punctuate correctly, (62)
t. The student will capitalize correctly. (70, 71)
J. The student will write legibly. (80)
Science
A. The student wiip apply basic process skills as tools for scientific Investigation. (5, 22, 33, 38)
B. The student will apply basic process skills to problem solving in science, (42, 468 47)
G. The student will know basic earth/space science concepts and facts. (208. 221, 222, 229)
H. The student will apply basic ear hispace science concepts and facts. (248, 249)
Introduction This activity describes the hydrologic cycle, including evapotranspiration and percolation. It goes on to
discuss rainfall patterns, hurricanes and drought-flood cycles, which occur on a regular basis in South Florida.
Procedures:
1. Begin the lesson by reading the following weather forecast:
And now, here's the South Florida weather forecast for today, August 8. We have mostly sunny skies and
warm temperatures this morning across the state. A few scattered showers are reported along the southeast
coast, with radar detecting more rain out over the Atlantic. Temperatures are in the 80's; winds are light and
variable. Water temperature is 84.
The afternoon's forecast calls for highs in the upper 80's along both coasts, with low-to-mid 90's over the
interior. There's a 40% chance of widely scattered thunderstorms late this afternoon over inland areas. On-shore
10-15 mph winds are expected this afternoon, More of the same weather is expected tomorrow.
2, Using either individual maps of the region or a large one, reread the forecast and ask the class to analyze Ihe
weather conditions in terms of the water cycle. Make sure that they explain why it will rain where forecast. what
conditions might occur to change the predicted weather, and what will happen to Ihe water thai falls as
precipitation. Key points should include:
a. Florida's wet season is June-October and features a tropical climate. Storms, including hurricanes, bring
heavy rains from westerly moving weather systems off the Atlantic Ocean.
b. Florida's dry season is November-May and is marked by a mid-latitude cll male- weather systems are
brought by easterly moving winds off the Gulf of Mexico.
c. Land warms and cools more rapidly than water, Hot land causes air to rise, thus pulling in more air from
the ocean causing on-shore winds,
d. Thunderstorms are produced as a result of rising air. Since maximum land surface heating occurs rear
4:00 PM. this is the time ol heaviest thunderstorm activity.
3. Water and Weather (5.10,15)
a, Once the class has completed the discussion, have the students read "Water and Weather:' pages 2-3 of
the student book.
b. When the students have finished the reading, relate the material to the earlier weather report discussion.
c. Note why some areas of South Florida gel more rain than others and how this varied rainfall allects water
supply. (Ft. Myers- 52.2", Miami 589", Moore Haven (Lake Okeechobee) -495", Ft. Pierce- 53.2")
(1) As ocean water warms, more storm activity is created through convective action.
(2) The water is warmest in September: hence, il is the month ol maximum storm and hurricane activity.
(3) These storms drop the most water along the coasts as they come inland. Hence, coastal areas
receive more rain than the interior.
(4) The lowest annual average levels of rainfall generally occur in the Kissimmee River valley and in
the Florida Keys.
d. Have the students expand their earlier analyses to accommodate the additional information.
4. Have the students demonstrate their understanding of weather and its relationship to the water cycle by writing
a one-paragraph South Florida weather report for a day in another season of the year This should involve an
entirely different set of conditions.
5. Conclude the lesson by having the students write a short fictional newspaper article on some event related to
the weather they just predicted. Their articles might cover a boom in tourism based on lair weather, a hurricane
watch, citrus crop damage due to a freeze or the need for water conservation due to drought conditions.







Water Sources
Student Book: Pages 4-7
Minimum Student Performwa Standards:
Reading
A. The student will demonstrate knowledge of a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list. (1, 2)
C. The student will demonstrate literal comprehension skills. (12, 16)
D. The student will demonstrate inferential comprehension skills. (19, 20)
Writing
J. The student will write legibly. (BO)
Mathematics
M- The student will measure time, temperature, distance, capacity, and mass/weight. (89, 90)
T. The student will solve measurement problems. (138, 139)
Science
A. The student will apply basic process skills as tools for scientific investigation. (16, 36)
G, The student will know basic earthIspace science concepts and facts. (206)
1. The student will appropriately employ scientific materials, equipment and techniques. (269, 271. 273)
K. The student will describe the interactions among science, technology and society. (284)
Introduction This activity focuses student attention on where water goes alter it falls to earth as precipitation- to
surface bodies of water and into the ground. It covers how the water moves around on the surface of the land and how
groundwater percolates through the earth lo collect in aquifers, Florida's major source of water supply. The session
concludes with an experiment, testing the porosily and permeability of various soils,
Procedures:
1. Begin the lesson by taking the class outside and slowly pouring a gallon or two ol water on a patch of uneven
ground. Ask the students to observe where the water goes. Return to the classroom.
2. Once back in class, explain to the students that your demonstration reflects exactly what happens to precipitation
when it falls to earth. Solicil explanations from the students, making sure that they point oul that some of the
water collects on the surface and some sinks into the ground.
3. Where Doe All That Rain Go? (5,10,15)
a, Have the sludenis read "Where Does All That Rain Go?" page 4 in the student book.
b. Once they have completed Ihe reading, discuss the probable path of local precipitation, noting streams.
ponds, rivers, lakes and other waler bodies,
4, Turbldity Experinent (15)
a. It possible, have the students conduct the "Turbidily" Experiment which may be duplicated from page 20
in this guide,
b. At the conclusion of the experiment, ask the sludenls to explain the sources ol high turbidily in surface
bodies of water. (Suspended solids come from decaying plant and animal matter and inorganic material
which has been slirred up from the bottom.) Note Ihat such substances musl be filtered oul before this
water can be used for uses such as drinking.
5. Down hn the Ground (510.15)
a. Assign "Down in the Ground'" pages 5-6 in Ihe student book, for reading,
b. Following the reading, ask for volunteers to come to the chalkboard and give a summary explanation of
groundwater. Have them illustrate the structure of an aquifer, caverns and sinkholes.
6. ulkllng an Arta la Aqulfer and Well Activity (10.15)
a. This activity provides an excellent opportunity lor the students to understand how groundwater serves as
a water source. If time permits, it can be conducted using the instructions on pages 21-22 in this guide.
b. As an expedient alternative, the teacher can construct Ihe model and demonstrate its use in class.
7, Porosty and Pemeablity (510.15)
a, Have the students read the sections on "Porosity" and "Permeability:' pages 6-7 in the student book,
b. When they have concluded the reading, ask them to describe the soil where you poured the water at the
beginning of the lesson. Was it porous? How permeabre was it? Is it typical of the rest of the soil in the
local area?
B. Fredy's Fabulous Solls Experiment (10,15)
a, For a better understanding of porosity and permeability, have the students, individually or in small groups,
conduct "Freddy's Fabulous Soils Experiment:' page 7 in the student book.
9, Conclude the lesson on water sources by having the students write a summary paragraph on the subject. They
should include the concepts of surface water, groundwater, aquifer, porosity and permeabiliy.


____ __







Water and the Land
Student BookL Pages 8-9
Mintmum Student Peformance Standards
Reading
A. The student will demonstrate knowledge of a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list. (1, 2)
C. The sludenl will demonstrate literal comprehension skills. (12, 16)
Writing
J. The student will write legibly. (80)
Science
A. The student will apply basic process skills as tools for scientific investigation. (5, 11. 22, 32. 36, 38)
B. The student will apply basic process skills to problem solving in science. (46)
C. The student will know basic life science concepts and facts. (69)
H. The student will apply basic earthfspace science concepts and facts. (249)
L The student will appropriately employ scientific materials. equipment and techniques. (269. 271)
K, The student will describe the interactions among science, technology and society, (282, 284)
Introduction; This activity explores the vital relationship between water and the natural environment. Following a class
discussion on The importance of water to the vegelation and wildlife of South Florida, the students will read and investigate
how water serves in its life-sustaining function. The lesson concludes with an examinalton of the differences between the
natural environment of South Florida and other areas of the country.
Procedures:
1 Begin the lesson by asking the sludenis to close their eyes and try to visualize a typical South FJorida water
scene. Have them note the type or water body, the animal life and the vegetation present.
2. Afelr a few minutes. ask some volunteers to describe what they "saw:' When a varey ol seltings have been
covered. summarize their landings by noting that South Florida water scenes include rivers, lakes, canals.
streams, ponds and wetlands the subjects of the next reading.
3. Water and the Land (5,10,15)
a. Have the students read "Water and the Land:' pages 8-9 in the student book.
b. When they have concluded 1he reading, discuss the material, relating it to the students' earlier
descriptions.
4. Buuldng a Terrarlurn Activity (15
a. I1 lime permits, have Ihe students construct a terrarium, as described on the reproducible sheel lound on
page 23 of this guide.
b. This terrarium can serve for several months as an ongoing point of interest in the classroom Have the
students observe it each week and note any changes which occur What do they Ihink accounted lor the
changes?
5. Natural Water Pollution Experlment (tO,5S)
This optional activity works especially well if related back to Ihe "Turbidity" Experiment. Instructions for
the "Natural Water Pollulion" Experiment are found on page 24 in this guide.
b. At the conclusion of the experiment, have the students report where they have observed natural water
pollution occurring in the local area. What, ii any, helpful or harmful elfects do they think result from
nalual water pollution,
6. Conclude his section by having the students meet brrelly in small groups and discuss how 'Water and the
Land" in South Florida compares with areas in other parts of the country which they have seen or read about.
They should nole which types of water bodies are more or less prevelani in other areas and to what degree
precipilalion atlects the type and number of water bodies in a given area. Also. compare the different types ol
soils found in various areas around the state, such as Ihe red clay of North Florida.







The Natural Water System
Student Book: Pages 10-11
Minimum Student Performance Standards:
Reading
A. The student will demonstrate knowledge of a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list. (1, 2)
C. The student will demonstrate literal comprehension skills. (12, 16)
0. The student will demonstrate inferential comprehension skills. (17. 19, 20)
F. The student will demonstrate the appropriate skills for obtaining information (25)
Writing
J. The student will write legibly, (80)
Science
A. The student will apply basic process skills as tools for scientific investigation, (38)
B. The student will apply basic process skills to problem solving in science, (46, 47)
D. The student will apply basic lile science concepts and facts. (119)
K. The student will describe the interactions among science technology and society, (282, 284)
Introductionl This activity introduces students to the natural water system of South Florida. Beginning with a recognition
that Ihe region's subtropical climate means periodic Hfoods and droughts, the lesson examines the effects ol this water, or
lack ol it, on the land. Particularly important in this regard are: Ihe Everglades, the Upper Chain of Lakes, the Kissimmee
River and Lake Okeechobee. The activity features an exercise in which the students analyze the relationships between
several species of wildlife and Ihe natural communities they inhabit. Key to these relationships is the role of water in the
maintenance of the habitat. The students also receive the "Water Glossary" which contains all of the key water words
ol the unit. The session concludes with a discussion on the positive and negative effects of human intervention in the
operation of natural systems.
Procedures
1. Begin the lesson by having the students study the map of South Florida, page 10 of the student book.
2. Locate your home on the map and note other familiar landmarks.
3. Have the students describe various parts of the region (based on their travel and living experiences), noting
similarities and differences, especially as they relate to water and weather.
4. The Natural Water System (5,10,15)
a- Assign the reading. "The Natural Water System of South Florida' lound on pages 10-11. to the students,
b. Discuss the reading, emphasizing the water needs ol the natural communities. Point out to the students
how the landforms and topography, bodies of water and weather affect the native vegetation of an area.
Note how these same factors, especially vegetation, determine the wildlife which populates a natural
community. Slress the idea that natural resources, such as water, need to be shared by people and the
wildlife,
c. If time permits, a discussion of food webs, as they relate to the topic, would be in order.
5. Who Lves Where? (5,10.15)
a. Hand out the "Who Lives Where?" Activity and have the students complete it. This worksheet may be
reproduced from page 25 of this guide, If classtime is limited, the exercise may be done as homework.
The answers to the worksheet are provided below.

ANSWER KEY
Cypress Swamp Forests- Florida Black Bear, Mangrove Fox Squirrel, Florida Panther
Everglades Florida Panther, Wood Stork, Snail Kite
Prairie Grasslands- Gopher Tortoise, Burrowing Owl
Prairie Marshes- Snail Kite, Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow. Wood Stork

b. Once the students have finished their work, go over their answers in class and discuss their results.
6. Water Glossary (5.10.15)
a, Hand out the "Water Glossary:' duplicated from pages 26-27 of this guide. Suggest that the students
reIer to it frequently as they encounter new water vocabulary throughout the unit.
7. Conclude the lesson by having the students suggest how natural communities might be affected by people
actions. (They may note that water diversions for domestic use could deprive habitats of needed water On the
positive side, they could observe that by controlling water releases from reservoirs like Lake Okeechobee. flood
damage can be minimized or averted altogether)






The People-Made Water System
StudMent Book Pages 12-13
Milnhum Student Performnce Standmds:
Reading
A. The student will demonstrate knowledge ol a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list. (1. 2)
C. The student will demonstrate literal comprehension skills. (12, 16)
F, The student will demonstrate the appropriate skills for obtaining information, (25, 26)
Writing
J. The student will write legibly, (80)
Mathematics
U. The sludenl will interpret graphs, tables, and maps, (146)
Science
A. The student will apply basic process skills as tools lor scientific investigation, (11. 22, 32. 35, 36, 38)
B. The student will apply basic process skills to problem solving in science. (44. 46. 47)
G. The student will know basic earthispace science concepts and facts. (208)
H. The student will apply basic earthispace science concepts and facts, (248)
K, The student will describe the interactions among science, technology and society. (282, 284)
Introduction; This activity summarizes the development of water management in South Florida. Beginning with a
historical perspective of the need for a physical network, the lesson explains the evolution of the area's water projects and
the eventual creation of the South Florida Water Management District, The students engage in an activity in which they
correlate the growth of Soulh Florida's population with the effects of waler management in the region. Finally. it discusses
how the District operates its system to achieve the four elements of its mission statement; environmental protection and
enhancement, flood control, waler supply and water quality,
Procedure;
1. Begin the lesson by having the students study the map provided on page 12 of the student book. Ask them to
note how the natural water system has been altered.
2. Have the students hypothesize as to why these changes have been made. Although the people-made water
system made it possible lor humans to make South Florida home, these changes have affected the natural
environment.
a. Stabilization of water levels versus natural flooding and drying out.
b. Interruption ol the historical north-south sheet flow of water through the marshes.
c- Degradation ol water quality due to discharge of agricultural and urban runoff.
3. The Peopt"esde Water System (5,10.15)
a- Have the students read "The People-made Waler System;' found on pages 12-13 of the student book.
4. Growing Water Needs (510,15)
a. Once they have finished the reading, have the class complete Ihe "Growing Water Needs" activity.
page 13.
b. Break the class into small groups and have the students compare their answers and conclusions. Each
group should consolidate their findings.

ANSWER KEY

II I I I I I


t i Ii 4[i P ,E Ll 1 _

9 4. % S 44

POPULATION in millions .s 1.0 s 2 1. .5 A 4s
in which year did the population reach 500,000? 1925 In which year did the population reach 3.5 million? levW
Whal was the population in 1955? 1. milllk What was the population In 1985? 4.5 million

c. Have each group report its findings to Ihe whole class. Make sure that Ihey cite the appropriate data to support
their contentions.
d- Discuss some examples of how people-made projects have served as short-lern solutions but ultimately created
longer term problems.
5. Conclude the activity by noting how a broader environmental concern in recent years has resulted in a change
in how we approach such problems. Pay particular atlenlion to Ihe role of the SFWMD in balancing the needs of
Ihe environment and its natural wildlife with those ol the people who inhabit it.
6. South Florida Hidden Water Man* Puzzle (10.15)
a. Ii time perils, students will enjoy solving the "Hidden Water Names" Puzzle, which can be reproduced from
page 28 in this guide. The answers to the puzzle appear below.






ANSWER KEY
To locale the first letter of lhe water names, use the coordinates provided:


ATLANTIC Ocean (H-10)
BISCAYNE Bay (1-5)
CALOOSAHATCHEE River (B.13)
CYPRESS Lake (M-1)
EVERGLADES (G-3)
FISHEATING Creek (L-1)
FLORIDA Bay (A-14)
Lake HATCHINEHA (P-14)
Lake HICPOCHEE (A-12)
HILLSBORO Canal (S-10)
HOMESTEAD Canal (L-12)
Lake ISTOKPOGA (K-4)
KISSIMMEE River and Lake (S-8)
LOXAHATCHEE River {8-B)
Gulf of MEXICO (0-6)
MPAMI Canal (N-9)
N. NEW RIVER Canal (D-1)
NUBBIN Slough (N-5)
Lake OKEECHOBEE (E-4}
SHARK River Slough (S-9)
ST. LUCIE Canal (0-8)
TAYLOR Slough and Creek (G.10)
Lake TOHOPEKALtGA (K-13)
WEST PALM BEACH Canal (F-2)


A I- N I ArriH r 1 Y a S
H jiO NWSTPAl M ACHC
v ii L-00V9 -

r 1 O G I I T Y 10 A

-_- -_-
T P, 0 KVP.1 V 1DI
HKY KE-fR K V t JC A -0 1 fo NMI F
G M & T N Qe S V I


oo 1A A T o C 4 I 1 s
p QIJ"IRM K IIML il lK_ 9A 9

SIA5 I M IAY L R

GT C-AlLo00A114 AI T MA
L-- 0jj I IP A R16I IN. I I LIE A girm LA






Water Treatment
Student Book: Pages 14-15
Minimum Student Performimwc Standardt;
Reading
A. The student will demonstrate knowledge of a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list, (1, 2)
C. The student will demonstrate literal comprehension skills. (12, 16)
F. The student will demonstrate the appropriate skills for obtaining information. (25, 26)
Writing
A. The student will compose grammatically correct sentences. (3)
D, The student will write for the purpose ol supplying necessary information. (30)
G. The student will spell correctly. (55)
H, The student will punctuate correctly. (62)
1. The student will capitalize correctly. (70)
J. The student will wrile legibly. (80)
Science
A. The student will apply basic process skills as tools for scientific investigation. (5, 11. 36)
B. The sludent will apply basic process skills to problem solving in science. (44. 46)
D. The student will apply basic life science concepts and facts. (120)
L. The student will appropriately employ scientific materials, equipment and techniques. (269, 271)
K. The student will describe the inleraclions among science, leclnology and society- (282, 283, 284)
Introductko; The topic of waler Irealment is an important one and a subject of vital concern, especially for communities
which rely on surlace water as their source of public supply. In addition lo learning about the process of water Ireatment,
the students will have an opportunity to conduct a water Ireatment experiment which simulates the actual process.
Procedures:
1. Begin the lesson by asking the students where the water they use in their homes comes from. (You should
Check wilh your local water agency ahead of lime to lind oul if it uses groundwater or a surface water source as
its supply.)
2. Continue the discussion by questioning the class as lo what steps they Ihink might be necessary to clean up
water before it is delivered to homes lor consumption.
3. Water 'heatment (5,10,15)
a. Introduce the "Water Treatment" reading, lound on pages 14-15 of the student book, by telling the
sludenls that this reading will explain exactly how water agencies make sure thatl he water it delivers is
clean and safe to diink.
b. Once the students have finished the reading, ask for a few volunteers to diagram the treatment process
on the chalkboard. Discuss their renderings.
4. Water f*atment Experiment (10,15)
a. Conclude the lesson by having the sldents, working in small groups, conduct the "Waler Treatment"
Experiment, lound on page 29 of this guide This activity should help them appreciate the reflects ol the
water treatment process,
b. When they have finished with the experiment, have each group write a summary report, describing their
tesulls.







Water In Use


Student Bookl Pages 16-19
Minimum Student Peformaice Standards:
Reading
A. The student will demonstrate knowledge of a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list. (1. 2)
C. The student will demonstrate literal comprehension skills. (12. 16)
F. The student will demonstrate the appropriate skills for obtaining information. (25, 26)
Writing
J. The student will write legibly. (80)
Malhemalics
E. The student will add whole numbers. (43)
G. The student will multiply whole numbers. (55)
H. The student will divide whole numbers. (61)
0. The student will solve real-world problems involving whole numbers. 113 114)
Science
A. The student will apply basic process skills as tools lor scientific investigation. (5, 11, 32. 36)
B. The student will apply basic process skills to problem solving in science. (44. 46, 47)
J. The student will use science process skills and science information in daily activities. (276, 277)
K. The student will describe Ihe interactions among science, technology and society. (281. 282, 283. 284)
Introduction This activity explores how water is used in South Florida. The content includes wells removing underground
water, treatment plans providing water lor homes (cooking. washing, Orinking. irrigation. swimming pools) and businesses
(manufacturing. food processing, office buildings), and waslewaler flowing Io sewage treatment plants. The coverage also
examines the use of individual wells for such needs as citrus groves and the reclamation ol waler from sewage treatment
plants for golf course irrigallon. Finally. the material discusses how surface water is used in canals for irrigation (sugarcane
fields). for recreational purposes (boating, water skiing, fishing) and by animals in aqualic environments. The activity con-
cludes with a method of measuring water use in Ihe home, a water audit.
Procedures;
1 Begin the lesson by having the sludenis make three lists; one of the ways in which their families use water in
the home; one of ways in which water is used in their parents' jobs: one of Ihe ways in which water is used
around Ihem in the community-
2. When the students have completed their lists, have them share the results with the class.
3. Water,er, Watr Water (5,10,15)
a. Next, assign the reading ol "Water, Water, Water:' found on pages 16-17 of lhe student book.
b. Have the students note any waler uses which did not appear in the class compilation,
4. When the class has completed the reading, have the students draw a schematic of the people-made water cycle
on a piece of paper You might wanl to refer to the natural water cycle as a starting point and Ihen suggest a
couple ol examples of how humans intervene into Ihe natural cycle. The students should include many of the
following elements in their drawings: surface water, groundwater, canals, residential water use, industrial use.
commercial use, agricultural use irrigationn), recreational use. wastewater, sewage treatment and reclaimed water
If lime permits, the students might write an accompanying description of Iheir drawing.
5. After the students have completed their drawings, consolidate their concepts with one comprehensive schematic
on the chalkboard.
6. Home Water Audit (5,10,15)
a. Point out lo the students that they have an important role to play in the use and conservation of this
precious resource that we use in so many ways. Note Ihat many homes have water meters which ac-
curately record the amount of water supplied o1 the house. But simply knowing how much waler is used
is not enough. We must know where and how it is consumed before we can adopt water conservation
behaviors to save it.
b. Assign Ihe "Home Waler Audit" reading and activity, pages 18-19 in the student book,
c- Once the material has been read and any questions answered, the students should be prepared to survey
their family's water consumption, When completed. the students will gel a very good idea on where and
how their families can curtail their water use.
7. Conclude the lesson by identifying points in the board schematic where water problems develop. For example,
locate where drought reslricts the available water supply for various uses, or note points at which pollution
degrades the waler's quality and depreciates its value for other uses. (Refer to the Poster Fact Sheet.) Also
indicate where and how some of these problems might be solved. For example, water conservation can extend
the use ol the resource, and treatment of waslewaler can reclaim it lor some other uses.






Wastewater Treatment


Student Booki Pages 20-21
Minimum Student Performnne Standards;
Reading
A. The student will demonstrate knowledge ol a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list. (1, 2)
C. The student will demonstrate literal comprehension skills. (12. 16)
F, The student will demonstrate the appropriate skills for obtaining information. (25. 26)
Science
A. The student will apply basic process skills as tools for scientific investigation. (5, 11, 36)
B. The student will apply basic process skills to problem solving in science. (44. 461
D. The student will apply basic life science concepts and lacts. (120)
1. The student will appropriately employ scientihlc materials, equipment and techniques, (269, 271)
K. The student will describe the interactions among science, technology and society. (282, 283, 284)
Introductik nu This section introduces the students to the processes involved in cleaning up wastewater. The material
describes how septic systems and wastewater Irealment plants serve to improve the quality of wastewater for safe disposal
in the environment. The importance Co this cleaning operation is stressed and the students are given an opportunity to
simulate the process by conducting a wastewater treatment experiment,
Procedures:
1. Begin the lesson by reviewing with the students what they learned aboul wastewater treatment in the "Water.
Water, Water" reading.
2. Cleaning Up the Watewater (510,15)
a. Explain to the students that wastewater treatment is very similar to water treatment, and almost as
important. Have them read "Cleaning Up the Wastewater,' pages 20-21 in the student book.
b. Once they have completed the reading, discuss the similarities and differences between water treatment
and wastewater treatment.
3, Conclude the lesson by having the students suggest all of the potential dangers, to humans and the environment
in general, of not treating or inadequately treating wastewater


Water Quality and Pollution
Student Books Pages 22-23
Minimum Student Peformance Stmndtrds
Reading
A. The student will demonstrate knowledge of a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list, (1. 2)
C. The student will demonstrate literal comprehension skills. (12, 16)
D. The student will demonstrate inlerential comprehension skills. (19,20)
E. The student will demonstrate evaluative comprehension skills. (23)
Science
A. The student will apply basic process skills as tools for scientific investigation. (11, 22, 30. 36)
B. The student will apply basic process skills to problem solving in science. (42, 43, 46)
0, The student will apply basic life science concepts and lads. (120)
J. The student will use science process skills and science information in daily activities. (276, 277, 278)
K. The student will describe the interactions among science, technology and society. (282. 283. 284)
Introdutllon; This subject is a logical extension of the wastewater treatment discussion. The material introduces the
students to a variety of water quality and pollution problems lacing South Florida today. The copy covers everything Irom
the pollution ol Lake Okeechobee by agricultural sources to water quality problems associated with urban sources.
Procedurems
1. Slarl by having the students list as many sources of water pollution as they can. Write the list on the chalkboard.
2. Have the class categorize the pollution sources by type, i.e., agricultural, industrial, domestic, etc.
3. Polluton and Soktluons (5.10,15)
a. Have the students read the -Pollution and Solutions" reading, pages 22-23 in the student book.
b. Once they have completed the reading, have the students add any additional water quality problems o1
the list on the chalkboard,
c. Finally, see il the class can match the preventative and remedial measures presented as solutions in the
reading with each of the problems cited on the board,
4. Groundwater Pollution Expariment (10,15)
a, If time permits, have the students conduct the "Groundwater Pollution" Experiment, following the
instructions found on page 30 of this guide.
5. Conclude the activity by assigning a newspaper research project to the class.
a, Have them check out recent editions of local papers for any articles, columns or editorials on the subjeCt
of water quality or pollution. (This may either be done as homework or you might bring a stack of
newspaper to class and have the students do the research there.)
b. Once they have located their water quality materials, have the students discuss their findings. Do the
articles address the same concerns covered in the class? Are opinions expressed supported by lats?







Water Supply Problems
Student Books Pages 24-25
Minimum Student Perfonnmace Standrdt
Reading
A. The student will demonstrate knowledge ol a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list. (1, 2)
C. The student will demonstrate Jileral comprehension skills. (12, 16)
Science
A. The student will apply basic process skills as tools for scientific investigation. (65 11, 22)
B. The student will apply basic process skills to problem solving in science- (44, 46)
Introduction: South Florida is laced with two significant water supply problems: floods and droughts. The material in this
section focuses on these two extreme conditions and explains how one excess fails to adequately compensate for Ihe
other It also covers the related problems ol saltwater intrusion and the additional water demands of the tourist season and
winter agricultural needs. This section serves lo point the students directly at the need for serious water conservation.
ProcedMres:
1. Begin the lesson by asking the students to recall the most recent examples of local flooding and local drought.
Have ihem describe the problems they experienced because of these conditions.
2. Explain to the class thai, for a variety of reasons. South Florida suffers uniquely from these problems.
3. Floods aid Droughts (5.10.15)
a. Have the students read "Floods and Droughts:' pages 24-25 in the student book.
b. When they have finished the reading, have them meet in smafl groups to design strategies to cope with
these conditions. They should consider ways to minimize the damage and any actions possible to
counteract their negative effects,
4. Conclude the lesson by announcing that tomorrow's session will give them more solutions to the problems of
floods and droughts.


Water Supply Solutions
Student Bookt Pages 26-27
Minimum Student Performance Standards:
Reading
A. The student will demonstrate knowledge of a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list. (1. 2)
C. The student will demonstrate literal comprehension skills, (12, 16)
Writing
A. The student will compose grammatically correct sentences. (5, 9)
C. The student will write a paragraph expressing ideas clearly. (24)
E. The student will write letters and messages, (38. 39, 40)
G. The student will spell correctly. (55)
H. The student will punctuate correctly. (62)
I. The student will capitalize correctly. (70, 71)
J. The student will write legibly. (80)
Science
A. The student will apply basic process skills as tools for scientific investigation. (36)
B. The student will apply basic process skills to problem solving in science. (46. 47)
J. The student will use science process skills and science information in daily activities. (276, 277)
K, The student will describe Ihe interactions among science, technology and society. (281, 282. 283, 284)
Introduction: Although much as been done in the field ol flood control. we have liltte control over the weather. However,
in dealing with the problem of drought, a variety of solutions offer possiblihtes, This section explores the subject of finding
more water, through desalination, reclamation, surface water development and conservation.
Pro eduress
1. Begin the lesson by reviewing the students' ideas for combatting drought,
2. Finding More Water (5,1015)
a. Introduce the reading, "Finding More Water:' pages 26-27 in the student book by explaining that all of
the solutions to be presented in the material offer real potential. However, ask the Sludents to consider
which solutions) they lind most promising in terms ol cost, feasibility. public acceptance and ease of
implementation. In olher words, which strategy gives the greatest benefit for the least cost
b. When the students have completed the reading. solicit their responses to your cosltbenefit question.
{Conservation should be the consensus answer)
3- Conclude the activity by having the students write a brief "Letter to the Editor" on the need for one of the water
supply solutions. They should support their case by using the class material. If time permits. have the students
share their letters with the resi of the class.








Water Conservation


Student Book: Pages 28-31
Mininunm Student PRrformance Standa m*n
Reading
A. The student will demonstrate knowledge of a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list. (1. 2)
C, The student will demonstrate literal comprehension skills, (12, 16)
F The student will demonstrate the appropriate skills lor obtaining information. (25, 26)
Writing
J. The student will write legibly. (80)
Science
A. The student will apply basic process skills as tools for scientific investigation. (30. 36)
8. The student will apply basic process skills to problem solving in science. (42, 43, 45, 46)
J. The student will use science process skills and science information in daily activities. {276, 277)
K. The student will describe the interactions among science, technology and society. (282. 283. 284)
IntrodLmcton; The coverage of water conservation is done in live sections, The first section begins by building an
awareness of how much water various waler-consuming appliances use. The activity goes on to unveil a light-hearted look
at some imaginary Florida fauna which portray their human counterparts wasting water, unmindful of the consequences.
The second segment recaps the problems created by inadequale waler supply and how waslelul practices contribute
to Ihe difficulties, giving examples such as over-irrigation, wasteful car washing, inefficient uses of waler in cleaning and
several other examples. The text goes on 1o tell the readers how they can help with wise water use in the home, giving
examples of what Ihe students and their families can do.
The third activity underscores the reality that even a concept such as waler conservation is not an easy solution all of
the time, A simulation activity is used o1 bring the point home to the students.
The fourth section is an almanac ol some lesser known waler facts and hgures.
Finally, the lesson concludes with a suggestion that the place to begin practicing water conservation is on the school
campus, Some strategies to achieve this goal are provided.
Proc dures:
1, Begin Ihe lesson by asking the class to write the following list on a sheet of paper. Announce that this water
usage represents thai of a family of lour for a week.
Dishwasher 7 loads gallons
Washing machine 8 loads __ gallons
Shower 14 @ 5 minutes each gallons
Tub baths 11 baths gallons
Toilet 70 flushes gallons
Lawn sprinklers 3 hours of watering gallons


TOTAL WATER USE gallons
2. Next, have the students estimate the total waler consumption involved in these various activities and place their
estimates beside each use as indicated.
3, Once the students have finished the exercise, compile and average the estimates on the chalkboard.
4, Discuss the results of the compilation and supply the following actual data,
Dishwasher 7 loads (15 gallonsfload) 105 gallons
Washing machine 8 loads (60 gallonsiload) 480 gallons
Shower 14 @ 5 minutes each (6 gallonsiminule) 420 gallons
Tub baths 11 baths (35 gallonslbalh) 385 gallons
Toilet 70 flushes (6 gallons/flush) 420 gallons
Lawn sprinklers 3 hours of watering (1800 gallons/hour) 5400 gallons
TOTAL WATER USE 7210 gallons
5. South Florilda' Wacky Wildlife (5.10,15)
a. For a fun-lilled review of some of the basics of waler waste and water conservation, turn to "Wacky
Wildlife:' pages 28-29 in the student book,
b, When the class has finished the reading, have the students suggest additional creatures and descriptions
to add to Ihe "Wacky Wildlife"
6. Glve Me a Break (5.10,15)
a Discuss wilh the class the importance ol everyone doing their part in saving resources. Particularly nole
thai water conservation is something lhat everyone can do, even the small children in the family.
b. Have Ihe students read "Give Me a Break:' page 30 of the student book.
c. Once the class has finished the reading, discuss how each student can apply at least some ol Ihese
water-saving tips at home.
d. Have each student write a one-page waler conservation program for his/her own home. You might have
them report the results of Iheir family's acceptance arnd participation ahter a week's implementation.


_ __







7. TU Watr or Not to Water (15)
a. Introduce the "To Waler or Not to Water" simulation activity, which can be duplicated trom pages 31 -32
in this guide. Explain to the students that even Ihe besl sounding ideas sometimes have their drawbacks
and that this exercise should prove the point.
8. Water Tlivi (5,10,15)
a. On a lighter note, assign the reading of "Water Trivia:' page 31 ol Ihe student book to the class.
b. When the students have completed the reading, they may want to add to Ihese lunny and fascinating
waler acts by researching some of their own. They might even want to supply appropriate illustrations.
9. Conclude the lesson by discussing how the students' new-lound knowledge on water conservation might be
applied to the school campus. Perhaps the class can construct and conduct a school water audit (with the
principal's cooperation, oi course). Involve the school custodian. He or she will know where the school water
meter is located. In fact, his assistance may be necessary in getting access to it. He might also be invited into
the class for a demonstration on how to change a laucel washer Finally, the class could design and implement
a campus water conservation program. There's no better place to put lessons into practice than right at
home.,,and the campus serves admirably in this regard.






Conclusion
Student Book: Page 32
Minimum Student Perfonmance Standardsi


Reading
A. The
C. The


student will demonstrate knowledge of a basic vocabulary as determined by a specified word list. (1, 2)
student will demonstrate literal comprehension skills. (12, 16)


Writing
G. The student will spell correctly. (55}
Science
J. The student will use science process skills and science information in daily activities. (276. 277)
K. The student will describe the interactions among science, technology and society. (283, 284)
Introduction: This activity serves to culminate the preceding water unit. It is designed to instill in the students ihe
relevancy oltaking the theory lo the classroom and making it the practice of lile. Few lessons have as much significance
for their future quality of life as does learning a respect for our water resources and how they can contribute to its
enhancement.
Procedures:
1. Begin the lesson by having the students summarize what they lound to be the most important new water
information they learned from the unit, Ask them to cite any water-related newspaper articles or radio and televi-
sion stories.
2. Classroom potter (5.10,15)
a. Refer again to the classroom poster and have the students identify where people-actions come in conilici
with the natural environment, Ask the students to describe how people are attempting to resolve these
conflicts.
b. Based on the poster discussion, have the class prioritize the three most pressing water problems in South
Florida and Then evaluate current an d potential solutions to these problems.
3. Water Crossword Puzzle (5,10,15}
a. Have the sludenqs turn to the "Water Crossword" Puzzle, page 32 o{ the student book.
b. Atter reading the introduction, have the student solve the puzzle. The exercise serves as an excellent
review of the unit vocabulary.
c. Correct the puzzle, using the answer key below.


ANSWER KEY

OW1


InI
E 'Em 13 U Ms77~7~

IN 'UMMUM130 (D 12 LOA C



0 m GM Amo I0 on


91D 0


a h~e ~1 LtP


1 A mff al IIL
A (a


4. Conclude the lesson and unit by noting thai water is a resource which cannot be taken for granted. it Is essential
to all ife. in both the natural and developed environments. The appreciation of waler and its conservatiorT must
become part of their lives,

All materials required in the following experiments, e.g., alum, bfomothymol-blue solution,
can be purchased at a Jocal pharmacy or science supply house.






"How Much Water Does It Have?" Experiment


OBJECTIVE:
MATERIALS:
a potato
celery
a sharp knife
dried peas
dried raisins
water


To develop an understanding of the abundance of water in loods.


a cucumber
a scale
2 jars
dried prunes
other dried fruits


PROCEDURE: PART A
1. Cul thin slices of potato,
cucumber, or other fresh vegetable
Or Iruit.
2. Weigh the slices on a scale.
Record weight.
3. Put the slices on a sunny
windowsill to dry. (TO Speed
drying, use an oven.)
4. When slices are dry. weigh them
again. Record weight.
5. Subtract the weight of the slices
after dried Irorn Ihe weight when
fresh. The difference between Ihe
weights is the amount of water
lost.
6. QUESTION: What percent of the
weight of the fresh vegetables or
fruits was water?


EXAMPLE:


4 oz.
--.- X 100 = 25%
16 oz.


change in weightl
oricngin weight X 100 = % o o object that was waler
original weight


The oblecl was 25%/ water.


PART B
7. Weigh dried fruits or vegetables.
then place in a container and cover
wilh tap water.
8. To allow total absorption. weigh
them again in two days.
9. Compare the difference. Compute
the percentage gained. Graph
results.
10. Which changed more, dried fruits
gaining or fresh fruils
losing? What percentage change
occurred for each?
11, Discuss the results of your
experiment.


From Waterways: Expirxinrg rirshwlst Florida's Wer Resources. copyrighl 198t7 MNrthws51 Florida Waler Managneerie DisEric


ORIGINAL DRIEo %
FOOD bur
WEIGHT WEIQHT LOST


_______I ______


a I I a -


FOO D DRIED AFTER %
FOWEIOT 2 DAYS GAIDF.
WEIGHT 2 GAYS I AIhED










-1"






"Turbidity" Experiment




OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect solids
(turbidity) have on penetration of light.

BACKGROUND:
The term used for suspended
solids within the water is "tur-
bidity." These are the soll
particles and other matter that
are "suspended" (floating
around) in the water. This is im-
portant because the amount of
turbidity can affect the amount of
light penetration and the color of
the water.


suspended in water


MATERIALS:
balance scale
funnel
beaker or jar
graduated cylinder or 1 liter
water samples from various
PROCEDURE:


1. Weigh the filter paper and
place inside the funnel.
2. Take a water sample. Using
the graduated cylinder,
measure 1 liter (just more
than a quart) of sample to
filter,
3. Slowly empty 1 liter of
sample through the filter
paper into beaker o jar.
4. Remove the filter paper and
allow it to dry completely.


Weight of filter paper after filtration
Weight of filter paper before filtratic
Difference


ring stand
ring
filter paper
container
creeks, rivers etc.


5. Reweigh the filter paper to the
nearest milligram.
6. Take the difference between
the new weight and old
weight of the filter paper,
7. The difference in milligrams
would be the amount of
suspended solids per liter.
Express your answer in parts
per million (ppm). This is
equal to milligrams per liter.


mg
>n mg
mgililer ppm


QUESTIONS:
1. What effect do you think water clarity might have on plant
life?


2. What are some things that might cause turbidity?


3. How might the different types of wetlands help in
improving water clarity?



From WQVfrways: EaVnloT.ing Nolhwe!MA FloridA'S Wa*r Resources. copyrighl ~Ifl7 Nof4hwn Florida Waler Management ODmrae.






"Building an Artesian Aquifer and Well" Activity


OBJECTIVE:

MATERIALS:


To construct an arlesian aquifer and observe what causes water levels in
wells tapping it o0 rise above Ihe top of the aquifer,


WELL.#1
standard aquarium
construction sand (dry)
gauze or cheesecloth
waterproof tape
water
watering can with spout


waterproof modeling clay
clear plastic (or glass) tubing
(Vh" or slightly larger
diameter)
2 bottles blood coloring
(contrasting colors)


WELL #2
Clear plastic (or glass) tubing (or hose)-square, if available
water


PROCEDURE:


WELL #1


1. Bank sand in bottom of aquarium
on one side to approximately 4 to 5
inches at the highest point. (see
illustration)
2. Cover sand with a thin layer of
modeling clay. (at least '/ inch
thick)
3. Bank another layer of sand, 5 lo 7
inches deep, keeping to the
original slope.
4. Cover end of plastic hose/tubing
with gauze or cheese clolh and
secure with waterproof lape.
5. Gently insert hoseflubing into
sand along the side of the
aquarium (see illustration,)
6. Cover sand with another layer of
modeling clay. V/ inch Or less,
leaving several square inches of
sand uncovered at the highest
point. (This is the recharge area.)
7. Fill in remainder of space with
sand to a level slightly less than
the layer of modeling clay,
8. Fill watering can with water and
add a few drops of blue food color-
ing.
9. Gently pour colored water into the
recharge area (the area left


u ,covered by the last layer of clay)
until the aquifer is completely
saturated.
10. Watch the water as it moves
through the confined layer of sand,
11. Water should begin to rise through
the plastic tube (well #1) and
should reach a level even with the
top of the recharge area.

This level to which water rises is
called the polelometrfic surface,
This is the level to which water in a
confinedfartesian aquifer will rise in
a well. The reason the water rises is
because it is under a lot of pressure.
If this level is above the top of the
well, then the water will flow out of
the well without pumping. This is
called a free-flowing artesian well.
However, if the top of the well is
above the potentiometric surface,
the water will still rise above the top
of the aquifer, but will not flow out
unless it is pumped. Although this
well is an artesian well, it is not free-
flowing.


Fraio W.lrways: EExpoinngNIrt *wT FI._opds War Re ourc., copyigfh 1987, Norlhwest Fkrida Wastr Management Os Drct.


































WELL #2
A second well showing water table conditions,

PROCEDURE: 1. Cover end of clear hosetluting
with cheesecloth or gauze and
secure with water-proof tape.
2. Gently insert hosellubing into
sand, along the side of the
aquarium (see illustration) so that
one side of the tube allows an
unobstrucled view of the inside of
the well.
3. Fill watering can with water and
add a few drops of yellow food-
coloring to diiferentiate between
aquifers.
4. Gently pour or sprinkle water on
the surface of the sand to simulale
rainfall.
5. Observe the water as it moves
through the aquifer and seeps into
the well.
6. Water should seep into the well
and rise until It reaches a level
even with the water table.







From Watirw, ys: E lploring MoFlhiwes ForIda's Waler Resource, copyright 1987. NMOrlh,,t Florida Water Managemnt Distrlct.







"Building a Terrarium" Activity

OBJECTIVE:
To observe the way the water
cycle works and how plants
interact to maintain a balanced
environment.
MATERIALS:


large, wlde-mouth, clear
charcoal or gravel
topsoil
several small plants
modeling clay
spray bottle
water


jar with lid


PROCEDURE:
1. Obtain a large wide-mouth jar
used to hold salad dressing or
pickles. (Check with your
cafeteria manager.)
2. Place clay "feet" under jar to
prevent rolling.
3. In "bottom" spread 1/2" of
charcoal and/or gravel.
4. Layer 2" of topsoil above
charcoal,
5. Plant small plants in soil.
6. Using a spray bottle, water
plants until soil is completely
moistened. Do not water too
much.
7. Close lid tightly,
8. Place jar in indirect sunlight.
The water cycle soon
becomes apparent. The con-
densatlon of water appears


on jar. Plants begin lo grow
and transpiration occurs,
Transpiration is the release of
water into the air from the
leaves of plants.
In this terrarium, all needs for
growing the plants are pro-
vided by the interaction of
light, water, oxygen, and
carbon dioxide. This balanced
terrarium is an ECOSYSTEM.
An ecosystem is a community
of animals, plants and their
environment. (In this case,
there are no animals.) All
parts are dependent on each
other.
9. Draw a poster of the terrarium
and explain what is occurring
in the water cycle of your
ecosystem.


QUESTIONS:
1. Why don't you need to water the plants like you would plants outside the jar?


2. What would happen to a terrarium without plants, without water, or without a
lid?










From Waterwayl Ei.plorfJ Nofthwest Florida' Wler ResoutCfl, e opyghfl 1987, Ntailwest FIorada Waler Managemun, Disircl.







"Natural Water Pollution" Experiment





OBJECTIVE:
To show that decomposers are
using up oxygen In the water as
they break down dead materials
and wastes,

BACKGROUND:
Wastes such as fertilizers and
detergents that are carried into
the water of a stream, river or lake
cause the rapid growth of algae.
The algae flourish for a short time
and then die. But then decam.
posers cause the dead algae to
decay. The decay process uses
up oxygen in the water. After a
while, fish living in the water die
due to a lack of oxygen. The
change in the water as the oxygen
is used up may be detected by
using a chemical called
bromothymoll blue".
Bromothymol blue that Is added
to the water will become yellow
as oxygen is used up.

MATERIALS:
4 corks
water
dead grass
dead leaves
4 test tubes
test tube rack
medicine dropper
mud from a puddle
glass-marking pencil
bromothymot-blue solution

EXPECTED OUTCOME:

I think that dead grass, dead
leaves and mud in streams, rivers
and lakes can cause water pollu.
tion in the following way...


PROCEDURE:
You may work with other students
in doing this activity. However,
each of you should record your
own results.
1. Fill four test tubes about half
full of water. Add four drops of
bromothymol-blue solution to
the water in each lest tube.
Place the four test tubes in
the test tube rack.
2. To the first test tube, add a
small amount of dead grass
that has been broken up into
small pieces. Add a small
amount of broken-up dead
leaves to the second test
tube, and then add a small
amount of mud from a puddle
[or a small amount of dirt
from a pond) to the third test
tube. Other than water, no
materials should be added to
the fourth test tube because it
will serve as your control.
3. Use the glass-marking pencil
to label each test tube, telling
what substance was placed
inside. The fourth test tube
should be labeled Control.
Add more water to each test
tube so there is just enough
room for a cork. Put a cork
into each test tube.
4. Observe the test tubes each
day for five days. Record any
color changes that take place
in the test tubes.


Frn We wlwa Exploring Noflthwe Florida' Wa.te Rf~eurm. -cyrighl 187. Northwest Flofit Water Managemeni O~raril.







"Who Lives Where?" Activity

Here are some special animals that live in South Florida Some of these are listed as endangered or Ihrealened species
Read their descriptions and Ihen see if you can place them in their natural habitat. When you have found the correct setting
described below, write the names ol the animals in the space provided. Keep in mind that animals may use more than one
lype of habitat and may be listed more than once.

The BURROWING OWL is an unusual bird- Unlike most owls. it is active during the daytime and lives underground, sharing
its home with other animals.

The CAPE SABLE SEASIDE SPARROW is a small bird which is rarely seen except during breeding season. Then the male
sings from prominent perches in its marshy home-

The FLORIDA BLACK BEAR is a large mammal that leeds on nuts, be rries roots and leaves It prefers areas of dense
cover and can be iound in palmetto thickets.

The FLORIDA PANTHER is a large, long-tailed, tawny cat which Iravels long distances throughool southern Florida searching
Ior its favorite prey, the white-tailed deer.

The GOPHER TORTOISE is a slow-moving reptile Ihat grazes for many hours each day on grasses, fallen leaves and berries
It digs burrows in the sand to escape the heat These tunnels provide homes for many olher animals.

The MANGROVE FOX SQUIRREL is a bushy-tailed rodent, found in South Florida woodlands II builds leaf nests. high in
trees. to provide shelter and nesting areas.

The SNAIL KITE is a rare bird of prey. Its sharp, hooked beak helps lo extract its favorite blood. the Apple Snail. from its
shell. Snail kites nest on small tree islands within marshes.

The WOOD STORK is a long-legged, white bird with black wings II nests in cypress or mangrove trees and feeds on small
fish, using its stout bill to probe through the muddy waters.


CYPRESS SWAMP FORESTS -, This low-lying area is
subject to seasonal flooding Large cypress trees tower
over smaller shrubs such as the coco plum, palmetto and
wax myrIle. Other vegetation includes saw grass and air
plants. Aqualic and waler-toleranl insects. tfsh. reptiles,
birds, and large and small mammals populate the area.


PRAIRIE MARSHES This area o rich. loamy soil is
usually saturated or covered with surface water for two or
more months of the year Many tree islands are found
throughout these marshes which provide excellent nesling
habitat for many kinds of birds. Rushes and grasses dommiatt
the natural vegetation


rc4 -


C. j
0


rl -i-I
OE- jI *jp *eI


EVERGLADES The Everglades historically extended
for more lhan 100 miles Irom Lake OQeechobee to the
southern end of the stale. A vast expanse ol saw grass,
Iree islands, sloughs and marshes, it is the largest fresh-
water wetland on Ihe Florida peninsula Water plants,
grasses and trees provide food and shelter for a variety of
fish. deer, wading birds and aquatic mammals


PRAIRIE GRASSLANDS This area was formed by Ihe
exposure of ancient beach, dunes and sea bottom to the
airand fresh water The resulting soil is sandy with scattered
pockels 0o organic peal. The area is subjecl 10 Ilooding
during the rainy season. Grasses and rushes make up rnosI
of the vegelalion Ground-loving animals that like to burrowv
are olten lound here.







Water Glossary
ALGAE- aquatic plant which can cause a problem il It grows very rapidly and uses up the oxygen supply in a body ol
water" such rapid growth occurs in the presence of nitrogen and phosphorus.
ALULGAITR-large amphibious reptile: Freddy.
AERATION -water treatment step In which the water is sprayed into the air to release unwanted gasses and add oxygen,
AQlUIFER-large underground bed ol sand and gravel which holds water
BACTERIA -microscopic organisms which often cause disease.
BAY- body of water partly enclosed by land but having a wide outlet to the sea.
CANAL- constructed channel filled with water.
CAVERN- large, lunnel-like opening in underground limestone, caused by acidic groundwater dissolving the rock.
CHLORINATION -water treatment step in which small amounts of chlorine are added to kill bacteria in the water
CHLORINE-chemical used to kill bacteria in the water treatment process.
CLOUD-visible mass of tiny droplets. mixed with vapor, suspended in air.
COAGULATION- waler treatment step in which alum is added to the water to create Iloc which attracts particles of dirt.
CONDENSATION- process in which water vapor cools into tiny droplets, which collect and form clouds.
CONFINING UNIT-layer of impermeable rock or sediments which does not altow water to flow easily through it.
CONSERVATION using water wisely instead of wasting it.
CUP- small bowl used to hold liquids; 8 ounces.
DECOMPOSE- to break down a substance, such as dead plant and animal matter, usually by bacteria or fungi, and oxygen.
DESALINATION-process by which the salt is removed Irom seawater.
DIGESTION- process in wastewater treatment in which bacteria decompose small impurities suspended in the wastewater
DISHWASNER -appliance used to clean dishes.
DIINFECTANT- substance used to kill germs.
DRAINAOE BASIN area from which water flows Into a body of waler.
DRIP- slow discharge of waler.
DROUGHT-period of time in which little or no rain falls.
EFFLUENT- treated wastewater.
ESTUARY --coaslal area where freshwater from rivers, streams and canals mixes with ocean saltwater.
EVAPORATION-process in which water is warmed by the sun, turns into a vapor and rises into the air.
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION- combination ol the process o1 plants giving ofi water vapor from their leaves and evaporation.
FAUCET device which delivers water from a pipe.
FILTRATION-water treatment step in which the water is piped through layers of sand, gravel and rock to remove solid
impurities.
FLOC -clusters of dirt and alum which is formed in the coagulation step of water treatment,
FLOOD-overflowing of water onto land that is normally dry.
FLOOD CONTROL- reducing the potential for flood damage by channelizing streams and building water control structures.
FLOOD PLAIN -areas which can be flooded during storms without causing damage.
GALLON four quarts; a liquid measure.
GROUNDWATER water from rain which has seeped down through the soil to aquifers.
HAIL-precipitation in the form of small, solid balls of ice and hard snow.
HEAVY METALS- metals, such as lead, zinc, copper and chromium, which can harm fish life when they become
suspended in water.
HOSE-flexible lube used to deliver water
HURRICANE -severe tropical storm with high winds and heavy rains.
ICE-solid form of water.
IRRIGATION- process of supplying water to dry land by artificial means.
LAKE-natural, non-flowing body of water
LEVEE embankment raised to prevent flooding,
UMESTONE brittle rock that has many cracks which can fill up with water.
LITER -metric liquid measure; approximately 1.055 quarts.
LOCK section of a waterway closed off with gates, used to raise or lower the water level to allow boat passage.
MANATEE- large aquatic mammal ol warm Allantic coastal waters; an endangered species.
MARSH- non-loresled wetland dominated by aquatic plants.
MICROORGANISMS-tiny animals, such as bacteria.
NAVIGATE to travel by water
NUTRIENT- dead plant and animal matter or chemical which serve as food for living plants and animals
OCEAN -huge body of saltwater which covers of the earth.
PERCOLATION- process in which water seeps down into the earth.
PERMEABLE -allowing easy passage of a substance, such as wale, through soil.
PESTICIDE-chemicals used to kill unwanted insects and small animals which harm crop.
POLLUTION-process by which the environment, such as the air or water, is dirlied.
POROUS- able to hold waler, such as soils and rocks which have cracks and spaces.
PRECIPITATION-rain. snow, or hall which lalls from clouds.
PRIMARY TREATMENT--irst step of wastewater Irealment in which the solid materials are removed.






RAIN liquid precipitation.
RECHARGE-process of replacing groundwater.
RECHARGE AREA -area in which water can seep into an aquifer to refill it.
RECLAIMED WATER-water purified to a level acceptable lor some non-potable uses.
ECLAMATION- process by which previously used water is cleaned and treated for another use.
RESERVOIR-artilicial lake used for water storage and recreallon,
REUSE- using treated wastewater over again.
REVERSE OSMOSIS-desalination process in which water is forced through a membrane, leaving the sail behind.
RIVER-flowing body of water of considerable volume.
RUNOFF-rain in excess of the amount absorbed by the ground.
SALTWATER INTRUSION-act of saltwater moving into an aquifer and mixing with the freshwater, making it unfit for
many uses.
SEASONAL VARIAILITY--the change in the amount of rainfall from one season of the year to another,
SECONDARY TREATMENT- the second stage of wastewater treatment in which bacteria "digest" remaining impurities,
SEDIMINTATION -water treatment step in which the water is allowed to stand while the floc settles to the bottom of a tank.
SEPTIC SYSTEM-wastewater treatment system used in rural areas in which the wastewater flows into a large tank
where lhe solids decompose and the effluent is released into the ground.
SEPTIC TANK--he holding tank used in a septic system.
SEWAGE- human wastes carried off by sewers.
SHOWER--device used for bathing which delivers water in a spray, fine stream or drops.
SINK--shallow container, equipped with faucet and drain, used for washing.
SINKHOLE-low spot in the ground, created when the ceiling of an underground cavern collapses.
SLOUGH swamp, especially one Ihat is an inlet or backwater
SNOW--precipitation in the form of crystals of frozen water.
SPRINKLER device used to water a lawn.
STEAM--state of water after boiling.
STREAM- small flowing body of water,
SURFACE WATER-waler stored on top of the land: lakes and rivers.
SURFICIAL AQUIFER- aquifer found near the surface of the earth.
SWAMP land saluraled with waler dominated by trees.
SWIMMING POOL- water container used for swimming.
TOPSOIL- dir on the earth's surface, made up of sand, clay, rocks and decayed plant material.
TOXIC CHEMICALS-chemicals which can harm and even kill plants and animals,
TUB-container in which one bathes.
VAPOR- waler in the form ot a gas.
WASTEWATER-water which has been used.
WATER CYCLE-route water takes as it changes forms between earth and sky
WATER METER-device used to measure water consumption.
WATER TABLE-shallowest point at which groundwater is found in a given area.
WATER TREATMENT PLANT-facility where water is filtered and Ireated with chemicals to make it sale to drink,
WELL- hole drilled in the ground to reach a water supply.
WET--condition of not being dry.
WETLAND- area covered or soaked by water at least one month oul of the year
WILDLIFE-animals living in a natural settling.
XERISCAPE-style of landscaping used to reduce waler use: it features good design, careful plant selection. improvement
of the soil, wise grass use, careful watering and use of mulches,






"Hidden Water Names" Puzzle

Hidden in the puzzle below are 24 water names of South Florida. They include lakes and reservoirs, as well as rivers, creeks,
canals. bays and sloughs, which make up South Florida's waters. Many of them can be found on the maps on pages four
and six. NOTE: Only the proper part of Ihe name has been used. For example, only KISSIMMEE has been used, not
River or Lake. The names may be spelled out forwards, backwards or on the diagonal, When you have found a name, circle it.

ATLANTIC Ocean KISSIMMEE River and Lake
BISCAYNE Bay LOXAHATCHEE River
CALOOSAHATCHEE River Gulf of MEXICO
CVPRFSS L akI MIAMI Canal


EVERGLADES
FISHEATING Creek
FLORIDA Bay
Lake HATCHINEHA
Lake HICPOCHE E
HI LLSBORO Canal
HOMESTEAD Canal
Lake ISTOKPOGA


N. NEW RIVER Canal
NUBBIN Slough
Lake OKEECHOBEE
SHARK River Slough
ST. LUCIE Canal
TAYLOR Slough and Creek
Lake TOHOPEKALIGA
WEST PALM BEACH Canal


H Nt T P A I K AAHS IcYr A
I Fji NW$C1STPAL 50f ACHG



H JY- S-IC A--i Aa



i I To N AL. T A YRM o sj to io i 1H
uWP wv0MOg A
9 P i> A IaTlc S 0itMHj0 S Q I







H 1RKsAH0IC1ColAgIR
P.-A-\
--1t161 -- a a
P~~s PKMIKAH PRTMGUA

a - a a -
clINt.T I L~o s L..If







"Water Treatment" Experiment


1',i


OBJECTIVE:


MATERIALS:


To demonstrate the steps required in treating
we drink.


mud or dirt
wire screen
water source
line sand
half-gallon container
pebbles
2 one-quarl jars with lids
coarse sand
glass-marking pencil


cup
mixing container
10 alum crystals
clock with second hano
one-liter plastic bottle
scissors or knife
tablespoon


AERATION


PROCEDURE:

1. Mix 'zcup of mud or dirt with 2 quarts of water in a half-
gallon container until the water appears dirty.
2. Evenly distribute the dirty water into the 2 one-quart
jars, leaving about 3 inches of space al the top of each
jar. Label jars "A" and "B".
3. AERATION: Place a lid on top of jar "A" and shake it
for 10 seconds. Next pour the water back and forth into
the mixing container.
How does this action allow the trapped gases to escape
and new oxygen to be added to the water?
4. COAGULATION: Dissolve 10 alum crystals in 1 table.
spoon of warm water in a cup. Grind the crystals while
mixing them into the solution. Pour the conlenis of the
cup into the jar of aerated water, rinse the cup and add
this water to the jar. Slowly stir for five minutes and
observe the formation of "floc".
How rapidly did the floc begin to form?
5. SEDIMENTATION: Allow the floc to settle and
observe every live minutes.
How long did it take before Ihe floc had settled to the
bottom?
6. FILTRATION: Make a filter using the one-liter plastic
bottle. Cut the bottle in half and turn the lop up-side
down, Place a wire screen in the bottom lo hold further
particles inside your "funnel". Layer the pebbles on top
of the screen, then the coarse sand and the fine sand.
7. Run some tap water through the filter to make sure Ihat
it is clean. Slowly pour off halt of the water from the
sedimentation jar into the filter bottle, being careful nol
to shake it. Compare jar "A'"s filtered water with jar
*'B'"s muddy water, and with the remaining "floc"
water. Describe the differences in appearance of the
water in each container.


COAGULATION


:.',,-


SEDIMENTAION

SEDIMENTATION


FILT


rlNI %A11

*PikeSrCm I.


L0J


Fiom Waterways ExpKorig Northwest FPonda's War!r RFlourCuK CpCyriglh 1987 Nonhwesi Florida Water Management O'irrStc


a,,.







"Groundwater Pollution" Experiment

NOTE: Use experiment, "BUILDING AN ARTESIAN AQUIFER AND WELL," on pages 16 and 17
of Lesson One to perform this experiment.
OBJECTIVE:
To show how the Sand and Gravel Aquifer can become polluted by contaminants on
the land surface,
MATERIALS:
Refer to experiment, "BUILDING AN ARTESIAN AQUIFER AND WELL,"
red food coloring
syringe
water

PROCEDURE:


1. Introduce drops of red food coloring
(representing a contaminate-source
of pollution) to the surface area
away from Well #2. You may want to
dilute it slightly with water.
2. Observe as the red coloring begins
to mix with the water in the Sand
and Gravel Aquifer.
3. To speed up the movement of the
contaminant, insert the end of the
syringe (simulated pump) into the
well and remove water.
4, Repeat pumping action to speed
movement of contaminant through
the water and into the well,
5. Note that if the layer of clay (confin-
ing unit) has been properly installed,
there should be no seepage of con.
taminanl into the Floridan Aquifer.


6. Review all procedures and discuss:
***The Floridan Aquifer is less like-
ly to become contaminated from
pollutants placed on the land sur-
face because...
'**Potential for ground water pollu-
tion in your area...(use newspaper
articles, television reports and per.
sonal observations)
'"Sources of water supplies in
your area..(Does your water supply
come from the Sand and Gravel or
Floridan Aquifer, or from a surface
waler source?)
"Agencies responsible for testing
water.,,


1 6 0l


From Walsways- ExplOrng NOalhwesl Flode's Waler.. ASu_rce., :oWyghlt i 7, Non lh,. 7 Foif ,a WaIa. MlangWmF~ 0DiStrlcl




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs