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Title: Habitat surveys of the Frederiksted reef system of western St. Croix with observations on cross-shelf distribution patterns of fishes
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Title: Habitat surveys of the Frederiksted reef system of western St. Croix with observations on cross-shelf distribution patterns of fishes
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
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        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Tables and figures
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
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        Page 36
        Page 37
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        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Appendix
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
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Full Text

F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Ci
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005


Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef S'


of Western St. Croix with Observations


Cross-Shelf Distribution Patterns of Fisl






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

SUMMARY

Coral reefs and inshore areas that comprise the Frederiksted Re
U.S. Virgin Islands, are threatened by a number of anthropogeni


previously received little study. Wi
fish and benthic communities that n
this study was to gather descriptive
habitats and to examine differences

Along inshore-offshore transects, di
shallow subtidal (zone I), inshore lo
reef crest (zone IV). Fishes were su
Survey (RDS) methodology to detei
composition of assemblages. Resul
assemblage structure changes mark(
significantly different among zones
Cumulative species richness genera
highest in zone IV. More species w
composition also differed substantive
highly variable. It is suggested that
indicative of important fish-habitat;


th iit b2'plinp infnrmnticrn ii


:d within each of th
relative abundance
n comparisons amc
cross the shelf. Av
increased with deptf
;reased with depth
)served in zone II tl
nong zones and the
)me species these c
nations occurring wi


2




ef System of western St. Croix,
ic impacts. This reef system has
t is difficult to assess changes in
ic activities. The objective of
-If distribution of hard bottom
yes.

habitat zones: intertidal and
ransitional reef (zone III) and
>ur zones using a Roving Diver
ghting frequency, and species
zones indicate that fish
ge species richness was
d distance from shore.
distance from shore and was
zone III. Assemblage
)ss-shelf distribution pattern was
i-shelf distribution patterns are
n the Frederiksted Reef system.






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 3
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

INTRODUCTION

Coral reefs are productive, dynamic, and fragile ecosystems which provide food and numerous
other resources of nearly inestimable value to over 100 countries from tropical regions
(Birkeland 1997). Globally, concern has grown regarding the health and continued productivity
of coral reef ecosystems in the face of anthropogenic impacts (Wilkinson 2000). In the United
States Virgin Islands, (USVI), coral reefs are threatened by a number of human activities
(Catanzaro et al. 2002). Among these, the physical destruction of coral reefs by ship groundings
and anchoring is a considered a high priority threat (Evans et al. 2002). Some USVI reefs that
have been obliterated by anchoring show no signs of recovery after more than a decade (Rogers
and Garrison 2001), suggesting that habitat destruction from anchoring is long term if not
permanent.

An extensive but poorly studied coral reef occurs in the coastal waters of western St. Croix,
USVI, along the seaward margin of the insular shelf near the port city of Frederiksted (Fig. 1).
In this report, the coral reef is called the Frederiksted Reef while the reef plus adjacent nearshore
habitats are collectively termed the Frederiksted Reef System. In 1994, two anchorage areas
were designated on the Frederiksted Reef System to accommodate large commercial vessel
traffic from the Frederiksted pier facility. Although the anchorages encompass large areas of the
Frederiksted Reef, little study was devoted to potential habitat impacts of anchoring upon this
reef.

The Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) initiated a study of anchoring impacts to reef habitats
of western St. Croix. A separate report presents results from that study (see Toller 2005).
Because previous descriptions of the Frederiksted Reef System were incomplete and the spatial
extent of damage was unknown, DFW conducted additional mapping of hard-bottom habitats
and surveys of associated fish assemblages in order to provide a context within which to evaluate
the magnitude of anchoring impacts. This report presents a brief review of available literature
relating to marine habitats of the Frederiksted Reef System together with results from additional
habitat mapping studies and surveys of fish communities.


Previous Research on Western St. Croix

A substantial amount of marine research was conducted on St. Croix during the 1970's and
1980's which contributed greatly to our knowledge of structure and function in coral reef
ecosystems. Researchers generally worked from one of two St. Croix facilities: the West Indies
Laboratory located at Teague Bay on the eastern end of the island (e.g. Hubbard 1989a) or from
the Hydrolab facility at Salt River Canyon on the north-central coast (see Kendall et al. 2005).
However, facility location appears to have restricted the geographic scope of studies to the
northern and eastern parts of St. Croix such that the reefs of western St. Croix were rarely
investigated. Those few existing scientific accounts of western St. Croix are identified where
appropriate in the discussion below.

Some detailed information on the marine environment of western St. Croix comes from reports
prepared for the United States Navy. The Navy's Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facility






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 4
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

(AFWTF) maintained an underwater tracking range (UTR) off western St. Croix with its
command center located at Estate Sprat Hall. The UTR occupied an offshore area of
approximately 51.4 km2 in water depths of 457 to 1280 meters (Bums 1977). An inshore area
(area "A") was also reserved for use by the Navy (Presidential Proclamation No. 4347, eff Feb.
1, 1975). Anchoring was prohibited in the triangular area seaward of Sprat Hall between
17044'42"N, 64054'18"W; 17043'06"N, 64054'18"W; and 17044'30"N, 64053'30"W (p.82, U.S.
Department of Commerce 1983). Area "A" incorporates a substantial segment of the northern
extension of the Frederiksted Reef. AFWTF operated the St. Croix UTR facility until its close in
2003. During facility development, installation and operation the Navy sponsored a number of
geological, oceanographic, and meteorological studies of western St. Croix to better characterize
the physical marine environment. Some of these reports were available to the author. They
emphasized factors relating to UTR hydroacoustic operations such as water column stratification,
current flow, prevailing weather patterns, and seafloor mapping.

The gray literature provides another source of information for descriptions of the Frederiksted
Reef System. Coastal development is the focal theme of this body of information which includes
environmental impact reports, governmental planning documents, and other unpublished
materials. A number of these reports relate to construction of the Anne E. Abramson Pier
Facility (hereafter called the Frederiksted pier) or its reconstruction following damages caused
by hurricane Hugo in 1989. The Frederiksted pier is owned and operated by the U.S. Virgin
Islands Port Authority and it is presently the only St. Croix facility that can accommodate large
cruise ships. Expansion of cruise ship tourism has been considered vital for the economic
development of Frederiksted (USVI Government 1977, IRF 1993b).


Physical Setting

The oceanography of western St. Croix has received some study. Early investigations identified
water column stratification for temperature and salinity and noted seasonal variations (Ridley et
al. 1963). Burns (1977) elaborated upon and synthesized results from previous oceanographic
studies for western St. Croix. Bums also presented a summary of meteorological information as
it related to the UTR. The Frederiksted Reef System would fall entirely within the "fetch-limited
area" of western St. Croix (see Fig.1 in Bums 1977).

Harlan et al. (2002) used high frequency radar-derived surface current measurements to examine
flow in waters off northwestern St. Croix. Harlan et al. were unable to demonstrate the existence
of an attached meso-scale eddy but they found that prevailing ocean currents from the southeast
generated an island wake which formed near Hams Bluff. The island wake gave rise to a
persistent convergent zone. Periods of onshore movement of this convergence zone were
correlated with bouts of elevated reef fish recruitment (Swearer 2000; also see below).

Despite a number of excellent geological studies of St. Croix in general (e.g. Whetten 1966) and
St. Croix coral reefs in particular (see references in Hubbard 1989), there have apparently been
no detailed investigations of coral reefs of western St. Croix. Two geological studies which
examined areas adjacent to the Frederiksted Reef System (one offshore, the other inshore) are
discussed below.






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 5
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005


Holcombe et al. (1977) provided detailed bathymetric maps and geological information on the
Frederiksted Plateau which lies west of the island slope of western St. Croix in depths of 800 to
1800 m. The small plateau is dissected by three major submarine canyons (Frederiksted,
Shephard, and Sprat Hall Canyons). They reported that the island slope which separates St.
Croix from the Frederiksted Plateau is a steep scarp with a slope of 5-30, itself dissected by
numerous smaller canyons. In the same report, Holcombe et al. (1977) also presented
photographs taken from the deep sea research vessel Alvin which illustrated the variation in
seafloor topography of the Frederiksted Plateau and provided a rare glimpse of the biological
community found there.

The stratigraphy and lithology of the west end terrace system was studied by Hubbard et al.
(1989). This "subaerial" (at and above present sea level) carbonate terrace platform extends
intermittently along the western shoreline of St. Croix. They estimated that the terrace is
approximately 125,000 years old. Fossil materials that they found in the terrace were assigned to
extant taxa of scleractinian corals (e.g. Acropora cervicornis, Montastraea annularis, Porites
astreoides) or mollusks (Strombus sp., Cittarium sp.). Hubbard et al. also examined two cores
from shallow water "hardgrounds" (< 5 m depth) north of Butler Bay and concluded that the
former Pleistocene reef community was better developed than the "sparse benthic community"
presently found there.


Previous Habitat Descriptions

Available habitat descriptions for the Frederiksted Reef System are relatively rare. As illustrated
by the examples below, separate reports may present very different, even contradictory
descriptions of nearshore marine habitats that occur off western St. Croix.

Hubbard (1989a) gave an overview of St. Croix reef types surrounding the island to the east,
north, and south. Surprisingly, though, he failed to mention nearshore marine habitats from
western St. Croix. Hubbard's description of reef types did include northwestern St. Croix near
Hams Bluff (Fig. 1) where he noted that "the shelf is very narrow, and no emergent barrier reefs
occur." He stated that the benthic communities there are "widely varied and often quite
luxuriant," but are dominated by large basket sponges. Hubbard's account does not appear to
apply to the Frederiksted Reef System (see below) and he may well have been unaware of its
existence.

Adey et al. (1977) presented brief accounts of seven St. Croix reefs and reef communities which
included a western site located at Estate Northside (Fig. 1). Their description included a
schematic drawing of reef community profile across depth which resembled that of Hubbard's
(above) in terms of the principle zones and faunal characteristics. Adey et al. listed common
corals (including Acroporapalmata), sponges, and other benthic invertebrates encountered on an
"eroded carbonate pavement." They reported that the carbonate platform extended from shore
50-100 m seaward to a depth of 8 m, after which occurred a sand halo zone and grass bed
comprised of Syringodium.






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 6
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

Goenaga and Boulon (1992) described the western insular shelf as "a sand plain with scattered
inshore areas of raised pavement supporting communities of hard corals mixed with gorgonians
and sponges." These authors stated that "North and west of the Frederiksted pier are scattered
patches of corals dominated by M. annularis," but concluded that "the shelf edge reef system
starts off Butler Bay and extends north towards Hams Bluff." Boulon and Griffin (1999)
presented habitat distribution maps for five types of coastal marine ecosystems. They identified
areas of seagrass and sand beaches off of western St. Croix but did not note the presence of any
coral reefs.

The St. Croix Coral Reef System Areas of Particular Concern (APC) Management Plan (IRF
1993a) was formulated by the USVI Government Planning Office. The delineation of the coral
reef APC boundaries encompassed only reefs to the north, northeast, and southeast of the island.
These reefs were selected for inclusion in the APC because they were considered among the
"best developed reef systems in the Caribbean" with "significant ecological, economic, aesthetic,
and recreational values" (IRF 1993a). The authors of the APC Management Plan acknowledged
the existence of a "largely monotypic [Montastraea annularis] reef system along the coast from
Frederiksted north to Sprat Hole." They also noted that the reef had been damaged by anchoring
of large vessels (p.1, IRF 1993a). However, the authors did not include the Frederiksted Reef
System within the coral reef APC and they did not discuss the reef further in their document.

The Frederiksted Waterfront was identified as an APC in 1979 by the USVI Government
Planning Office (IRF 1993b). Authors of the Frederiksted Waterfront Management Plan
mentioned that a "rich coral community offshore provides excellent snorkeling and diving." The
scope of their description of marine habitats was restricted to waters directly offshore of
Frederiksted, within about 0.5 km of the Frederiksted Pier. A habitat map, adapted from
Biolmpact (1989), was provided which identified a "deep reef system" located offshore from the
pier [Coulston and Tonnemacher (1991) presented a similar habitat map which identified a larger
"coral community" north of the pier]. The authors of the Management Plan also made passing
mention (p. 15) of a proposal to establish anchorage areas near the pier which could thereby
restrict the spatial extent of damage caused by anchoring. Notwithstanding the limited scope of
habitat descriptions in the Frederiksted Waterfront Management Plan, this plan presents what
may be the best existing summary of threats to the Frederiksted Reef System. Most of the
identified threats are still relevant more than a decade later.

The CFMC (2004) was apparently the first to apply the name "Frederiksted Reef System" to the
reef tract which occurs off of western St. Croix. These authors described the reef as a largely
monotypic reef system dominated by Montastraea annularis that extends from "north and south
of the Frederiksted Pier to Sprat Hole", with coral coverage exceeding 70% on the seaward slope
(CFMC 2004). The authors noted that anchoring of commercial vessels had crushed corals and
reduced the vertical relief to < 50 cm on some portions of the reef. The CFMC considered the
Frederiksted Reef System an Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) which met Habitat Area of Particular
Concern (HAPC) criteria for the Coral Fisheries Management Plan (CFMC 2004).

Working at a larger spatial scale (> 1 acre), maps from Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the
U.S. Virgin Islands (Kendall et al. 2001) provided a more comprehensive and updated
delineation of the Frederiksted Reef System. These maps showed a substantial "linear reef" that






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 7
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

occupies the offshore margin of the bank/shelf zone and bank/shelf escarpment zone (Fig. 1).
The semi-contiguous reef system extends from 0.5 km WSW of Butler Bay (N17044.865',
W64053.871') to an area north of Sandy Point (N17041.321', W64054.139'), spanning a straight-
line distance of > 6.5 km. The reef is wider north of the Frederiksted pier. It is considerably
narrower in its southern extension from the pier towards Sandy Point. The large-scale, low-
resolution maps of coral reef habitats from Kendall et al. (2001) are assumed to be the most
accurate existing depiction of Frederiksted Reef System. These maps are considered further in
the subsequent sections of this report.

At much smaller spatial scales (1 to 10's of meters), several reef sites from western St. Croix
have recently received more detailed study. As part of a larger USVI coral reef monitoring
program, a permanent monitoring station was established at Sprat Hole (Nemeth and Herzlieb
2002). The Sprat Hole site falls within the Frederiksted Reef system (Fig. 1) and benthic
communities have been monitored here on an annual basis since 2001 (Nemeth et al. 2004b).
Among eight St. Croix sites studied, Sprat Hole had the highest coral cover (24.5%), with
species composition dominated (78%) by corals of the Montastraea annularis species complex
(Nemeth and Herzlieb 2002). Studies of coral disease have also been conducted at this site
(Rothenberger 2004).

Two recent studies have provided additional information on inshore benthic communities near
the Frederiksted Reef System. Kaczmarsky et al. (2005) studied the prevalence of disease
among corals in very shallow inshore waters at Frederiksted and Butler Bay. They concluded
that higher incidence of coral disease near Frederiksted may be a consequence of frequent
exposure to sewage spills which are unknown from the upcurrent site. Vicente & Associates
(2003) examined inshore benthic communities in the vicinity of Butler Bay to evaluate the long-
term impacts of a bentonite spill which occurred during drilling operations.

Invertebrate communities associated with submerged structures of the Frederiksted Pier have
received a great deal of attention in the gray literature but have not received any detailed
biological investigation. The unusual and biologically diverse pier fauna (Gladfelter 1988)
creates a colorful, aesthetically pleasing diving experience. The Frederiksted Pier has been an
internationally-renowned dive site since 1977 (Lopez and Vicente 1990) and it forms an
important local tourist attraction (Coulston and Tonnemacher 1991).


Fish Assemblages

The Frederiksted Reef System is likely to be of great importance to the commercial and
recreational fisheries of St. Croix. Of the seven areas that were considered "high productivity"
on St. Croix, three of them correspond to the Frederiksted Reef System (IRF 1977). The same
document identified the "west coast shelf" as a critical area that was heavily fished (IRF 1977).
Based upon reported landings from 1997 to 1999, the commercial harvest from western St. Croix
was approximately 10% of the island-wide harvest (Tobias et al. 2000). However, DFW collects
area-of-landing statistics for the commercial fishery on spatial scales which are larger than
individual reefs or reef systems (Adams 2001, Toller pers. obs.). Therefore the amount of






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 8
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

fishing effort directed towards the Frederiksted Reef System, as well as its overall contribution to
the island's fisheries, is not known.

Only a few studies of reef fish assemblages exist for the Frederiksted Reef System. Fishes at the
Sprat Hole monitoring station (see above) have been surveyed bi-annually or annually since
2001 (Nemeth and Herzlieb 2002). Toller (2002) provided a general description of the reef fish






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 9
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

leeward shores were of local origin. They suggested that larval retention may contribute greatly
to island populations.


Specific Objectives

The goal of this study was to collect preliminary, base-line information that would enable a






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 10
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

depth sounder equipped with a 50/200kHz duel frequency transducer. Depth recordings (and
GPS position) were made at each habitat feature and at regular intervals along transects.
Positional information was downloaded directly from the handheld unit to computer using
MapSource version 4.08 (Garmin, Corp.) software or imported into ArcView GIS 3.2a
(Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.) using DNR Garmin 4.3 software developed by
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.

Eight towed-diver transects were run perpendicular to shoreline, along east-northeast to west-






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 11
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

Fish were identified to species using standard field references (Randall 1968, Human and
DeLoach 2002, Lieske and Myers 2002). In instances where species-level identification was
uncertain, digital photos were taken with a PowerShot A70 (Canon, 3.2 Megapixel resolution) in
an underwater housing (Canon WP-DC700). In practice, most taxa were adequately diagnosed
in the field. The following fish were exceptions. Very small scarids (juvenile Sparisoma sp.)
were commonly observed as mixed-species groups hiding in shallow macroalgal beds. These
groups were thought to be comprised primarily of bucktooth parrotfish (Sparisoma radians),
redtail parrotfish (S. chryospterum), and yellowtail parrotfish (S. rubripinne) although their
similar appearance, cryptic behavior and small size precluded reliable identifications. Similarly,
the large and often mixed-species schools of recently recruited grunts (juvenile Haemulon sp.)
which occurred in zones I and II were not identified to species. These compound taxa were
retained in analyses because their distributions were unequal among habitat zones, as both were
frequently seen in zones I or II but not in zones III and IV. Jawfish species (Opistognathus
macrognathus, 0. maxillosus, and 0. whitehurstii) were lumped together exclusive of O.
aurifrons. Two species of chubs (Kyphosus sectatrix and K. incisor) reportedly occur in the area
but were not distinguished in the field, nor were two similar appearing gobies masked and
glass gobies (Coryphopteruspersonatus and C. hyalinus, respectively). Some inter-observer
discrepancies arose in distinguishing adult longfin damselfish (Stegastes diencaeus) from dusky
damselfish (S. dorsopunicans) although juveniles were readily separable.

In addition to the four hard-bottom habitat zones (i.e. habitat zones I-IV), the study area also
encompassed large areas comprised of two other habitat types: soft bottom and damaged reef.
Soft bottom habitats were primarily sand plains with only sparse or patchy cover of seagrasses
and/or algae. Fish surveys were not conducted in sand habitats however several soft-bottom
associated species were noted in surveys (see Results). The occurrence of damaged reef habitat
is noted in this report but discussed in detail elsewhere (Toller 2005). The fish surveys reported
here were not specifically targeted to damaged reef habitats.


LIIILy CnVIkICII L Wa3
ent (JC) a similarity i
cities (Barbour et al. 1
ig to the following for






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 12
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

where A = total number of species in habitat zone A, B = total number of species in habitat zone
B, and C = total number of species in both habitat zones A and B. JC was calculated utilizing
either all observations or after excluding those species which were only observed in a single
survey within a habitat zone.

Data from towed-diver surveys were converted into GIS files and examined further using
ArcView GIS 3.2a (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.). Transect information was
first assembled using depth data and plotted GPS positions. Depth profiles were then prepared






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 13
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

Cross-shelf depth profiles (Fig. 8) were somewhat variable among transects. A generalized
profile is discussed here. At the shore's edge, an abrupt limestone step (0.5 to 1 m) was typically
observed corresponding to the rocky intertidal zone. Beaches were also abruptly stepped to 0.5
m depth with sand usually being replaced by beach rock and rubble subtidally. The shallow
subtidal area extended only a short distance offshore (< 15 m) corresponding to the terminus of
habitat zone I. Seaward of this, (usually habitat zone II) a moderate and generally uniform slope
extended some 150-200 m offshore. Along most transects, the uniform depth profile of zone II
was a reflection of the smooth carbonate pavements commonly found there. Farther offshore,
the slope was more gradual and uniform usually coincident with wide areas of sand. Within -
300 m of the shelf edge (habitat zones III and IV), depth profiles became quite irregular and
variable among transects. At 800 m offshore a rather abrupt drop off occurred at 10-12 m
depths. The slope of the drop off was also quite variable among transects. Examination of the
depth profiles across all transects did not suggest the presence of a lagoon-like feature.


Comparison to NOAA Benthic Habitat Maps

The NOAA benthic habitat map shows 16 polygons that fall partially or wholly within the study
area [after excluding land and unknown/overdepth polygons]. Six habitat types are delineated.
They are: colonized bedrock (1), colonized pavement (2), sand (8), colonized pavement with
sand channels (2), scattered coral/rock in unconsolidated sediment (1), and linear reef (2). All of
these fall within the bank/shelf zone except for the seaward-most linear reef polygon which
occurs on the bank/shelf escarpment. The distribution of these habitats is shown in Figure 7.

As noted previously, the NOAA benthic habitat map provides a delineation of the Frederiksted
Reef as "linear reef." The reef occurs at the shelf edge (Fig. 1) and extends from Butler Bay
(N17044.865', W64053.871') to Sandy Point (N17041.321', W64054.139'). On NOAA benthic
habitat maps, the entirety of the Frederiksted Reef is enclosed within four polygons with a
combined area of 889,559 m2 (or 89 hectares). Within the study area under consideration here,
the NOAA maps indicate that linear reef occupies an area of- 350,000 m2 (or 35 hectares).

Zone I was typified by high topographic complexity formed from broken, fissured, and eroded
limestone rock where fish were often locally quite abundant. Beaches also interrupted zone I
although sand bottom typically gave way to unconsolidated rubble and beachrock close to the
sea-shoreline contact.

Zone IV best corresponds to the Linear Reef classification used by NOAA. This zone had the
greatest topographic complexity owing to the predominance of Montastraea annularis. Live
coral cover was quite high. Species diversity was high relative to inshore zones. In the two
northern transects (7 and 8), hydroacoustic cables from the UTR were seen. Cables were heavily
fouled with large sponges, gorgonians and scleractinian corals.

In general, there was good agreement between the cross-shelf transect data collected in this study
and the NOAA habitat maps. The degree of consistency between datasets varied according to
depth, type of habitat, and location of transects (Fig. 7). Agreement between datasets was best
for the shallowest habitat zones/types. For example, intertidal/shallow subtidal (=colonized






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 14
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

bedrock), inshore low relief (=colonized pavement), and sand (=sand), were almost always
coincident (Fig. 3). Agreement was also best for northern transects (e.g. near perfect agreement
along transect #8). Interestingly, the two sets of mapping data were progressively more
inconsistent in the offshore segments along the southernmost transects. For example, the 60'
depth contour (identified in towed-diver surveys) was coincident with the edge of the linear reef
(from NOAA map) along transects 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. However along transects 0, 1, and 2 the
NOAA maps placed the edge of the linear reef 150-250 m further offshore. The source of this
discrepancy is unclear.


ReefFish Community Surveys

Eight RDS replicates were completed within each habitat zone for a total of 32 surveys. Surveys
were completed at 27 sites, with duplicate surveys conducted at 5 of these (Appendix 5). The
location of RDS sites is shown in Figure 9.

In total, 176 fish taxa were observed representing 50 fish families (Table 3). When analyzed
collectively (data from all zones combined), six species were highly abundant, with an average
AI > 3.0. These species were bluehead, T. bifasciatum (SF=100%); ocean surgeonfish,
Acanthurus bahianus (SF=100%); bicolor damselfish, Stegastespartitus (SF=75.0%); French
grunt, Haemulonflavolineatum (SF=100%); slippery dick, Halichoeres bivittatus (SF=78.1%);
and blue tang, A. coeruleus (SF 100%). Forty species were moderately abundant (average AI
between 1.0 and 3.0). However, the majority of species (130) were less abundant (average AI <
1.0). Twenty-eight species were observed in only one replicate survey and 17 of these were
represented by observation of a single individual.

There were clear differences in the diversity of fish assemblages among habitat zones.
Comparisons among zones showed that average species richness (number of species observed
per survey) increased from inshore to offshore (Table 4, Fig. 10). Average richness was
significantly different among habitats (one-way ANOVA, F3i = 17.47, p < 0.001). This result
was again obtained when rare species (species observed in a single survey within a zone) were
removed from the comparison (one-way ANOVA, F31 = 16.33, p < 0.001, Fig. 10).

Cumulative number of species (Table 4) was least in zone I (86 species) and greatest in zone IV
(110 species). Examination of species-area curves showed that asymptotic values were
approached in each habitat zone (Fig. 11A). This suggests that > 90% of the fish assemblages
had been sampled. Species-area curves also showed a trend of increasing cross-shelf fish
diversity. Zone II was somewhat exceptional (Fig. 11A) in that cumulative species richness was
high (106 species) and the species-area curve suggested that less of the fish assemblage had been
sampled. When data from zone II were re-evaluated after eliminating rare species, this pattern
was not seen (Fig. 11B).

Table 5 shows the similarity of fish assemblages from different habitat zones calculated using
Jaccard's Community coefficient (JC). Fish assemblages from zone III and IV were most similar
to one another (JC = 0.68). The fish assemblage of zone I was least similar to that of zone III
and IV (JC = 0.30, 0.31) and more similar to the assemblage of zone II (JC = 0.45). Zone II was






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slightly more similar to zone III (JC = 0.53) than it was to zone I (JC = 0.45). When rare species
were excluded from calculations, JC values were lower but the rank order of similarity observed
between habitat zones was qualitatively unchanged (Table 5).

Further examination of cross-shelf distributions for individual species suggested that distribution
patterns are distinct and non-random. Four types of fish distribution were distinguished: broad,
wide, restricted, and narrow (Table 6). Although the number of species was approximately equal
within the four types of distributions, the species were not evenly distributed among habitat
zones. For example, species with narrow distributions were generally found in zone I or zone IV
but not zones II and III. Species with wide distributions were generally found in zones II, III and
IV but were absent from zone I. Those fish with restricted distributions were most commonly
found in zones III+IV.

Cross-shelf distribution patterns were variable among closely related species. For example,
parrotfishes of the family scaridae are important herbivores on Caribbean reefs. Scarids showed
pronounced interspecific variation in their cross-shelf distribution patterns (Fig. 12). Selected
serranids, lutjanids and haemulids also showed variable cross-shelf distribution patterns (Fig.
13).

For 14 species, juvenile fish stages were judged qualitatively to be more abundant than adults
during RDS surveys (as annotated in Appendices 1-4). Juveniles were unequally distributed
among habitat zones and predominated in observations of 13 species in zone I, 10 species in
zone II, 2 species in zone III, and 1 species in zone IV. Fishes were acanthurids (Acanthurus
bahianus, A. chirurgus, A. coeruleus), chaetodontids (Chaetodon striatus), haemulids (Haemulon
carbonarium), lutjanids (Lutjanus apodus, L. mahogoni, Ocyurus chrysurus), mullids
(-I hJ11/ ii1 /11/j martinicus, Pseudupenus maculatus), pomacanthids (Pomacanthus paru,
Holacanthus ciliaris), pomacentrids (Abudefduf saxatilis) and scarids (Sparisoma rubripinne).
In addition, juvenile Sparisoma sp. and juvenile Haemulon sp. were recorded only from zones I
and II.


DISCUSSION

Habitat Zones and Reef Structure

This report provides only a preliminary account of the Frederiksted Reef System and associated
fish assemblages. However, results from this study should provide some resolution of the
ambiguities raised by previous contradictory accounts of the nearshore marine habitats of
western St. Croix (see Introduction). In particular, this study (and another report; Toller 2005)
provide clarification on the spatial extent and benthic community composition of the
Frederiksted Reef near the shelf break. Robust stands of scleractinian corals, dominated by the
columnar Montastraea annularis, occur in the reef crest habitat zone. These corals contribute
high vertical relief to the reef crest which in turn forms habitat for a diverse assemblage of fishes.

The geologic origin of the Frederiksted Reef System is unstudied. Therefore it is difficult to
classify the reef using conventional geomorphological terms. The reef might be considered a






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relatively shallow shelf edge reef system (sensu Hubbard 1989a). Alternatively, it may be a
bank barrier reef which has subsided over geological time, although depth profiles do not suggest
the presence of a lagoon. A third possibility is that the reef crest is comprised of corals that have
grown atop unconsolidated sea floor (i.e. a "rubble reef"). Evidence for the latter derives from
sediment cores taken during reconstruction of the Frederiksted Pier. Only sand, rather than
consolidated carbonate material, was taken from cores of the shelf slope despite drilling to > 60'
beneath the sediment surface (J. Lawlor, pers. com.).






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terrestrial sediments are carried into the waters through "guts" during periods of major rainfall.
Influence of terrestrial sediments may be restricted to zones I and II, with diminishing impacts in
III and IV. Movement of coarse-grained sands may also impact zones II and III. A generalized
model is suggested which predicts that terrestrial and oceanographic influences form a reciprocal
gradient from inshore to offshore. This is an area that needs further study.


Fish Assemblages and Fish-Habitat Associations

Fish assemblages of the Frederiksted Reef System were observed to be quite diverse. Total
species richness was comparable to (or greater than) fish assemblages surveyed using a similar
method at Cane Bay and various other sites throughout the U.S. and British Virgin Islands
(Nemeth et al. 2003). The list of species is not exhaustive, as species-area curves indicate that
further sampling would reveal more diversity and subsequent observations also suggest that
seasonality contributes more species richness to the system (Toller pers. obs.). Nonetheless, it is
surprising that total species richness of the Frederiksted Reef System is comparable to that
reported for Salt River (Kendall et al. 2005) where a greater variety of habitats occur including
mangroves and seagrass beds. Mangroves and seagrasses, which are currently considered
important nursery habitats for many reef fish species, are absent from the Frederiksted Reef
System. How this may affect local fish diversity is discussed below.

Among the habitat zones studied, the reef crest (zone IV) supported the richest fish assemblage
with 110 species. Of these, 18 species were only observed in reef crest habitat. This richness is
perhaps not surprising. The reef crest is topographically more complex than the other habitat
zones and it is characterized by a high percentage of live coral cover (Toller 2005b). Fish
species richness is positively correlated with both topographic complexity of habitat (Luckhurst
and Luckhurst 1978) and with coral cover (Carpenter et al. 1981, Nemeth et al. 2003).

Compared to zones III and IV, total species richness of fishes from the inshore low-relief habitat
zone (zone II) was high, although average species richness was low. High fish diversity would
not be expected given the low coral cover and low topographic complexity of zone II. A
possible explanation is that fish assemblages from zone II are more strongly influenced by rare
species. Transient species may be more common to zone II. For example, some of the rare
species observed were apparent transients from adjacent soft bottom habitat such as saucereye
porgy (Calamus calamus), eyed flounder (Bothus ocellatus), and rosy razorfish (Xyrichtys
martinicus). Alternatively, rare fish may represent species with unrecognized ecological
specializations for the low-relief substrate features (or associated communities) which typify
zone II.

The intertidal/shallow subtidal (zone I) supported the most distinct fish assemblage among the
zones studied. Of the 86 species observed in zone I, 20 species were not observed in other
habitat zones. An additional 16 species were observed only in zones I + II. Many of these fish
appear to be specialized to the intertidal and/or shallow subtidal habitat. Species included
gobiids such as the frillfin (Bathygobius soporator), nineline (Ginsburgellus novemlineatus) and
greenbanded (Gobiosoma multifasciatum) gobies, labrisomids such as the hairy blenny






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 18
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molly miller (Scartella cristata). Other fish may utilize the refuge afforded by shallow, rocky
subtidal areas as daytime resting areas. For example, the night sergeant, Abudefduftaurus
(Pomacentridae) and copper sweeper, Pempheris schomburgki (Pempheridae) were common in
this zone. Schooling species such as the redear sardine, Harengula humeralis, dwarf herring,
Jenkinsia lamprotaenia (Clupeidae), and hardhead silverside, Atherinomorus stipes (Atherinidae)
were also abundant, but patchy in distributions, in zone I.

Mangroves and seagrass areas are generally considered vital habitat for juvenile stages of many
Caribbean fish species (e.g. Delgado and Stedman 2004, Mumby et al. 2004). On St. Croix,
researchers have identified mangroves, seagrasses, and backreef lagoons as important nursery
habitats for reef fishes (Mateo and Tobias 2001, 2004, Adams and Ebersole 2002). In this study,
a preponderance of juvenile fishes were also observed in shallow areas (zones I and II). For
example, the schoolmaster, Lutjanus apodus (Lutjanidae) had a disjunct distribution among
habitats, being common in zone I (as juveniles) and zone IV (as adults). These observations are
suggestive of a nursery habitat function for the shallow, inshore zones for at least some fish
species. However, the habitats observed in this study were not readily ascribable to any of the
foregoing habitat categories. It is possible that juveniles of some species may utilize hard bottom
areas (rocky intertidal, shallow subtidal, and inshore low relief zones) as alternate nursery habitat
when preferred nursery habitat is unavailable. Nagelkerken et al. (2000) reported a more broad
usage of various types of shallow biotopes by juvenile fishes on Bonaire. The possible role of
inshore habitats of western St. Croix as nursery habitat should receive additional study.

The foregoing results suggest that the Frederiksted Reef System is important habitat for local fish
fauna. Anecdotal observations also indicate that fishes found here are heavily harvested by local
fishers. During the study, commercial fishers were frequently observed fishing over the reef
using various methods handlinee, scuba and spear, fish traps). Discarded or lost gears
representing each of the major commercial gear types (monofilament line, trammel nets, fish
pots) were also observed with some frequency. Fishers also frequently utilized shallow inshore
areas to harvest baitfish with cast nets especially "sprat" (principally the redear sardine) and to
a lesser extent "fry" (dwarf herring and hardhead silverside). Commercial and recreational
fishers were commonly observed fishing for yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus; Lutjanidae)
at the shelf drop off north of Sprat Hole.

It seems likely that the fish assemblages of the reef crest and adjacent habitats are functionally
linked. The different inshore zones identified in this study are probably best considered a
"system" of interconnected habitat elements. Although the deep reef slope of the Frederiksted
Reef System remains unstudied and its fish assemblage is likely to be distinctive the deeper
reef may also be functionally linked to inshore zones. As an example, the blackfin snapper
(Lutjanus bucannella) is a fish of commercial importance and adult blackfin are generally found
at depths below 100 feet. Recently, the author observed blackfin snapper recruits in moderate
abundance in zone II.

This preliminary survey of fishes from the Frederiksted reef system suggests a complex and rich
community. Patterns of cross-shelf distribution raise several questions about connectivity among
shallow nearshore habitats. They also suggest a nursery ground function for some species. The
shallow, calm waters found off of Frederiksted make the area ideally suited for future studies of







F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 19
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reef fish recruitment, patterns of post-settlement movement and mortality, and ontogenetic
movements among habitats.






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LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Table 1. Habitat zones identified in this study.
Table 2. Width of habitat zones based upon towed-diver observations.
Table 3. Frequency and abundance of fish observed in four habitat zones.
Table 4. Fish species richness in four habitat zones.
Table 5. Similarity of fish assemblages among habitat zones.
Table 6. Observed cross-shelf distribution patterns of fish species.

Figure 1. Map of western St. Croix.
Figure 2. Location of towed-diver transects on aerial photos.
Figure 3. Intertidal/shallow subtidal habitat zone (Zone I).
Figure 4. Inshore low relief habitat zone (Zone II).
Figure 5. Transitional/patch reef habitat zone (Zone III).
Figure 6. Reef crest habitat zone (Zone IV).
Figure 7. Location of observed habitat zone transition points on NOAA benthic habitat map.
Figure 8. Depth profiles across towed-diver transects.
Figure 9. Location of RDS sites.
Figure 10. Average fish species richness observed in four habitat zone.
Figure 11. Species-area curves of fish assemblages from four habitat zones.
A. All observations
B. Excluding single observations
Figure 12. Observed distribution of parrotfish species among habitat zones.
Figure 13. Observed distribution of selected serranid, lutjanid and haemulid species among
habitat zones.

Appendix 1. RDS data from habitat zone I intertidal/shallow subtidal.
Appendix 2. RDS data from habitat zone II inshore low relief.
Appendix 3. RDS data from habitat zone III transitional/patch reef.
Appendix 4. RDS data from habitat zone IV reef crest.
Appendix 5. GPS coordinates of RDS fish survey sites.






F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005


Table 1. Habitat zones* identified in this study.
habitat zone I II III IV
intertidal/shallow
descriptor subtidal inshore low relief transitional/patch reef reef crest
cross-shelf location inshoremost inshore midshelf shelf-edge
approx. depth range, ft (m) 0 to 3 (0 to 1) 3 to 20 (1 to 7) 18 to 35 (6 to 11) 30 to 60 (10 to 20)
predominant substrate limestone bedrock, limestone plates or limestone ridges structurally complex
rubble, beachrock or pavements, rubble, sand separated by wide sand limestone with narrow
sand or rubble channels sand/rubble channels
substrate configuration limestone spurs at low relief pavements moderate relief patches high vertical relief reefs,
shoreline, pavements, with seams or holes and or ridges with grooves either continuous reef or
sand or cobble beaches rubble/sand areas oriented offshore forming wide ridges
approx. coral cover low (< 5%) low (< 5%) intermediate (5 to 15%) high (10 to >25%)
coral community low coral cover, mostly low coral cover, mostly abundant head corals, large colonies of
shallow-water forms sediment tolerant forms some branching and columnar, branching and
ecrusting forms plating forms
characteristic hard corals Diploria clivosa Diploria strigosa M faveolata Montastraea annularis
Siderastrea radians Siderastrea siderea M. cavernosa M. faveolata
A. cervicornis
A. palmata (occasional) Solenastrea bournoni (occasional) Colpophyllia natans
Agaricia sp.
characteristic algae Laurencia papillosa Dictyota sp. Lobophora variegata Lobophora variegata
Sargassum polyceratium Bryothamnion triquetum Dictyota sp. Halimeda opuntia
Padina sp. dense algal turf Halimeda goreaui
various filamentous
algae Dictyota sp.
encrusting red corallines
other characteristic organisms vermetid worms Psudopterogorgia sp. Xestospongia muta Xestospongia muta
abundant gastropods Pterogorgia sp. Neofibularia nolitangere Neofibularia nolitangere
Echinometra lucunter Diadema antillarum Diadema antillarum Callyspongia plicifera
* Soft bottom habitats (i.e. large areas of sand) were not surveyed in this study and have been excluded from this habitat classification scheme.






', Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
bitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
iod: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005


Bible 2. Width of habitat zones based upon towed-diver observations.
Cumulative Segment Length (m)
ransect Zone I Zone II Zone III Zone IV Sand Damage* Total


2
3
4
5
6
7
8

,verag
;t.Dev
Max.
Min.


9 3
8 2
9 1
8
1 1
6 1
7 1

5 1
4
7 3
8


198.5
269.1
282.6
129.1
77.0
26.0
0

137.9
105.2
282.6
0


0 123.6 247.4 892.
11.4 134.2 256.1 996.
95.9 283.1 108.9 903.
71.2 393.1 0 881.
93.5 444.2 49.0 791.
220 337.7 0 771.
68.6 394.7 0 750.


.3 111.3 851.4
1.5 116.2 82.0
1.2 256.1 996.0
1.6 0 750.3


20.1 2K~
96.6 12z
71.2 44z
0 12-







', Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
bitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
iod: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005


*atidae
southern stingray Dasyatis americana 12.5% 0.13 0.13 12.5% 0.1

lenidae
chain moray Echidna catenata 37.5% 0.63 0.32 12.5% 0.13 0.13
goldentail moray Gymnothorax miliaris 25.0% 0.38 0.26
spotted moray Gymnothorax moringa 12.5% 0.13 0.13 37.5% 0.38 0.18 12.5% 0.1

chthyidae
sharptail eel Myrichthys breviceps 62.5% 0.63 0.18

gridae
brown garden eel Heteroconger longissimus 12.5% 0.38 0.38 25.0% 0.7

nidae
flat needlefish Ablennes hians 12.5% 0.25 0.25 12.5% 0.25 0.25
keeltail needlefish Platybelone argalus 25.0% 0.38 0.26 -

irhamphidae
ballyhoo Hemiramphus brasiliensis 12.5% 0.38 0.38 12.5% 0.3

eidae
redear sardine Harengula humeralis 37.5% 1.88 0.91 12.5% 0.63 0.63
dwarf herring Jenkinsia lamprotaenia 87.5% 4.38 0.63 12.5% 0.50 0.50 12.5% 0.6

rinidae
hardhead silverside Atherinomorus stipes 37.5% 1.75 0.86 14.3% 0.50 0.50

idontidae
sand diver Synodus intermedius 25.0% 0.38 0.26 37.5% 0.50 0.27 37.5% 0.5

centridae
squirrelfish Holocentrus adcensionis 12.5% 0.13 0.13 100.0% 2.38 0.26 50.0% 1.1
longspine squirrelfish Holocentrus rufus 25.0% 0.25 0.16 12.5% 0.25 0.25 75.0% 1.5
blackbar soldierfish Myripristisjacobus 25.0% 0.38 0.26 37.5% 0.'







F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

Table 3. continued.


SF* AI* SEM* SF*


AI* SEM* SF* AI* SEM* SF* AI*


Holocentridae
longjaw squirrelfish Neoniphon marianus
cardinal soldierfish Plectrypops retrospinis
reef squirrelfish Sargocentron coruscum
dusky squirrelfish Sargocentron vexillarium

Fistulariidae
Bluespotted cornetfish Fistularia tabacaria


62.5% 0.75 0.25 50.0% 0.75 0.31
75.0% 1.50 0.38 12.5% 0.13 0.13


37.5% 0.75 0.37 75.0% 1.63 0.38
12.5% 0.13 0.13

12.5% 0.25 0.25


25.0% 0.25 0.16


Aulostomus maculatus


Scorpaenidae
spotted scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri
reef scorpionfish Scorpaenodes caribbaeus

Serranidae
graysby Cephalopholis cruentatus
coney Cephalopholisfulvus
rock hind Epinephelus adcensionis
red hind Epinephelus guttatus
yellowtail hamlet Hypoplectrus chlorurus
shy hamlet Hypoplectrus guttavarius
indigo hamlet Hypoplectrus indigo
black hamlet Hypoplectrus nigricans
barred hamlet Hypoplectrus puella
butter hamlet Hypoplectrus unicolor
peppermint basslet Liopropoma rubre
greater soapfish Rypticus saponaceus
lantern bass Serranus baldwini
tobacco fish Serranus tabacarius
harlequin bass Serranus tigrinus

Grammatidae
fairy basslet Gramma loreto

Apogonidae
barred cardinalfish Apogon binotatus


25.0% 0.25 0.16 25.0% 0.25 0.16 25.0% 0.50 0.33 87.5% 1.75 0.25


62.5% 1.00 0.33 75.0% 1.50 0.33 25.0% 0.25 0.16 12.5% 0.13 0.13
- 12.5% 0.13 0.13 -


12.5% 0.13 0.13 87.5% 1.75 0.31 100.0% 3.13 0.23
62.5% 1.50 0.50 100.0% 2.88 0.13 100.0% 2.25 0.31
37.5% 0.38 0.18
25.0% 0.25 0.16 50.0% 0.63 0.26 12.5% 0.25 0.25
62.5% 1.13 0.35
12.5% 0.13 0.13
12.5% 0.13 0.13
87.5% 1.13 0.23 50.0% 0.75 0.31
100.0% 2.13 0.13
25.0% 0.25 0.16 62.5% 0.75 0.25
- 25.0% 0.25 0.16
12.5% 0.25 0.25 62.5% 0.88 0.30 12.5% 0.13 0.13
- 37.5% 0.63 0.32 25.0% 0.25 0.16
12.5% 0.13 0.13 25.0% 0.38 0.26 12.5% 0.13 0.13
12.5% 0.13 0.13 87.5% 2.50 0.38 87.5% 2.00 0.33


50.0% 1.00 0.38 75.0% 2.00 0.46


50.0% 1.38 0.53


Family


Species


Zone I


Zone II


Zone III


Aulostomidae
trumpetfish


Zone IV


SEM*







F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

Table 3. continued.


SF* AI* SEM* SF*


AI* SEM* SF* AI* SEM* SF* AI*


87.5% 2.00 0.33 12.5% 0.25 0.25


Cirrhitidae
redspotted hawkfish Amblycirrhitus pinos

Priacanthidae
glasseye snapper Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
bigeye Priacanthus arenatus


37.5% 0.38 0.18 12.5% 0.13 0.13


62.5% 1.00 0.33
25.0% 0.25 0.16


Malacanthidae
sand tilefish


Malacanthus plumieri


75.0% 1.50 0.38 87.5% 2.00 0.33 62.5% 1.00 0.33


Gerreidae
Irish pompano Diapterus auratus
spotfin mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus
mottled mojarra Eucinostomus leyfroi
yellowfin majorra Gerres cinereus

Carangidae
blue runner Caranx crysos
horse-eye jack Caranx latus
bar jack Caranx ruber
permit Trachinotus falcatus
palometa Trachinotus goodei
bigeye scad Selar Crumenophthalmus
mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus

Lutjanidae
mutton snapper Luganus analis
schoolmaster Luganus apodus
gray snapper Luganus griseus
mahogany snapper Luganus mahogoni
lane snapper Luganus synagris
yellowtail snapper Ocyurus chrysurus


12.5% 0.38 0.38
12.5% 0.25 0.25
62.5% 1.75 0.53 12.5% 0.25 0.25
50.0% 0.63 0.26 37.5% 0.88 0.44


25.0% 0.25 0.16


12.5% 0.25 0.25 25.0% 0.25 0.16 -
62.5% 1.25 0.45 12.5% 0.25 0.25 -
37.5% 0.88 0.44 75.0% 1.63 0.42 87.5% 2.00 0.33 100.0% 2.25 0.16
50.0% 0.88 0.35 -
62.5% 1.13 0.40 -
- 12.5% 0.63 0.63 -
12.5% 0.38 0.38 12.5% 0.38 0.38 25.0% 0.75 0.49


- 12.5% 0.13 0.13
87.5% 1.38 0.26 12.5% 0.25 0.25 100.0% 2.00 0.27
12.5% 0.13 0.13 12.5% 0.13 0.13 12.5% 0.25 0.25
100.0% 3.00 0.27 87.5% 2.50 0.38 87.5% 1.63 0.32 87.5% 2.13 0.40
- 12.5% 0.25 0.25 -
37.5% 0.50 0.27 75.0% 1.00 0.27 25.0% 0.38 0.26 50.0% 0.75 0.31


Family


Species


Apogonidae
flamefish


Zone I


Apogon maculatus


Zone II


Zone III


Zone IV


SEM*







F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

Table 3. continued.


Family


Species


Haemulidae
black margate Anisotremus surinamensis
porkfish Anisotremus virginicus
tomtate Haemulon aurolineatum
caesar grunt Haemulon carbonarium
smallmouth grunt Haemulon chrysargyreum
french grunt Haemulonflavolineatum
spanish grunt Haemulon macrostomus
cottonwick Haemulon melanurum
sailors choice Haemulon parra
white grunt Haemulon plumieri
bluestriped grunt Haemulon sciurus
unid. juv. grunt Haemulon sp.


Inermiidae
boga


SF* AI* SEM* SF*


12.5% 0.13 0.13


AI* SEM* SF* AI* SEM* SF* AI*


SEM*


12.5% 0.13 0.13


12.5% 0.13 0.13 -
87.5% 1.75 0.37 87.5% 1.88 0.40 75.0% 1.38 0.38 87.5% 1.50 0.27
87.5% 2.13 0.35 62.5% 1.88 0.61
100.0% 3.63 0.18 100.0% 3.50 0.19 100.0% 3.63 0.18 100.0% 3.00 0.19
12.5% 0.13 0.13 12.5% 0.13 0.13
- 12.5% 0.13 0.13
12.5% 0.25 0.25 -
- 37.5% 0.63 0.32 50.0% 0.63 0.26 87.5% 1.38 0.26
12.5% 0.13 0.13 62.5% 1.13 0.35 62.5% 1.25 0.37 75.0% 1.13 0.30
40.0% 0.63 0.42 100.0% 2.00 0.46 -


Inermia vittata


Sparidae
saucereye porgy Calamus calamus


Sciaenidae
highhat
spotted drum
reef croaker
sand drum


Pareques acuminatus
Equetus punctatus
Odontoscion dentex
Umbrina coroides


Mullidae
yellow goatfish Mulloidichthys martinicus
spotted goatfish Psuedupeneus maculatus

Pempheridae
glassy sweeper Pempheris schomburgki

Kyphosidae
chub Kyphosus sectatrix/incisor


37.5% 1.38 0.68


- 12.5% 0.13 0.13 -


25.0% 0.38 0.26 62.5% 0.88 0.30 12.5% 0.13 0.13
- 25.0% 0.25 0.16 50.0% 0.75 0.31
- 12.5% 0.13 0.13
25.0% 0.50 0.38 -


87.5% 2.63 0.42 100.0% 2.63 0.18 75.0% 1.75 0.41 100.0% 3.13 0.23
87.5% 2.13 0.35 100.0% 2.50 0.27 87.5% 1.63 0.26 75.0% 1.13 0.30


87.5% 1.75 0.49 -


25.0% 0.50 0.38


Zone I


Zone II


Zone III


Zone IV







F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

Table 3. continued.


SF* AI* SEM* SF*


AI* SEM* SF* AI* SEM* SF* AI*


Chaetodontidae
longsnout butterflyfish Chaetodon aculeatus
foureye butterflyfish Chaetodon capistratus
spotfin butterfly Chaetodon ocellatus
reef butterflyfish Chaetodon sedentarius
banded butterfly Chaetodon striatus

Pomacanthidae
queen angelfish Holacanthus ciliaris
rock beauty Holacanthus tricolor
french angelfish Pomacanthus paru

Pomacentridae
sergeant major Abudefdufsaxatilis
night sergeant Abudefduftaurus
blue chromis Chromis cyanea
brown chromis Chromis multilineata
yellowtail damsel Microspathodon chrysurus
dusky damselfish Stegastes adustus
longfin damselfish Stegastes diencaeus
beaugregory Stegastes leucostictus
bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus
threespot damsel Stegastesplanifrons
cocoa damselfish Stegastes variabilis

Labridae
spanish hogfish Bodianus rufus
creole wrasse Clepticus parrae
slippery dick Halichoeres bivittatus
yellowhead wrasse Halichoeres ganoti
clown wrasse Halichoeres maculipinna
rainbow wrasse Halichoeres pictus
blackear wrasse Halichoeres poeyi
pudding wife Halichoeres radiatus
bluehead wrasse Thalassoma bifasciatum
rosy razorfish Xyrichtys martinicus
green razorfish Xyrichtys splendens


87.5% 1.25 0.25
75.0% 1.50 0.33 100.0% 2.75 0.16 100.0% 2.75 0.16
37.5% 0.38 0.18 25.0% 0.38 0.26
- 12.5% 0.13 0.13
50.0% 0.75 0.31 75.0% 1.63 0.38 100.0% 1.88 0.13 75.0% 1.63 0.38


- 50.0% 0.50 0.19 37.5% 0.50 0.27 12.5% 0.13 0.13
- 75.0% 1.38 0.32 62.5% 1.13 0.35
25.0% 0.25 0.16 100.0% 2.00 0.19 50.0% 0.88 0.35 37.5% 0.50 0.27


100.0% 3.13 0.35 100.0% 2.63 0.18 37.5% 1.13 0.58 75.0% 2.25 0.53
100.0% 2.75 0.31 -
- 87.5% 3.50 0.57 100.0% 4.63 0.18
- 50.0% 1.13 0.48 100.0% 3.50 0.33 100.0% 4.38 0.18
37.5% 0.88 0.44 12.5% 0.13 0.13 37.5% 0.63 0.32
100.0% 3.50 0.27 100.0% 3.00 0.19 37.5% 0.63 0.38 50.0% 1.38 0.53
- 25.0% 0.50 0.33 100.0% 2.88 0.35 87.5% 2.50 0.38
75.0% 1.63 0.38 100.0% 2.88 0.23 100.0% 1.88 0.30 87.5% 2.13 0.35
- 100.0% 4.50 0.19 100.0% 4.88 0.13 100.0% 4.75 0.16
12.5% 0.25 0.25 87.5% 2.25 0.37 100.0% 4.00 0.19
12.5% 0.13 0.13 25.0% 0.38 0.26


87.5% 1.63 0.32 100.0% 2.38 0.18
- 37.5% 1.25 0.62 100.0% 4.63 0.18
100.0% 4.25 0.25 100.0% 4.88 0.13 100.0% 4.00 0.27 12.5% 0.25 0.25
- 12.5% 0.13 0.13 87.5% 3.50 0.53 100.0% 3.63 0.18
87.5% 2.63 0.42 87.5% 2.38 0.42 75.0% 2.00 0.46 37.5% 0.75 0.37
- 62.5% 1.25 0.41 37.5% 0.75 0.37
100.0% 2.25 0.16 87.5% 2.00 0.33 -
87.5% 2.13 0.40 87.5% 1.88 0.30 37.5% 0.63 0.32 12.5% 0.13 0.13
100.0% 4.25 0.25 100.0% 4.63 0.18 100.0% 4.63 0.18 100.0% 4.63 0.26
- 12.5% 0.13 0.13 -
87.5% 1.75 0.31 -


Family


Species


Zone I


Zone II


Zone III


Zone IV


SEM*







F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

Table 3. continued.


SF* AI* SEM* SF*


AI* SEM* SF* AI* SEM* SF* AI*


Scaridae
bluelip parrotfish Cryptotomus roseus
striped parrotfish Scarus iserti
princess parrotfish Scarus taeniopterus
queen parrotfish Scarus vetula
greenblotch parrot Sparisoma atomarium
redband parrotfish Sparisoma aurofrenatum
redtail parrotfish Sparisoma chrysopterum
bucktooth parrot Sparisoma radians
yellowtail parrot Sparisoma rubripinne
stoplight parrotfish Sparisoma viride
unid. juv. scarid Sparisoma sp.

Opistognathidae
yellowheadjawfish Opistognathus aurifrons
unident. jawfish Opistognathus sp.


Mugilidae
white mullet


Mugil curema


Sphyraenidae
great barracuda Sphyraena barracuda
southern sennet Sphyraena picudilla

Scombridae
cero mackerel Scomberomorus regalis

Labrisomidae
palehead blenny Labrisomus gobio
hairy blenny Labrisomus nuchipinnis
goldline blenny Malacoctenus aurolineatus
dusky blenny Malacoctenus gilli
rosy blenny Malacoctenus macropus
saddled blenny Malacoctenus triangulatus

Blenniidae
pearl blenny Entomacrodus nigricans
redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus


-- 12.5% 0.25 0.25
12.5% 0.25 0.25 100.0% 3.13 0.23 100.0% 3.25 0.25
100.0% 3.50 0.27 100.0% 3.75 0.16
100.0% 2.13 0.23 100.0% 2.88 0.13
37.5% 0.75 0.37 37.5% 1.00 0.50
87.5% 2.13 0.35 100.0% 3.75 0.16 100.0% 3.50 0.19
- 100.0% 2.75 0.25 62.5% 1.25 0.41 37.5% 0.50 0.27
37.5% 0.88 0.44 50.0% 1.38 0.53 -
100.0% 3.50 0.27 100.0% 3.63 0.18 62.5% 1.25 0.41 62.5% 0.88 0.30
- 25.0% 0.38 0.26 100.0% 2.88 0.30 100.0% 3.13 0.23
33.3% 0.88 0.58 100.0% 0.75 0.49 -


- 62.5% 1.25 0.37
62.5% 0.88 0.30 -


12.5% 0.38 0.38


12.5% 0.13 0.13 12.5% 0.13 0.13 12.5% 0.13 0.13 12.5% 0.13 0.13
- 12.5% 0.25 0.25


- 12.5% 0.13 0.13 25.0% 0.38 0.26 50.0% 0.88 0.35


12.5% 0.25 0.25 -
87.5% 1.50 0.27 -
87.5% 1.88 0.30 12.5% 0.13 0.13 -
50.0% 0.88 0.35 12.5% 0.25 0.25 -
- 37.5% 0.50 0.27 12.5% 0.13 0.13
37.5% 0.38 0.18 100.0% 2.38 0.32 12.5% 0.38 0.38


62.5% 1.13 0.35 -
87.5% 2.63 0.38 62.5% 1.50 0.46 50.0% 1.13 0.44


Family


Species


Zone I


Zone II


Zone III


Zone IV


SEM*







'Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project
dy 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
iod: FY-2004 to FY-2005

ible 3. continued.


ZoneI ZoneII Zone

nily Species SF* AI* SEM* SF* AI* SEM* SF* AI*

:nniidae
molly miller Scartella cristata 25.0% 0.50 0.33 -

aenopsidae
spinyhead blenny Acanthemblemaria spinosa 50.0% 1.00 0.38 62.5% 1.25
sailfin blenny Emblemariapandonis 12.5% 0.25 0.25

biidae
frillfin goby Bathygobius soprator 50.0% 1.13 0.44 -
bridled goby Coryphopterus glaucofrenatum 87.5% 2.38 0.42 100.0% 3.50
peppermint goby Coryphopterus lipemes 12.5% 0.13
masked/glass goby C. personatus/hyalinus 75.0% 2.25
cleaning goby Elacatinus genie -
sharknose goby Elacatinus evelynae 75.0% 1.63
nineline goby Ginsburgellus novemlineatus 50.0% 0.88 0.35 -
goldspot goby Gnatholepis thompsoni 87.5% 2.88 0.44 87.5% 2.75
shortstripe goby Gobiosoma chance 12.5% 0.25
greenbanded goby Gobiosoma multifasciatum 50.0% 0.88 0.35 --
broadstripe goby Gobiosoma prochilos 12.5% 0.13

anthuridae
ocean surgeonfish Acanthurus bahianus 100.0% 3.88 0.23 100.0% 4.38 0.26 100.0% 4.00
doctorfish Acanthurus chirurgus 50.0% 1.00 0.42 87.5% 2.13 0.35 37.5% 0.88
blue tang Acanthurus coeruleus 100.0% 2.38 0.32 100.0% 2.88 0.23 100.0% 3.50

thidae
peacock flounder Bothus lunatus 50.0% 0.50 0.19 62.5% 0.88 0.30 -
eyed flounder Bothus ocellatus 12.5% 0.13 0.13

listidae
queen triggerfish Balistes vetula 12.5% 0.13 0.13 25.0% 0.38
black durgon Melichthys niger -

*nocanthidae
scrawled filefish Aluterus scripta -
whitespotted filefish Cantherhines macrocerus 37.5% 0.38 0.18 37.5% 0.38
orangespotted filefish Cantherhinespullus 62.5% 1.25 0.37 75.0% 1.25 0.31 62.5% 0.75
slender filefish Monacanthus tuckeri 25.0% 0.25 0.16 25.0% 0.25 0.16







F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

Table 3. continued.


SF* AI* SEM* SF*


AI* SEM* SF* AI* SEM* SF* AI*


Ostraciidae
honeycomb cowfish Acanthostracion ploygonia
spotted trunkfish Lactophrys bicaudalis
trunkfish Lactophrys trigonus
smooth trunkfish Lactophrys triqueter

Tetraodontidae
sharpnose puffer Canthigaster rostrata
bandtail puffer Sphoeroides spengleri
checkered puffer Sphoeroides testudineus

Diodontidae
web burrfish Chilomycterus antillarum
balloonfish Diodon holocanthus
porcupinefish Diodon hystrix


12.5% 0.13 0.13 12.5% 0.25 0.25 12.5% 0.13 0.13 75.0% 1.00 0.27
25.0% 0.25 0.16 12.5% 0.13 0.13 62.5% 0.63 0.18 50.0% 0.63 0.26
- 12.5% 0.13 0.13 -
12.5% 0.13 0.13 50.0% 0.88 0.35 75.0% 1.13 0.30 75.0% 1.13 0.30


12.5% 0.25 0.25 50.0% 1.00 0.38 87.5% 1.88 0.30 87.5% 2.25 0.41
25.0% 0.25 0.16 12.5% 0.13 0.13 37.5% 0.63 0.32 12.5% 0.13 0.13
12.5% 0.13 0.13 12.5% 0.13 0.13 -


- 25.0% 0.25 0.16 12.5% 0.13 0.13
12.5% 0.13 0.13 12.5% 0.13 0.13 25.0% 0.25 0.16 25.0% 0.25 0.16
37.5% 0.50 0.27 25.0% 0.25 0.16 37.5% 0.38 0.18


*note: SF = Sighting Frequency (%), AI = average Abundance Index (see text), SEM = Standard Error of the Mean.


Family


Species


Zone I


Zone II


Zone III


Zone IV


SEM*






F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005


Table 4. Fish species richness in four habitat zones.
No. of
Habitat RDS* Cumul. No. No. of ish Species Observed per Survey
Zone Replicates of Species Avg. St. Dev. Max. Min.
I 8 86 41.4 6.2 47 28
II 8 106 50.5 4.5 57 44
III 8 102 54.8 5.7 64 48
IV 8 110 62.0 8.6 73 53
* Replicate 60 minute Roving Diver Surveys (RDS) were conducted in each habitat zone.


Table 5. Similarity offish assemblages among habitat zones.
Habitat Zone


0.45


0.31


0.30


II 0.37 0.53 0.44


III 0.24 0.48 0.68


0.23


0.37


0.66


Jaccard's community coefficient (JC) was calculated using either all RDS
observations (above diagonal, n=176 species) or after excluding species
with single observations (below diagonal, n=141 species).







F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005


Table 6. Observed cross-shelf distribution patterns of fish species.
Species with AI*1 > 1.0 (n =
Type of Habitat All observations (n = 176) 94)*2
Distribution Zones No. Species I % No. Species % Example Species


Broad


all zones


*notes: 1. AI is average abundance index.
2. Those species for which the average abundance index (AI) was > 1.0 in at least one habitat zone.


19.9%

15.3%
2.8%
2.3%
2.3%
22.7%


11.4%
9.1%

2.8%
1.1%




24.4%

11.4%
10.2%
8.0%
3.4%
33.0%

100.0%


Wide
(three zones)






Restricted
(two zones)










Narrow

(one zone)


31.9%

20.2%
3.2%
2.1%
1.1%
26.6%


14.9%
8.5%

1.1%
1.1%




25.5%

6.4%
6.4%
1.1%
2.1%
16.0%

100.0%


not zone I
not zone IV
not zone II
not zone III
Subtotal =

zones III &
IV
zones I & II
zones II &
III
zones I & IV
zones I & III
zones II &
IV
Subtotal =

zone I
zone IV
zone II
zone III
Subtotal =

Total =


bluehead, ocean surgeon, french grunt

brown chromis, yellowhead wrasse
dwarf herring, redlip blenny
schoolmaster, yellowtail damselfish
dusky squirrelfish


queen parrotfish, blue chromis, spanish
hogfish
blackear wrasse, bucktooth parrotfish

flamefish
smallmouth and spanish grunts






night sergeant, glassy sweeper, hairy blenny
black durgon, boga, YT & barred hamlets
green razorfish
barred cardinalfish, yellowhead jawfish






F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix 39
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005
Figure 1. Map of western St. Croix. The Frederiksted Reef and locations of previous studies (as
discussed in the text) are shown. The map is re-drawn from Kendall et al. (2001) to show only
land (gray) and linear reef (stippled polygons). Abbreviations are as follows: EN = Estate
Northside, FP = Frederiksted Pier, HB = Hams Bluff Bay, BB = Butler Bay, SH = Spat Hole, SP
= Sandy Point, UTR = Underwater Tracking Range headquarters at Estate Sprat Hall.







BB.




SH-














SP






F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix 40
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005

Figure 2. Location oftowed-diver transects on aerial photos. The location of 8 transects are
shown with solid lines. Partial transects (0 and 9) are shown with dashed lines. Seaward ends of
transects were terminated at the 60 foot depth contour. The town of Frederiksted is visible in the
lower (southern) part of the photo. Location of the Underwater Tracking Range (UTR)
Headquarters and the red crane (RC) at the base of the Frederiksted Cruise Ship Pier are shown
for reference purposes. Georeferenced aerial photo mosaic is from Kendall et al. (2001).







F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix 41
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005

Figure 3. Intertidal/shallow subtidal habitat zone (Zone I). A. Exposed limestone bedrock
creates a rocky intertidal habitat with numerous tidepools. Interspersed among the rocky habitats
are beaches of sand and cobble. Photo from transect 2 looking north. B. The shallow subtidal
zone support a lush macroalgal community. Some species of scleractinian corals are also
common in this habitat zone. Photo from transect 2.

A.


























B.

.... ... .. .-


.......... .......










i7



""W






F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix 42
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005

Figure 4. Inshore low relief habitat zone (Zone II). A. This zone is characterized by limestone
pavements covered by turf algae and sediments. In areas, gorgonians are locally abundant.
Pictured is a school of bigeye scad, Selar crumenophthalmus. Photo from transect 8. B. Areas
of coral and limestone rubble create patches of habitat structure where fish assemblages are
diverse and juvenile fish are abundant. The long-spined sea urchin, Diadema antillarum, may
also be locally abundant. Photo from transect 5

A.






F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix 43
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005

Figure 5. Transitional/patch reef habitat zone (Zone III). A. Patch reefs add to the three
dimensional structure of this zone. Numerous fish species are found in association with
structures including gunts, parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. Photo from transect 2. B. Larger
areas of patch reefs form semi-continuous reef structures (transitional reefs) although live coral
cover in this zone is typically intermediate between that of zones II and IV. Photo from transect
3.

A.























B.















"i
"1 " "







F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix 44
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005

Figure 6. Reef Crest habitat zone (Zone IV). A. The amount of live coral cover is highest in
this zone where Montastraea annularis predominates and contributes greatly to three
dimensional habitat complexity. Photo from transect 7. B. Coral diversity is also high in this
zone. Many fish species that are characteristic of reef habitats are common in zone IV, such as
the rock beauty, Holacanthus tricolor, pictured here. Photo from transect 8.



A.


























B.


















LI
*. -9 _






F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix 45
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005

Figure 7. Location of observed habitat zone transition points on NOAA benthic habitat map.
Each black circle represents an observed transition point between habitat zones (as defined in
this study) along cross-shelf, towed diver transects (straight lines). Colored polygons show
habitat types from NOAA maps (Kendall et al. 2001) as follows: land (gray), colonized bedrock
(yellow), colonized pavement (orange), sand (white), colonized pavement with sand channels
(pink), scattered coral/rock in unconsolidated sediment (brown), linear reef (red) and
unknown/overdepth (blue).









F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix 46
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005


Figure 8. Depth profiles across towed-diver transects. Partial transects (#0 and #9) are not

included. Note: scale of y-axis is expanded 10-fold relative to x-axis.
0

-5

-50

S-15 Transect 1

-20
0

S-5 "-----

-10

8--15 Transect 2

-20
0

-5

S-10

-15- Transect 3

-20






0



-10

S-15 Transect 4

-20
0



-10

-15 Transect 5






20 200 400 60




-Distae
-10 -

S-15 Transect 76

-20 -
0








-10 -






-15 Transect 8
-20 -
-5






0 200 400 600 800 1000
Distance (m)






F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix 47
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005

Figure 9. Location of 27 roving diver survey (RDS) sites. Fish surveys were conducted
in four different habitat zones (see text). Habitat zones are color coded as follows: zone I
(red), zone II (yellow), zone III (black), zone IV (white). See also Appendix 5.








F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix 48
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005

Figure 10. Average fish species richness observed in four habitat zone (n=8 surveys per habitat
zone). Richness was calculated from all species observations (gray columns) or after excluding
those species which were observed in only one replicate survey from each habitat (white
columns). Error bars show +/- one standard deviation.



80
Dall observations
D excluding single observations
6 60
2)


.
0 40o
c,,



6 20




0
0 .- --- -- ----- -- -- --- -- -- -- --


Zone I


Zone II Zone III


Zone IV









F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix 49
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005


Figure 12. Observed distribution ofparrotfish species among habitat zones. The y-axis shows

average abundance index (AI; see text) determined from roving diver surveys (error bars=SEM).



5-- 5
bucktooth parrotfish redband parrotfish
4 Sparisoma radians 4 Sparisoma aurofrenatum







a mi


Ill IV


5
unidentified juvenile
4 Sparisoma sp.

3

2


0O


5
redtail parrotfish
4 Sparisoma chrysopterum

3

2







5
striped parrotfish
4 Scarus iserti


III IV



yellowtail parrotfish
Sparisoma rubripinne








III IV













III IV


II
II


I II


5
stoplight parrotfish
4 Sparisoma viride

3

2



0-
I II

5
princess parrotfish
4 Scarus taeniopterus

3

2

1

0 -
I I

5
queen parrotfish
4 Scarus vetula

3

2



0 -
I II

5
greenblotch parrotfish
4 Sparisoma atomarium


III IV


Il IV


3

2




I II III IV







F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix 50
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005



Figure 13. Observed distribution of selected serranid, lutjanid and haemulid species among
habitat zones. The y-axis shows average abundance index (AI; see text) determined from roving
diver surveys (error bars=SEM).


Cephalopholis fulvus


Cephalopholis cruentatus


Lutjanus apodus







II III


Epinephelus guttatus


Lutjanus mahogani


TI -


Serranus tigrinus


2
1

0
II


Haemulon chrysargyreum


I1


II Ill


Haemulon plumieri


Haemulon flavolineatum


II III IV


5
Ocyurus chrysurus
4
3
2


0 M


III IV







F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005


Appendix 1. Roving Diver Survey (RDS) data from habitat zone I intertidal/shallow subtidal.


Common Name Species


ocean surgeonfish
doctorfish
blue tang
hardhead silverside
trumpetfish
flat needlefish
keeltail needlefish
pearl blenny
redlip blenny
molly miller
peacock flounder
blue runner
horse-eye jack
bar jack
permit
palometa
banded butterflyfish
redear sardine
dwarf herring
balloonfish
porcupinefish
Irish pompano
spotfin mojarra
mottled mojarra
yellowfin majorra
frillfin goby
nineline goby
greenbanded goby
unident. juvenile grunts
black margate
tomtate
caesar grunt
smallmouth grunt
french grunt
spanish grunt
sailors choice
bluestriped grunt
squirrelfish
longspine squirrelfish
reef squirrelfish
dusky squirrelfish
chub
slippery dick
clown wrasse
blackear wrasse
pudding wife
bluehead wrasse
palehead blenny
hairy blenny
goldline blenny
dusky blenny
saddled blenny
schoolmaster
gray snapper
mahogany snapper
yellowtail snapper
orangespotted filefish


Acanthurus bahianus
Acanthurus chirurgus
Acanthurus coeruleus
Atherinomorus stipes
Aulostomus maculatus
Ablennes hians
Platybelone argalus
Entomacrodus nigricans
Ophioblennius atlanticus
Scartella cristata
Bothus lunatus
Caranx crysos
Caranx latus
Caranx rubber


Trachinotus falcatus
Trachinotus goodei
Chaetodon striatus
Harengula humeralis
Jenkinsia lamprotaenia
Diodon holocanthus
Diodon hystrix
Diapterus auratus
Eucinostomus argenteus
Eucinostomus leyfroi
Gerres cinereus
Bathygobius soprator
Ginsburgellus novemlineatus
Gobiosoma multifasciatum
Haemulon sp.
Anisotremus surinamensis
Haemulon aurolineatum
Haemulon carbonarium
Haemulon chrysargyreum
Haemulonflavolineatum
Haemulon macrostomus
Haemulon parra
Haemulon sciurus
Holocentrus adcensionis
Holocentrus rufus
Sargocentron coruscum
Sargocentron vexillarium
Kyphosus sectatrix/incisor
Halichoeres bivittatus
Halichoeres maculipinna
Halichoeres poeyi
Halichoeres radiatus
Thalassoma bifasciatum
Labrisomus gobio
Labrisomus nuchipinnis
Malacoctenus aurolineatus
Malacoctenus gilli
Malacoctenus triangulatus
Luganus apodus
Luganus griseus
Luganus mahogoni
Ocyurus chrysurus
Cantherhines pullus


SiteT R-1 R-2 R-3 R-4 R-5
TransectT T-3 T-5 T-7 T-7 T-8
Date 1/17 1/23 2/24 2/24 3/1


2 3 4 5
4* 4* 3 4*


R-6 R-7 R-8
T-4 T-0/1 T-2


RDS No.T 1
3*
1*
3*
0
0
0
0
1
3
2
1
2
2
3
0
2
0
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
2
0
0
0
2*
2
3
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
4
2
2
0
4
0
2
2
0
0
2
0
2*
2*
0


3/12 3/13 3/19
6 7 8
5* 4* 4*
2* 2* 0
2 2* 3*
4 5 5
0 1 1
0 0 0
0 2 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
3 0 3
2 0 2
0 1 0
1 2 3
1* 2* 0
5 0 0
5 5 5
0 0 0
1 1 2
0 0 0
2 0 0
3 3 3
2 0 1
2 2 2
2 2 0
2 1 0
0 3 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
1* 0 1*
0 3 2
4 4 4
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 2
2 3 1
0 1 3
4 4 5
3 4 3
2 2 2
2 3 3
4 4 5
2 0 0
2 2 1
2 2 2
2 2 0
0 1 1
0 2* 2
0 0 1
3* 3* 3*
0 0 0
2 2 0







F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005


Appendix 1. continued.
Sitef R-1 R-2 R-3 R-4 R-5 R-6 R-7 R-8
Transectt T-3 T-5 T-7 T-7 T-8 T-4 T-0/1 T-2
Date 1/17 1/23 2/24 2/24 3/1 3/12 3/13 3/19
Common Name Species RDSNo.f 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
slender filefish Monacanthus tuckeri 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
white mullet Mugil curema 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
yellow goatfish Mulloidichthys martinicus 2* 4* 3* 3* 3* 0 3* 3*
spotted goatfish Psuedupeneus maculatus 0 2* 3* 2* 3* 2* 3* 2*
chain moray Echidna catenata 1 2 0 0 2 0 0 0
spotted moray Gymnothorax moringa 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
honeycomb cowfish Acanthostracion ploygonia 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
spotted trunkfish Lactophrys bicaudalis 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
smooth trunkfish Lactophrys triqueter 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
glassy sweeper Pempheris schomburgki 2 2 0 0 2 1 3 4
french angelfish Pomacanthus paru 1* 0 0 0 0 1* 0 0
sergeant major Abudietfsaxatilis 4* 4* 3* 1* 3* 3 4* 3*
night sergeant Abudethduftaurus 2 3 3 2 2 2 4 4
yellowtail damselfish Microspathodon chrysurus 2 0 0 2 0 0 3 0
dusky damselfish Stegastes adustus 3 4 4 2 4 3 4 4
beaugregory Stegastes leucostictus 2 2 2 2 3 2 0 0
unident. juvenile scarids Sparisoma sp. 0 0 4 3 0 0 0 0
striped parrotfish Scarus iserti 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
bucktooth parrotfish Sparisoma radians 0 0 3 2 2 0 0 0
yellowtail parrotfish Sparisoma rubripinne 3 4 4* 2 4* 4* 3 3
highhat Pareques acuminatus 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0
sand drum Umbrina coroides 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0
spotted scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri 2 1 1 0 0 2 2 0
greater soapfish Rypticus saponaceus 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
great barracuda Sphyraena barracuda 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
sand diver Synodus intermedius 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1
sharpnose puffer Canthigaster rostrata 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
bandtail puffer Sphoeroides spengleri 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
checkered puffer Sphoeroides testudineus 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Totals (n = 86 taxa) 43 47 38 28 40 46 45 44

Asterisks (*) indicate counts where recruits or juveniles were observed to be more abundant than adults of the same species.
T Refer to Appendix 5.

















I


F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005


Appendix 2. Roving Diver Survey (RDS) data from habitat zone II inshore low relief


Sitef R-9 R-10 R-11 R-11 R-12 R-13 R-14 R-15
Transectf T-3 T-1 T-7 T-7 T4 T8-9 T-8 T-6
Date 1/16 1/30 2/24 2/24 3/18 3/25 3/27 4/2
RDS No.T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
4* 4 4 3 5* 5* 5* 5*
2 0 2 3* 2 2 3 3*
4* 2 2 3 3 3 3 2
2 2 2 0 2 3 2 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 2 0 2 3 3 2 0
0 0 1 0 1 1 2 2
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 1 0 0 2 2 3 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0
0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0
0 2 0 0 2 2 2 0
0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 2 2 0 2 2 0 2
0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1
2 0 2 0 2* 2 3* 2*
5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
0 0 0 0 2 0 3 2
m 4 2 2 0 3 3 2 3
4 3 3 0 4 3 3 3
0 3 3 0 3 2 3 2
0 1 3 2 2* 3 1 3
3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 2 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 2 0 2 2 0 2
0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0
2 1 3 2 2 3 3 3
0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2
0 1 0 0 0 2 1 2
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
2 2 2 0 3 4 3 3
2 2 2 0 3 3 2 2
2 0 2 2 2 2 2 3
4 5 4 4 5 5 5 5
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 2 1 3 2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0
1 2 3 2 2 3 4 2
2* 0 3* 3* 3 3* 3 3*


Species


Common Name


ocean surgeonfish
doctorfish
blue tang
flamefish
hardhead silverside
trumpetfish
queen triggerfish
flat needlefish
redlip blenny
peacock flounder
eyed flounder
blue runner
horse-eye jack
bar jack
bigeye scad
mackerel scad
spinyhead blenny
sailfin blenny
foureye butterflyfish
spotfin butterflyfish
banded butterflyfish
redear sardine
dwarf herring
brown garden eel
southern stingray
balloonfish
porcupinefish
bluespotted cornetfish
mottled mojarra
yellowfin majorra
bridled goby
goldspot goby
unident. juvenile grunts
caesar grunt
french grunt
cottonwick
white grunt
bluestriped grunt
ballyhoo
squirrelfish
longspine squirrelfish
blackbar soldierfish
reef squirrelfish
dusky squirrelfish
slippery dick
yellowhead wrasse
clown wrasse
blackear wrasse
pudding wife
bluehead wrasse
rosy razorfish
green razorfish
goldline blenny
dusky blenny
rosy blenny
saddled blenny
mahogany snapper


Acanthurus bahianus
Acanthurus chirurgus
Acanthurus coeruleus
Apogon maculatus
Atherinomorus stipes
Aulostomus maculatus
Balistes vetula
Ablennes hians
Ophioblennius atlanticus
Bothus lunatus
Bothus ocellatus
Caranx crysos
Caranx latus
Caranx ruber
Selar Crumenophthalmus
Decapterus macarellus
Acanthemblemaria spinosa
Emblemaria pandonis
Chaetodon capistratus
Chaetodon ocellatus
Chaetodon striatus
Harengula humeralis
Jenkinsia lamprotaenia
Heteroconger longissimus
Dasyatis americana
Diodon holocanthus
Diodon hystrix
Fistularia tabacaria
Eucinostomus leyfroi
Gerres cinereus
Coryphopterus glaucofrenatu
Gnatholepis thompsoni
Haemulon sp.
Haemulon carbonarium
Haemulon flavolineatum
Haemulon melanurum
Haemulon plumieri
Haemulon sciurus
Hemiramphus brasiliensis
Holocentrus adcensionis
Holocentrus rufus
Myripristis jacobus
Sargocentron coruscum
Sargocentron vexillarium
Halichoeres bivittatus
Halichoeres gamoti
Halichoeres maculipinna
Halichoeres poeyi
Halichoeres radiatus
Thalassoma bifasciatum
Xyrichtys martinicus
Xyrichtvs splendens
Malacoctenus aurolineatus
Malacoctenus gilli
Malacoctenus macropus
Malacoctenus triangulatus
Lutjanus mahogoni







F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005


Appendix 2. continued.
Sitef R-9 R-10 R-11 R-11 R-12 R-13 R-14 R-15
Transect? T-3 T-1 T-7 T-7 T4 T8-9 T-8 T-6
Date 1/16 1/30 2/24 2/24 3/18 3/25 3/27 4/2
Common Name Species RDS No. ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


lane snapper
yellowtail snapper
sand tilefish
whitespotted filefish
orangespotted filefish
slender filefish
yellow goatfish
spotted goatfish
chain moray
goldentail moray
spotted moray
sharptail eel
unident. jawfish
honeycomb cowfish
spotted trunkfish
trunkfish
smooth trunkfish
queen angelfish
french angelfish
sergeant major
brown chromis
dusky damselfish
longfin damselfish
beaugregory
bicolor damselfish
threespot damselfish
unident. juvenile scarids
redband parrotfish
redtail parrotfish
bucktooth parrotfish
yellowtail parrotfish
stoplight parrotfish
highhat
cero mackerel
spotted scorpionfish
reef scorpionfish
graysby
coney
red hind
greater soapfish
lantern bass
tobacco fish
harlequin bass
saucereye porgy
great barracuda
sand diver
sharpnose puffer
bandtail puffer
checkered puffer


Luotanus synagris
Ocyurus chrysurus
Malacanthus plumieri
Cantherhines macrocerus
Cantherhines pullus
Monacanthus tuckeri
Mulloidichthys martinicus
Psuedupeneus maculatus
Echidna catenata
Gymnothorax miliaris
Gymnothorax moringa
Myrichthys breviceps
Opistognathus sp.
Acanthostracion ploygonia
Lactophrys bicaudalis
Lactophrys trigonus
Lactophrys triqueter
Holacanthus ciliaris
Pomacanthus paru
A budletlufsaxatilis
Chromis multilineata
Stegastes adustus
Stegastes diencaeus
Stegastes leucostictus
Stegastes partitus
Stegastes planifrons
Sparisoma sp.
Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Sparisoma chrysopterum
Sparisoma radians
Sparisoma rubripinne
Sparisoma viride
Pareques acuminatus
Scomberomorus regalis
Scorpaena plumieri
Scorpaenodes caribbaeus
Cephalopholis cruentatus
Cephalopholisfulvus
Epinephelus guttatus
Rypticus saponaceus
Serranus baldwini
Serranus tabacarius
Serranus tigrinus
Calamus calamus
Sphyraena barracuda
Synodus intermedius
Canthigaster rostrata
Sphoeroides spengleri
Sphoeroides testudineus


Totals (n = 106 taxa)


49 45 51 44 50 54 57 54


Asterisks (*) indicate counts where recruits or juveniles were observed to be more abundant than adults of the same species.
T Refer to Appendix 5.







F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005


Appendix 3. Roving Diver Survey (RDS) data from habitat zone III transitional/patch reef.


Common Name


ocean surgeonfish
doctorfish
blue tang
barred cardinalfish
flamefish
trumpetfish
queen triggerfish
redlip blenny
bar jack
mackerel scad
spinyhead blenny
foureye butterflyfish
spotfin butterflyfish
banded butterflyfish
redspotted hawkfish
dwarf herring
brown garden eel
southern stingray
web burrfish
balloonfish
nurse shark
bridled goby
peppermint goby
masked/glass goby
sharknose goby
goldspot goby
shortstripe goby
broadstripe goby
fairy basslet
caesar grunt
french grunt
white grunt
bluestriped grunt
ballyhoo
squirrelfish
longspine squirrelfish
blackbar soldierfish
longjaw squirrelfish
spanish hogfish
creole wrasse
slippery dick
yellowhead wrasse
clown wrasse
rainbow wrasse
pudding wife
bluehead wrasse
rosy blenny
saddled blenny
mutton snapper
schoolmaster
gray snapper
mahogany snapper
yellowtail snapper
sand tilefish
whitespotted filefish
orangespotted filefish
yellow goatfish


SiteT R-16 R-17 R-18 R-18 R-19 R-20 R-21 R-21
TransectT T-1 T-3 T-2 T-2 T-5 T-4 T-7 T-7
Date 4/22 1/17 3/9 3/9 4/11 4/13 4/15 4/15
Species RDSNo.f 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Acanthurus bahianus 4 5 3 4 4 5 4 3
Acanthurus chirurgus 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 2
Acanthurus coeruleus 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3
Apogon binotatus 3 0 2 0 0 3 3 0
Apogon maculatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Aulostomus maculatus 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Balistes vetula 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0
Ophioblennius atlanticus 2 3 0 0 2 2 0 0
Caranxruber 0 3 2 3 2 2 2 2
Decapterus macarellus 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
Acanthemblemaria spinosa 2 2 0 0 2 2 2 0
Chaetodon capistratus 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3
Chaetodon ocellatus 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Chaetodon striatus 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2
Amblycirrhitus pinos 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
Jenkinsia lamprotaenia 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0
Heteroconger longissimus 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
Dasyatis americana 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Chilomycterus antillarum 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
Diodon holocanthus 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
Ginglymostoma cirratum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Coryphopterus glaucofrenatum 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 3
Coryphopterus lipemes 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Coryphopterus personatus/hyalinus 3 0 3 2 0 3 3 4
Elacatinus evelynae 2 0 2 0 3 2 2 2
Gnatholepis thompsoni 4 3 4 0 3 3 3 2
Gobiosoma chance 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
Gobiosoma prochilos 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Gramma loreto 2 0 2 0 0 2 0 2
Haemulon carbonarium 2 3 1 2 2 0 1 0
Haemulonflavolineatum 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 3
Haemulon plumieri 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 1
Haemulon sciurus 2 2 2 0 0 2 2 0
Hemiramphus brasiliensis 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
Holocentrus adcensionis 2 3 0 0 0 0 2 2
Holocentrus rufus 2 0 2 2 2 2 2 0
Myripristisjacobus 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 0
Neoniphon marianus 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
Bodianus rufus 2 1 3 2 0 2 2 1
Clepticus parrae 3 0 4 3 0 0 0 0
Halichoeres bivittatus 4 3 4 3 5 5 4 4
Halichoeres gamoti 4 0 5 4 4 4 4 3
Halichoeres maculipinna 3 0 0 3 3 3 2 2
Halichoeres pictus 2 0 0 1 3 2 2 0
Halichoeres radiatus 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 0
Thalassoma bifasciatum 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 4
Malacoctenus macropus 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Malacoctenus triangulatus 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
Luganus analis 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Luganus apodus 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Luganus griseus 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Luganus mahogoni 3 0 1 2 2 2 1 2
Ocyurus chrysurus 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1
Malacanthus plumieri 2 0 2 3 2 2 2 3
Cantherhines macrocerus 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
Cantherhines pullus 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0
Mulloidichthys martinicus 3 3 2 2 2 2 0 0







F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project 56
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005

Appendix 3. continued.
Sitef R-16 R-17 R-18 R-18 R-19 R-20 R-21 R-21
Transectf T-1 T-3 T-2 T-2 T-5 T-4 T-7 T-7
Date 4/22 1/17 3/9 3/9 4/11 4/13 4/15 4/15
Common Name Species RDS No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
spotted goatfish Psuedupeneus maculatus 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 1
spotted moray Gymnothorax moringa 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
yellowheadjawfish Opistognathus aurifrons 2 0 2 0 2 2 2 0
honeycomb cowfish Acanthostracion ploygonia 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
spotted trunkfish Lactophrys bicaudalis 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1
smooth trunkfish Lactophrys triqueter 0 2 1 2 0 1 1 2
queen angelfish Holacanthus ciliaris 0 2* 0 0 0 1 0 1*
rock beauty Holacanthus tricolor 2 0 2 2 2 0 2 1
french angelfish Pomacanthus paru 2* 2* 1* 2* 0 0 0 0







F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix 57
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005

Appendix 4. Roving Diver Survey (RDS) data from habitat zone IV reef crest.
SiteT R-22 R-23 R-24 R-23 R-25 R-26 R-26 R-27
TransectT T4 T-8 T3 T-8 T-7 T-5 T-5 T-1
Date 3/3 3/22 3/3 3/22 4/6 4/15 4/15 4/21
Common Name Species RDS No. ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ocean surgeonfish Acanthurus bahianus 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3
doctorfish Acanthurus chirurgus 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 4
blue tang Acanthurus coeruleus 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4
trumpetfish Aulostomus maculatus 2 2 0 2 2 2 2 2
queen triggerfish Balistes vetula 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
black durgon Melichthys niger 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 0
peacock flounder Bothus lunatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
barjack Caranx ruber 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 3
mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus 0 3 0 0 0 3 0 0
spinyhead blenny Acanthemblemaria spinosa 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
longsnout butterflyfish Chaetodon aculeatus 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 0
foureye butterflyfish Chaetodon capistratus 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3
reef butterflyfish Chaetodon sedentarius 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
banded butterflyfish Chaetodon striatus 2 2 3 0 2 0 2 2
redspotted hawkfish Amblycirrhitus pinos 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
brown garden eel Heteroconger longissimus 0 4 0 4 0 0 0 4
southern stingray Dasyatis americana 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0
web burrfish Chilomycterus antillarum 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
balloonfish Diodon holocanthus 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
porcupinefish Diodon hystrix 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
yellowfin majorra Gerres cinereus 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
bridled goby Coryphopterus glaucofrenatum 3 3 2 3 0 3 3 3
peppermint goby Coryphopterus lipemes 0 2 0 2 4 2 0 2
masked/glass goby Coryphopterus personatus/hyalinus 5 5 0 4 5 5 5 5
cleaning goby Elacatinus genie 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
sharknose goby Elacatinus evelynae 2 3 0 0 2 2 0 2
goldspot goby Gnatholepis thompsoni 3 3 0 0 0 2 2 3
shortstripe goby Gobiosoma chance 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
fairy basslet Gramma loreto 2 3 0 3 0 3 2 3
porkfish Anisotremus virginicus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
caesar grunt Haemulon carbonarium 1 2 2 0 1 2 2 2
smallmouth grunt Haemulon chrysargyreum 4 2 4 2 0 0 0 3
french grunt Haemulonflavolineatum 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4
spanish grunt Haemulon macrostomus 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
white grunt Haemulon plumieri 2 2 1 0 1 1 2 2
bluestriped grunt Haemulon sciurus 1 2 0 2 1 1 0 2
squirrelfish Holocentrus adcensionis 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
longspine squirrelfish Holocentrus rufus 2 3 3 3 0 2 2 2
blackbar soldierfish Myripristis jacobus 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2
longjaw squirrelfish Neoniphon marianus 2 2 3 0 2 2 0 2
cardinal soldierfish Plectrypops retrospinis 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
dusky squirrelfish Sargocentron vexillarium 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
boga Inermia vittata 0 0 0 0 3 4 4 0
spanish hogfish Bodianus rufus 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2
creole wrasse Clepticus parrae 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 5
slippery dick Halichoeres bivittatus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
yellowhead wrasse Halichoeres gamoti 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 4
clown wrasse Halichoeres maculipinna 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 2
rainbow wrasse Halichoeres pictus 2 2 0 0 0 2 0 0
pudding wife Halichoeres radiatus 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
bluehead wrasse Thalassoma bifasciatum 3 5 5 4 5 5 5 5
schoolmaster Lutganus apodus 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 3
gray snapper Lutganus griseus 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
mahogany snapper Lutganus mahogoni 1 3 0 3 3 2 2 3
yellowtail snapper Ocyurus chrysurus 1 0 2 2 0 1 0 0
sand tilefish Malacanthus plumieri 1 2 1 2 0 0 0 2
scrawled filefish Aluterus scripta 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1


















I


Species
Cantherhines macrocerus
Cantherhines pullus
M2/ulloidichthys martinicus
Psuedupeneus maculatus
Gymnothorax mor'nga
Acanthostracion ploygonia
Lactophrys bicaudalis
Lactophrys triqueter
Holacanthus cilia's
Holacanthus tricolor
Pomacanthus paru
A~budertdurfsaxatilis
Chromis cyanea
Chromis multilineata
M2/icrospathodon chrysurus
Stegastes adustus
Stegastes diencaeus
Stegastes leucostictus
Stegastes partitus
Stegastes planifrons
Stegastes var'abilis
Heteropriacanthus cruentatu
Priacanthus arenatus
Scarus isertz
Scarus taeniopterus
Scarus vetula
Sparisoma atomarium
Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Sparisoma chrysopterum
Sparisoma rubripinne
Sparisoma viride
Equetus punctatus
Odontoscion dented
Scomberomorus regais
Scorpaena plumieri
Cephalopholis cruentatus
Cephalopholis fulvus
Epinephelus adcensionis
Epinephelus guttatus
Hypoplectrus chlorurus
Hypoplectrus guttavarius
Hypoplectrus indigo
Hypoplectrus nigricans
Hypoplectrus puella
Hypoplectrus unicolor
Liopropoma rubre
Serranus tabacar'us
Serranus tigr'nus
Sphyraena barracuda
Sphyraena picudilla
Synodus intermedius
Canthigaster rostrata
Sphoeroides spengleri


I


Totals (n =110 taxa)


F-7 Final Report, Recreational Fisheries Habitat Assessment Project
Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Period: FY-2004 to FY-2005


Sitef R-22 R-23 R-24 R-23 R-25 R-26 R-26 R-27
Transectf T4 T-8 T3 T-8 T-7 T-5 T-5 T-1
Date 3/3 3/22 3/3 3/22 4/6 4/15 4/15 4/21
RDS No."f 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 1 022 00 1
1 00 01 00 1
3 43 33 23 4
1 22 01 21 0
0 10 00 00 0
1 11 22 00 1
0 0 011 02 1
0 12 2 112 0
0 01 00 00 0
1 22 02 2 00
1* 0 0 0 1 0 2 0
3 23 03 3 04
4 55 55 54 4
4 54 44 54 5
1 200 0 02 0
0 03 03 03 2
3 33 2 033 3
2 23 2 023 3
4 55 55 54 5
3 54 44 44 4
2 00 01 00 0
s2 2 010 1 02
0 00 01 01 0
3 43 24 33 4
3 44 34 44 4
3 33 33 23 3
0 0 002 33 0
4 43 33 43 4
0 00 0 11 02
0 11 1 02 02
4 33 23 43 3
1 12 00 2 00
0 0 010 00 0
1 02 02 02 0
0 10 00 00 0
3 44 23 33 3
2 33 3 13 12
0 1 010 0 01
0 02 00 00 0
2 00 2 122 0
0 00 01 00 0
0 00 01 00 0
1 2 010 0 02
2 23 22 22 2
0 110 1 02 1
1 0 010 00 0
1 00 00 00 0
2 33 2 022 2
0 10 00 00 0
2 00 00 00 0
2 22 00 0 12
2 02 22 34 3
0 00 0 010 0
68 73 53 56 61 62 57 67


Common Name
whitespotted filefish
orangespotted filefish
yellow goatfish
spotted goatfish
spotted moray
honeycomb cowfish
spotted trunkfish
smooth trunkfish
queen angelfish
rock beauty
french angelfish
sergeant major
blue chromis
brown chromis
yellowtail damselfish
dusky damselfish
longfin damselfish
beaugregory
bicolor damselfish
threespot damselfish
cocoa damselfish
glasseye snapper
bigeye
striped parrotfish
princess parrotfish
queen parrotfish
greenblotch parrotfish
redband parrotfish
redtail parrotfish
yellowtail parrotfish
stoplight parrotfish
spotted drum
reef croaker
cero mackerel
spotted scorpionfish
graysby
coney
rock hind
red hind
yellowtail hamlet
shy hamlet
indigo hamlet
black hamlet
barred hamlet
butter hamlet
peppermint basslet
tobacco fish
harlequin bass
great barracuda
southern sennet
sand diver
sharpnose puffer
bandtail puffer


Asterisks (*) indicate counts where recruits or juveniles were observed to be more abundant than adults of the same species.
? Refer to Appendix 5.


Appendix 4. continued.






F-7, Study 3, Patterns of Habitat Utilization by Reef Fish on St. Croix
Habitat Surveys of the Frederiksted Reef System
Period: October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2005


Appendix 5. GPS coordinates ofRDS fish survey sites.
Position (Degrees)
Name Latitude, N Longitude, W Description


RDS Site 1 at Transect 3, Zone 1
RDS Site 2 at Transect 5, Zone I
RDS Site 3 at Transect 7, Zone I
RDS Site 4 at Transect 7, Zone I
RDS Site 5 at Transect 8, Zone I
RDS Site 6 at Transect 4, Zone I
RDS Site 7 at Transect 1, Zone I
RDS Site 8 at Transect 2, Zone I
RDS Site 9 at Transect 3, Zone II


R-1
R-2
R-3
R-4
R-5
R-6
R-7
R-8
R-9
R-10
R-11
R-12
R-13
R-14
R-15
R-16
R-17
R-18
R-19
R-20
R-21
R-22
R-23
R-24
R-25
R-26
R-27


43.397'
43.545'
44.065'
43.956'
44.183'
43.620'
43.167'
43.293'
43.362'
43.238'
43.993'
43.574'
44.244'
44.165'
43.810'
43.180'
43.287'
43.307'
43.639'
43.504'
43.958'
43.515'
44.049'
43.256'
43.858'
43.642'
43.208'


53.158'
53.205'
53.379'
53.362'
53.417'
53.233'
53.077'
53.116'
53.178'
53.145'
53.446'
53.279'
53.512'
53.462'
53.352'
53.289'
53.302'
53.358'
53.496'
53.492'
53.563'
53.648'
53.715'
53.625'
53.749'
53.688'
53.416'


RDS Site
RDS Site
RDS Site
RDS Site
RDS Site
RDS Site
RDS Site
RDS Site
RDS Site
RDS Site


10 at Transect 1, Zone II
11 at Transect 7, Zone II (2 surveys)
12 at Transect 4, Zone II
13 at Transect 8, Zone II
14 at Transect 8, Zone II
15 at Transect 6, Zone II
16 at Transect 1, Zone III
17 at Transect 3, Zone III
18 at Transect 2, Zone III (2 surveys)
19 at Transect 5, Zone III


RDS Site 20 at Transect 4, Zone III
RDS Site 21 at Transect 7, Zone III (2 surveys)
RDS Site 22 at Transect 4, Zone IV
RDS Site 23 at Transect 8, Zone IV (2 surveys)
RDS Site 24 at Transect 3, Zone IV
RDS Site 25 at Transect 7, Zone IV
RDS Site 26 at Transect 5, Zone IV (2 surveys)
RDS Site 2 at Transect 1, Zone IV




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