• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgement
 A lifetime adventure
 Park responsibilities
 Teacher responsibilities
 Habitats-Wetlands
 Creepy crawlies
 In your classroom
 Resources
 Chaperon responsibilities
 Back Cover






Title: Everglades National Park Royal Palm and Long Pine Key Guide
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Title: Everglades National Park Royal Palm and Long Pine Key Guide
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Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- South Florida
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Bibliographic ID: FI05090702
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    A lifetime adventure
        Page 1
    Park responsibilities
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Teacher responsibilities
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Habitats-Wetlands
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Creepy crawlies
        Page 16
        Page 17
    In your classroom
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Resources
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Chaperon responsibilities
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Back Cover
        Page 25
        Page 26
Full Text





?EVERGLY
NATIONALA
J ARK
1- Royal Palm an
< ong Pine Key
uide
qj t






















"Ifa child is to keep alive his inborn sense of
wonder.. he needs the companionship of at
least one adult who can share it,
rediscovering with him the joy, excitement
and mystery of the world we live in."


-Rachel Carson


II--I


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Table of Contents

A Lifetime Adventure .................................................. 1

Park Responsibilities ............ ........................ ............. 2-3
W workshops ,,,,,....................................... ... ..... 2
Transportation .............................. ...... ..................... ...... .... ..... ....... ... .......... 2
Scheduling .............................................................. 2
Program Evaluation ....................................... ......... ....... ....... ................ .... 2


Teacher Responsibilities ........................................ .....4-7
W workshop Attendance ,.. .. .............. ...--... ..*.. .*.... ... ..... ... 4
haperons ................... ....................... .............................................. 4
Trip Reservation and Confirmation ........................ ........................................... 4
Planning C checklist ... ...... .......................... .................................... .............. 5
., Ranger for a Day! ..P4............ ..... ........ ....... .. ....................... 6
Teacher Backacck ............................. ........................ 6
Lunch Tim e ......................................................... ... ................................. .... 6
Discipline .. l... ..... ......... .......................... ................... ............ ... 6
Day Trip Schedule ............ ....................... ...... ..... ......... ..... 7

Habitats-Wetlands............................ 8-11
Slough.............................................................49994...... 8-9
W watching W wildlife .... ...... .......................... .... .............. .... .... ........... 9
Keep Your Distance ..e....... ..... ..... ...................... ...... .... .................... 9
Is ThE at Bam boo? .. ........ .............. .. .................. ..... ..................... 9
W wilderness W heels ........................ .. ... ..... ..................... ......... .4-4 9
Sawgrass Marsh .... ..............4.....4............*-ai 10-11
Oxygen! Gasp! .10...... ...... ................ .... .............. .. 10
How Long Is That Alligator? ............ .............. ..... .................. ..... II
B ills and Feet ....................................... .... ..... ....... ..... .. ..... .... ...










Habitats-High Ground................. ............. 12-15
Pinelands .............................. .12- 13
W hat Happens W without Fire? ..................... ................. ....... ....... .......... 13
It's a Green W orld ................. ................... ...... .......... 13
Hardwood Hammock .......14................................................. 14-15
W here Panthers Prowl ............................................................................... 15
Borrow Pit Lake ............................................................................................. 15
Listening to the W ild ................ ........... .............. ....... .............. 15

Creepy Cravwies .... .............. ................................. 16-17

In tourr Classroom ...* t*.*.st.t*a...s..........-.at.....t..-.s i.t,* 18-19
In Your Classroom ctivities.............................................................. 18-1
Classroom Activities e......................., ,t... t------...-.-.... p,,y. ppp18
Predict, Observe, Explain (POE) ............. ............................... 18
R ole Playing .................................. ................ .............. ........... ......... ...... .. 18
Plant and Wildlife Identification -...----,,..-.-.......... ......... 18
Literature, History and Storytelling ............................................................ 8
Reflective Thinking .................... ...................,... 18
Videos and Other V al Materials ............................................................ 19

Resources ..e................................ ........................ ..... 20-22

Chaperon Responsibilities .................................... ...... 23-24


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Acknowledgments


This guide is dedicated to those teachers who share their sense of
wonder with their students.



Editor and Writer
Judy ty

Layout.
Laura Law

Artists
Cover Sandi Olsn
Line drawings Eizabeth Smith
Cartoons: Eva Dianske











Special thanks to Dr. William B, Robertson Joyce Weans, Sherry Norris and Patrick Lunn who
commented on the draft. Additional thanks to the South Florida Research Center and to Everglades
National Park Education staff


Publishing of tis guide is de possible with funding from the Florida National
Parks and Monumnts Asociaion, printed on recycled paper. 1997.


4(0'


1111 1 II












A Lifetime Adventure



Since 1971 the National Park Service and local schools have cooperated in the se of Ever&lades
National Park as an outdoor classroom. Park staff, teachers, and school administrator share
responsibility for the Everglades Educabon Program. These partner have agreed upon the fol-
lowing goals. I

To cquant the students of South Flonda with the hammock. slough sawgrass marsh, and
pmeland habitats of Everglades Nauonal Park

*To develop an appreciion in students for their total environmat, naturaJ and human-


*To dc-elop in students an understanding of Everglades Natioial Park's value to the web -
of lie in South FlordaL O

*To motivate student to participate active m song South Florda's anvironmanta prob-
lems.

Although these goals carmot al be achieved dunng a singe trip. classroom lesson can make
even one park viat a sagiican step toward educating satunts caretakers of South Floida's
natural resources 0

This guide ll help you a for a field trip to the Roya Palm and Long Pine Key jas of the
pazl It serves as a reference for maenial covered during the pre-st, teacher workshop hl also
ofers an overview of ach of the habitat students will visit on their field rip. Finally, it minudes
suggested classroom actvies and a resources last.

In conjunction with the teacher workshop, classroom activites and the field trip, tis Royal
PalmLong Pine Key Guide meets the following Dade County curriculum based cope cs
(CBCs) for 5th and 6th grade.
dr 0
-Component 11 Life Science. Competency A
-Component V Inteacuon of Society and the Environment. Competency A.

Grade 6
-Component 1 Life Science. Objective 1, Compeency A.

Thank you for your willingness to become atrip leader! We hope visiting your national parks will
be a lifetime adventure.


1 Everglades Education











The National Park's commitments to teachers and
local schools in facilitating
Royal Palm/Long Pine Key Field Trips


Workshops
To help ktacher prepare for their cl visit
park ranger conduct oe-day workshops at
Ro)al Pa/Lanng Pine Key A workshop helps
teaches to

Learn about the program's logstics md their
field ip responsibilities,
*Acqure a farmihanty w the habitats, Mwid-
lfe, snd tral
*Understand hl to real classroom activities
to the field tnp experience.

New teachc t, and those who have noe par-
tipcpated in the program for the past two
years, ist attend a workshop.



Transportation
The Dade Couny School Board has
regularly contacted for thr tras-
portanon of students to park field
trips For schools receimg diis pre
paid transportation t park will
noufy the contracted bus compaMy of h re-
served dates (AU other school must arrange
th own transportation ) The maximum num-
ber of people allowed on a bus is 66 (60 su-
dnts and 6 aduts) Fied trip participants
arn Dt allowed to foUow buses In private
vehicle. All partdpats should be on the
bus.

Buses paid for by Dade County a rented for
six hours ad must leave the park by 1:15 pm
(or Wednesday, by 12:15 pm) To maximize
your ime in Ihe pcak, please plan to depart from
school as early as possible.


Scheduling
Field trip reseations are accepted bt mail orny
The resevation form is included in the annual
School Visfs to South lorada Nainorwl Parks
booklet mailed to teachers at e stan of the
school year Trip reservaons are led on a
first conom, first served bass and are finalized
in earl October Reph t ar sen to all
teachers who subnumed reservation requests
Since here e usually mre requests subint-
ted m thee are ar avadLable da.es it is unpor-
tant to request your resen anon r Teach-
es uwho are flexible about dales increase their
chances of suc s A waitng aofthose ho
did not receive a reservation is marntamed in
case of cancellations.


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Everglades Education 2


Program Evaluation
Everglades Naional Park staff rognize that
achrs ae professionals essential to the edu-
cationa efforts of the Park Service To help us
do ou job well, your class ranger will provide
you with an evaluation form to complete Spe-
cific suggestions and honest comments, both
on whaz worked and what didn't, are welcome
Likewise, after your field trip, the park wil mail
you a short evaluation completed by your
ranger. If at any time youd Like to discuss a
concern about the field tip program wiLh a su-
pervisor. please contact the Everglades Educa-
tion Office at(305)242-7753,









Ranger Program
The general plan of the field tip remains the same from year to year. However. circumstances
such as high water, mosqujo levels, warm or cold weather, and the program emphasis of the
individual ranger, result in some variability The rangers are repoaibkle for communicating
the expectations and plan for the day's evets to the teacher. (Please see page 7 for a Ipical
field tip schedule )

Two park rangers wll be waiting for a bus with ixty students (If you are bnino thirty-six
students or less, only one rager will meet you.) Whn the bus arves the rangers wll board ii
and bneily review safety concerns and rules. They wil also talk about the national park dea.
With tus business completed, the rangers -iU
ask the teaches to ~ the students off the


After a quick rstroom break each class
w ll assemble separate' on dhe lan with
their teacher, chaperons and assigned
ranger. The ranger wil lead a -Wam up
acti vit and explain to the oile cdass the
schedule for the morng Afer complet-
ing th s introduction, the ranger %iIl sk
the teacher to d&ide dhe class o two
groups, each having about fiften st-
dents and at least one chaperon The
ranger leads one of the groups on de An-
hinga Tral; the teacher leads he other
The ranger will coordinate the time that
groups must be back to the bus

After all studemns return, the bus wd
transport the cls to the hmch se aL
Long Pine Key. Following lunch the
rager will agan lead ne group, and the
teacher the other, on e trail The ranger
wil arrange wih the teacher were to
lee d for a conc udig acovily The rn eru
'- yis also responsible for enui t die
.,' -. bus leaves the park on ,timc


3 Everglades Education


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All field trip rangers carry radios and an request emergency medical
assistance. If a student in your group is injured, notify a ranger immediately. If a
child is not feeling well, assign an adult chaperon to stay with them.

, 7


I











The role of the teacher in planning and leading the
Royal Palm/Long Pine Key field trip


Workshop Attendance
AU teacher e required to aend a one-day
workshop aI Royal Palm Long Pine Key prior
to leading a field trp, (Atending a workshop
for another Everglades program does not
qualify a teacher to parcipate in this one )
Workshops we typically held on teacher work
days m November ad Jnuary. Workshop ea-
rolmnta as raTiegd when subrrumng a tnp res-
ervation form or by calling the Education Of-
fice

New teacher, and those who have not partica-
paed in the program for the past two years
must attend a workshop However, even for
teachers whose paicparbon has been frequent
attending a workshop every few ears will help
brng them up to dae on any program changes.
It wv- aluso lesiman d for classroom
preparaton and follow-up


Trip Reservation and Confirmation
Teachens submit a reservaon form by
mail to the Everglades Education Office This
form is eluded in the ~ al School iusi io
South Flofrda Nanoal Parks booklet mailed
out at the start of the school yew Reply letters
are sent to all teacher who subnutted reserve a-
tion request If a dte has been reserved for
you, a pink confirmation post card will be en-
closed. This card must be signed by your
principal and returned to te park It cea-
fwin your ma ptance. The card aso asks you
to ive t si of your group, there grade, and
any spiec n formation dhat would be useful to
the naigers preparing for your visit

Approximately o week before your visit, th
Education Clerk will call to confirm the detas
of your visit Please be sure to form h~rimh
of any changes in teacher-leder or group sue


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Everglades Education 4


Chaperons
Chaperons are an integral part of the park visit A minim.. onf e adult chaperon or teacher
for every te children b required. (Have a chaperon stand-by list ready in case of last minute
cancellations ) Children look a adults as role models-they will watch and model the adults'
actions and reactions Teachers should review the chaperon responsibilities on pages 23-24.
with all adult paricipans. These guidelines, in English and Spanish, are provided in a form that
can easily be copied as a handout Chaperons like students, must wear long pants and walking
shoes. We ask that they not smoke in front of the students or use the vending machines (since
students aren't allowed to use them).

Support from the chaperons is essential to the trip's success. Please instruct them to assist in
maintaining discipline, to join in all activities, and to be on the lookout for potential safety
hazards.


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Planning Checklist..
lSchool Regulauon.s
Teachers are responsible for making sure that
all school system regulations regarding paren-
tal pemussion slips, travel authonizaonsfasur-
ance, ec are followed

cChaperons
One adult (chaperon or teacher) per t stu-
dents s trequ ed by Everglades National Park

vClotung
Tell the students and chaperons to wear odues
appropriate for siding on the ground Long
pans (no shorts or d.sses) a re quired Sho
should be cornfonble for walking No sandals,
flp-flops, or other
open-toed shoes are
allowed Long pants jo
and shoes protect nj d ou
pacapanis from bit- comp
ing sects and poi- all wen
sonous planLs


tNanetugs
For safety and cour-


-Lynne Norri
Elen


es, the rangers pre-
fe to call students bI name A sgl piece of
masking tape with the fit name wnuie n bg
meters works d&l If you choose to make name
tags as a pre-visit activity, be sure h are easy
to read and do not fll off wtien the students
are active.

1Groups
Divide each Ce into two groups of 12-18
students each before arriving at he park
Assign at least one chaperon to each group.
(A typical bus of 60 students would be divided
into fur groups of fifteen students each)

SItems To Lave Behind
Students am not allowed to bring cameras,
binocular, tape-re order, radios or money.
These distract the student's attention from the
group leaders and also from what is around
them. We also ask tha adults not bring cam-
eras or cellular phones. If you feel that you inst


have pictures ofyour field trip, designate one
adult as the class photographer and ask them
to use their camera unoblrusively. Picture tak-
ing should never take precedence over he learn-
ig experience

"Food And Drink
Bag lunches are best Food and dnnk (except
water founains) are not available at the picnic
site Please abel and separate the lunches b
class to sa e time The hindes mat fit i to
a E under the last bus seat. Thi space
is about the same siz as box th~ holds
copy machine paper. You may want to se
such a box to pack ur hmcetu No ot frorn
the trip s allowed to use the vending machines
at Ror~a Palm


r day, and our only
laint is-
way too fast!"

s, Wnsto Park
entry
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toes re a problem, the
schedule to spend ess
habitat


Insect repellent
Inct repellent is
usual only needed
during the fall
months. Lotions,
radw d= spms,
work best One or
two squeeze boutes
per class wlbe suf-
ficent If mosqui-
rangers wll adjust the
ture i the hamnocL


LsUtenng
Diss ith your sudes before he field tnrp,
the need to leave a dean picnic and study area.
Gum anodood of ay sort are pro~B ited on the
tras and on the bus

tSafety
An accident can ruin a field trip andjeopardize
future ones. Safety is everyone's concern Stu-
dts should be within view of an adult a all
times

'Protection Of The National Park
Remind your students and chaperons that in a
national park, collecting or damaging any plants
or animals is prohibited.


5 Everglades Education


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.= Ranger for a Day!
Teachers particpazing in the Royal PalmnLong
Pine Key Program are required to lead a group
(usually 12-18 students) on the trals. The
ranger ill lead the other half of the class and
will coordinate activity of both groups. Ls-
ten to the ranger's instructions carefully as
themes and plans vary soewha from field trip
to field tip

Teacher Backpack
Each teacr grven a back-
pack a the san or the field
tri The backpack co-
Wuens tr maps bud, plat
and fish idcnuficaolon
cards, a color wtheed for
use a an optional activity,
a measurig ape fo dmon-
strating alligator and bard wing
span measurements, and as first aid kit

Lunch Time!
Everyone looks forward to lunch after an ex-
artng coming Remember, you will be ot in
the hea for 3-4 hours. if the school packs the
lunches, we suggest juices or cold drks(or
just pl-n water) radw her milk If sudens
pack their own
lunches, re-
mind them to
bring cold
drinks. Also,
having Ilmunches
S marked and or-
ganized for
easy distribu-
tion will decrease the time spent passing things
out and increase the Lime on the trail Students
are respouible for leaving the picnic area
clean.


Everglades Education 6


Discipline
The park avirunmnt is a noval
mad exccing oe for students. Pro-
vidng a fim framework of rules
dr a pre-visi disssi on will
make eforcm t during the field
trip much asiet This discussion
should icude the flowing:

*Raspectbe wid.ifa Makigloud
noises, throwing objects a, or
other haassmen of dhe mimahs
Se pa is iaegaL

*Respea dh plnwt Do n0 pick
flowers, or break leaves and
bra s off plan The colhccing
of ine ones, feahes, or her
nmnal objet not azowed in Ev-
ergades, or amy naioal park

*Respec th rit of ode o en-
joy Everglades National Park-
Loud mans ad disrupv bcthav
ior mdeafe with otha visitom.

*Respect eachote Runing and
psing can ad to ihu e. Who
the rage or teacher is lking or
a student is msweri a questin,
everyone should listL

Remind the saiunts to mlwayu stay
with their group. Each group
should beled by tea er or rger,
with an adult chaeron at the end.


~I~~ __ _s












Day Trip Schedule

Adaptabiihty to weather condtons, bus problems, etc, are essenual to hav-
ing an enjoyable visit to the park. No two school programs are exactly alike.
but the following schedule represents a typical trp.

8:30am 10:00am Travel to the Park
Simple assignments can be completed by seatmates or individuals during
thts urme Pom out sights along the wa5 thau relate to the park story such as
canals. isolated stands of pie trees. or new housing developments You may
also want to revcie lc ocabulazr words or ecological concepts

10:00am 10:15am Meet Park Rangers at Royal Palm
Ater a bnef welcome b both rangers to Eerglades Naonal Park, one ranger
will remain on the bus and talk to the students about expected bihvior The
other ranger will meet on the walk outside the bus with eachers and chape-
ons to rs iew the plan for the day

10:1 5am 11:30am Anhinga Trail Activities
Ater leaving the bus. the students take a quack restroom break and classes
join the ranger Each ranger wll lead an introductory acvity for there n-
ore class. nd then the class is spin into two groups The groups, one led by
a ranger, the other y a teacher. will alk the trail obseming wildlife and
KTwing the wtltand habiui

11:30am 11:45am Travel to Long Pine Key

11:45am 12:15pm Lunch
Each class eats gether, sittig on the grass The students, supeised by
teachers, are responsible for leaving the area clean


12:15pm 1:15pm Long Pine Key Activities
Rangers and teachers lead groups through the high
ground habitats The ranger conducts a concluding ac-
tivity with the entire class


1:15pm Bus Leaves the Park
(12:15pm on Wednesdays)


7 Everglades Education


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Slough


In the morning groups walk te
Anhinga Trail, passing along and
over tw wetland habitats. Wetlands
are natural areas covered by water
for one or m months of te year.
How long water covers an area is
called ts hydroperiod. Since the
length of the hydropeod influences
what animals and plants we in an
area. haxtat and hydroperiod are
Scloseo lnked
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Inside the park along the Anhinga Tral, pal
of Taylor Slough was deepened and pa ly
impounded to hold water during drought This
pan of the human-altered slough, near te budd-
ing, looks ike a lake. The most natural ap
peering section of the slough is as the end of
the boardwalk spur .ti Here the water flos
in a ide dthmel The channel mar be a few
feet deep in the summer wet season, and nrh
dry at de end of April before te ra come

A ,ter gauge just after the firsi al bndge is
easy for den to read. Water le-els ax this


location typically vary from two feet during the
dr son to four ad a ha'l feet during the
'wt Of course, his range could be exceeded
during very wa or dy years There is n nor-
mar for the Eergiades, large variatios n ram-
fal and evaporation from year-toy car are char-
cteristic of Soua Flonda.


Everglades Education 8


A slough is a slow moving river Water iaes
ow o its surface Turtes bask along its edges.
Anh=ga swun m ts dart aer, surfacng with
speed tf Sloughs ae special places i the
Everglade landscape bcse they hold waler
ven during the South Florida dry season (De-
ccmbr to April) Except a the very dr stat rs,
sloughs have a ndropenod that is year round
During the dry part of the year. animals swim,
crawl. walk o from other abitas, to be
near th kfe-sustamnng waters ofTaylor Slough

Lake other natural drainages in Sot Florida,
T'faor Slough flows southwest, followmg the
underlying rock slope The nap o this page
shows the approximate location of thas impor-
tan feature n rmlaon to de park boundary
(Your school bus cross e slough on a bridge
shortly after you enter Everglades National
Park) However. Taylor Slough has been altered
by humans The upper part of the slough, called
th headwaters, is outside the park For de-
cades the water level in upper Taylor Slough
was lowered by the draining of water into a
canal system, and by wells for sprinklers used
to water crops in the nearby agricultural fields.
In 1995 this farmland was purchased by the
South Florida Water Management Disrict so
that water flow to the park could be increased.


II










Watching Wildlife
The Anhinga Tra is one of the best places to walch wildlife in the world! Al group leaders,
both teachers and rangers, can help students act as "wildlife biologists." "Whly are fish digging
with their talks in the sediment"" "How does an anhinga maneuver underwater?" "What kind
of bird is standing in the sawgrass?" "Can you fmd ny apple snad eggs?" The possibil ues for
practicing observation skills are lmirUess To help guide the students, your teacher bacLpack
has identification cards for fish. birds. and pas Fifth and sixth graders are quick to match
pictures to species. Thu exercise gives them confidence that they can for
themselves, so don't provide too much coaching Again. practicing idenifi a-
tion skills ahead of time, in the classroom. will pay large dividends when
observing widldfe in the park
Keep Your Distance
Whnc vi anm type of wlddhfe, indudng alligators, emphasize t stsudens that ifthe ammal's
beha-ior is changing they are probabh too close. Alhgaors raise their heads and move off if
disturbed Birds may signal thir nerousnss by raising other wings or shuffling their fee Prac-
uce respect by watchng fo animal reactions, then back awy f you are disracting the from
feeding resting or preening


s That Bamboo?
The ten foot high grass-
hke plant along pats of
the Anhinga Tradils G-
ant Reed (It makes a
nice swishing sound in
the wnd.) Other con-
spicuous pa species along the edge of the
slough mnlude cocoplun, willow, catuul, but-
tonbush, and pond apple If you have included
plant study n your pre-trp activities, students
wVil be n t lookout for these plants ha like
to have their feet wet The plant identficaon
card from y backpack will help in identify-
ig the species with bright flowers Dtisu
with your class how habitats a mast o
characterized by their common plants,


which don't m e, rather than their animal
specr which d. There's very httle poisn-
wood along the Anhinga Trail, so students can
usualiv touch what they're ei

Widernss Wheels
Although the wildlife usually steal the scene on
the Anhinga Trail, your studmts may be iner-
ested in the wooden cano a water's edge near
the cotter This cae was made by a
park ranger. She used caring methods suimlar
to tose anployed Iby iccosukee and Semi-
note Indians to shape a press log This type
of skny boat isn't paddled It's poled by a per
son srading up The caoe shows how nati e
people adapted to the Evergades environment
Canoe poling is a vey effcien means oftrans-
portaion i shallow water habitats.


a -- "---- _


9 Everglades Education


I~ XXXI _ _~












Sawgrass Marsh


While Taylor Slough is wet most of
the year. the adjoining sawgrass
marsh usually dries out for a fe
months Depnding on the year's
rainfall, the hydropenod of sagrass
marshes ranges from six months to
nearly continuous flooding Typical
wet season depths in this
marsh are one to one-anx
a-half feet


mat of blue or blue-gree algae forms on the
water's surface. It is a mcro-habia home for
insects and nearly microscopic aumaJs

Dry down usually begins in the sawgrass habi-
tat around November. as overhand watcr flow
dimiishes, and evaporation exceeds rainfall
UWhn this happens, wading birds stan hunting
in the sawgrass for fish and other food left
stranded by the shrinking water sure your
clas is o tde lookout for this food chan ac-
tiv,.i The ready availabiity of food taggers
neig in birds lke the wood stork


The sawgras marsh landscape is on of con-
trasting s owwnng thunderheads reflect i
shadow pools ofwater and innumerable blades
of sawgrass form a grn backdrop brought to
life by a soEliar white bird

Be sur to por over the ralng and down Ito
the sawgrass during your field rip How dep
is the water You may be able to see sI fh
swimnung about, and sometimes a turn or al-
ligator. tha could otherwise go unnoticed
Dunng the height of the wet season fish and
aligators move out across the sawgrss land-
scape Lfevinualhl explodes crawfish -
qwoes. frogs fish, and snails colonize and
reproduce in ihe wet mars Peipyon, a thick


Oxygen! Gasp!
Oxygen levels i Taylor Slough are affected by water temperature (warmer water holds e O,).
water level, wnd speed, and by the number of organims, such as fish and algas, in the water If
you visit Taylor Slough near the end ofa warm, dry period, you may see fish gasping desperately
for 0 Although fish brcathe most cfficielly through their gills, some such as the nive gar, are
adapted to take some oxygen from the air Con-
sider with your students, how useful this adap-
tion is in a habitat tha periodically dries up
jiy~ One exotic (non-native) fish, the walking cat-
fish, can evn move overland from one drying
. pool to another, perhaps welter, location


Everglades Education *10


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HIow Long Is That Alligalor? f
ow Long ht Ar The skull size of an alligator is
Aligaiors. uiLike people, coCitmu to grow
Alligaors, unlikelkc people. continue to grow pmportional to its overall length, so if you
throughout thaer Lif Adult alihgaors mS scan see only the head in the water you
about six feet long, or longer, with male, on can still estimate the size of the animal.
the average, growing larger than females. (Amy Hava the students estimate the distance
alligator over ten feet i most likely a male) from the tip of an alligators snout to his
The record Florida alligator measured 17 feel eyes, in inches. This distance is
5 inches. proportonal to the length of the alligator
in feel Example: an alligator that
The length to which a alligator gows depends measures about five inches from snoul to
on the amount of food available, ad on how eyes is around five feet long.
long it is active during the ear Aligators do
not hubenmae, but the are suggish and seldom ea when mpe re are below 73 degrees. If
yor field inp takes place on a cold and w*n-d day. uhgaiors may not be ivibe, sim they will
stay I tih relatively wr was of the slough. Alligators under such conditions can remain
submerged for more than an hour

Alligaors are most hkely to eat betees n du and dawn Thai's why t- dy often appear to be
doing "nrhung" by dzv youw students to notice the breathing or eye bink of an
otherise feedss looking alligatr Wen feeding. alligators are opportmistic, akng fi. tules.
buds, and other alligaors whatever is available A re meal ~ ayke a week to digest.
another reason alligators may not sm ae they're doing much.

Bills and Feet
Your class is likely to see a arietv of long-legged bird on her field trip. These birds, common
called wading birds, hunt im .haow water areas for food not available on shore. Several of these
bard species look ake However. f ou focus on the bil shape and the bird feet you w~ star to
sort them out The ibs for example, has a distinct curved bill and reddish feet,
Ib buit he snowY egret has a straight bill and yellow feet

BiU shape is an important cue to how a bud gets it ood. The anhinga bean a
d g close resemblance to the cormorant and both are age underwater hunters How-
e er, the anhinga bill s spear-shaped while the corrn has a hooked balL The anhinga nor-
mallv impales is food while the comorman grabs prey items.

The overall size of the bird and its color are two other unportant
idenficaon clues. With a hde practice, the bird idetificaion
cards from the acher backpack mae it possible for the students
to become skilled at idenifyuig common Everglades birds.

Classroom activities that fughizght identifica-
Stion traits and adaptations, through art
projects or reports, will prepare the students
ca~roruwt to obserne differences. Whenever possible /
move past idcntlfiicaion to adaptations. Does
the shape of the bill influence what a bird eats? How do .--' --
different birds hunt? Can you think of any reason that yellow --- -
or pink feet would be useful to a wading bird -


whlr ib6.j


11 Everglades Education


I I I I I











Pinelands


The elevation of Long Pine Key is
only about three feet above sea
level, but in the Everglades that is
high ground. The term "key in this
case refers to the island-like
outcropping of limestone rock that
surfaces ave te sounding
wetlands Your cass wll visit tw
habitats in the Long Pine Key area
after unch.


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been weakened by genetic isolanon and root
damage, attacked rby insects, stressed by drop-
ping ground water levels. and bad damaged
by Hurricane Andrew. The Dade County
pmclands area criically endangered habitat'

A heal y pmieland requires recurring fuc The
dn soil is enriched by the nutnents released
after fir Slash pmie seeds germinate quwcl
* the ashs. Fire bus aw shrub~ b under-
grot, exposing young pn trees to he sun
Naive slash pines have a protective covering
over thsir developing buds, and laers of flaky
bark dat protect them dunng dhe heat of a bum
Notice how the older, t.I pine trees have
dropped eir lower limbs: fire is unhLeh to
move o their crowns


Everglades Education 12


Unlike slough and sawgrass marsh, the
pmeands and hammock habits ar typically
dry underfoot (S anding water can Iusulv be
found ony in solunon holes, depressions sat-
tered in e limestone rock.) The neven rock
layer you're walking over here is a cnta
ion of t Atlanic Coastal Ridge. a redatvey
high golopc feature dhat follows the Atlanac
shormee in Browsrd and Dade Cournes be-
for ending southwest of Long Pne Key near
Mahogany Hammock Ealy Miani. and the
first roads and railroads South Florida were
al budt on dhe Atlanic Coastal Rdge.

The Lonm Pe Key picnic area is set in a stand
of Dade County slash pmne Slash pines grow
throughout Florida. but the Dade County sub-
species has especially dense, sturdy wood.
Wha do you dthk happened so ds habitat as
Miami grew? Slash pines were used for lum-
ber, and the ig ground pineand habitat now
is mosdy covered by homes and parking lots.
Even the Long Pine Key area was hanested
from 1936 to Iq7, before the Park was estab
listed The tc4re you see on the field trip are
second growth smce that time.

Just as we tal aboul endangered species, we
can talk about endangered habitats. More than
98% of the Dade County pine forests have been
removed. The few pine stands remaining have


--- ~ 'I










Here in Everglades Nauonal Park, and in Big
Cypress Naonal Presete, fire is used as a ool
to sure the contiusion of the pmeland habi-
L Lightaing-caused fires that do not threaten
buildings are allowed to bumn If necsar~
rangers wil start careful controlled fires to
remoe invading plants Plots Long Pine Key
are burned about even- three to five years. Stu-
dents can easily find backened bark and stmps,
evidence ofpast fires.

Slash pine is the dominant tree, but the pnelands
are habila for many unique plants. (ITis area
has some of the rarest plant species in Florida.)
Saw palmetto and cabbage palm (aka sabal pal-
metto) grow out of the rocky crags. They, too.
are adapted for fire, putting forth new fronds
from a woody het tha grows close to the
ground. The pricky leaves and lavender flow-
en of the thistle wall coach s' ent
You might also introduce them to the rough
scetseed Ith es up to is name and is fun to
touch The lea es feel like sandpaper

Compare the leaves in the pinelands to those
that grow in famliau well-waiered yards or
school grounds. Pineland forest habitat is a
bright, dry place Most plant species growing
here have adaptations for conserving water
Leaves are protected from water loss with waxy,
tough surface coverings.


What Happens Without Fire?
The undertory of the pine forest usually
includes poisonwood, gumbo limbo, satin
leaf siloma, and other example ofshrub
sized hammock rees Iffire is oppressed,
these tres will begin to mature and shade
out theyoung punm Ater five to tn years
the pmelt d may begnm t resr ble dhe other
!tpe of lgh ground hahbLa, a hammock
Also. whea fire is suppressed the amount
of mater available to bum increases. A
fire bummg through such heavy accumu-
laied Afu may be hot enough to kill some
pines plus he pineland ground cover


It's a Green World
Whle the moming hke features c wildhfe
viewing the afternoon pan of the field trip takes
dthe studies to two types of forest with a abnm-
dance of plant life
hNis mas an excellent
I opportunity to re-
Svew some of the
physical properties
that characterize
Habitats tempera-
ture, humidity,
light, and wind
gnumbo li speed. Notice how
different these
properties are in the adjoinng lugh ground habi-
taLs The broad-leaved trees growing in ham-
mocks crte a sadier, cooler, calmer, and
more hunud environ-
ment which in tumrn -
fluences the Linds of
wildhfe e g. snakes,
snas, and buds) dhat
might be found there.

Ev if vou e a con-
fident botanist, it's a
mistake to try to name
all the plants you'll be
seeing. Students will
respond best if you focus on just a few readily
identifiable species. We especially recommend
that you teach students to identify poisonwood
and poison ivy. (See page 17 for more infor-
mation on these and other species that pose
safety concerns ) Try to do this with minimum
fus, a we ntc students have an exagger-
ated fear of these
plants Once they
know what not to
tocud students c be-
S. gin to handle lea es
and bark on other
plants found through-
out the arca Empha-
Ssi tha plants should
be examuned without
picking them


ruggh wvrlured


13 Everglades Education


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Hardwood Hammock


p.
The shady darkness of the
hammock is a dramatic contrast to
the glare of the pinelands. A
hammock is a hardwood forest
habitat haat thnves on elevated
ground in the Everglades.
Hardwood means just W it says,
the wood is hard. Pines, in
comparison, have soft wood.


In South Flonda, %hre frosts e rare. ham-
mocks include many kinds of tr native to
the W Ind es Here tropical species lie pi-
geon plum. gumbo limbu. mahogy, and sev-
eral Linds of bromdads can survive The ham-
mock hab itt s charactenzd by high humidity
ad deep shde The ground underfoot is soft
and spongy from the accumulaton of decades
of fallen ca% es. A faint skunk-hke. but not un-
picasant odor xsces the air This arom is emit-


ted by one of the common hammock tree spe
\ cies, the white stopper. (It gets its name for its
use by pione as a teaument for diarrhea)


Just as the trees are tropical, so are some of the
animals found in South Florida hammocks.
Zebra buterfles panml the pathway you'lU walk
Their shape is distinctive. They are members of
a tropical family of butterflies calo1d long
Winrgs" hat are found throughout Centra and
South America. Tree snails, close relanves or
sil species tht ive in Cuba, aee also seen
Thy graze during moist mes on the algae and
li h ta cover smooth-barked trees Dur-
ing the dry winter months, when most school
groups viit, tree snads have often sealed them-
secves in one spot to coserve rroisure Touch-
mg the roughly wl dislodge them, and ma
kil the

Nati e people, including Calusa Indians wo
bved hee long ago, often set up camp in cool,
shady hammocks. The hab is an racUtve
one for people Many of the hanocks
,hat downed the Atlanuc Coasal Ridge
have bem destroyed, can aay as cii-
S ies grew Hownrt little patches
hang on around some
S/ schools, city parks, and
S1 0 neighborhoods


Everglades Education 14


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Borrow Pit Lake
The lake tht adjoins he Long Pine Key picnic are is the result ofhuman activity i was
ecavated to provide material for c ructirg the mai park road Although th e laie isn
sictly natural its shoreline supports a caracistic Everglades mini-hatita, penphy-
to. Periphyton is the name give to the complex association of algae th frequandy
forms a mat-like coveing in the marshes of the Eveglades. (Vsiting Shark Valley, or
taking a slough slog will allow you to see periphyton in more natural setting)

Snails and plant-eating fish graze on periphyton, placing it at the very base of the food
chain. The spongy structure of the mat also holds water well, sustaining small l forms
through the dry season. The kinds of algae that thrive in the association are determined by
water nutrient levels, so some of the controversy about Everglades restoration focuses on
this green stuhl If the periphyon isn't doing well, the base of the Evergades food chain
isn't operating properly

Although periphton is somewhat slimy, it isn't sticky or smlly. If time permits during
your field tip, have yo students st n the lake hore while you step carefully down to
di eato's edge and pick up a hadful of the mat. (L shore cm be eareely lipp ry
so keep sudens back from the edge.) Distibute a bit ofperiphy to eryone to eam-
ine Often smail crstaam ad nsecs cm be seen moving around a the algae It' ahve
Be sure to coe ad retun e peip to lake edge


SI~


e


Where Panthers Prowl ,0
The secretive giant cat called the %t
Florida panther is sometimes present
in the Long Pine Key area. Panthers hunt
the deer that graze in Everglades grassy -
narshes. This pineland area adjoins a short- tl
hydroperiod marsh, a prime deer area. The
pine forest offers cover for the panthers while
they keep watch for dee. And during the
heat of the day, panthe may rerea to
sleep in the cool, dense hanmock nearby
The panther's behavior demonstrates a


concept ecologists call the edge effect. 4
de have high concentration of wildlife
because animals can move easily between
habitats which offer the different resources,
food and shelter in this case, that they need
Since panthers prefer to move about hen light
level are low, it's very unLech- that you will
see one during a field trip.


Listening to the Wild
Park rangers have found from experience that
most visitors appreciate the opportunity to lis-
ten to the natural sounds and silence found in
a large wilderness such as Everglades National
Park. However, it's a little icty guaranteeing
thi experience when managing thinr excited
students! Your lass raner will make sug-


gesbon on where and %en to stop your
grop for a listing break Encourage the
students to dose there eyes This w-ll bet-
ter focus their hearing Once again, c
room discussion before had aboul what
to expect on the field trip. will prepare
Your group to be quiet and an
lu tve dunng this special Lme
a,


A,
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15 Everglades Education


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Alligators
Smnc ts illegal to feed albgators m Evergades
Nanonal Park. they do not assocae umns
wh food In le frequited areas, they often
remain the natural caw on of wild amals mov-
ing away as humans approach IB high visitor
ute areas such as the Anhmga Trail. ahgaiors
become accustomed to the presence of people
Do not, hoc er, make e mistake of viewing
these asmu as tm Tie ditance bween
an allifator and a observer should never
he les tuan twice the alegator's a tlngtLh
Alligarr are strong and ale males. Always
treat them with respect


Fire Ants
These ants
thrive in dis- -
curbed areas,
building large
sandy ^^mounds t
dot lams and trad
edges Fd trip partici-
pants need to wath their fee, as stepping on a
mound home will bing fonh a parade of angn
anf with a nasty bite Fire ants we one of the
man exotic species an South Flonda "Exouc'
means thed w imported from sormehere
else. Such species whether insect, plant, au-
mal or fish quie often k the natural bio-
logical controls that kept them in check n their
orinal envir n Several exoic species, m-
cluding Brazilian pepper (a large shrub).
melaleuca (a tree), and Ma cichid (a knd
of fish), are dramancally altering te ecology
of some parts of the Evergades


I iii.


Crocodiles
Rare and shy, crocodiles prefer brackish water
areas. You will not see crocodiles along the An-
hinga Trail because it is a freshwater habitaL
Crocodiles do frequent the remote area, 15 to
18 miles downstream from Royal Palm, where
Taylor Slough flows into Florida Bay.


Scorpions
Scorpions are commonin thepinelands They
move through the leaf lier hunting at night,
but spend their day under logs or under tree
bar. As their bite is painful to humans, stu-
dents should be careful that they can see where
their fingers are going Scorpions ea insects
including cockroaches!


Everglades Education 4 16


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'Gators and Spiders and Ants... Oh My!


It is common for even experienced outdoors people to arrive at the Everglades expecting swarms
of nasty ammals and agressively poisonous nts. The reality is a lot less glamorous Yes.
Everglades has alligators crocodiles, four kinds of poisonous snakes, an abundance of spiders.
and plants that can cae bad skin rash Nevertheless, than a million people will visit
the park th year and eperiec no il eTffeutt Fith and sixth grade students thne on a hint
of danger Understandng the creatures and plants ta present a hazard to humans will help you
to twie into theu natural cunosity









Spiders
Spiders are found everywhere on earth but are
especially common in warmer climates All spi-
ders kill their prey by injecting venom (They
then use juices from their digestive glands to
liquefy the insides ofthe prey before sucking it
into their mouths) Spiders dine mostly on in-
sats None ea humans, and biting a human is
a desperate lme of defense a it wastes venom
The two North American spider speas con-
sidered to be poisonous to humans, the brown
recluse and the black idow. have not bel see
on this field trip Students, however, will have
an excellent opportunity to examine the webs
of cornnn orb weavers such as the black and
yellow argiope and the orchard spider
Snakes
There are twenty-six kinds
of snakes in he Eerglades.
bu only four are poisonous
The most commonly seen
snake on this field trp is the
brown water snake, a non-
poisonous variety with
blotchy brown sm, tp- /
call seen sunning itself
along the Anhmga Trad Be snakes feel
vibrations from the ground with their bodies,
they re likely to move anay from the thunder-
o footsteps of an approaching school group
Most years pass wihoul a single sighting of a
poisonous snake on any of the Royal Palm/
Long Pine Key field trips

Bees and Wasps
Fuzzy bumblebees, s black carpenter bees,
and slender bodicd-wasps can all be seen on a
Royal Palm/Long Pine Key trip The insects in
this group have stingers but are unlikely to use
te unless trapped Notice thai most bees are
busy visiting flowers


Poisonwood and Poison Ivy
Poison ivy grows as a small herb or vine. It is
quite common along the mowed edges of the
Long Pine Key picnic area. Its relative, poison-
wood, is a shrub-tee na-
live to the American
tropics. Poisonwood
SfC srubs grow in the Long
Pine Key a Royal Palm
areas, The trip provides
an excellent opportunity
to teach students how to
recognize these plants


Both poson and poisonwood have ods on
the eavs and twigs ta may cause an allergic
reaction Like most allergies, ot everyone i
equally affected The action is not immedi-
te Usual the rash takes a few days to de-
velop Washng exposed skin with cold wa
and soap i ofen enough to prevent a reaction
Since school groups must sta on the trals,
sho wcw kong pants, and exercise
caution about what d touch, are not likely
to make skin contact with these pl

Although these
plant species some-
times irritate hu-
m they are wo-
ven into the Ever-
glades web of life.
The futs ofpoison-
wood and poison
iy are boh eaten by
birds Poisonwood
beres m, in fact, a
preferred food of
the rare white-
crowned pigeon- o


Always emphasize respect rather than fear in teaching students
about the hazardous plants and animals of the Everglades.
Remember to teach by example that the outdoors is an enjoyable,
valuable place.


17 Everglades Education


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Classroom Activities


Predict, Observe, Explain (POE)
The POE teunique can be used n the d
room to predict what wildlife you will see on
your field trip md mn wha htatas dafferun an-
as wil be fourd (You should record you
predicuons on the board or a notebooks )
Observadti can be made during the rip, and
then discussed aftewards Were the o
predictions accurate' Ask he students to ex-
plain. Can they make predictions about wild-
life acltvty a differ tunes of the day and
yea? How about the future Will habitats and
wildlife population change'

Rol Playing
Role playing activiies are specially powerful
for Sth and 6th graders They are willing to as-
sume both human and ruimal s The Ever-
glades Actrvry Guie for Teachers includes sev
eral role playing scripts, but creating your own
with you class takes leaning another sep

Plant and WUdlife Identification
Classificaion and identification ae fundamen-
tal ecology skills. A variety of excellent mUat
rias focused on se topi have bee designed
for 4th-6th graders. Check your school media
ceter. The inexpensive bird and plant dentifi-
cation cr from the Florida National Parks
and Monuments Association will be available


Sat the park in your back pack However, sone
pro-visit classroom practice in describing a
bird's beak, a leafs shape, or the color of a
fish, will prepare your studies to amaze them-
selves in e field.


o -
As the teacher you are the expert at
creating lesson pans that integrate
Everglades material with your
overall cumculurn. This section
provides suggestions on classroom
activibes and techniques to get you
started. but we encourage you to let
your Inaginabon and enthusiasm
go WILD
_,_


Everglades Education 18


Park rangers have observed that students who
do reports before the field tp on speafic plants
and animals we o r most Ceh a partic-
pants.

Literature, History and Storytelling
Heroes are iry important to 4th-6th gratder
Biograptes of Maoone Stoneman Douglas.
Rachd Carson, John Muir and other c -
aton figures are available for thi age le
Other books sucas The Lar b) Dr Suess
(see Lnit I of the Everglades Acivity Guide
for Teachers) have themes thai relae direcdy
to parks ad wildlife The rich body of Nanve
Americac it re and stou tehng found for
mp Keepers of te Earth by' Michal
Caduto nd Joseph Bruchac. provides iagi-
naive mult-cutural maeial Fnaiv. a visit to
the relavely changed park landscape makes
an excellent tie-in to aspects of Flonda's hs-
toy and settlement See pages 20-22 of tis
guide, for QLmat to support these types of
classroom approaches

Reflective Thinking
Research shows tha students must be given an
opportunity to aswrnir~ what they've learned,
and to move information to long-term menmoy
Many tears use writing assignments as a
post-field trip reflecve rise Rangers are
always pleased to receive letters (or copies of
lters) from students. Such materials allow us
to assess the effectiveness our programs
Writing leres to elected officials is a reflective
classroom activity tat reinforces the concept
that national parks belong to all dtiza Art
projects or writing poetry (see Sawgrass Po-


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ems by Frank Asch) allow students to exprs
the powerful affecuve experience they often
have when they visit the park. These projects
can be shared in a variety of forums

Videos and Other Visual Materials
The video KAd. Explore the Everglades was
distributed a 1992 to school media centers It
examines some of the aspects of iJdlhfe sci-
ence research in EvergladesNational Park Ad-
wnture in the Everglades. a video which re.
vi the park habitats, was distributed to 4th
grade teachers i 1996 as part of the ChiUren
Are the Fuure of the Everglades cumcuiumn
at If your students haven't see it, you may
be able to borrow a copy from a 4th grade
teacher (This curriculurn it, along with sev-
eral videos, posters, and other visual materials
are avadable for purchase fo the Flonda Na-
tioral Parks and Monurnmts Associanton see
pages 20-22 )

Popular magazine include a surprnsmg nu-
ber of wildlife and habtal pictures tha can be


recycled into cass projects and serve as the
slining point for related discussions. Park vi-
suals are especially common in advertising, a
testimony to the sometimes subconscious value
we give natural are Collecting adverisemenL
featuring ails and nature cman s~v both as
a basis for both social science and science ls-
sons.

Visual materals about national parks, includ-
ing Everglades, are now available on the
intern, and these materials wl be expanding
greatly in the near future The Everglades w
page address is wecome.htm>. Consider ug the net to ar-
range an exchange of Everglades posts or
postcards with a school nea another nabonaJ
park ara.


Using the Acrivioy Guide for Teachers: Everglades National Park
To assis you in classroom work. Everglades National Paw has published an acit
guide containing materials developed and testd by educators for more than twaty
%ears The guide is dsmnbuted to all teachers who paricpae aIn par sponsored
workshops. It is also avaable from the Flonda Nanonal Parks and Monuments
Associauon, see page 20 for ordering mfornaton.

The following activities from the Guide ar especially relevant to the Royal Pal Long Pine
Key field trip


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Activity
Locating Everglades Natonal Park
Habitat Cards
Create a National Park
What's So Special About the Everglades?
Leaf Hun

The Lorax
Create aFood Chain

Camouflage Critters


Commnmts/Retnmmndatiang
Pre-vismi geography exercise.
Pre-visit vocabulary exercise.
Post-visit school yard exercise
Post-vist reflective activity.
Pre-visit identification skills practice.
Requires a nearby source of leaves.
Pre- or post-visit reading activity
Pre- or post-visit activity that empha-
sizes interrelationships.
Pre- or post-visit school yard activity.


19 Everglades Education


Unit
1
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IV

IV


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Note: Books wrint specifically for cildre are listed in a separate section a the end.
However, may of the gnral references are suitable for ue wit students.



The Everglades Ecosystem
De Goli Jack . vcrge 7The Story Behind the Scenery. Las Vegas, NV KC Publica-
tions Inc, 1988. 'S

George, Jean Craighed. Eerglades mdguide. Washington DC Division of Publica-
tions, Ns onal Park Sarvce, 19g88.

HoffIr tner. John E Land From the Sea. Coral Gables, FL: Univrsty of Miam Press.
1974.dwj

Lodge. Thomas E. The Ewsrgkdes Handbook- Undersandig 5e Ecoswyse Deray
Beach, FL: S Lue Press, 1994. 19%,

Robenson, Wdlim B. Everglades The Park Story. Homestead, FL Florida National
Parks & Monumena Anociation. 1989 4 _,

Ross Sonde The Noam of lde Cowy: A Hometown Handbook Mianr Environ-
mnt Informat.co Servce of Fnnds of the Evergades, 1990

People And The Everglades
Douglas Maorone Stonema ace of he Rver Englwood, FL: Pineapple Pres Inc.


Garbarmn, Mcrw-n The Seum le New York: Chesea House Publishes 1989.

Tebean. Char on Mlan in ar Ewvlader. Coral Gables, FL Unvesity of Miar Press,
1968 1WSC,

Plants and Wildlife
Bell. C ,. and Taylor, B. J rida Wdflower and Roadside Plant. Chapel fHil Lan
re Hll Press. 1982. p=

De Goia, Ja Flre; Th Swory Behind A Force ofNature. Las Vegas, NV: KC Publica-
tions Inc., 1989.i--W




Items marked with an anolea can be purchased in park visitor centers
or ordered through the Florida National Paks and Monuments Association,
Inc., 10 Parachute Key, #51. Homestead, L 33034-6735, (305) 247-1216, fax
(305)247-1225. Purchase orders from schools are given a 10% discount


Everglades Education *20


_I










Nelon, Gil Shrubs and Vines ofRTrida Sarosota, FL: Pineapple Press, 1996.

Stevenson, George B. Tees of Etrglades Natiowl Park & Florda Keys. Homestead.
FL: Flonda National Parks and Monuments Association. 1992.11

Toops. Connie Alligator Monarch of the Marsh. Homestead, FL: Florida National
Paks & Monuments Association, I 979.1

Vanous Authors All Ties of Florida Fabulous... Ties include: Waterbirds Birds,
Reptiles & Amplubans. Tampa FL World Pubhcationsm.

Activity Guides
Caduo, Michael J., and Bruchac, Joseph. Keepers ofhe Earh. Golden, CO Fulcm,
Inc., 1988

Everglades Staff. Children Arn he Fuur of he Erglades: 4th Grade Curincdum
KiA Naonl Park Fowdra on wi thte support otThe Pew ChaitableTru 1996% 4

sselheir. Alan S., and Britt Eckhardt Sattery WOW The Wnders of Wesmds St
Michas. MD EnvromenualJ Ccem Inc. 1995.

Nationa Wildlife Federanon AI Titles of Ranger Rick Naawe Scope Ttles mclude up
Burs. Birds. Binr Wading into stands. Reptile and Amphiubas. Endangerd Spe- 0
cies Washington DC Naiorna Wddhlfe Feder ian C

Robmson, George and Sandra Discover a Wat erhed The Ewrgades. Bozemnn.
MT- Watercounc, 1996 f.l

Field Identification Guides
Fensmiger. Peter and Mmno. Maria Handbook to Schoolard Plant amndAnw s of
North Central Florida. The Nongame Wildlife Program Florida Game and Freshwater
Fish Conmission.

Geb Eugene J and Ross H Aner, r. Fborida Bunterfies. Gamesvile, FL: Th
Sadhill Crme Pres, 1989,-1

National Geographic Society. Field Gude t the Birds ofNorth America. Washington
D D., The National Geographic Society. 1987.I

Nirwg, W.A. Werandr. National Audubon Society Field Guide. New York: Alfred A.
Knopf, 195.w_

Page, Lawrence M and Brooks M. Burr. A Feld Guide toFreshwater Fises Boston:
Houghton Milffin Company. 1991.9l

Various Authors. Golden Pocket Guides, All Ties. 77tles include. Everglades; Birds.
Fishes: Insects: Reptiles and Amphibians; Spiders. New York: Golden Press.'%


21 Everglades Education












Videos and Visual Aids
Finly-Holiday Film Corporaion. Souh FRrida Naional Parks (video). c

Florida Fir. Bnds of the Erglades (plastic idaificalion card). Florida Flair Books,
1988.

InerMation l Video Project, t- The Florida Pwanher (video). Florida Wildlife Feder-
tion.'m*

Seavey, Jen Plarn ofSo/ h FHorida and Nate Thes of South Forida plasticc idntifica-
tin cards). Homnestd. FL: Field Guiddts=

Rich Kem's Nature Series Vdeos tdes Include- Aligatrs, The Everglades. Wid Florda
for ChIldrn. Miami FLm,

Children's Books
Bryan Jamiufr. Mar orjw Stnman Dougla Fnce of the Evergades. Fredewck MD
Twnty-First Cientu Books, 1992.1

Asch. Frank Sawrass Poems: A tw ofthe Ewvrglades. San Diego. CA: Harcourt Brace &
Company, 1996. ,,

Bland. Cea Oseola Seminole Rebel New York: Chresea House, 1994. %

George, Je C. The Musing Gator of Gsbo L abo. New Yor Harpr Trophy, 1992.

Lat, Peggy S., and Hae, Wndy A. Te IbrT Naturaast Guide so Florda. Sarsota,
FL Pineapple Prss. 199&4.-

Lasky. a. Kuyn She farming A Dead Bird o er Head New York: Hftpan Books f
Chddra. 1995. 3

Sues, Dr The L ora New York: Rndms House 1971.

Vm dar Maer Ron & Al. Aa& ing Ammial SJne. Boson- Li le Brown and Company,
1990.

Various Aulhors. All Tles of Zoo Boo. The ioude: AiDgators & Crocodies, Spiders,
Cats. Owls, Butterfles. San Diego. CA: Wildlife Education, UL&d

Various Authors All Titles of Eyewitness Books. Tiles include: Pond & River, athe
Fsh. Reptile. Plant, Bird. New York: Alfred A. Knopf







Everglades Education 22


111 11 I











Chaperon Responsibilities




EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK
Royal Palm and Long Pine Key Field Trip


Thank you for volunteering to chaperon this Everglades field trip. You are an
important partner in our program. We need your participation and
cooperation to make the trip a success.

Be an active participant! Joining in on the activities allows you to interact with, and set a good
example for the students You will be accompanying the students on all trails

Students will need your guidance for lunch and dean-p. Provide om-ag words and
directions during clean-up, however, allow the students to do the actual work, including
collecting ecycables and throwing out trash. This ves the students responsibility and will
help the class stay on schedule Be prepared to sit on the ground for unch

Students look to you to set boundaries and provide leadership. Chaperons are expected to
comply with the same rules as ahe students, and are often needed to ep enforce les. These
include wearing long pants and comfortable walking shoes (no sandals), not using the vend-
ing machines, and not using cellular phones or pagers during the trip. Reminder collecting is
not allowed in national parks

Assisting with safety is one of your primary duties. By watching ov the students in your
group, you will help to inr that everyone has a safe outing. An adult should be at the end of
every group

Guide the learning process! Please help keep the group's attention focused on what the ranger
or teacher is saying Encourage the 5ai5 to answer the questions and to listen to others
respectfully


Most importantly...go with the flow, adapt, and have fun in the Everglades!
The students pick up on how you react....if you are having fun, they will too.

L____________


23 Everglades Education











Responsabilidades De Los

Chaperones


Parque Nacional Everglades
Paseo a Royal Palm y a Long Pine Key

Gracias por haberse ofrecido como voluntario en los paseos del Parque
Everglades Usted es un socio important de nuestro programs. Necesitamos
de su participaci6n y cooperaci6n para que estos paseos sean exitosos.

Participe activamente! El nvolucrarc en las actividades del grupo le permtiri establecer una
mejo reaci6n con los estudianmes y serviri como un buen ejemplo para elos Usted
acompalari a los esludiantes en todas caminsta.

Los estudiantes necesitari de so gua durante ed almuero y a I bora de lmpiar y rrcoger.
Dindoles direct~ nes y palabr de alicnto a la hora de recojer y limpiar, pero siempre
permitindo que los esudientes sn los que rcojan. limpic y separen la basra de los
desperdicios qu puedan scr recidados. les dar s responsabilidad y ayuda que la se se
manwcngs e su horanio Todos deben vir preparados para sentarse ein suelo

Los estudiants esperma qoe used sea e qu establezca limits y proves liderago. Se espera
que los chaperones cumplan con el ism reglamento que los estudianies y a menudo se les
necesita para hacker cumplir la regias. como Uvca pantalones largos y zapaios comodos (no
se permiten sandalias), no se puede sar Ias maquia de refrescos y comidas, ampoco se
permize ed u de ielefonos celulares o "beepers Recuerde: solicitat no esi permiido en los
parques naciornaes

Ayudar a mantener La seguridad de los estudiaoles L uno de sus deberes primordiales. El
adulto se debe de mantener detras de su grupo, para asegurar una gira sin incidences Un
adult se mantlen a final de cada grupo

Dirija el process educacioal! Por favor ayudenos a mantener a los estudiantes alentos a las
ensedfanzas del macsro a guardian dd paque. Estimule los estudiantes a hacer preguntas y a
set atentosy respetuosos cuando otros las hagan.


Lo mis importante...sea flexible, adaptece a las circumstancias y diviertase en los
Everglades! Los estudiantes se fijan en como usted reacci6na...si usted se esta
divirtiendo ellos tambien se divertingn!
_____


Everglades Education 24


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