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Title: Results of St. Thomas/St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands artificial reef monitoring surveys (October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005)
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Title: Results of St. Thomas/St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands artificial reef monitoring surveys (October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005)
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Language: English
Creator: Gordon, Shenell
Publisher: Division of Fish and Wildlife, Department of Planning and Natural Resources
Place of Publication: St. Croix, USVI
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Bibliographic ID: CA01300953
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of the Virgin Islands
Holding Location: University of the Virgin Islands
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Tables
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Figures
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Appendix
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
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Full Text


F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring

F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands

Study 3. Monitoring Artificial Reefs.


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F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


INTRODUCTION

The practice of placing foreign structures into aquatic environments for the purpose of attracting
and increasing catches of fish has been long standing. Traditionally, man has been creating
artificial reefs unintentionally or intentionally for centuries to enhance fishing or to improve the
environment (Carstairs 1988). More recent applications of artificial reefs include the protection
of existing natural reefs, restoration or enhancement of water and habitat quality, mitigation of
habitat damage, environmental and eco-tourism enhancement, shoreline stabilization, and
enhancement of fishery production and harvest (Seaman 2000).

Despite their popular uses, their value has long been a topic of hot debate. It has been suggested
that artificial reefs enhance underwater habitat and fish production while alleviating pressure on
the area's natural reefs (Polovina 1994). On the other hand, it has also been suggested that
artificial reefs simply aggregate fish, which can lead to over-exploition of fish populations
(Polovina 1994).

If habitat is limited, artificial reefs may increase fish production by: (1) increasing foraging
habitat for adult and juvenile fishes; (2) increasing the nesting habitat for adult fishes; and (3)
increasing the amount of resting habitat and refuges from predators (Grossman et al 1997). As a
result, stock sizes of economically important species may increase resulting in benefits to both
recreational and commercial fishers.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


In FY2001, divers attempted to identify artificial reef structures at the artificial reef site southeast
of Saba Island, St. Thomas (Figure 1). The originally permitted artificial reef site was one
square nautical mile. The area permitted in 2005 was about 0.2 square nautical mile. The


specifications for the locations of the artificial ree
Many were line of sight triangulations or very rou
these early diver investigations were not very suc(
able to locate underwater structures in the area. V
of Saba Island, St. Thomas is between 25 and 30 1
those depths was limited. Divers were not able to

In February 2002, the artificial reef site southeast
sonar in a collaborative effort with the EPA's ves!
the artificial reef site was created using Delph Ma
geo-referenced map of targets in the site was creal
the mosaic, potential targets were labeled 1 to 165
than a few square meters in size) and were consid
were not considered major artificial reef sites, and
of these sites were from different side scan sonar ]
overlayed in the mosaic, a single target might be i
The single target would show up as two different
(see below) resolved these issues for major artific
artificial reef site, objects were easily located.

Between April and July 2002, most objects in the
documented. The protocol used for locating a sut

1. A SCUBA diver was dropped into the wat
structure.
2. The SCUBA diver swam at a depth of 10 1
at the bottom (25 to 30 m). At a depth of
bottom at 25 to 30 m and any structures or
3. Once the target was found, the diver drop:
marker to the target.


*ures at this site were extremely,
tude and longitude records. A!


4. New GPS coordinates were taken from the boat at the surface marker using a hand held
WAAS GPS.
5. After the surface marker was attached, a team of divers surveyed the target.

During these initial FY2002 surveys, qualitative visual censuses were conducted by SCUBA
divers. At each artificial reef structure, fish and invertebrate species were recorded. For
comparison, divers also identified and recorded species away from the artificial reef structure.
Divers also noted the depth, size, material type, and possible movement of each target. Digital
video and photos were taken at each site as well.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


During these initial surveys, all targets were located and surveyed. In subsequent years
(FY2003, FY2004, and FY2005), budget limitations allowed only repeat dive surveys on about
one-third of the targets per year.

In FY2004, quantitative random swim surveys were employed. This was possible because DFW
staff had become certified in NITROX, which allowed greater bottom time. The extended
bottom dive time allowed divers to conduct more thorough surveys. These surveys started at a
random location on the selected reef site. A ten to 20 minute timed search was conducted in
FY2004 and a 20 minute timed search was conducted in FY2005. During these surveys, fish
species were identified and counted. One timed dive survey was completed for each target.

During the timed survey, a second diver recorded invertebrates and algae on the artificial reef
and away from the artificial reef structure. No transect line was used during these timed diver
surveys. Photo and video documentation were taken during the surveys and later reviewed to
help compile species list.

The state of the structure and diversity of associated species at the site and away from the site
(including fish, coral and algae) were noted during artificial reef surveys for each sample year.
Site GPS coordinates, wreck size, conditions, and year of survey are presented in Table 1.
Detailed species list for all artificial reef structures over the survey years (FY2001 to FY2005)
are presented in the Appendix Tables. Results of timed swim surveys which provided fish
counts (abundance) were available for respected year only (FY2004 and FY2005).

In FY2004, a GIS database and an ArcView map were created for St. Thomas artificial reefs.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


fish are associated with the barge. The most abundant species is Haemulon aurolineatum. A
large cubera snapper, Lutjanus cyanopterus, and red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, were also
encountered. There were 19 fish species of 16 genera and 19 invertebrate species of 17 genera
(Table 2).

The surrounding area was predominately a rodolith and Lobphhora variegata community with
low relief. Solitary invertebrates, mostly erect rope sponges and barrel sponges, were present
within the rhodolith community.

Target 20 (18017.995'N, 64058.752'W) Target 20 is an upside down sailboat (Figure 4). It
was surveyed in 2002 and 2004. This target is in 26.5 m of water. The sailboat is fairly broken
up but does not show signs of movement.

Numerous fishes and lobsters were encountered on this wreck. A diver conducted a fish survey
in 2004 during which all fish encountered with the wreck were recorded. A total of 269
individuals were observed by the diver representing 14 families. The number of fish minute-1
varied by species but the most abundant species was Haemulon aurolineatum with 5.33 fish
minute' In 2002 fish were not enumerated but species richness was greater in 2002 than in
2004 (Table 3).

Inverebrates and algae were also recorded. In 2004, 16 invertebrate species from the same
number of genera were recorded while in 2002 only 14 from 14 genera were recorded (Table 3).
Algal richness increased slightly in 2004 from 2002 (Table 3).

Target 22 (18017.945'N, 64058.708'W) Target 22 is a pile of steel debris (Figure 5). It was
surveyed in 2002 and 2004. The same GPS coordinates were used to locate the debris both years
indicating that there has been no significant movement. There was no evidence of the objects
moving after being scuttled. The debris is in 26.5 m of water. The dimensions of the pile were
roughly 15.5 m by 9.8 m (area = 151.9 m2).

Several fish species use the debris pile as cover. A 10-minute timed search survey in 2004 was
conducted for fish associated with the artificial reef. The most abundant species recorded was
Holocentrus adscensionis with 50 individuals and 2.50 fish minute' A total of 246 individuals
representing 11 families, 18 genera, and 20 species were recorded. In 2002 species richness and
genera were greater, with 30 species and 24 genera reported, than 2004 (Table 4). Species
richness was greater in 2004 for both invertebrates and algae than it was in 2002 (Table 4).

Target 25 (18017.811'N, 64059.501'W) Target 25 is a large steel barge (Figures 6 and 7). It
was surveyed in 2002, 2004 and 2005. The steel barge has dimensions of 42 m x 11 m (area =
462 m2). The barge is in 26.5 m of water and is in good condition. There were no signs of
movement over the years. The hull of the barge has several panels missing which allows fish
access to the interior (Figure 6). There were also several barge tires in the same position as
observed in previous years (Figure 7).

Many fish species were encountered on and near the barge. A total of 273 fishes from 10
j?-- i' ^ 1-. -1-^- _- A-- _* ln n c Pl-r -*- _* _1' 1-^1__ --- ^. -^ 1-- _C_1-- ___--.. ' -- L *_ In n~r\A






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 6
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

(264 fishes). A 20 minute timed search was conducted in 2004 and in 2005. The timed search in
2005 yielded greater variation in number of fish minute'1 (0.10 to 14.00 fish minute-1 in 2005)
compared to 2004 (0.05 to 2.50 fish minute'1). The number of genera and species in 2005
decreased compared to the previous sample years (Table 5).

The deck of the barge was encrusted with coralline algae, sponges, hydroids (Figure 8).
Halimeda and Sargassum were prevelant on the deck, and large black coral colonies, Antipathes
atlantica, colonize the stern of the barge (Figure 9). Species richness for invertebrates and algae
was greater in 2005 than in 2004 and 2002 (Table 5). For example, in 2002 only two hard coral
species were observed and reported (Diploria sp. and Siderastrea sp.). In 2005, five hard coral
species were observed.

Target 30 (18017.772'N, 64059.460'W) Target 30 is a debris pile containing steel grates
(Figure 10). It was surveyed in 2002 and 2005. The reef size was approximately 12 m x 14 m
and is in 26 m of water. The coordinates for this structure remained the same in 2005 as in 2002
indicating that the structure had not moved.

Numerous yellowtail snappers, Ocyurus chrysurus, were present in both survey years. A total of
374 fish were counted during the 2005 survey. The number of fish species decreased slightly
from 9009 (Thale 6) The number of invertehrnte and nal e~ snPies at the site remained






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


A large green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas, was found among the towers as were numerous fishes
(Figure 14). Figure 15 is a large southern stingray, Dasyatis americana, that was found among
the structures. Additionally, the structures were heavily encrusted with sponges, corals, and


algae. There were 19 fish species, 18 invertel
(Table 8).

Target 42 (18017.566'N, 64058.658'W) Tai
were surveyed in 2002, 2004 and 2005. Appi
depth of 26 m and in excellent condition. Tw
2002 and had dimensions of 12.6 m x 2.5 m a
respectively). The average area of each dock
m2. There was no evidence of movement after

Numerous fishes inhabited this artificial reef
scattered slabs. Over the years, large red hin(
or under the dock slabs. In addition, several
routinely observed at this site. The results of
16 families, 25 genera, and 32 species. Fish i
than that in 2002 (Table 9).

The concrete dock slabs have been submerged
significant hard and soft coral growth as well
corals were found such as Diploria spp., Mon
and numerous soft corals and sponges encrusi

Spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, were observe
Several queen conch, Strombus gigas, were a
Invertebrate richness increased with seven ad
Algae also increased in 2005 from previous y

Target 45 (18017.618'N, 64059.839'W) Tai
surveyed in 2002, 2004 and 2005. This tug si

The hull and cabin were completely encrusted


some hard coral (Figures 19 and 2U). Snap
dominate the site during the 2004 and 2005
found shelter and protection on this artificial
abundant fish encountered in 2005 at 10.00
varied over the years. There was even a nui
the deck of the barge in 2005 (Figure 22).


ecies, and 2 algae species identified in 2


s composed of concrete dock slabs. The


ponges, encrust:


;s (Lutjanus griseus and Lutjanus synagris)
Figure 21). Numerous inconspicuous fish


- -- -






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Species richness at this site increased significantly between 2002 and 2005 (Table 10). The
number of fish species observed increased from 19 to 31 between these years. During this same
time period, invertebrate richness more than doubled from S=l 1 to S=29. Alga richness has
remained the same as previous sample years (Table 10).

The surrounding area was a patchy algae community. The same number of algae species were
encountered this year as previous years (see Table 9). No large invertebrates were encountered
adjacent to the wreck and no reef-building corals were noticed.

Target 51 (18017.410'N, 64058.408'W) Target 51 is the WIT Islander steel barge (Figure 23).
It was surveyed in 2001, 2002 and 2003. The dimensions of this barge are 55 mx 16 mx 4 m.
The water depth at the bottom of this barge is 26 m and the top is at 22 m. Over the years there






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


An additional 10 fish and invertebrate species were identified since 2003. Algal richness also
increased by 6 in 2005 (Table 12).

Identifying the surrounding habitat at this site was difficult. The scattered nature of the concrete
slabs make it impossible to determine if the fish were moving between structures or preferred the
habitat adjacent to the structures. The habitat between and around the concrete structures was a
rhodolith algal plain with solitary erect sponges.

Target 57 (18017.501'N, 64059.139'W) Target 57 (Figure 29) was the top section of a steel
ferry upside down and moderately broken-up. It was surveyed in 2002 and 2005. There was no
obvious movement of the main structure since 2002 as the coordinates for this structure have
remained the same.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


The barge was colonized by encrusting invertebrates and algae. The deck of the barge was
covered with Sargassum and Halimeda spp. which dominated this reef over the years. Several
species of sponges were on the barge as well (Figure 34). Some hard corals, such as Madracis


decactis, Millepora alcicornis, Siderastrea sp. f
years.

The surrounding area was predominately rhod(
algae in the surrounding habitat included Dicty(
reef-building invertebrates were seen.

Target 59 (18017.434'N, 64059.877'W) Targe
was surveyed in 2002 and 2004. The plane did
survey years and the basic structure appeared to
2002. The depth of the wreck was 28.4 m.

A total of 142 fishes from ten species were encc
for fish was similar in 2002 and 2004 (Table 15
associated with the Cessna which varied by spet
Holocentrus adscensionis, to 0.07 fish minute-1
structure's relatively small size, several adult re
(eight in 2002 and ten in 2004). The number of
declined from 19 reported in 2002 when the str
in adult P. argus may be related to dive operator
may be havesting the lobsters. Nevertheless, thi
lobsters.

Species richness for invertebrates increased slig
seven species from six genera were observed wl
were identified. Algal richness increased from 1
2004 (Table 15).

Target 62 (18017.393'N, 64058.665'W) Targe
surveyed in 2002 only. Target 62 sat at a depth
m x 5.3 x 1.2 m, with total volume = 55.33 m3.


o colonized the deck and hull over the


community with erect rope sponges. Other
, Halimeda sp. and Sargassum hystrix. No


The boat bow was open allowing numerous fishes to swim in and around it. Significant
overgrowth of gorgonians, sponges, and tunicates adhered to the artificial reef. There were few
species of stony coral such as Madracis decactis and Agaricia sp. that were associated with the
boat.

A survey of the surrounding area was conducted and verified that the habitat was a rhodolith
community with random distribution of scattered rope sponges and sparse low canopy algae.
The survey from this target yielded 14 fish, 17 invertebrate, and 4 algae species (Table 16).






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 11
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Target 70 (18017.051'N, 64058.981'W) Target 70 is the WIT Concrete, a large freighter
(Figures 36 and 37). The WIT Concrete is a Liberty ship which was sunk in July 1997 (Vasques
and Tobias 2002). It was first located and surveyed in 2001 and then resurveyed every year from
2002 to 2004. The WIT Concrete lies in 29 m of water. It does not appear to have moved
through the years of surveys. The stem of the structure had broken off prior to being deployed
on this artificial reef site. The open stem is broken-up allowing access to the ship's interior. It
does not appear to have broken-up any further compared with 2002. There are no time counts of
organisms for this wreck. Nevertheless, a species list was generated for fish, invertebrates, and
algae.

This structure is very large and therefore attracts many fishes. In 2004, 34 species of fish from
27 genera and 16 families were recorded. This is less than that recorded in 2003 but more than
that 2002 and approximately equivalent to 2001 (Table 17). There was even a Goliath grouper,
Epinephelus itajara, encountered in 2004 (Figure 38). Goliath grouper are extremely rare in the
US Virgin Islands, therefore, any sightings are noteworthy observations. Dive operators have
also reported seeing Goliath grouper on this wreck.

The wreck was heavily colonized by sessile invertebrates including black coral, Antipathes spp.
Species richness remains fairly constant for invertebrates from 2001 through 2004 (Table 17).
The recorded algal species has fluctuated across years (Table 17).

Target 79 (18016.986'N, 64059.648'W) Target 79 is an upside-down sailboat. It was surveyed
in 2002 and 2004. The sailboat sits at a depth of approximately 30 m and is 9 m x 4.1 m. This
wreck does not appear to have moved nor does it appear to have decomposed further.

Numerous fishes use the wreckage particularly tomtates, Haemulon aurolineatum, which
surrounded the wreck by the hundreds (Figure 39). The same phenomenon was recorded for






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


This ship provides habitat for numerous species of fish such as barracuda and red hind. In
addition to providing habitat for fish, the hull of the ship is encrusted by numerous invertebrates
such as black corals, Diploria spp., and Montastraea spp. Species richness for fishes was lower
in 2003 than in 2002 (Table 19). However, species richness was higher for invertebrates and
algae (Table 19).

The surrounding habitat was a rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile, community with numerous
solitary erect sponges. There were no bioherms in the immediate area.


GIS Database Results

GIS ArcView maps were created in order to graphically organize and represent artificial reef
survey results over the years. Several representations can be created within the GIS program and
can be cataloged over the years. Figures 43 and 44 represent fish species richness by survey year
and invertebrate species richness by survey year, respectively.

In general, artificial reef sites increased in species richness (fish and invertebrate) or remained
relatively stagnant over the survey years. The artificial reefs also provided a good substrate for
filamentous algae, a primary food source for herbivorous fishes. It should be emphasized that
methodology for the reef surveys evolved over the years. In addition, different divers were used
for these field surveys each year. Therefore the estimates provided here may not be directly
comparable or valid. As follow-up inspections continue in the future, methodology will be
standardized increasing the validity of the results.


DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Presently, the objective of DFW's Recreational Fishery Enhancement Program is to enhance
fishing opportunities in the USVI by using artificial reefs. Perhaps this objective should be
modified or expanded to provide a framework for developing an understanding of artificial reefs.
The Fish and Wildlife Commission, Division of Marine Fisheries in Florida, have developed
specific program goals created by the Artificial Reef Advisory Board (FLAR Strategic Plan,
2003). Some of there project goals include: (1) assuring that long-term social, economic, and
quality of life values of artificial reef benefit the local and regional economies of Florida, (2)
utilizing artificial reefs in scientific research to obtain an understanding of how artificial reefs
function ecologically and physically across spatial and temporal scales, and (3) using artificial
reefs as a component of fisheries management. Program objectives such as these can help
provide DFW with a model on how to structure our artificial reef program.

There are basic fundamental questions within the Recreational Fishery Enhancement Artificial
Reef Program that still need to be addressed. For example, are the artificial reefs actually used
by people? It is important for DFW to develop more accurate and thorough information to
identify the target audiences and their use of these artificial reefs. Perhaps even integrating the






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


resident and visitor reef use at local levels by measuring user value of artificial reefs and natural
reefs but distinguishing the difference between the two.

Another question to address is whether or not artificial reefs really attract or enhance fish
populations? If this question were to be addressed or incorporated in DFW's monitoring
program, it is important to identify and agree to this specific objective, but still look at artificial
reefs with a broad perspective. Modifying our artificial reef program to incorporate single
species or multiple species management is noteworthy and appropriate in addressing such a
question (Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission, 2003). DFW should consider only surveying
targeted species to see if artificial reefs really increase commercially/recreationally important
species. DFW should also consider identifying reef attributes that enhance survival, growth, and
reproduction of various life stages of marine organisms.

Lastly, as future surveys continue, the GIS database should be up-dated to include all known
artificial reef wrecks and survey data in the Virgin Islands. This is to ensure that scientific
results from artificial reef research are meaningful, accessible to the public, and disseminated in
useable formats.


REFERENCES CITED

Beets, J. 1992. U.S. Virgin Islands artificial habitat master plan. Government of the U.S. Virgin
Islands, Department of Planning and Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife. 15 pp.

Buckley, R.M., D.G. Itana, and T.W. Buckley. 1989. Fish aggregation device (FAD)
enhancement of offshore fisheries in American Samoa. Bull. Mar. Sci. 44:942-949.

Carstairs, I. 1988. Aboriginal artificial reefs for growing food. Austraia Mag. 3(4):7 (ASFA).

Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission. 2003. State of Florida artificial reef strategic plan.
Division of Marine Fisheries. 16 pp.

Friedlander, A., J. Beets, and W. Tobias. 1994. Effects of fish-aggregating device design and
location of fishing success in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Bull. Mar. Sci. 55:592-601.

Grossman, G.D., G.P. Jones, and W. Seaman, Jr. 1997. Do artificial reef increase regional fish
production? A review of existing data. Fisheries 22:17-23.

Polovina, J.J. 1994. Function of artificial reefs. Bull. Mar. Sci. 55(2-3): 1349 (ASFA).

Polovina, J.J., and I. Sakai. 1989. Impacts of artificial reefs on fishery production in Shimamaki,
Japan. Bull. Mar. Sci. 44:997-1,003.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Uwate, R., and W. Tobias. 2001. Final Report F-10, Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment,
and Monitoring. October 1, 1996-September 30, 2000. Division of Fish and Wildlife,
Department of Planning and Natural Resources, U.S. Virgin Islands. 27 pp.

Vasques, J., and W. Tobias. 2002. Annual Performance Report F-10-11, Artificial Reef
Development, Nourishment, and Monitoring. October 1, 2001-September 30, 2002. Division of
Fish and Wildlife, Department of Planning and Natural Resources, U.S. Virgin Islands.

Vasques, J., and W. Tobias. 2003. Annual Performance Report F-10-12, Artificial Reef
Development, Nourishment, and Monitoring. October 1, 2002-September 30, 2003. Division of
Fish and Wildlife, Department of Planning and Natural Resources, U.S. Virgin Islands.

Vasques, J., and W. Tobias. 2004. Annual Performance Report F-10-13, Artificial Reef
Development, Nourishment, and Monitoring. October 1, 2003-September 30, 2004. Division of
Fish and Wildlife, Department of Planning and Natural Resources, U.S. Virgin Islands.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 1. St. Thomas artificial reefs located south, southeast Saba Island
DFW Latitude LnDepth (ft.) Object Size
S Latitude Longitude eth (ft.) O t S Description of Materials Year surveyed
ID # bottom/top *1 (ft.) *2
2' 1817.014'N 6458.593'W 93' 55' x21' steel barge, very decomposed 02'
20 18017.995'N 64058.752'W 85' 49' x 9' upside down fiberglass sailboat, very 02',04'
broken-up
22 18017.945'N 64058.708'W 87' 51' x 32' steel debris and scrap metal 02',04'
25 18017.811'N 64059.501'W 87' 138' x 33' steel barge w/ stern tires, good condition 02',04',05'
30 18017.772'N 64059.460'W 86' 40' x 45' steel debris containing steel grates 02', 05'
32 18017.760'N 64059.565'W 92' 33'x10' fiberglass and wood hull boat w/short2',05'
keel
38 18017.693'N 64058.227'W 88' antennae tower 03'
42 18017.566'N 64058.658'W 85' 34' x 6' each scattered concrete slabs (-20 pieces) 02',04',05'
45 18017.618'N 64059.839'W 89' 73'x17' steel hull tug 02',04'
51 18017.410'N 64058.408'W 86'/72' 180'x52'x14' steel barge, good condition 01',03'
52 18017.473'N 64058.684'W 86' concrete slabs 03',05'
57 1817.501'N 6459.139'W 89 31'8' appears to be the top section of a steel 0
57 18017.501'N 64059.139'W 89' 31' x 8' 02',05f
ferry upside down, broken-up
58 18017.456'N 64059.618'W 88' 120'x26x10" Steel barge w/small holes along side, 02',04',05'
good condition
59 18017.434'N 64059.877'W 96' 19'x31' twin engine plane 02',04'
62*3 18017.393'N 64058.665'W 88' 29' x 17' bow section of fiberglass boat, very 02'
broken-up
70 18017.051'N 64058.981'W 95' 300'x56'x46' large steel freighter 01',02',03' 04'
79 18016.986'N 64059.648'W 99' 30'x13.5' upside down sailboat w/keel broken off 02', 04'
165 18017.767'N 64059.433'W 89'/72' 180' x 33' steel cargo ship with large collapse in 02',03'
main deck, moderately broken-up
1. The depth for all objects is the depth to the bottom of the object, except, where two depths are given the first is to the
bottom & the second is to the top of the object.
2. All object sizes are approximate, measured underwater with a 50 meter tape measure.
3. Material is inside the boundaries of the 0.2 square mile artificial reef site.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 1
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 2. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 2 (steel barge), by year. Only
positively identified genera are included.
2002
Genera Species
Fish (S = 16) (S = 19)
Invertebrates (S =17) (S =19)
Algae (S = 2) (S = 3)


Table 3.
sailboat)


Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 20 (upside down fiberglass
by year. Only positively identified genera are included.


Table 4. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with the target 22 (steel debris) by year.
Only positively identified genera are included.
2002 2004
Genera Species Genera Species
Fish (S = 24) (S = 30) (S = 18) (S = 20)
Invertebrates (S = 13) (S =14) (S = 18) (S = 24)
Algae (S = 2) (S = 2) (S = 5) (S = 5)


Table 5. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 25 (concrete slabs) by year.
Only positively identified genera are included.
2002 2004 2005
Genera Species Genera Species Genera Species
Fish (S = 21) (S = 30) (S = 22) (S = 25) (S =14) (S = 15)
Invertebrates (S = 10) (S =11) (S = 18) (S = 19) (S = 21) (S = 22)
Algae (S = 4) (S = 4) (S = 6) (S = 6) (S = 5) (S = 8)


Table 6. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 30 (steel debris) by year. Only
positively identified genera are included.
2002 2005
Genera Species Genera Species
Fish (S = 22) (S = 31) (S = 21) (S = 29)
Invertebrates (S = 18) (S =22) (S = 19) (S = 23)
Algae (S = 6) (S = 6) (S = 6) (S = 7)


2002 2004
Genera Species Genera Species
Fish (S = 20) (S = 29) (S = 22) (S = 26)
Invertebrates (S = 14) (S =14) (S = 16) (S = 16)
Algae (S = 3) (S = 3) (S = 4) (S = 4)






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 7. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 32 (fiberglass and wood hull
boat) by year. Only positively identified genera are included.
2002 2005
Genera Species Genera Species
Fish (S = 12) (S = 15) (S = 13) (S = 15)
Invertebrates (S = 13) (S = 13) (S = 10) (S = 12)
Algae (S = 2) (S = 2) (S = 3) (S = 3)


Table 8. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 38 (antennae tower) by year.
Only positively identified genera are included.
2003
Genera Species
Fish (S = 16) (S = 19)
Invertebrates (S =15) (S =18)
Algae (S = 2) (S = 2)


Table 9. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 42 (concrete slabs) by year.
Only positively identified genera are included.
2002 2004 2005
Genera Species Genera Species Genera Species
Fish (S = 24) (S = 36) (S = 28) (S = 32) (S = 25) (S = 32)
Invertebrates (S = 24) (S = 29) (S = 24) (S = 29) (S = 30) (S = 36)
Algae (S = 5) (S = 5) (S = 4) (S = 4) (S = 5) (S = 9)


Table 10. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 45 (steel hull tug) by year.
Only positively identified genera are included.
2002 2004 2005
Genera Species Genera Species Genera Species
Fish (S = 14) (S = 19) (S = 19) (S = 24) (S = 24) (S = 31)
Invertebrates (S = 10) (S = 11) (S = 16) (S = 21) (S = 22) (S = 29)
Algae (S = 2) (S = 3) (S = 4) (S = 4) (S = 4) (S = 4)


Table 11. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 51
Only positively identified genera are included.


(steel barge) by year.


2001 2003
Genera Species Genera Species
Fish (S = 19) (S = 22) (S = 21) (S = 27)
Invertebrates (S = 8) (S = 9) (S = 20) (S = 20)
Algae (S = 2) (S = 2) (S = 4) (S = 5)
Other (S = 1) (S = 1) (S = 1) (S = 1)






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 18
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 12. Species richness (S), of organisms associated with target 52 (concrete slabs) by year.
Only positively identified genera are included.
2003 2005
Genera Species Genera Species
Fish (S = 16) (S = 20) (S = 24) (S = 30)
Invertebrates (S = 16) (S = 17) (S = 22) (S = 27)
Algae (S = 2) (S = 2) (S = 6) (S = 8)


Table 13. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 57 (steel ferry) by year. Only
positively identified genera are included.
2002 2005
Genera Species Genera Species
Fish (S 23) (S = 24) (S = 20) (S = 23)
Invertebrates (S = 7) (S =8) (S = 18) (S = 21)
Algae (S =4) (S = 4) (S = 4) (S = 5)


Table 14. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 58 (steel barge) by year.
Only positively identified species are included.
2002 2004 2005
Genera Species Genera Species Genera Species
Fish (S = 18) (S = 22) (S = 18) (S = 22) (S = 23) (S = 30)
Invertebrates (S = 13) (S =13) (S = 11) (S = 11) (S = 20) (S = 24)
Algae (S = 4) (S = 4) (S = 4) (S = 4) (S = 3) (S = 6)


Table 15. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 59 (twin engine plane) by
year. Only positively identified genera are included.
2002 2004
Genera Species Genera Species
Fish (S = 10) (S = 10) (S = 9) (S = 10)
Invertebrates (S = 6) (S =7) (S = 9) (S = 11)
Algae (S =2) (S = 2) (S = 3) (S = 3)


Table 16. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 62 (bow section of fiberglass
boat) by year. Only positively identified genera are included.
2002
Genera Species
Fish (S = 11) (S = 14)
Invertebrates (S = 13) (S =17)
Algae (S = 4) (S = 4)









Table 17. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with the target 70 (WIT Concrete ship)
by year. Only positively identified genera are included.
2001 2002 2003 2004
Genera Species Genera Species Genera Species Genera Species
Fish (S = 26) (S = 35) (S = 20) (S = 25) (S=31) (S = 42) (S = 27) (S = 34)
nvertebrates (S = 18) (S = 18) (S = 21) (S = 23) (S = 20) (S = 24) (S = 25) (S = 26)
Ugae (S = 5) (S = 5) (S = 8) (S = 8) (S = 4) (S = 4) (S = 8) (S = 8)


Table 18. Species richness (S) of organisms associated with target 79 (upside down sailboat) by


F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Figure 1. St. Thomas artificial reef site, southeast Saba Island
(51) 20 24LI'z 7 27
L9 I znR d. 412) Bra1 21 (

(27) 12 Sturnt, Jnrn r a T IK 83


St. Thomas artificial reef site
Boundary coordinates:
NE comer: 18017.42' N, 6458.50'W
SE comer: 1816.97'N, 6458.50'W
SW comer: 1816.97'N, 6458.95'W
NW comer: 1817.42'N, 6458.95'W

Total area = 0.2 sq. nautical miles






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Figure 2. Benthic mosaic of the south Saba, St. Thomas artificial reef site
Red line indicates proposed boundary


l .a'liy


S4' 58.4" (r s& se04E s4ov 58 ssTw s5 r


-I-


Within current artificial
reef site approved in 2005


St. Thomas Artificial Reef Site Boundary
Coordinates:
NE Corner: 18017.42' N, 6458.50'W
SE Corner: 1816.97'N, 6458.50'W
SW Corner: 1816.97'N, 6458.95'W
NW Corner: 1817.42'N, 6458.95'W


Total Area = 0.2 sq. nautical miles


-t-t-C


--C







F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Re
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Figure 3. Target 2, decomposing barge
wreckage.



















Figure 5. Target 22, pile of steel debris.





*. 7

.K,


f.


i ILrpr


~RsP~~p'*.

%~4~ :.;lis
,* ui
.


"
.c.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Figure 9. Target 23, black coral, Antipathes
atlantica, growing under the stem.


Figure 10. Target 30, cargo ramp.


igure 12. Target 38, antennae tower.


Figure 11.
keel.


Figure 13. Target 38, solitary erect sponges
found on tower.


Figure 14. Target 38, large green turtle,
Chelonia mydas, found at site.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


kjc~jp~. "ii;*s ~.r..
NMI&


Figure 15. Target 38, large southern stingray,
Dasyatis americana, found at site.


figure i/. large q reei-
attached to concrete slabs.


Figure 19. Target 45, sponge overgrowth on
tug.


Figure 16. Target 42, Balistes vetula
encountered around the dock slabs.


gure 18. Target 45, Western Cites tug.


Figure 20. Target 45, hard coral, Montastraea
cavernosa, found on tug.


ur.L~*~ Ir~S~-:CT p~
'L
F"' "-
& "~-






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Figure 21. Target 45, schooling gray snappers,
Lutjanus griseus, found around barge.


figure zz. arget q-, nurse snarK,
Ginglymostoma cirratmu, found at site.


Figure 23. Target 51, deck of the WIT Islander Figure 24. Target 51, hawksbill turtle,
barge. Eretmochelys imbricata, on deck of barge.


figure z3. target 3z, concrete slaDs wim
gorgonians and encrusting sponges, hydroids,
and tunicates.


Figure 26. Target 52, Niphates digitalis houses
banded coral shrimp.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Figure 27. Target 32, giant barrel sponge
houses arrowhead crab.


Figure 29. Target 57, top section of steel ferry.


Figure 31. Target 57, school of tomtates,
Haemulon aurolineatum.


Figure 28. Target 52, Epinephelus guttatus
(red hind) under a concrete slab.


Figure 30. Target 57, encrusting hy
tunicates, sponges and hard coral.


Figure 32. Target 57, juvenile Caribbean
Spiny lobster, Panulirus argus.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Re
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


- 'I ,.,.


,'r;i -- 9r *


Figure 33. Target 58, hole!
barge.













Figure 35. Target 59, twin









e ..-. '


Side














SCes


- ffl--"


I
t













1n
ne. i
i


Figure 37. Target 70. main deck of target. Figure 38. Target 70. Evinephelus itaiara.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 28
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005
















Figure 39. Target 79, large school of tomtates, Figure 40. Target 165, steel cargo ship.
Haemulon aurolineatum, surrounding wreck.

















Figure 41. Target 165, a large break mid-ship. Figure 42. Target 165, doorways that allow
Figure 42. Target 165, doorways that allowaccess.
diver and fish access.










Figure 43. Fish species richness by year, southeast Saba, St. Thomas artificial reef site.









FlatCay .














111 Inll



S|02_Fis
ri i]03_Fis
| |04_Fis

0 0.25 0.5 1 Nautical Miles r 05_Fis


*Note: Bar graphs are not scaled to map.


F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005







F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 30
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Figure 44. Invertebrate species richness by year, southeast Saba, St. Thomas artificial reef site


*Note: Bar graphs are not scaled to map.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


APPENDIX

Table 1. List of species that were associated with Target 2 (steel barge) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Row pore rope sponge, Aplysina cauliformis
Branching tube sponge, Pseudoceratina sp.
Arrow crab, Stenorhynchus seticornis


Algae
Sargassum hystrix
Sargassum sp.
Halimeda sp.


Algae
Lobophora variegata
Dictyota sp.
Rhodoliths unidentified sp.
Halimeda sp.
Penicillus pyriformis






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 33
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 2. List of species that were associated with Target 20 (fiberglass sailboat) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species
3ray angelfish, Poinacanthus arcuatus Sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
French angelfish, Poinacanthus paru Slippery dick, Halichoeres bivittatus
)octorfish, A, ,litihi, Ir chirurgus
)cean surgeonfish, A, ailhrti,,\ bahianus
3icolor damsel, Stegastes partitus
31ue chromis, ('ChrIl ,\ cyanea
3rown chromis, Clii 'nm\ multilineata
3arjack, Caranx ruber
Mhite margate, Haemulon album
romtate, Haemulon aurolineatum
Rock hind, Epinephelus adscensionis
Zed hind, Epinephelus guttatus
3raysby, Cephalopholis cruentatus
-oney, Cephalopholis fulva
)og snapper, Lutjanusjocu
button snapper, Lutjanus analis
yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus
fellowhead wrasse, Halichoeres garnoti
3luehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum
?linhnxi xxirncc P iliv T-Jnliphnprpv nirtriv






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
invertebrates Invertebrates
5ea whip, Pterogorgia sp.
Mhite telesto, Carijoa riisei
Jnidentified tunicates


itar encrusting sponge, Halisar,
Rope sponges, Aplysina sp.
Branching vase sponge, Callysp
31ack ball sponge, Ircinia strob
Unidentified sponges
klgae
)ictyota sp.
5argassum sp.
'alimeda sp.


Igae
hodoli
talimea
argassi
'dotea :
lictyota
enicill






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 3. List of species that were associated with Target 20 (fiberglass sailboat) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2004.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
fish/min
Fish Species Count (N=1) Fish Species


Porinuuantlhus arcuatus2
Hoiltcanth ius ciliaris
Amblycirrhitus pinos
Balistes vetula
A, ,ilithr,\ chirurgus
A t ,Ilir1Ill\ coeruleus
Holocentrus adscensionis
Myripristis jacobus2
Lutjanus jocu
Ocyurus chrysurus
Haemulon album
Haemulon aurolineatum
Haemulon parra
Epinephelus guttatus
Cephalopholis cruentatus2
Cephalopholis fulva2
Hypoplectrus unicolor
Pseudupeneus maculatus
Mulloidichthys martinicus2
Chn im \ multilineata
Thalassoma bifasciatum
Bodianus rufus2
Scarus taeniopterus
Sparisoma aurofrenatum2
Diodon hystrix
Caranx ruber2
Cumulative
Invertebrates


1
2
1
8
20
30

1
36

80
2
6


1
12

30
36

1

2

269


0.07
0.13
0.07
0.53
1.33
2.00

0.07
2.40

5.33
0.13
0.40


0.07
0.80

2.00
2.40

0.07

0.13

17.93


Millepora alcicornis
Siderastrea sp.
Montastraea cavernosa
Porites astreoides
Diploria strigosa
Carijoa riisei
Pseudopterogorgia sp.
Panulirus argus
Stenorhynchus seticornis
Spirobranchus giganteus

Table 3. Continued.


Stegastes partitus
Coryphopterus glaucofraenum


Invertebrates


Pseudopterogorgia sp.
Aplysina cauliformis
Amphimedon compressa
Pseudoceratina crassa






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
unidentified sabellids
Lima scabra
Aplysina cauliformis
Amphimedon compressa
Pseudoceratina crassa
Irciniafelix
Halisarca sp.
unidentified encrusting
sponges
Algae Algae
Dictyota spp. Dictyota spp.
Lobophora variegatta Sargassum hystrix
Sargassum hystrix Lobophora variegatta
Halimeda sp. S, hi:;, hri\ calcicula
Udotea c\~ iif, Iiiii\
Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile
Total search time for artificial reef was 20 minutes.
2Fish that were not recorded by the diver but were observed in the video or photos, so are not
included in the timed search results.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 37
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 4. List of species that were associated with Target 22 (steel debris) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species
Bar jack, Caranx ruber Bridled goby, Coryphopterus
Spotfin butterflyfish, Chaetodon ocellatus wllu, 'fira iu
Gray angelfish, Ponuticanthius arcuatus
Queen angelfish, Holt caiithlu.s ciliaris
Queen triggerfish, Balistes vetula
Red hind, Epinephelus guttatus
Graysby, Cephalopholis cruentatus
Coney, Cephalopholis fulva
Bluestriped grunt, Haemulon sciurus
Lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris
Gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus
Blue tang, A, ,iiihi rir coeruleus
Doctorfish, A, ,iiilhi,\ chirurgus
Ocean surgeonfish, A, ,iiilh I,\ bahianus
Blue chromis juv., ('hrI nmi cyanea
Brown chromis, Clhriiii\ multilineata
Bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
Glasseye snapper, Heteropriiacanthus cruentatus
Redband parrotfish, Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus
Clown wrasse, Halichoeres maculipinna
Bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum
Spotted goatfish, Pseudupeneus maculatus
Yellow goatfish, Mulloidichthys martinicus
Sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
Green moray, Gymnothoraxfunebris
Spotted moray, Gymnothorax moringa
Remora, Echeneis naucrates
Nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum
Invertebrates Invertebrates






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Feather duster, Sabellastarte magnifica
Star encrusting sponge, Halisarca sp.
Octopus sponge, Ectyoplasiaferox
Branching tube sponge, Pseudoceratina crassa
Stinker sponge, Irciniafelix
Rope sponge, Aplysina sp.
Unidentified tunicates
Algae Algae
Encrusting coralline algae Avrainvillea sp.
Dictyota sp. Dictyota sp.
Halimeda sp. Rhodoliths, cf. Lithothamnion reptile
Halimeda tuna
Halimeda sp.
Udotea cyathiformis
Penicillus pyriformis
Fish species found in the fish traps nearby
Ocean surgeonfish, Acanthurus bahianus
Doctorfish, Acanthurus chirurgus
Blue tang, Acanthurus coeruleus
Queen triggerfish, Balistes vetula
Queen angelfish, Holacanthus ciliaris
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 5. List of species that were associated with Target 22 (steel debris) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2004.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
fish/min
Fish Species Count (N=1) Fish Species
Poinacannthi.u arcuatus 1 0.05 Ocyurus chrysurus
Holtcuanthuis tricolor2 Lutjanus synagris
Caranx ruber 30 1.50 Caranx latus
Balistes vetula 3 0.15
A, iiiiuitr chirurgus 12 0.60
A, ,iiiiitru\ coeruleus 10 0.50
Holocentrus adscensionis 50 2.50
Anisotremus virginicus2
Haemulon carbonarium 8 0.40
Epinephelus guttatus 2 0.10
Hypoplectrus puella 3 0.15
Pseudupeneus maculatus 10 0.50
Stegastes partitus2
Clhr, mn\ cyanea 24 1.20
C('hr, l \ multilineata 30 1.50
Thalassoma bifasciatium 42 2.10
Halichoeres maculipinna 2 0.10
Bodianus rufus 3 0.15
Scarus taeniopterus 11 0.55
Sparisoma iserti 5 0.25
Cumulative 246 12.30
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Millepora alcicornis Agelas conifera
Siderastrea radians Irciniafelix
Montastraea cavernosa Aplysina cauliformis
Montastraea annularis Amphimedon compressa
Diploria strigosa Ectyoplasia ferox
Madracis decactis
Madracis mirabilis
Porites astreoides
Agaricia sp.
Scolymia sp.
Carijoa riisei
Pseudopterogorgia americana
Pseudopterogorgia sp.
Strombus gigas
Strombus costatus
Spirobranchus giganteus

Table 5. Continued.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 40
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
unidentified sabellids
Aplysina fistularis
Aplysina cauliformis
Calyspongia vaginalis
Monanchora unguifera
Verongula gigantea
Ircinia strobilina
Irciniafelix
Halisarca sp.
unidentified encrusting sponges
Algae Algae
Dictyota spp. Halimeda sp.
Lobophora variegatta Lobophora variegatta
Halimeda spp. ., hi;, i,;ri\ calcicula
Sargassum hystrix Udotea sp.
.S, hi;, ,hri\ calcicula Udotea c( atif' Irmi\
Rhodolith, cf Lithothamnion ruptile






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 6. List of species associated with Target 25 (steel barge) and those found in the
surrounding area adjacent to but not on the artificial reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species


Bar jack, Caranx ruber
White margate, Haemulon album
Tomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum
French grunt, Haemulonflavolineatum
White grunt, Haemulon plumierii
Cottonwick, Haemulon, melanurum
Vermilion snapper, Rhomboplites aurorubens
Yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus
Saucereye porgy, Calamus calamus
Rock hind, Epinephelus adscensionis
Blue tang, A, ,Liii, ri,\ coeruleus
Ocean surgeon fish, A, ,lialhitrt bahianus
Blue chromis, ('ChrIi"u\ cyanea
Brown chromis, Clhrim"i multilineata
Bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus
Fairy basslet, Gramma loreto
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
Blackbar soldierfish, Myripristis jacobus
Glassy sweeper, Pempheris schomburgki
Queen parrotfish, Scarus vetula
Blue parrotfish, Scarus coeruleus
Redband parrotfish, Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride
Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus
Bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum
Yellowhead wrasse, Halichoeres garnoti
French angelfish, Poinacanthus paru
Gray angelfish, Poinacanthus arcuatus
Yellow goatfish, Mulloidichthys martinicus
Sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
Invertebrates


Fire coral, Millepora sp.
Bush hydroid, Dentitheca dendritica
Unidentified hydroids
Brain coral, Diploria sp.
Starlet coral, Siderastrea sp.
Deepwater sea fan, cf. Iciligorgia schrammi
Wire coral, Cirrhipathes leutkeni
Unidentified tunicates
Unidentified bryozoans
Star encrusting sponge, Halisarca sp.


Bar jack, Caranx ruber
Chalky bass, Serranus tortugarum
Sand tilefish, Malacanthusi plumieri
Southern stingray, Dasyatis americana


Invertebrates


Rope sponge, Aplysinafulva
Branching tube sponge, Pseudoceratina sp.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 6. Continued.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Row pore rope sponge, Aplysina cauliformis
Scattered pore rope sponge, Aplysinafulva


Branching tube sponge, Ps
West Indian sea egg, Trip
Algae
Crustose coralline algae
Sargassum sp.
Halimeda sp.
Dictyota sp.
Ventricaria ventricosa


A
A
L(

R
P,


nvillea sp.
horaa variegata
'ssum sp.
olith, cf. Lithothamnion ru






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 7. List of species that were associated with Target 25 (steel barge) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding habitat but not directly associated with the artificial reef
structure, 2004.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
fish/min
Fish Species Count (N=1) Fish Species


Pon,,ltnthluis arcuatus
PoInactiIthusl paru
Hol hcanthtl.us ciliaris
Amblycirrhitus pinos2
Coryphopterus sp.2
Gramma loreto2
A, ,iilihtr,\ bahianus
At iliiliitral\ coeruleus
Holocentrus adscensionis
Ocyurus chrysurus
Haemulon aurolineatum
Epinephelus guttatus
Cephalopholis cruentatus2
Cephalopholis fulva2
Paranthias furcifer2
Hypoplectrus sp.2
Pseudupeneus maculatus
Pempheris schomburgki
C'li, n \ multilineata
Stegastes partitus
Thalassoma bifasciatuin
Halichoeres radiatus2
Bodianus rufus2
Scarus iserti
Caranx ruber2
Cumulative
Invertebrates


4
16
25
12
25
1




12
50
30
30
50


5

264


0.05
0.10
0.05


0.20
0.80
1.25
0.60
1.25
0.05




0.60
2.50
1.50
1.50
2.50


0.25

13.20


Millepora alcicornis
Siderastrea sp.
Manicina areolata
Porites astreoides
Agaricia sp.
Ci ril,,lthe \ leutkeni
cf Antipathes atlantica
Carijoa riisei
Pseudopterogorgia sp.
Diodogorgia nodulifera
Spirobranchus giganteus
unidentified sabellids


not surveyed


Invertebrates


Ircinia strobilina
Aplysina cauliformis
Aplysinafulva
Pseudoceratina crassa
Amphimedon compressa
Strombus costatus


i






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 7. Continued.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Lima scabra
Aplysinafulva
Aplysina cauliformis
Amphimedon compressa
Holopsamma helwigi
Pseudoceratina crassa
Ircinia strobilina
Halisarca sp.
unidentified encrusting sponges
Algae Algae
Dictyota spp. Dictyota spp.
Lobophora variegatta Sargassum hystrix
Sargassum sp. Lobophora variegatta
Halimeda sp. .S, hi;,thri\ calcicula
Caulerpa racemosa Halimeda sp.
Penicillus sp. Udotea c ,thiif ,rari\
unidentified crustose coralline algae Rhodolith, cf Lithothamnion ruptile
STotal search time for artificial reef was 20 minutes.
2Fish that were not recorded by the diver but were observed in the video or photos, so are not
included in the timed search results.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 45
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 8. List of species that were associated with Target 25 (steel barge) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding habitat but not directly associated with the artificial reef
structure, 2005.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
fish/min
Fish Species Count (N=1) Fish Species
Poinacanthus arcuatus 2 0.20 Pseudupeneus maculatus
Holaanthus tricolor 2 0.20 Stegastes partitus
A, ,aihr,,\ chirurgus 12 1.20
Holocentrus adscensionis 34 3.40
Ocyurus chrysurus 34 3.40
Haemulon aurolineatum 6 0.60
Pseudupeneus maculatus 15 1.50
Abudefdufsaxatilis 4 0.40
Cl'h rnii multilineata 140 14.00
Thalassoma bifasciatuin 8 0.80
Bohiadus rufus 5 0.50
Sparisoma viride 1 0.10
Scarus iserti 6 0.60
Sparisoma sp. 2 0.20
Caranx ruber 2 0.20
Cumulative 273 27.30
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Millepora alcicornis Pseudopterogorgia americana
Cirrhipathes leutkeni Pseudopterogorgia sp.
cf. Antipathes atlantica Aplysina cauliformis
Siderastrea siderea Aplysina fulva
Rhizopsammia goesi Amphimedon compressa
Porites astreoides
Pseudopterogorgia sp.
Carijoa riisei
Ellisella barbadensis
Aplysina fulva
Aplysina cauliformis
Halisarca sp.
Pseudoceratina crassa
Amphimedon compressa
Ircinia strobilina
Monanchora barbadensis
Agaricia sp.
Manicina areolata
Diodogorgia nodulifera
Spirobranchus giganteus
Spheciospongia ( u\lpiift ra
Lima scabra






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 8. Continued.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Algae Algae
Dictyota spp. Dictyota spp.
Lobophora variegatta Sargassum hystrix
Halimeda goreaui Lobophora variegatta
Halimeda opuntia Schizothrix calcicula
Halimeda tuna Udotea cyathiformis
Halimeda discoidea Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile
Codium isthmocladum
Sargassum hystrix
1Total search time for artificial reef was 10 minutes






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 9. List of organisms that were associated with Target 30 (steel debris) and organisms that
were found in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the steel debris, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species
3arjack, Caranx ruber Cesar grunt, Haemulon carbonarium
3ray angelfish, Poinacinthus arcuatus Sand tilefish, Malactuanthus plumieri
5potfin butterflyfish, Chaetodon ocellatus Bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus
Fomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum Yellow goatfish, Mulloidichthys martinicus
White grunt, Haemulon plumierii
dutton snapper, Lutjanus analis
3ray snapper, Lutjanus griseus
schoolmaster, Lutjanus apodus
butter hamlet, Hypoplectrus unicolor
Rock hind, Epinephelus adscensionis
Zed hind, Epinephelus guttatus
)cean surgeon fish, A, ,iilhrIt \ bahianus
)octorfish, A, ,ailhlitI \ chirurgus
31ue chromis, Chr li iil\ cyanea
3rown chromis, Clhrmill\ multilineata
sergeant major, Abudefdufsaxatilis
iocoa damselfish, Stegastes variabilis
3eaugregory, Stegastes leucostictus
3icolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus
31asseye snapper, Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
striped parrotfish, Scarus iserti
Redband parrotfish, Sparisoma aurofrenatum
stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride
5panish hogfish, Bodianus rufus
-ogfish, Lachnolaimus maximus
Creole wrasse, Clepticus parrae
potted goatfish, Pseudupeneus maculatus
asked goby, Coryphopterus personatus
Invertebrates Invertebrates
iaribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus Rope sponge, Aplysinafulva
'ederson's shrimp, Periclimenes pedersoni Branching tube sponge, Pseudoceratina sp.
krrow crab, Stenorhynchus seticornis
3iant anemone, Condylactis gigantea
magnificent feather duster, Sabellastarte imniif, a
ire coral, Millepora spp.
3ush hydroid, Dentitheca dendritica
weather hydroid, Gymnangium speciosum


Table 9. Continued.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
nvertebrates Invertebrates
Unidentified hydroids
rain coral, Diploria spp.
3rooved brain coral, Diploria labyrinthiformis
Starlet coral, Siderastrea siderea
-ettuce/ sheet coral, Agaricia spp.
Vlaze coral, Meandrina meandrites
Flower coral, Meandrina areolata
Unidentified tunicates
Unidentified bryozoans
itar encrusting sponge, Halisarca sp.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 10. List of species that were associated with Target 30 (steel debris) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding habitat but not directly associated with the artificial reef
structure, 2005.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
fish/min
Fish Species Count (N=1) Fish Species
Pornacanthus arcuatus 1 0.10 Heteroconger longissimus
A, ,airtr,,\ chirurgus 12 1.20 Stegastes planifrons
A, ,aiiithr\ bahianus 6 0.60 Stegastes partitus
Chaetodon capistratus 3 0.30
Chaetodon striatus 1 0.10
Holocentrus adscensionis 26 2.60
Lutjanus analis 2 0.20
Lutjanus jocu 1 0.10
Lutjanus apodus 4 0.40
Ocyurus chrysurus 42 4.20
Anisotremus surinamensis 1 0.10
Haemulon aurolineatum 60 6.00
Cephalopholisfulva 2 0.20
Pseudupeneus maculatus 16 1.60
Chr, ii\ cyanea 36 3.60
Chr, lii\ multilineata 50 5.00
Stegastes partitus 24 2.40
Halichoeres radiatus 2 0.20
Thalassoma bifasciatum 17 1.70
Bodianus rufus 3 0.30
Halichoeres garnoti 8 0.80
Scarus iserti 22 2.20
Sparisoma sp. 6 0.60
Sparisoma viride 6 0.60
Caranx ruber 2 0.20
Caranx lactus 10 1.00
Balistes capriscus 2 0.20
Scomberomorous regalis 1 0.10
Heteropriacanthius cruentatus 8 0.80
Cumulative 374 37.40
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Aplysina cauliformis Aplysina cauliformis
Aplysina fulva Ircinia strobilina
Callyspongia vaginialis






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 10. Continued.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Holopsamma helwigi
Irciniafelix
Millepora alcicornis
Millepora complanata
Montastrea annularis






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 11. List of species that were associated with Target 32 (fiberglass and wood hull boat)
and those that were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the
artificial reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species


Barracuda, Sphyraena bar
Mutton snapper, Lutjanus
Rock hind, Epinephelus a,
Tomtate, Haemulon aurol
White margate, Haemulor,
Ocean surgeonfish, A ,LiI
Blue chromis, Chn i'mn\ cy
Brown chromis, C'hl, nu\
Cocoa damsel, Stegastes i
Bicolor damselfish, Stega;
Bluehead, Thalassoma bit
Blackbar soldierfish, Myr
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus
Queen triggerfish, Baliste;
Yellow goatfish, Mulloidi
Green turtle, Chelonia my.
Invertebrates
Fire coral, Millepora alcic
Unidentified hydroids
Feather hydroid, Gymnany
Algae hydroid, Thyroscyp
Brain coral, Diploria sp.
Starlet coral, Siderastrea !
Unidentified bryozoans
Star encrusting sponge, H.
Row pore rope sponge, AJ
Branching tube sponge, P.
Queen conch, Strombus gi
Spiny lobster, Panulirus a
Pederson cleaner shrimp,.
Corkscrew anemone. Bart


onis
11

ahiai

ieata
is
ltitus
IH
jacol
sioni,

narti






nosu:



I sp.
cauli
eratit


nene,
,a an,


rsoni


ridled goby, Coryphopterus gl,i
ellowhead jawfish, Opistognatl
abaccofish, Serranus tabacariu:
ellowhead wrasse, Halichoeres


Arrow crab, Stenorhynchus seticornis
Algae Algae
Wrangelia penicillata Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile
Dictyota sp. Avrainvillea sp.
Wrangelia penicillata
cf. Amphiroa rigida
Halimeda sp.
Penicillus pyriformis






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


and those that were encountered in the sui
artificial reef, 2005.


[ -- -- -- -^_ F __


Associate

Fish Species
Balistes vetula
Acanthurus chirurgus
Acanthurus bahianus
Holocentrus adscensionis
Haemulon carbonarium
Haemulon aurolineatum
Serranus tigrinus
Pseudupeneus maculatus
Chromis cyanea
Stegastes partitus
Thalassoma bifasciatum
Lachnolaimus maximus
Scarus iserti
Caranx ruber
Gramma loreto


I


Cumulative 252 25.20
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Agelas conifera Montastraea annularis
Aplysina fistularis Aplysina cauliformis
Aplysina fulva Aplysina fulva
Callyspongia vaginalis
Calyx podatypa
Halisarca sp.
Irciniafelix






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 13. List of species that were associated with Target 38 (antennae tower) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2003.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish species Fish species
Blue tang, A, aml r iil coeruleus Yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus
Doctorfish, A, amilimrlt chirurgus White margate, Haemulon album
Caesar grunt, Haemulon carbonarium Blue tang, A, ,amLirIIii coeruleus
White margate, Haemulon album Yellowhead jawfish, Opistognathuts aurifrons
Tomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum
Bluestriped grunt, Haemulon sciurus
Bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus
Blue chromis, ('hriul, cyanea
Graysby, Cephalopholis cruentatus
Yellowmouth grouper, Mycteroperca
interstitialis
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
Bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifassciatmin
Stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride
Queen angelfish, Holiacath iit.s ciliaris
Gray angelfish, Poitacanthius arcuatus
Sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
Spotfin butterflyfish, Chaetodon ocellatus
Sharknose goby, Elacatinus evelynae
Southern stingray, Dasyatis Americana
Green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Porites porites Rhodoliths, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile
Porites astreoides Irciniafelix
Madracis decactis Aplysina cauliformis
Montastraea annularis
Montastraea cavernosa
Millepora alcicornis
Meandrina meandrites
Diploria strigosa
Agaricia sp.
Rhizopsammia goesi
Irciniafelix






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Unidentified hydroids
Unidentified tunicates
Algae Algae
Dictyota sp. Udotea cyathiformis
Lobophora variegate Halimeda opuntia
Halimeda tuna
Halimeda discoidea
Sargassum sp.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 14. List of species that were associated with Target 42 (concrete slabs) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species
Bar jack, Caranx ruber Yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus
Queen triggerfish, Balistes vetula Yellowhead jawfish, Opistognathus aurifrons
White margate, Haemulon album Queen triggerfish, Balistes vetula
Tomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum Hogfish, Lachnolaimus maximus
French grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum Sand tilefish, Malacanthus plumieri
White grunt, Haemulon plumierii Puddingwife, Halichoeres radiatus
Caesar grunt, Haemulon carbonarium Bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus
Spanish grunt, Haemulon macrostomum
Dog snapper, Lutjanusjocu
Gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus
Rock hind, Epinephelus adscensionis
Red hind, Epinephelus guttatus
Coney, Cephalopholis fulva
Foureye butterflyfish, Chaetodon capistratus
Blue tang, A, ,Liiui rii coeruleus
Ocean surgeon fish, A, ainlhiirt\ bahianus
Doctorfish, A, ,imilhir,\ chirurgus
Blue chromis, ('ChrIi"u\ cyanea
Brown chromis, Clhriimii multilineata
Bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus
Glasseye snapper, Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
Blackbar soldierfish, Myripristis jacobus
Striped parrotfish, Scarus iserti
Redband parrotfish, Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride
Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus
Bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum
Yellowhead wrasse, Halichoeres garnoti
Slippery dick, Halichoeres bivittatus
French angelfish, Poinacanthus paru
Yellow goatfish, Mulloidichthys martinicus
Masked goby, Coryphopterus personatus
Bluestriped lizardfish, Synodus saurus
Sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
Trumpetfish, Aulostomus maculatus






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 14. Continued.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus Rope sponge, Aplysinafulva
Arrow crab, Stenorhynchus seticornis Black ball sponge, Ircinia strobilina
Queen conch, Strombus gigas Stinker sponge, Irciniafelix
Milk conch, Strombus costatus
Unidentified crinoids
Fire coral, Millepora sp.
Bush hydroid, Dentitheca dendritica






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 15. List of species that were associated with Target 42 (concrete slabs) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2004.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
fish/min
Fish Species Count (N=1) Fish Species


Ponacianthius arcuatus
Holtcianthuis tricolor
Chaetodon capistratus
Balistes vetula
A ,liilhitr,,\ chirurgus
A ,iilhiimri\ coeruleus
Holocentrus adscensionis
Lutjanus synagris
Ocyurus chrysurus
Haemulon plumierii
Epinephelus guttatus
Cephalopholis cruentatus
Serranus tabacarius
Hypoplectrus sp.
Hypoplectrus nigricans
Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
Pseudupeneus maculatus
Equetus lanceolatus
Stegastes partitus
Stegastes leucostictus2
Chr, ln \ cyanea
Chn ir'm multilineata2
Thalassoma bifasciatum
Halichoeres garnoti
Clepticus parrae
Scarus taeniopterus
Sparisoma viride
Calamus calamus
Aulostomus maculatus
Canthigaster rostrata2
Synodus intermedius
Coryphopterus sp.2
Cumulative


246


0.15
0.05
0.20
0.10
2.50
1.00
1.50
0.10
1.00
0.50
0.10
0.05
0.10
0.05
0.50
0.10
0.25
0.10
0.75

2.00

0.10
0.25
0.05
0.20
0.40
0.05
0.10

0.05

12.30


Stegastes partitus
Opistognathiis aurifrons
Coryphopterus pl /, fiTatc muin


Invertebrates Invertebrates
Millepora alcicornis Pseudopterogorgia americana
Siderastrea sp. Pseudopterogorgia sp.
Montastraea cavernosa Aplysina cauliformis
Mycetophyllia sp. Amphimedon compressa
Diploria aln i inmhfi imi


Table 15. Continued.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Diploria sp.
Madracis sp.
Gorgonia mariae
Gorgonia ventalina
Pseudopterogorgia americana
Pseudopterogorgia sp.
Pterogorgia spp.
Pseudoplexaura spp.
Muricea sp.
unidentified gorgonian
Panulirus argus
Periclimenes pedersoni
Strombus costatus
Davidaster rubiginosa
Condylactis gigantea
Bartholomea annulata
Sabellastarte milnifi, ,
Spirobranchus giganteus
unidentified sabellids
Aplysina cauliformis
Aplysina fistularis
Calyspongia sp.
Pseudoceratina crassa
Ircinia strobilina
Irciniafelix
Halisarca sp.
unidentified encrusting sponges
Algae Algae
Dictyota spp. Dictyota spp.
Lobophora variegatta Sargassum hystrix
Halimeda spp. Lobophora variegatta
Sargassum hystrix ., hi;, ,thri calcicula
Udotea c\ ihii Iriif
Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile
Total search time for fish artificial reef was 20 minutes.
2Fish that were not recorded by the diver but were observed in the video or photos, so are not
included in the timed search results.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 59
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 16. List of species that were associated with Target 42 (concrete slabs) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2005.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
fish/min
Fish Species Count (N=1) Fish Species
Pomacanthus arcuatus 6 0.60 Stegastes partitus
Chaetodon capistratus 6 0.60 Opistognathus aurifrons
Balistes vetula 1 0.10 Coryphopterus glaucofraenum
Acanthurus chirurgus 24 2.40
Acanthurus coeruleus 12 1.20
Acanthurus bahianus 36 3.60
Holocentrus adscensionis 24 2.40
Lutjanus griseus 24 2.40
Lutjanus apodus 6 0.60
Ocyurus chrysurus 28 2.80
Anisotremus surinamensis 8 0.80
Haemulon parra 2 0.20
Haemulon carbonarium 36 3.60
Haemulon aurolineatum 36 3.60
Epinephelus guttatus 4 0.40
Cephalopholis cruentatus 1 0.10
Hypoplectrus puella 1 0.10
Heteropriacanthus cruentatus 10 1.00
Milloidichthys martinicus 6 0.60
Pseudupeneus maculatus 9 0.90
Stegastes partitus 2 0.20
-'1 1 1 I-I I t-fl






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates I Invertebrates


Porites astreoides
Diploria aldn i rinmf ,ri mi
Diploria strigosa
Eunicae sp.
Gorgonia mariae
Plexaurella nutans
Pseudoplexaura spp.
Plexaura flexuosa
Pterogorgia guadalupensis
Anthosigmiella varians
Muricea sp.
Tubastraea coccinea
Manicina areolata
Periclimenes pedersoni
Strombus gigas
Davidaster rubiginosa
Condylactis gigantea
Bartholomea annulata
Sabellastarte ma,iifi', a,
Spirobranchus giganteus
Aplysina fulva
Aplysina cauliformis
Aplysina fistularis
Niphates digitalis
Cribrochalina vasculum
Myrmekioderma styx
Calyspongia sp.
Pseudoceratina crassa
Ircinia strobilina
Irciniafelix
Halisarca sp.
Algae
Dictyota spp.
Lobophora variegatta
Halimeda goreaui
Halimeda opuntia
Halimeda tuna
Halimeda discoidea
Halimeda variegata
Codium isth lnuhladumn
Sargassum hystrix


-------






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 17. List of species that were associated with Target 45 (steel hull tug) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species
Blue Tang, Acanthurus coeruleus Dash Goby, Gobionellus saepepallens
French angelfish, Pomacanthus paru Yellowhead jaw fish, Opistognathus aurifrons
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
Rock beauty, Holacanthus tricolor
Coney, Epinephelus fulvus
Bar jack, Caranx rubber
Horse-eye jack, Caranx latus
Tomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum
French grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum
Margate, Haelumon album
Spanish Hogfish, Bodianus rufus
Dog snapper, Lutjanusjocu
School master, Lutjanus apodus
Gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus
Yellow goatfish, Mulloidichthys martinicus
Bluehead Wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum
Redband Parrotfish, Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Queen Triggerfish, Balistes vetula
Whitespotted Filefish, Cantherhines macrocerus
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Milk Conch, Strombus costatus None encountered
Feather duster worms, various species
Christmas tree worms, Spirobranchus giganteus
Red Rope Sponge (also purple variety), Aplysina
cauliformis
Giant Barrel Sponge, Xestospongia muta
Convoluted Barrel Sponge, Aplysina lacunose
Black-ball sponge, Ircinia strobilina
Encrusting sponges and tunicates, various species
Painted tunicates, Claveline picta
White telesto, Carijoa riisei
Symmetrical Brain Coral (encrusting plate
variety), Diplora strigosa
Massive Starlet Coral, Siderastrea siderea
Fire coral, Millepora alicornis
Algae Algae
Bristle Bush, Penicillus spp. Encrusting Fan-Leaf Alga, Lobophora
Stalked Lettuce Leaf Alga, Halimeda tuna variegata
Large-leaf Hanging Vine, Halimeda copiosa Stalked Lettuce Leaf Alga, Halimeda tuna
Encrusting corallines, various species


APPENDIX, Table 17. Continued.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Algae Algae
Mermaid's Tea Cup, Udotea cLihifiIirmi\
White Scroll Alga, Padina jamaicensis
Rhodoliths unidentified sp.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 18. List of species that were associated with Target 45 (steel hull tug) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2004.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
fish/min
Fish Species Count (N=1) Fish Species


Poinacanthust arcuatus
Holtcanthits. tricolor
Balistes vetula
A, ,iiihiirt,\ chirurgus
A aIiiihitiiir\ coeruleus
Holocentrus adscensionis
Trachinotus falcatus
Caranx ruber
Lutjanus mahogoni
Lutjanus synagris
Lutjanus jocu
Lutjanus griseus
Cephalopholis fulva
Pseudupeneus maculatus
Stegastes leucostictus
Stegastes partitus
Cli i \ cyanea2
Thalassoma bifassciatiri
Halichoeres garnoti
Bodianus rufus2
Scarus taeniopterus
Amblycirrhitus pinos2
Coryphopterus sp.2
Gobiosoma chancei2
Cumulative


Invertebrates
- 11 -1 . 1- .


i3 Stegastes par
)7 Stegastes plar
'7 Ginatholepisi t


ivinepora alctcornis Ynptysina cautojrmis
Siderastrea siderea
Siderastrea radians
Montastraea cavernosa
Montastraea annularis
7 y; n/ ri/f yin f\ en






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area


Claveline picta
Condylactis gigantea
Sabellastarte magnifica
Spirobranchus giganteus
unidentified sabellids
unidentified gorgonian
Aplysina cauliformis
Aplysina fistularis
Pseudoceratina crassa
Ircinia strobilina
Irciniafelix
Halisarca sp.
Algae
Dictyota spp.
Lobophora variegatta
Halimeda spp.
Penicillus sp.

STotal search time for the ar
2Fish that were not recorded
included in the timed search


Algae
Padina jamaicensi
Lobophora variegt
Halimeda spp.
Udotea cyathiform
Rhodolith, cf. Lith,
0 minutes.
were observed in the video or ph,






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 19. List of species that were associated with Target 45 (steel hull tug) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2005.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
fish/min
Fish Species Count (N=1) Fish Species
Ponacanthus arcuatus 2 0.20 Opistognathus aurifrons
Ponacainthus tricolor 3 0.30 Stegastes partitus
Holctanth.us ciliaris 1 0.10 Halichoeres bivitatus
Balistes vetula 1 0.10 Serranus tortugarum
A, ,airiihr, chirurgus 10 1.00 Stegastes planifrons
A, aiiiilhr, coeruleus 6 0.60 Heteroconger longissimus
A, aiiiilir, bahianus 12 1.20
Holocentrus adscensionis 50 5.00
Lutjanus apodus 10 1.00
Lutjanus griseus 100 10.00
Lutjanus synagris 6 0.60
Ocyurus chrysurus 25 2.50
Anisotremus surinamensis 11 1.10
Haemulon aurolineatum 74 7.40
Epinephelus guttatus 4 0.40
Milloidichthys martinicus 24 2.40
Pseudupeneus maculatus 15 1.50
Clii'hun% multilineata 100 10.00
Thalassoma bifasciatum 8 0.80
Bodianus rufus 6 0.60
Halichoeres garnoti 24 2.40
Halichoeres radiatus 4 0.40
Scarus iserti 38 3.80
Sparisoma sp. 2 0.20
Caranx ruber 12 1.20
Caranx latus 4 0.40
Sphyraena barracuda 1 0.10
Heteropriacanthus cruentatus 1 0.10
Apogon maculatus 100 10.00
1 C\ 1 C\






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Carijoa riisei
Claveline picta
Condylactis gigantea
Diploria clivosa
Diploria strigosa
Halisarca sp.
Holopsamma helwigi
Irciniafelix
Ircinia strobilina
Lima scabra
Madracis decactis
Millepora alcicornis
Millepora complanata
Montastraea annularis
Montastraea cavernosa
Mycetophyllia aliciae
Porites astreoides
Pseudoceratina crassa
Sabellastarte magnifica
Siderastrea radians
Siderastrea siderea
Spirobranchus giganteus
Tubastraea coccinea
Algae Algae
Dictyota spp. Dictyota spp.
Halimeda spp. Sargassum hystrix
Lobophora variegatta Penicillus dumetosus
Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion
Sargassum hystrix ruptile
Padina jamaicensis
Caulerpa prolifera
1 IT'nt'lol 0~or tf~ r nc, -1 PT\r' OT'IIrt*-P ol rananf n~oc 1 11 rn\niyiti'nc<






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 20. List of species that were associated with Target 51 (steel barge) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2001.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species


Tomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum
Fairy Basset, Gramma loreto
Blue tang, A, ,iilii rrI coeruleus
Bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus
Red hind, Epinephelus guttatus
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
Bigeye, Priacanthus arenatus
Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus
Queen parrotfish, Sparisoma vetula
Stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride
Redband parrotfish, Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatumn
Puddingwife, Halichores radiatus
Creole Wrasse, Clepticus parrae
Doctorfish, A, ,amllhii\ chirurgus
Sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
Gray Angelfish, Balistes capriscus
French Angelfish, PoInacanthus paru
Sand Diver, Synodus intermedius
Yellowtail Snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus
Invertebrates
Atlantic Triton, Charonia variegata
Hydroids, Hydroida
Brain coral, Diploria aId iriimhif ,rimii
Painted Tunicate, Clavelina picta
Starlet coral, Siderastrea siderea
Branching coral, Madracis spp.
Flower coral, Eusmilia spp.
Black-ball sponge, Ircinia strobilina
Stinker sponge, Irciniafelix
Yellow tube sponge, Aplysinafistularis
Algae
Leaf algae, Halimeda spp.
Sea Pearl, Ventricaria ventricosa


SBarracuda, Sphyraena barracuda


Algae
Fan-leaf Alga, Lobophora variegata






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 21. List of species that were associated with Target 51 (steel barge) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2003.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish species Fish species
Permit, Trachinotusfalcatus Yellowhead jawfish, Opistognathus aurifrons
Bar jack, Caranx ruber Bar jack, Caranx ruber
Barracuda, Sphyraena barracuda Bridled goby, Coryphopterus glaucofraenum
Coney, Cephalopholis fulva Sand tilefish, Malacanthus plumieri
Red hind, Epinephelus guttatus Queen triggerfish, Balistes vetula
Comtate, Haemulon aurolineatum Chalk bass, Serranus tortugarum






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Pseudopterogorgia sp.
Carijoa riisei
Callyspongia vaginalis
Halisarca sp.
Clathria sp.
Cinachyra sp.
Irciniafelix
Unidentified encrusting sponges
Unidentified rope sponges
Sertularella speciosa
Thyroscyphus ramosus
Unidentified hydroids
Unidentified tunicates
Unidentified sabellids
Algae Algae
Dictyota sp. Penicillus pyriformis
Sargassum sp. Lobophora variegata
Lobophora variegata Sargassum sp.
Halimeda copiosa Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile
Halimeda tuna
Crustose coralline algae






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 22. List of species that were associated with Target 52 (concrete slabs) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2003.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species
Blue tang, Acanthurus coeruleus Blue tang, Acanthurus coeruleus
Ocean surgeonfish, Acanthurus bahianus Ocean surgeonfish, Acanthurus bahianus
Blue runner, Caranx crysos White margate, Haemulon album
Jolthead porgy, Calamus bajonado Tomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum
Caesar grunt, Haemulon carbonarium Queen triggerfish, Balistes vetula
White margate, Haemulon album Chalk bass, Serranus tortugarum
Tomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum Spotted goatfish, Pseudupeneus maculatus
Yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus Malacoctenus sp.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 71
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Algae Algae
Sargassum sp. one slab had -70% coverage Halimeda discoidea
Lobophora variegata Udotea c aihif ',rmi\
Lobophora variegata
Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 72
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 23. List of species that were associated with Target 52 (concrete slabs) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2005.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
fish/min
Fish Species Count (N=1) Fish Species
Domacanthus arcuatus 3 0.30 Stegastes partitus
Yolocanthus tricolor 7 0.70 Chromis multineata
Lolocanthus ciliaris 1 0.10 Pseudupeneus maculatus
Balistes vetula 1 0.10 Acanthurus bahianus
Acanthurus chirurgus 34 3.40 Acanthurus coeruleus
Acanthurus coeruleus 6 0.60 Thalassoma bifasciatum
Icanthurus bahianus 8 0.80 Caranx ruber
Yolocentrus adscensionis 10 1.00
Myripristis jacobus 10 1.00
Lutjanus analis 1 0.10
Lutjanus apodus 6 0.60
3cyurus chrysurus 4 0.40
Inisotremus surinamensis 4 0.40
Yaemulon carbonarium 7 0.70
Yaemulon aurolineatum 15 1.50
Epinephelus guttatus 6 0.60
Pseudupeneus maculatus 16 1.60
Chromis cyanea 24 2.40
Chromis multineata 36 3.60
Vicrospathodon chrysurus 2 0.20
Stegastes partitus 50 5.00
Thalassoma bifasciatum 3 0.30
3odianus rufus 4 0.40
Scarus taeniopterus 2 0.20
Sparisoma viride 6 0.60
icarus iserti 4 0.40
Caranx ruber 6 0.60
Seriola rivoliana 1 0.10
7ramma loreto 5 0.50
Valacanthus plumieri 1 0.10
Cumulative 283 28.30
[nvertebrates Invertebrates
Agaricia agaricites Aplysina cauliformis
Aplysina fulva Aplysina fulva
Callyspongia vaginalis
Cribrochalina vasculum
Diplastrella megastrellata
Diploria labyrinthformis
Diploria strigosa






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 73
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Ectyoplasia ferox
Erythropodium caribaeorum
Eunicea sp.
Halisarca sp.
Irciniafelix
Ircinia strobilina
Madracis decactis
Meandrina meandrites
Millepora alcicornis
Millepora complanata
Montastraea annularis
Montastraea cavernosa
Myceptophyllia sp.
Niphates digitalis
Pseudoceratina crassa
Ptilocaulis sp.
Siderastrea radians
Siderastrea siderea
Spheciospongia Xestospongia muta
Algae Algae
Dictyota spp. Dictyota spp.
Halimeda goreaui Sargassum hystrix
Halimeda opuntia Lobophora variegatta
Halimeda tuna Halimeda sp.
Lobophora variegatta Halimeda tuna
Padina jamaicensis Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile
Sargassum hystrix
Ventricaria ventricosa
1 Total search time for artificial reef was 10 minutes






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 24. List of species that were associated with Target 57 (steel ferry) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species


Rock beauty, Holtcanthus tricolor
Gray angelfish, Poinactnthus arcuatus
Blue tang, A Liiii, itri\ coeruleus
Ocean surgeonfish, A, alilhllrt, bahianus
Bicolor damsel, Stegastes partitus
Beaugregory, Stegastes leucostictus
Sergeant major, Abudefdufsaxatilis
Blue chromis, Chr li i i cyanea
Brown chromis, Chiirii,\ multilineata
Fairy basslet, Gramma loreto
Bar jack, Caranx ruber
Tomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum
French grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum
White grunt, Haemulon plumierii
Rock hind, Epinephelus adscensionis
Graysby, Cephalopholis cruentatus
Coney, Cephalopholis fulva
Yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus
Yellowhead wrasse, Halichoeres garnoti
Bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciaturn
Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus
Stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride
Redband parrotfish, Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Sand diver, Synodus intermedius
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
Glasseye snapper, Heteropritacanthus
cruentatus
Yellow goatfish, Mulloidichthys martinicus
Sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
Invertebrates
Atlantic thorny oyster, Spondylus americanus
Giant hermit, Petrochirus diogenes
Fire coral, Millepora sp.
Starlet coral, Siderastrea siderea
Maze coral, Meandrina meandrites
Finger coral, Porites porites
Sheet coral, Agaricia sp.
Sea whip, Pterogorgia sp.
Unidentified tunicates
Star encrusting sponge, Halisarca sp.


Stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride


Invertebrates
Rope sponges, Aplysina sp.
Black ball sponge, Ircinia strobilina
Branching tube sponge, Pseudoceratina crassa
Orange ball sponge, Cinachyra sp.


- I I






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 75
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 24. List of species that were associated with Target 57 (steel ferry) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Rope sponges, Aplysina sp.
Black ball sponge, Ircinia strobilina
Stinker sponge, Irciniafelix
Algae Algae
Lobophora variegata Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile
Dictyota sp. Lobophora variegata
Halimeda tuna Udotea sp.
Halimeda discoidea Dictyota sp.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 25. List of species that were associated with Target 57 (steel ferry) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2005.


Associated with artificial reef


Fish Species
Pomacanthus tricolor
Acanthurus chirurgus
Acanthurus bahianus
Holocentrus adscensionis
Lutjanus analis
Ocyurus chrysurus
Haemulon macrostomum
Anisotremus surinamensis
Haemulon aurolineatum
Epinephelus guttatus
Milloidichthys martinicus
Pseudupeneus maculatus
Chromis multilineata
Stegastes partitus
Halichoeres radiatus
Thalassoma bifasciatum
Bodianus rufus
Halichoeres garnoti
Scarus iserti
Sparisoma viride
Caranx ruber
Canthigaster rostrata
Gramma brasiliensis
Cumulative
Invertebrates


Count


'fish/min
(N=1)
0.10
0.50
0.70
1.50
0.10
1.50
0.10
0.20
10.00
0.20
1.50
2.60
10.00
0.80
0.10
0.60
0.60
0.80
0.40
0.70
0.50
0.20
0.20
33.90


Agaricia sp.
Aplysina cauliformis
Aplysinafulva
Clathria sp.
Callyspongia vaginialis
Diplastrella sp.
Halisarca sp.
Holopsamma helwigi
Irciniafelix
Ircinia strobilina
Millepora alcicornis
Millepora complanata
Madracis mirabilis
Manicina areolata


Surrounding area


Fish Species
Heteroconger longissimus
Stegastes planifrons
Stegastes partitus


Invertebrates


Aplysina fulva
Aplysina cauliformis
Xestospongia muta
Ircinia strobilina


Table 25. Continued.


~ I


I


I






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Count Invertebrates
Myrmekioderma styx
Pseudoceratina crassa
Xestospongia muta
Siderastrea radians
Panulirus argus 2
Mithrax spinosissimus 1
Carijoa riisei
Algae Algae
Dictyota spp. Halimeda tuna
Halimeda tuna Halimeda discoidea
Halimeda discoidea Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile
Sargassum hystrix Padina jamaicensis
Lobophora variegatta Lobophora variegatta
Avrainvillea sp.
Udotea c\ ii/ if' rmii\
Udotea sp.
Total search time for artificial reef was 10 minutes






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 78
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 26. List of species that were associated with Target 58 (steel barge) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species
Tomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum Yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus
French grunt, Haemulonflavolineatum Dog snapper, Lutjanusjocu
White grunt, Haemulon plumieri
Lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris
Red hind, Epinephelus guttatus
Fairy basslet, Gramma loreto
Bar jack, Caranx Oacula
Gray angelfish, Poinacanthus arcuatus
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus ascensionis
Blackbar soldierfish, Myripristis jacobus
Stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride
Unidentified parrotfish
Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus
Unidentified wrasse
Queen triggerfish, Balistes vetula
Yellow goatfish, Mulloidichthys martinicus
Spotted goatfish, Pseudupeneus laculates
Blue tang, A, ,uh, r1,\ coeruleus
Ocean surgeonfish, A, ailhitI\ bahianus
Coco damselfish, Stegastes variabilis
Doctorfish, A, ,imilhir,\ chirurgus
Blue chromis, ('Chrl,"i \ cyanea
Sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
Lizardfish, Synodus sp.
Green turtle, Chelonia mydas
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Fire coral, Millepora alcicornis Row pore rope sponge, Aplysina cauliformis
Unidentified hydroids Unidentified rope sponges
Madracis sp.
Starlet coral, Siderastrea sp.
Sea whip, Ellisella barbadensis
Common sea fan, Gorgonia ventalina
Sea plume, Pseudopterogorgia sp.
Unidentified zoanthids
Corkscrew anemone, Bartholomea annulata
Unidentified tunicates
Unidentified bryozoans
Star encrusting sponge, Halisarca sp.
Black-ball sponge, Ircinia strobilina
Row pore rope sponge, Aplysina cauliformis






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Branching vase sponge, unidentified
Branching tube sponge, unidentified
Arrow crab, Stenorhynchus seticornis
True tulip, Fasciolaria tulipa
Thorny oyster, Spondylus americanus
Algae Algae
Ventricaria ventricosa Codium sp.
Sargassum sp. Avrainvillea asarifolia
Dictyota sp. Rhodoliths unidentified sp.
Padina jamaicensis






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 27. List of species that were associated with Target 58 (steel barge) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2004.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species
Balistes vetula Opistognathus aurifrons
A, ,iillmrI, bahianus Coryphopterus glaucofraenum
A, ,iilhir%,,\ coeruleus Lutjanus mahogoni
Holocentrus adscensionis
Lutjanus jocu
Lutjanus synagris
Ocyurus chrysurus
Haemulon aurolineatum
Anisotremus virginicus
Serranus tigrinus
Hypoplectrus unicolor
Hypoplectrus chlorurus
Hypoplectrus sp.
Cl'h niii cyanea
Stegastes partitus
Thalassoma bifassciatuii
Bodianus rufus
Sparisoma viride
Synodus intermedius
Sphyraena barracuda
Canthigaster rostrata
Caranx ruber
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Millepora alcicornis Aplysina lacunosa
Madracis decactis Amphimedon compressa
Agaricia fragilis
Scolymia sp.
Dendrogyra cylindrus
Carijoa riisei
Ellisella barbadensis
Spirobranchus giganteus
unidentified sabellids
Holopsamma helwigi
Irciniafelix
Halisarca sp.
unidentified encrusting sponges






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 27. Continued.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Algae Algae
Dictyota spp. Dictyota spp.
Lobophora variegatta Sargassum hystrix
Sargassum hystrix Lobophora variegatta
Halimeda sp. Udotea c ,'ihifi ',rmi\
Rhodolith, cf Lithothamnion ruptile






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 28. List of species that were associated with Target 58 (steel barge) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2005.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
fish/min
Fish Species Count (N=1) Fish Species


Poinuultnthust arcuatus
Pointiacantihui paru
Holactianth us ciliaris
Balistes vetula
A, ,liilirtr,\ chirurgus
A, miilir it%\ coeruleus
A, ,iil ihr,,\ bahianus
Holocentrus adscensionis
Lutjanus synagris
Lutjanus analis
Ocyurus chrysurus
Haemulon carbonarium
Haemulon aurolineatum
Epinephelus guttatus
Cephalopholis fulvus
Serranus tigrinus
Milloidichthys martinicus
Pseudupeneus maculatus
Ch, anii \ multilineata
Stegastes partitus
Thalassoma bifasciatuin
Bodianus rufus
Halichoeres garnoti
Halichoeres radiatus
Scarus taeniopterus
Sparisoma viride
Caranx ruber
Caranx latus
Synodus intermedius
Canthigaster rostrata
Cumulative


3
3
1
2
12
6
15
42
32
1
6
6
150
3
3
1
12
10
120
6
7
6
24
2
3
2
12
2
2
1
495


0.30
0.30
0.10
0.20
1.20
0.60
1.50
4.20
3.20
0.10
0.60
0.60
15.00
0.30
0.30
0.10
1.20
1.00
12.00
0.60
0.70
0.60
2.40
0.20
0.30
0.20
1.20
0.20
0.20
0.10
49.50


Opistognathus aurifrons
Coryphopterus gl,/i' q, inlrti
Serranus tortugarum
Serranus tabacarius


Invertebrates Invertebrates
Agaricia fragilis Aplysina fulva
Aplysina cauliformis Ircinia strobilina
Aplysina fistularis Aplysina lacunosa
Aplysina fulva Amphimedon compressa
Carijoa riisei
Cinachyra sp.
Condylactis gigantea






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 83
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 28. Continued.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
invertebrates Invertebrates
Diplosoma glandulosum
Holopsamma helwigi
Irciniafelix
Ircinia strobilina
Vlillepora alcicornis
Villepora complanata
Vadracis decactis
Vlonanchora urguifera
Pseudoceratina crassa
Pterogorgia guadalupensis
Rhopalaea abdominalis
Sabellastarte mi/,a'ifi ,J
Scolymia sp.
Siderastrea radians
Spirobranchus giganteus
rubastraea coccinea
Verongula gigantea
Algae Algae
Dictyota spp. Dictyota spp.
Lobophora variegatta Sargassum hystrix
Halimeda goreaui Lobophora variegatta
Valimeda opuntia Udotea c lii ifl 'ii\
Halimeda discoidea Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion reptile (90%)
Valimeda variegata
Sargassum hystrix
Total search time for artificial reef was 10 minutes






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 29. List of species that were associated with Target 59 (twin engine plane) and those
that were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef,
2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species
Blue Tang, Acanthurus coeruleus French Grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum
Yellowtail Snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus
Red Hind, Epinephelus guttatus
Coney, Epinephelus fulvus
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
Blue Chromis, Chromis cyanea
Bluehead Wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum
Redband Parrotfish, Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Green Moray, Gymnothoraxfunebris
Sharpnose Puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus **(19 None encountered
observed, 6 to 8 adult/legal size)
Pederson cleaner shrimp, Periclimenes pedersoni
Variegated Feather Duster, Bispira variegata
Corkscrew anemone, Bartholomea annulata
Convoluted Barrel Sponge, Aplysina lacunose
Red Rope Sponge, Aplysina cauliformis
Encrusting sponges and colonial tunicates
Solitary ascidians, unknown sp.
Fire coral, Millepora alicornis
Encrusting star coral, unknown spp.
Cup corals, unknown spp.
Algae Algae
Encrusting Fan-Leaf Alga, Lobophora variegata Encrusting Fan-Leaf Alga, Lobophora
variegata
Stalked Lettuce Leaf Alga, Halimeda tuna Stalked Lettuce Leaf Alga, Halimeda tuna
Red Encrusting Algae, unknown spp. Large Leaf Watercress Alga, Halimeda
discoidea
Encrusting Algae, unknown spp. Mermaind Tea Cup, Udotea cyathiformis
Blade Alga, Avrainvillea spp.
Rhodoliths unidentified sp.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 85
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 30. List of species that were associated with Target 59 (twin engine plane) and those
that were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef,
2004.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
fish/min
Fish Species Count (N=1) Fish Species
Poinacanthus arcuatus 4 0.27 Pseudupeneus maculatus
A amLitiir,\ coeruleus 15 1.00 Ocyurus chrysurus
Clhr, al\ cyanea 24 1.60
C'hiir, '\ multilineata 24 1.60
Epinephelus guttatus 10 0.67
Cephalopholisfulva 1 0.07
Mycteroperca venenosa 1 0.07
Scarus iserti 3 0.20
Holocentrus adscensionis 60 4.00
Caranx ruber2
Cumulative 142 9.47
Invertebrates Count Invertebrates
Panulirus argus 6 Aplysina cauliformis
Condylactis gigantea
Millepora alcicornis
Siderastrea siderea
Siderastrea radians
Agaricia fragilis
Aplysina fistularis
Callyspongia vaginalis
Ircinia strobilina
Irciniafelix
Halisarca sp.

Algae Algae
Dictyota spp. .S, hi;, ,thri\ calcicula
Lobophora variegatta Lobophora variegatta
Halimeda spp. Halimeda spp.
unidentified cyanophyta Udotea c' ,ihifi 'rmi\
Avrainvillea asarifolia
Total search time for artificial reef was 15 minutes
2 Caranx ruber was not recorded by the diver but was observed in the video and is not included






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 86
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 31. List of species that were associated with Target 62 (fiberglass boat) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish species Fish species
Doctorfish, Acanthurus chirurgus Bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum
Dcean surgeonfish, Acanthurus bahianus Slippery dick, Halichoeres bivittatus
31ue tang, Acanthurus coeruleus Tobaccofish, Serranus tabacarius
31ue chromis, Chromis cyanea Yellowhead jawfish ,Opistognathus aurifron
3rown chromis, Chromis multilineata Bluestriped lizardfish, Synodus saurus
3icolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus
vlasked goby, Coryphopterus personatus
Spotted goatfish, Pseudupeneus maculatus
Unidentified juvenile grunts, Haemulidae
Yellowhead wrasse, Halchoeres garnoti
3luehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum
Sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
Smooth trunkfish, Lactophrys triqueter
-ardinalfish, Apogon sp.
Redspotted hawkfish, Amblycirrhitus pinos
[nvertebrates Invertebrates
Rope sponge, Aplysinafulva Rope sponge, Aplysinafulva
31ack ball sponge, Ircinia strobilina Row pore rope sponge, Aplysina cauliformis
Stinker sponge, Irciniafelix Black ball sponge, Ircinia strobilina
Unidentified hydroids
White telesto, Carijoa riisei
Star encrusting sponge, Halisarca sp.
Overgrowing tunicates, Ascidiacea
Unidentified encrusting tunicates
Pederson cleaner shrimp, Periclimenes pedersoni
Spotted moray, Gymnothorax moringa
Branching tube sponge, Pseudoceratina crassa
Varty sea rods, Eunicea calyculata
Fire sponge, Tedania ignis
Stove-top pipe sponge, Aplysina archer
Star coral, Madracis decactis
3rown variable sponge, Anthosigmella varians
Branching fire coral, Millepora alcicornis
31ade fire coral, Millepora complanata
Lettuce coral, Agaricia sp.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 87
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 31. Continued.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Ugae Algae
Crustose coralline algae Crustose coralline algae
, hi ,4,hri\ calcicola Sargassum sp.
Ialimeda discoidea Penicillus pyriformis
Lobophora variegata Dictyota spp.
Halimeda opuntia
Padina spp.
Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 88
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

APPENDIX, Table 32. List of species that were associated with Target 70 (steel freighter) and
those that were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial
reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species
Bar jack, Caranx ruber Barracuda, Sphyraena barracuda
Blue runner, Caranx crysos Bicolor Damselfish, Stegastes partitus
Rainbow runner, Elagatis bipinnulata Bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum
Yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus Bridled goby, Coryphopterus
Lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris glaucofraenum
White grunt, Haemulon plumieri
Tomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum
Cesar grunt, Haemulon carbonarium
Coney, Cephalopholis fulva
Queen parrotfish, Scarus vetula
Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus
Bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum
French angelfish, Pomacanthus paru
Doctorfish, Acanthurus chirurgus
Blue tang, Acanthurus coeruleus
Blue chromis juv., Chromis cyanea
Brown chromis, Chromis multilineata
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
Sergeant major, Abudefdufsaxatilis
Bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus
Spotted goatfish, Pseudupeneus maculatus
Yellow goatfish, Mulloidichthys martinicus
Honeycomb cowfish, Lactophrys polygonia
Trumpetfish, Aulostomus maculatus
Sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Bearded fireworm, Hermodice carunculata Row pore rope sponge, Aplysina
Unidentified sabellids cauliformis
Christmas tree worm, Spirobranchus giganteus Unidentified rope sponges






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 89
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 32. Continued.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Madracis sp.
Brain coral, Diploria sp.
Maze coral, Meandrina meandrites
Rose coral, Manicina areolata
Tube coral, Cladocora arbuscula
Golden zoanthid, Paria:, itIInlh\ swiftii
Star encrusting sponge, Halisarca sp.
Stinker sponge, Irciniafelix
Blackball sponge, Ircinia strobilina
Row pore rope sponge, Aplysina cauliformis
Branching tube sponge, Pseudoceratina crassa
Branching vase sponge, Callyspongia vaginalis
Unidentified encrusting sponges
Unidentified tube sponge
Algae Algae
Sargassum sp. Rhodolith unidentified sp.
Dictyota sp. Avrainvillea longicaulis
Halimeda sp. Penicillus spp.
Padina sp. Udotea spp.
Lobophora variegata Dictyota sp.
Ventricaria ventricosa Halimeda sp.
Wrangelia penicillata Lobophora variegata
Unidentified crustose coralline algae






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 33. List of species that were associated with Target 70 (steel freighter) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2003.


Associated with artificial reef
Fish species
Longsnout butterflyfish, Chaetodon aculeatus
Foureye butterflyfish, Chaetodon capistratus
Coney, Cephalopholis fulva
Grasby, Cephalopholis cruentatus
Red hind, Epinephelus guttatus
Permit, Trachinotus falcatus
Bar jack, Caranx ruber
Horse-eye jack, Caranx latus
Creolfish, Paranthiis furcifer
Tomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum
French grunt, Haemulonflavolineatum
Striped grunt, Haemulon striatum
Dog snapper, Lutjanusjocu
Gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus
Yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus
French angelfish, Poinacanthus paru
Queen angelfish, Holtacanthius ciliaris
Queen triggerfish, Balistes vetula
Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus
Creole wrasse, Clepticus parrae
Yellowhead wrasse, Halichoeres garnoti
Puddingwife, Halichoeres radiatus
Bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatuin
Princess parrotfish, Scarus taeniopterus
Stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride
Brown chromis, Clhin n\ multilineata
Blue chromis, C'hin i'i\ cyanea
Bi-color damselfish, Stegastes partitus
Cocoa damselfish, Stegastes variabilis
Sergeant major, Abudefdufsaxatilis
Ocean surgeonfish, A, ,iamlhit \ bahianus
Doctorfish, A, ,iamlhIi,\ chirurgus
Blue tang, A, ,iahi1 rn\ coeruleus
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
Dusky squirrelfish, Sargocentron vexillarium
Trumpetfish, Aulostomus maculatus
Glasseye snapper, Heteropritacanthus cruentatus
Smooth trunkfish, Lactophrys triqueter
Sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
Spotted goatfish, Pseudupeneus maculates


Surrounding area
Fish species
*Due to water depth and limited time a list
was not generated of fishes not associated
with the artificial reefs.


Table 33. Continued.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 91
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish species Fish species
Yellow goatfish, Mulloidichthys martinicus
Scorpionfish, Scorpaena sp.
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Millepora alcicornis Aplysina cauliformis
Dendrogyra cylindrus Irciniafelix
Siderastrea radians Aplysina sp.
Porites porites
Meandrina meandrites
Manicina areolata
Antipathes gracilis
Antipathes sp.
Carijoa riisei
Cirrhipathes leutkeni
Pterogorgia sp.
Pseudopterogorgia sp.
Pseudoplexaura sp.
Aplysina cauliformis
Aplysina fulva
Aplysina fistularis
Callyspongia vaginalis
Pseudoceratina crassa
Niphates digitalis
Ectyoplasia ferox
Holopsamma helwigi
Halisarca sp.
Ircinia strobilina
Irciniafelix
Unidentified hydroids
Unidentified encrusting sponges
Unidentified tunicates
Unidentified feather duster worms
Algae Algae
Sargassum sp. Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile
Lobophora variegata Halimeda sp.
Halimeda sp. Udotea sp.
Turbinaria sp. Lobophora variegata







F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 92
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 34. List of species that were associated with Target 70 (steel freighter), 2004 (associated
with artificial reef).
Fish species Invertebrates*
Pomacanthus arcuatus Millepora alcicornis
rlnrrn+ ll, l ..... n , ;l C;r ..... .....


J.) CtCt


A I -- _


u, -I;,,


Qnhivr


on capistratus Montastraea cavernosa
on aculeatus Diploria strigosa
-us bahianus Meandrina meandrites
-us coeruleus Mycetophyllia sp.
'rus adscensionis Antipathes sp.
synagris Antipahtes pinnacea
chrysurus Tuberastraea coccinea
Pn aurolineatum Rhizopsammia goesi
elus itajara Carijoa riisei
elus guttatus Ellisella barbadensis
pholis fulva Plexaura flexuosa
ctrus unicolor Eunicea spp.
eneus maculatus Gorgonia ventalina
chthys martinicus Diodogorgia nodulifera
multilineata Pseudopterogorgia sp.
cyanea Stenorhynchus seticornis
Spartitus Spirobranchus giganteus
ifsaxatilis unidentified sabellids
,ma bifasciatum Lima scabra
s parrae Leucandra aspera
s rufus Aplysinafistularis
*res radiatus Amphimedon compressa
hrysopterum Pseudoceratina crassa
ia viride Irciniafelix
ys niger Halisarca sp.
stracion polygonia unidentified encrusting sponges
ys bicaudalis
sister rostrata
ia barracuda
'rysos
atus
rubber
Other species


Eretmochelys

*Note: No sui
during this ye;


erastre I sIIC")/
I IpI


1 "r 7 7 *


S7,7 <;,


I ---- 1






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 93
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Table 35. List of species that were associated with Target 79 (sailboat) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
fish Species Fish Species
Fomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum None encountered
Iquirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
;lippery dick, Halichoeres bivittatus
(ellowhead wrasse, Halichoeres garnoti Bluehead,
"halassoma bifasciatum
3lue parrotfish, Scarus coeruleus
)ueen triggerfish, Balistes vetula
(ellow goatfish, Mulloidichthys martinicus
ilue tang, A ,iinlht r\ coeruleus
)cean surgeonfish, A ,nilhmrt1\ bahianus
ilue chromis, Chli, nii \ cyanea
3eaugregory, Stegastes leucostictus






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 36. List of species that were associated with Target 79 (sailboat) and those that were
encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2004.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species
Acanthurus bahianus Stegastes partitus
Acanthurus coeruleus Coryphopterus glaucofraenum
Holocentrus adscensionis Halichoeres garnoti
Myripristis jacobus
Ocyurus chrysurus
Haemulon aurolineatum
Cephalopholis fulva
Stegastes partitus
Chromis cyanea
Thalassoma bifasciatum
Halichoeres pictus
Scarus taeniopterus
Seriola rivoliana
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Millepora alcicornis Aplysina cauliformis
Siderastrea sp. Amphimedon compressa
Montastraea cavernosa Pseudoceratina crassa
Porites astreoides Manicina areolata
Diploria strigosa
unidentified sabellids
Condylactus gigantea
Amphimedon compressa
Pseudoceratina crassa
Halisarca sp.
unidentified encrusting sponges
Algae Algae
Lobophora variegatta Lobophora variegatta
Sargassum sp. Schizothrix calcicula
Halimeda sp. Udotea sp.
Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 37. List of species that were associated with Target 165 (steel cargo ship) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2002.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species


Rock beauty, Holtcanthus tricolor
Gray angelfish, Poinactnthus arcuatus
Blue tang, A Iiiii, itri\ coeruleus
Ocean surgeonfish, A, alilhllrt, bahianus
Bicolor damsel, Stegastes partitus
Beaugregory, Stegastes leucostictus
Sergeant major, Abudefdufsaxatilis
Blue chromis, Chr li i i cyanea
Brown chromis, Chiirii,\ multilineata
Fairy basslet, Gramma loreto
Bar jack, Caranx ruber
Tomtate, Haemulon aurolineatum
French grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum
White grunt, Haemulon plumierii
Rock hind, Epinephelus adscensionis
Graysby, Cephalopholis cruentatus
Coney, Cephalopholis fulva
Yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus
Yellowhead wrasse, Halichoeres garnoti
Bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciaturn
Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus
Stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride
Redband parrotfish, Sparisoma aurofrenatum
Sand diver, Synodus intermedius
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
Glasseye snapper, Heteropriacanthus cruentatus
Yellow goatfish, Mulloidichthys martinicus
Sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
Invertebrates
Atlantic thorny oyster, Spondylus americanus
Giant hermit, Petrochirus diogenes
Fire coral, Millepora sp.
Starlet coral, Siderastrea siderea
Maze coral, Meandrina meandrites
Finger coral, Porites porites
Sheet coral, Agaricia sp.
Sea whip, Pterogorgia sp.
Unidentified tunicates
Star encrusting sponge, Halisarca sp.
Rope sponges, Aplysina sp.


Stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride


Invertebrates
Rope sponges, Aplysina sp.
Black ball sponge, Ircinia strobilina
Branching tube sponge, Pseudoceratina crassa
Orange ball sponge, Cinachyra sp.


I I I~ I '






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 37. Continued.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Black ball sponge, Ircinia strobilina
Stinker sponge, Irciniafelix
Algae Algae
Lobophora variegata Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile
Dictyota sp. Lobophora variegata
Halimeda tuna Udotea sp.
Halimeda discoidea Dictyota sp.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005


Table 38. List of species that were associated with Target 165 (steel cargo ship) and those that
were encountered in the surrounding area but not directly associated with the artificial reef, 2003.
Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Fish Species Fish Species
Masked goby, Coryphopterus personatus Harlequin bass, Serranus tigrinus
Blue tang, Acanthurus coeruleus Sand tilefish, Malacanthus plumieri
Ocean surgeonfish, Acanthurus bahianus Stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride
French angelfish, Pomacanthus paru Spotted goatfish, Pseudupeneus maculatus
Gray angelfish, Pomacanthus arcuatus Clown wrasse, Halichoeres maculipinna
Bar jack, Caranx ruber Yellowhead jawfish, Opistognathus aurifrons
Barracuda, Sphyraena barracuda
Striped grunt, Haemulon striatum
French grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum
Creolefish, Paranthias furcifer
Stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride
Striped parrotfish, Scarus iserti
Bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum
Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus
Cocoa damselfish, Stegastes variabilis
Bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus
Sergeant major, Abudefdufsaxatilis
Blue chromis, Chromis cyanea
Brown chromis, Chromis multilineata
Graysby, Epinephelus cruentatus
Red Hind, Epinephelus guttatus
Squirrelfish, Holocentrus adscensionis
Sharpnose puffer, Canthigaster rostrata
Queen triggerfish, Balistes vetula
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Millepora alcicornis Aplysina cauliformis
Montastraea cavernosa Aplysina sp.
Siderastrea radians Ectyoplasia ferox
Diploria labyrinthiformis
Meandrina meandrites
Porites astreoides
Ellisella barbadensis
Antipathes sp.
Halisarca sp.
Ircinia strobilina
Ectyoplasia ferox
Amphimedon compressa
Aplysina cauliformis
Halocordyle disticha
Unidentified hydroids


APPENDIX, Table 38. Continued.






F-10 U.S. Virgin Islands Artificial Reef Development, Nourishment and Monitoring: Final Report 98
Study 3. Monitoring St. Thomas/St. John Artificial Reefs
Period: October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2005

Associated with artificial reef Surrounding area
Invertebrates Invertebrates
Unidentified encrusting sponges
Unidentified tunicates
Hermodice carunculata
Unidentified feather duster worms
Algae Algae
Sargassum sp. Penicillus pyriformis
Lobophora variegata Udotea c\' Lihifi ,rmi\
Halimeda sp. Lobophora variegata
Dictyota sp. Rhodolith, cf. Lithothamnion ruptile
Crustose coralline algae




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