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Title: USVI queen conch stock assessment
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Title: USVI queen conch stock assessment
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Gordon, Shenell
Publisher: Divison of Fish and Wildlife, Department of Planning and Natural Resources, U.S. Vircin Islands
Place of Publication: St. Croix, USVI
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Executive summary
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Figures and tables
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
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        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
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Full Text











Final Report


to the


Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program Caribbean


State


:United States Virgin Islands


Project Number :NAO7FS0100


Project Title :Caribbean/NMFS Cooperative SEAMAP Program


Study Title :USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment


Period Covered :January 1, 2001 March 31, 2002

Report Written By :Shenell Gordon, Principal Investigator
Division of Fish and Wildlife, Department of Planning and Natural
Resources, U.S. Virgin Islands

Date of Report :November 15, 2002

Project Staff Shenell Gordon, Barry Volson, Dr. K. Roger Uwate (St.Thomas)
Ivan Mateo and William Tobias (St. Croix)

Report Reviewed By :K. Roger Uwate, Ph.D. Chief of Fisheries
Barbara Kojis, Ph.D. Director






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 2
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

United States Virgin Islands Queen Conch Stock Assessment

Executive Summary

Conch stocks have been periodically surveyed in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Previous conch scooter
transect surveys were completed in 1981, 1985, 1990, and 1996. In 2001, a follow-up queen
conch scooter transect survey study was completed. The objective of this study was to determine
the status of conch stocks, assess the effectiveness of management regulations, and make
management suggestions.

During this study, conch densities, particularly adults, were higher on scooter transects around
St. Thomas compared to St. John. Overall conch densities around St. Croix were higher than St.
Thomas and St. John. Mean juvenile conch densities for all transects common to all sampling
years ranged from 1.0 juvenile conch/ha on St. Thomas to 72.3 juvenile conch/ha on St. Croix.
St. John had 7.5 juvenile conch/ha. Mean adult conch density for all common transects was
similar on St. Thomas (24.2 adult conch/ha) and St. Croix (27.4 adult conch/ha), but much lower
on St. John (7.2 adult conch/ha).

Both adult and juvenile conchs were more abundant on algal plains and seagrass beds than other
benthic habitats. Maximum adult conch densities were found in the 13 to 18 m depth range for
common transects around St. Thomas and St. John. In St. Croix, the highest mean adult densities
were found in the 19 to 24 m depth range. In general, there was a decrease in juvenile conch
with increasing water depth.

Results of this study were compared with previous studies. Between 1996 and 2001, there was a
substantial decrease in overall queen conch densities for common transects in St. Thomas.
Between 1981 and 2001, there was also a substantial decrease in overall queen conch densities
for the 9 common transects common to all survey years for St. John. This decline occurred
despite current bag limits, minimum size limits, and seasonal closure. Over the past two
decades, St. Croix had higher overall queen conch densities than either St. Thomas or St. John.
Compared to previous years, juvenile conch densities in 2001 were much lower on St. John and
St. Thomas. Low juvenile conch densities may reflect the lack of successful recruitment, patchy
distribution of the species, and/or more importantly intensive fishing pressure.

It is recommended that surveys in deeper water (>24m) be conducted in the future. These depths
have not previously been surveyed. In order to obtain a more complete picture of the status of
conch stocks, these depths need to be surveyed. Other management recommendations include
more public education, additional resource surveys and restoration efforts, and stricter
enforcement.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 3
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

INTRODUCTION

The queen conch, Strombus gigas, is a large gastropod that has great economic significance
throughout the Caribbean and adjacent regions (Appeldoorn 1994a). According to Appeldoom
(1994a), from 1988 to 1991 (four years) landings of queen conch throughout the Caribbean
region were on the order of 4,000 metric tons (mt) of conch meat with a potential value of US $
40,000,000. The high market value for conch makes the resource an important source of foreign
exchange, either through domestic sale within the tourist industry or through export.
Accessibility, ease of harvest, and high demand has resulted in generally overfished stocks
around the Caribbean.

The populations of queen conch around St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
were recognized as seriously depleted by the late 1970's (Wood and Olsen 1983). By the early
1980's queen conch harvest had exceeded sustainable yield around St. Thomas, St. John, and St.
Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) (Wood and Olsen 1983). Declines in landings were also
reported by the CFMC (1988).

In response to severe overfishing of conch in St. Thomas/St. John District, the USVI government
established a 5-year moratorium on the harvest of queen conch on St. Thomas/St. John beginning
February 1988 (Friedlander 1997). Based on the results of 5 year closures conducted in Cuba
and Bonaire (Munoz et al 1987), a 5-year closure was considered an appropriate time period to
enhance stock size in the Virgin Islands. Unfortunately, there were no comprehensive surveys of
queen conch populations at the end of the moratorium to determine if the closure was successful
in enhancing the population size of queen conch. Also, after the USVI moratorium was lifted in
1992, there were no restrictions on conch harvest for two years. During the period of no
restrictions, heavy fishing pressure was reported on conch stocks throughout the northern USVI
(Friedlander 1997).

On 12 July 1994 USVI regulations on conch were approved establishing a closed season from
July 1 to September 30 each year, a limit on the number of conch landed, a size limit, and a
requirement to land conch whole and in the shell (VIRR 1994, see also CFMC 2001). The
requirement to land conch in the shell created extensive controversy on St. Croix as conch shells
piled up at landing sites and on beaches. However, this was considered the only way of
effectively enforcing size regulations. Because of the controversy and lack of enforcement,
regulations are often ignored, particularly on St. Croix where there is a fairly substantial conch
fishery in comparison with St. Thomas/St. John.

The U.S. Virgin Islands landed approximately 15 mt (30,000 kg) of conch in the year 1990
(Appeldoom 1994a). USVI commercial catch reports indicate that there is only a small
commercial fishery for queen conch in St. Thomas and St. John ranging from 225.5 to 3,138 kg
between the July 1993 to June 1994 and July 2000 to June 2001 fishing years (DFW data files).
In St. Croix, reports indicate that conch landings doubled from 35,572 lb in July 1993 to June
1994 to 72,902 lb in July 1997 to June 1998 (Table 1).

The United States Virgin Islands encompasses three major islands: St. Thomas, St. John, and St.
Croix, as well as several offshore keys (see Figure 1). The territory as a whole consists of a






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 4
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

variety of habitats including fringing and patch reefs, mangrove lagoons, seagrass beds,
carbonated pavement, sand plains, and algal plains (Dammann and Nellis 1992). Available
conch habitat in the USVI is mainly limited to waters of the surrounding shallow insular shelf
platform (Appeldoom 1987). The approximate size of this habitat was established to be 34,300
ha for St. Croix and 162,925 ha for St. Thomas and St. John (CFMC 1999). Within many of the
surrounding bays, seagrass beds and algal plains provide habitat to both adult and juvenile queen
conch.

Over the last 20 years, the Division of Fish and Wildlife conducted visual surveys in order to
monitor the status of the U.S. Virgin Islands conch stock. Repeated sampling at selected sites
can indicate trends in stock condition over time. Estimates of conch abundance around St.
Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix were previously conducted in 1981 (Wood and Olsen 1983),
1985 (St. John only; Boulon 1987), 1990 (Friedlander et al 1994), and 1996 (Friedlander 1997).


OBJECTIVES

The objective of this project is: (1) to provide baseline information on the population status of
queen conch in a variety of critical marine habitats in USVI; (2) to provide time series
information on changes in the USVI queen conch population; (3) to monitor queen conch
populations in marine reserve areas and other protected habitats, and (4) to collect, analyze,
manage and disseminate fisheries independent data on the queen conch resources in the USVI.


METHODS

Study Sites

In 1981, an initial 22 transects located around the islands of St. Thomas and St. John were
surveyed to determine the density and size distribution of queen conch (St. Thomas=10 transects,
St. John=12 transects) (Wood and Olsen 1983). An additional site (Saba Island) was added to
the St. Thomas transect list in 2001 because juvenile conch appeared to be abundant at this site
(based on DFW staff observations). For 2001, a total of 11 sites were surveyed in St. Thomas,
and 12 sites were surveyed in St. John (Figure 1 and Table 2).

There were also 22 original sites around the island of St. Croix in 1981 (Wood and Olsen 1983).
In 2001, only the first 16 of the original 22 transects were resurveyed because of limited study
time (Figure 1 and Table 2).


Scooter transects

Queen conch abundance and density estimates were derived from visual surveys conducted along
transects by two scuba divers using SCUBAPRO (Seaglider & Sea Shuttle) and DACOR
underwater scooters. Global position satellite (GPS) coordinates from previous studies
conducted in 1990 (see Friedlander et al 1994) and in 1996 (see Friedlander 1997) were used to






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 5
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

locate the beginning point of each survey line (Appendix 1). At the start of each site a diver was
deployed with a line attached to a buoy. The buoy was used for tracking the divers, and
indicating the starting and ending point of each transect so that GPS coordinates could be
recorded (from the boat). A Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) Garmin GPS (GPSMAP
76) was used to increase accuracy from 30 m with a standard GPS unit to 3 m (GARMIN
Corporation 2001).

Two divers performed each transect. One diver drove an underwater scooter and followed a
fixed compass heading recorded in previous USVI transect studies (Friedlander 1997) for a
period of at least 30 minutes depending on scooter battery life, underwater conditions, and conch
abundance (time needed to measure each conch). This diver also towed a buoy on a line so that
the support vessel could track the movement of both divers. A second diver on another scooter
was responsible for recording data (see data recording on scooter transect section below).

At the completion of a transect, the diver carrying the marker buoy weighed it down with a dive
weight and both divers surfaced. At this point the support vessel recorded the GPS coordinates
at the location of the marker buoy indicating the end of the transect line. Transects were
conducted during the same time of year (summer months) as those performed in previous
surveys (Friedlander 1997, Friedlander et al 1994, Boulon 1987, and Wood and Olsen 1983) to
reduce seasonal variability between surveys. Dives did not exceed the no-decompression limits.


Data recording on scooter transects

Transect time was typically about 30 minutes. During each survey, the scooter was kept
approximately one meter above the substrate. Divers focused on a width of 2 meters to either
side of the scooter path (4 meters). The total distance covered by scooters ranged from 0.1 to 1.5
km. The differences in distances are attributed to the time required to stop and measure conch,
as well as suitability of the dive conditions. Underwater visibility, current, and scooter battery
life were factors that limited survey time. In areas with no conch, divers did not stop and
scooters were operated continuously. In areas with abundant conch, divers stopped while each
conch was measured.

As stated above, the first diver maintained compass bearings with the lead scooter. The second
diver recorded the transect start and stop times and depths, depth and time of each habitat
change, habitat type, and length and lip thickness of each conch were measured and recorded.
The first diver also assisted in spotting and gathering the conch for measurements.

Conch length measurements were taken from the apex of the spire to the end of the siphonal
notch. Measuring procedures are based on Appeldoorn (1994b). The length of the individual
conch was measured to the nearest cm (Friedlander 1997) with an underwater ruler. Lip
thickness of adult conchs was measured in the mid-lateral region of the shell with a caliper to the
nearest mm. Based on these lip measurements, conch maturity could be determined (see below).

The habitats observed were categorized into six major habitats: (1) unconsolidated sediment
(sand or mud with <10% submerged vegetation); (2) coral reef; (3) colonized pavement; (4)






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 6
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

rubble; (5) seagrass (continuous seagrass: 90% to 100% cover; patchy seagrass: 10% to <90%
cover); (6) algal plain (continuous macroalgae: 90%-100% cover; patchy macroalgae 10% to
<90% cover). This benthic habitat classification is based on NOAA's National Ocean Service
(NOS) habitat classification (NOS 2000, Appendix 2).


Conch maturity categories

Conchs were separated into five maturity categories based on Appeldoorn (1992, see also
Appendix 3):

Stage 0 (juveniles) any conch without flared lip;
Stage 1 (newly mature adult) lip thickness 4 to 7 mm, shell clean;
Stage 2 (sexually mature adult) flared lip fully formed, little to no erosion on
Shell, periostracum tan, lip thickness 8 to 15 mm;
Stage 3 (old adult) outer lip starting to erode, periostracum starting to erode, lip
thickness 16 to 33 mm;
Stage 4 (very old adult = roller) lip very thick and square, heavy erosion
present, lip dark rose to platinum gray in color, lip thickness 34 to 59 mm.


2001 Data analysis

The length of each transect was obtained by calculating the distance between the WAAS GPS
coordinates of the beginning and end points of each transect. By using the length of transect and
time taken to perform each transect, the average speed was calculated in meters/minute. Total
area for each transect was calculated by multiplying the length of each transect by the transect
width (4 meters). Total areas surveyed are presented in Appendix 4.

Five depth ranges were selected: (a) 0 to 6 m, (b) 7 to 12 m, (c) 13 to 18 m, (d) 19 to 24 m, and
(e) 25 to 30 m. Depths were rounded to the nearest whole number. For example, if a depth was
recorded at 6.4, then it would be in depth range (a).

If the entire transect depth was within a single depth range (as specified above), then the entire
transect length was assigned to that single depth range. However, when the depth in a single
transect line changed between different depth ranges (as specified above), then the time duration
between recording events (for habitat change or conch occurrence) was divided by the number of
different depth ranges that had been encountered (for two depth ranges, time duration was
divided by two (=number of depth ranges encountered)). The quotient is then multiplied by
speed to estimate the length of the depth range. The area of a depth range is then calculated by
multiplying the length of the depth range by the width (4 m).

Calculating areas for each habitat type were simpler than those for the five depth ranges (see
above paragraph). When the habitat in a transect line changed, time was recorded. For each
transect habitat, the total time in a habitat was calculated (end time minus start time in a single
habitat). Total time in a habitat was then multiplied by the estimated scooter speed to get the






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 7
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

total transect length within a single habitat. Once lengths of each habitat were calculated, then
area for habitat could be calculated by multiplying the length times width (4 m).

Overall conch densities were calculated by summing the number of conch observed per transect
divided by the total area of each transect. Size class densities (adult and juvenile conch) were
also determined. Conch densities for each habitat were derived by dividing the number of conch
per habitat type by the total area of habitat type per transect. Densities based on depth were
calculated by determining the number of conch in each depth range divided by the total area for
each depth range in square meters.

Length (juvenile and adult) and age (adult) frequencies were determined. Differences in density
or abundance by habitat, depth, or location were analyzed.


RESULTS

2001 Conch densities on scooter transects (including Saba Island, St. Thomas)

A total of 244 queen conch were observed on scooter transects around the USVI conducted in
2001 (Table 3). Nearly 63% of all conch encountered were found around the island of St. Croix
although more area was sampled around St. Thomas and St. John combined.

Average densities of adult conch off St. Thomas (24.0 adult conch/ha) were noticeably higher
than from St. John (7.2 adult conch/ha). Densities of adult conch varied from 115.9 adult
conchs/ha around Water Island, St. Thomas to 0.0 adult conchs/ha found on 14 transects around
both St. Thomas and St. John (Figures 2 and 3). Two Brothers, St. John (73.3 adult conch/ha)
along with Lindquist Beach, St. Thomas (51.6 adult conch/ha) and West End (57.9 adult
conch/ha) had high numbers of adult conch relative to the other survey sites. Saba Island, St.
Thomas (a new site added in 2001) had both the highest juvenile conch per hectare and total
conch per hectare (284.1 conch/ha) among all survey sites for St. Thomas and St. John in 2001
(Figures 2 and 3).

The densities of adult and juvenile conch in St. Croix differed greatly from St. Thomas and St.
John (Table 4). Densities of adult conch in St. Croix varied from 127.7 adult conchs/ha at site 9
to 0.0 adult conch/ha found on 7 of the 16 transects (Figure 4). In St. Croix, the average density
of juvenile conch (72.3 juvenile conch/ha) was much greater than that of adult conch (27.4 adult
conch/ha). Juvenile densities ranged from 487.0 juvenile conchs/ha to 0.0 juvenile conchs/ha
found on 8 of the 16 sites surveyed.

St. Thomas' average conch densities for all transects including those transects common among
years and the Saba Island transect were 24.0 adult conch/ha and 27.5 juvenile conch/ha. St.
Johns' average conch densities were 7.2 adult conch/ha and 7.5 juvenile conch/ha. On St. Croix,
juvenile conch density (72.3 juvenile conch/ha) was nearly three times the density of adults (27.4
adult conch/ha, Figure 5).






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 8
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

2001 Comparisons of densities inside and outside VINP

Of the 12 scooter transects conducted around the island of St. John, six transects (Figure 1 and
Table 2) were within the Virgin Islands National Park (VINP). The mean density of adult conch
on these transects was 0.0 adult conch/ha (VINP) compared to 14.5 adult conch/ha for the
remaining transects around St. John (outside VINP). The mean density of juvenile conch
respectively was 10.5 juvenile conch/ha (VINP) and 4.5 juvenile conch/ha (outside VINP). Both
sets of transects had high variances due to many transects with zero conchs. The coefficient of
variation (CV=SD/mean) for VINP transects was 1.99 while the other locations around St. John
had a slightly lower CV of 1.64. Of the 10 juvenile conch observed in VINP, 9 of them (90%)
were found on the single transect in Lameshur Bay. No adult conchs were found in VINP. Two
Brothers (6 adults) followed by Turner Bay (1 adult) had the only adults observed on all
transects.


Comparison of densities for common transects around St. Thomas and St. John between 1996
& 2001 surveys (not including Saba Island, St. Thomas)

In 1996, for common transects around St. Thomas, mean density of adult conch (32.2 adult
conch/ha) and juvenile conch (31.5 juvenile conch/ha) was greater (Friedlander 1997) than 2001
(24.2 adult conch/ha; 1.9 juvenile conch/ha). This difference in density between 1996 and 2001
is due almost exclusively to the increased number of transects with zero conchs in 2001
compared with 1996. In 1996 around St. John, density of adult conch was greater (14.7 adult
conch/ha) than 2001 (7.2 adult conch/ha), while density of juvenile conch in 1996 (4.1 juvenile
conch/ha) was less than that of 2001 (7.5 juvenile conch/ha) (Tables 3 and 4, see Friedlander
1997).

The average density of conch for St. Thomas and St. John was lower in 2001 (2001=19.9
conch/ha; 1996=39.2 conch/ha (Friedlander 1997). Again, the difference in density is due to the
absence of conchs observed on most transects in 2001. In 1996 there were fewer transects with
0.0 conch/ha (Tables 3).


Comparison of densities for St. Thomas and St. John among all survey years

In St. Thomas, USVI, data on adult conch densities were only available for 1990 (Friedlander et
al 1994) 1996 (Friedlander 1997), and 2001. In St. John, adult conch densities were compared
for the nine transects common to all the survey years: 1981, 1985, 1990, 1996 and 2001. Juvenile
data was not recorded for St. John in 1981 (Wood and Olsen 1983) and 1985 (Boulon 1987).
Mean densities of adult queen conch in St. John were lower in 2001 compared to all other survey
years: 1996 (Friedlander 1997), 1990 (Friedlander et al 1994), 1985 (Boulon 1987), and 1981
(Wood and Olsen 1983) (using only the nine transects common to all survey years, see Figure 6).
These results are different from the previous comparisons among survey years because the
Lameshur Bay, Two Brothers, and Mingo/Lovango transects are excluded from the analysis
since they were not surveyed in 1985.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 9
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

In a previous study, the high variance associated with conch surveys resulted in no statistical
difference between surveys conducted in 1981, 1985, 1990, and 1996 using standard statistical
techniques (Friedlander et al 1994). However, a Jonckheere test showed a continuous decline in
abundance was significant (Friedlander 1997). Although not statistically tested here, there was a
decrease in conch density from 82.7 conch/ha in 1996 to 40.7 conch/ha in 2001 for St. Thomas
and St. John. However, density of conch in 2001 was one and a half times higher than conch
density in 1990 (27.4 conch/ha). This fluctuation reveals the irregularity in conch stocks over
time and the need for continued conch stock monitoring.

Conch density among the nine transects common to all survey years on St. John is still in decline
or has not increased (Figure 6). Three additional transects were surveyed only in 1990
(Friedlander et al 1994), 1996 (Friedlander 1997), and 2001 (this study). Among these years,
1996 (Friedlander 1997) had the highest adult conch density with 14.7 adult conch/ha, followed
by 1990 (Friedlander et al 1994) with 12.6 adult conch/ha, and 2001 with 7.2 adult conch/ha.
However, in 2001 juvenile conch density in St. John was greatest (7.5 juvenile conch/ha),
followed by 1996 (Friedlander 1997) with 4.1 juvenile conch/ha, and 1990 (Friedlander et al
1994) with 1.4 juvenile conch/ha (Figure 7).

Mean densities among survey years (1990, 1996, and 2001) around St. Thomas varied. In 1990
(Friedlander et al 1994), there were 11.8 adult conch/ha and 1.6 juvenile conch/ha. In 1996
(Friedlander 1997), the mean densities of adult conch were approximately three times higher
(32.2 adult conch/ha) and juveniles were approximately 20 times higher (31.5 juvenile
conch/ha). In 2001, there was a decline in mean adult density from 1996 to 24.2 adult conch/ha.
In 2001 juvenile density in St. Thomas declined to nearly the 1990 level with a density of 1.9
juvenile conch/ha (Figure 8).


1981 vs. 2001 surveys for St. Croix

Surveys of conch abundance around St. Croix, USVI were only done in 1981 and 2001. In 1981
(Wood and Olsen 1983), conch data for all transects were lumped (only densities by habitat type
were given). Therefore, there was no data specific to any of the 22 transects. Also, densities of
only adult queen conch were provided. Furthermore, only transects 1 to 16 of the original 22
transects were resurveyed in 2001. Transects 17-22 were not surveyed. Average weighted
density of adult conch in St. Croix in 1981 (Wood and Olsen 1983) was 7.6 adult/ha. This was
dramatically lower than the average adult density in 2001 with 27.4 adult/ha (Figure 9).

In 2001, however, overall density (adults and juveniles) in St. Croix was 99.6 conch/ha (Figure
10). This high density is primarily due to a number of transects having very high densities of
conch. For example 4 of the 16 transects had overall densities ranging from 195.5 to 502.7
conch/ha: sites 13 (502.7 conch/ha), 2 (296.6 conch/ha), 4 (224.4 conch/ha), 9 (212.9 conch/ha),
and 16 (195.5 conch/ha). Site 13 had the highest juvenile density (487.0 juvenile conch/ha)
among all transects (Figure 11).






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 10
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

Habitat types and preferences for St. Thomas and St. John

Algal plain and sand were the most abundant habitat types encountered around St. Thomas and
St. John on scooter surveys in 1990 (Friedlander et al 1994), 1996 (Friedlander 1997), and 2001.
In 2001, for 21 common transects around St. Thomas and St. John, algae constituted 36% of the
total habitat and sand constituted 25% (Figure 12, see also Appendix 5). This was followed by
seagrass (18%), coral reef (11%), rubble (9%), and pavement (1%). Hurricane Marilyn in 1995
did not appear to alter the habitat areas surveyed between 1990 and 1996 (Friedlander 1997).

There were noticeable differences in conch densities among habitat types. In 2001 for St.
Thomas, seagrass had the highest density of queen conch, followed be algae and rubble (Figure
13). A similar pattern occurred in 1996 (Friedlander 1997). In 1990 (Friedlander et al. 1994),
however, rubble had the highest density of queen conch, followed by seagrass, algae, sand, coral
reef, and pavement In 2001, pavement was only recorded at one site on St. Thomas and nine
sites on St. Croix (Appendix 5). In 2001 for St. John, queen conch was only recorded in
seagrass, algae, and sand habitats (Figure 14, and Appendices 6 and 7). Queen conch densities
at each site and each island are presented in Appendix 8.


Habitat types and preferences for St. Croix

Pavement and algae were the most abundant habitat types encountered around St. Croix on
scooter transects in 2001, constituting 48% and 27%, respectively. All other major habitat types
were similar in area surveyed (Figure 15). In 1981, the percentages of habitat surveyed were:
algae (41%), followed by coral reef/pavement (26%), sand (18%), and seagrass (15%) (Figure
15, see Wood and Olsen 1983).

In 2001, algal habitats in St. Croix had the highest mean density of conch (113.5 conch/ha),
followed by seagrass (94.0 conch/ha) then pavement (25.3 conch/ha) (Figures 16 and 17). When
taking the error bars into consideration, there was only a small difference in conch density by
habitat type for St. Croix (Wood and Olsen 1983, see also Figure 17).


Depth distribution for St. Thomas and St. John

In 2001, adult conch densities for the original 22 transects around St. Thomas and St. John were
highest in the 13 to 18 m depth range (59.0 adult conch/ha, Figure 18). The lowest adult
densities were found in the 7 to 12 m depth range (7.8 adult conch/ha) and in the 19 to 24 m
depth range (16.7 adult conch/ha). This density distribution was very different for the depth
distribution found on transects during the 1996 and 1990 surveys (Figures 19 and 20).

In 2001, juvenile conch showed a decrease in density with increasing depth, while juvenile
densities increased with increasing depth for 1996 (Friedlander 1997, Figures 18 and 19). The
highest juvenile densities in 2001 were found in the 7 to 12 m depth range (11.1 juvenile
conch/ha) while the lowest densities were observed in the 13 to 18 m depth range (5.0 juvenile
conch/ha). In 2001, no juvenile conchs were found in the 0 to 6 m, 19 to 24 m, and 25 to 30 m






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 1
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

depth range (Figure 18). Contrary to these results, in 1996 the highest densities of juveniles were
found at the deepest depth range (31.5 juvenile conch/ha, Figure 19, see Friedlander 1997).
Average adult and juvenile queen conch densities by depth for St. Thomas and St. John in 2001
(only) can be seen in Figures 21 and 22 and Table 5. The total area surveyed at each depth range
for St. Thomas and St. John is shown in Tables 6.

In 1990 (Friedlander et al 1994), total conch densities were lower at shallow depths (0 to 12 m)
and higher at deeper depths (13 to 30 m, Figure 20). Total conch density by depth for common
transects around St. Thomas and St. John in 1990, 1996, and 2001 is shown in Table 5.


Depth distributionfor St. Croix

No depth data were available for St. Croix in 1981 (Wood and Olsen 1983). However, 2001 data
shows that the highest mean adult densities were found in the 19 to 24 m depth range (28.9 mean
adult conch/ha), while the lowest were found 7 to 12 m depth (12.5 mean adult conch/ha, Figure
23). There were no queen conch observed in the 0 to 6 m and 25 to 30 m depth range mainly
because there were few transects that were completed at these depth ranges. Total area surveyed
in each depth range for St. Croix is shown in Table 6.


Size and maturity categories for St. Thomas and St. John

The size distribution of queen conch on 2001 transects showed a bimodal distribution with one
peak at 8 cm and a second at 20 to 23 cm (Figure 24). The 8 cm peak consists exclusively of
juveniles. The 20 to 23 cm peak consists primarily of conch with a shell lip that is flared. The
shell lip typically flares at 3 12 years of age (Stoner and Ray 1996) and is a sign of the onset of
sexual maturity. Typically conchs that are 3 /2 years of age have a shell length of 20 cm
(Creswell and Davis 1991). There were at least 31 mature queen conchs of the 72 observed
around St. Thomas (Figure 24) and 7 mature queen conchs of the 19 observed around St. John
(Figure 25).

Individual conchs were placed into maturity categories based on shell characteristics (Appendix
3). In 2001, approximately 42% of all conch observed on scooter transects around St. John were
juveniles (stage 0). The majority of the adults (40%) were stage 3 individuals that were older
adults with the outer lip starting to erode, the periostracum starting to erode, and fouling of the
shell occurring. A small percentage (11%) of very old (stage 4) adults were observed in St.
Thomas. An even smaller percentage (7%) of newly mature adults (stage 1) was observed.
Studies suggest the conch soon grow out of this category (Friedlander 1997).

In St. John, approximately 63% of all conch observed on scooter transects were juvenile (Figure
26). Most adult conchs were stage two (sexually mature) individuals. A small percentage (5%)
of conchs was newly mature adults (stage 1). Also, there were no old (stage 3), nor very old
(stage 4) adults observed (Figure 26). Shell length frequencies for St. Thomas/St. John in 1996
and 2001 are shown in Figure 27.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 12
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


2001 size and maturity categories for St. Croix

Queen conch in St. Croix revealed a fairly uniform size distribution (see Figure 28). There were
similar proportions of conch at all sizes. Forty-nine conchs of 153 observed around St. Croix
were sexually mature (32%). Approximately 68% of all conchs observed on scooter transects
were juveniles (stage 0). Among the adult conch, 25% were in stage one, 50% were stage two,
25% were stage 3, and 0% were stage four (Figure 29). Shell length frequencies for St. Croix in
1981 and 2001 are shown in Figure 30.

Shell length frequencies for the territory (St. Thomas, St. John and St. Croix) in 2001 are shown
in Figure 31.


DISCUSSION

Comparison of queen conch densities among islands in the US Virgin Islands

During 2001, queen conch densities were higher on scooter transects around St. Thomas
compared to St. John. The densities of queen conch observed at each survey site in St. Thomas
and St. John in 1990, 1996 and 2001 are shown in Figures 32 to 50. Conch densities, particularly
juvenile densities, were higher on scooter transects around St. Croix compared to St. Thomas and
St. John (Figure 5). For St. Croix, mean density of adult queen conch increased from 7.6 adult
conch/ha in 1981 (Wood and Olsen 1983) to 27.4 adult conch/ha in 2001 (juvenile conch were
not sampled in 1981). Around St. Thomas, only two sites had relatively high densities of conch
in 2001, Inner Water Island and Saba Island (the new site). Overall, St. Thomas had an average
of 24.0 adult conch/ha and 27.5 juvenile conch/ha in 2001. In St. John in 2001, all sites had low
conch abundances, and an overall mean density of 7.2 adult conch/ha and 7.5 juvenile conch/ha.
Around St. Croix in 2001, several sites had high conch densities, particularly for juveniles. For
example, site 2 had 247.0 juvenile conch/ha, site 4 had 138.1 juvenile conch/ha, site 13 had
487.0 juvenile conch/ha, and site 16 had 138.0 juvenile conch/ha. In 2001 overall, St. Croix had
27.4 adult conch/ha and 72.3 juvenile conch/ha. In 1998, 50% of all conchs harvested in St.
Croix were juveniles (CFMC 2001). This not only suggests that juveniles in St. Croix are
common, but recruitment is strong. However, it also indicates that fishing pressure is high and
that stocks may decline because of reduction in sexually mature adults owing to over harvest of
juveniles.

The higher conch densities on St. Croix compared to St. Thomas/St. John are likely due to the
shallower water depths of the St. Croix shelf and perhaps exploitation patterns. In St. Croix, the
shelf area does not extend far from the shoreline (<3 nm), and the shelf depth ranges from 6 to 12
m. This depth range is primarily where juvenile and subadult size/age categories for conchs are
found (Schweizer and Posada, draft).

The shelf around St. Thomas and St. John extends much further (8 nm to the south, and 20 nm to
the north), and is primarily between 25 to 45 m deep. Many of the surveys around St. Thomas
and St. John were not conducted in deep waters (>24 m) as the survey sites' locations were based






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 13
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

on previous studies and dive limitations. Therefore, adult breeding stocks typically found at
deeper depths (Appeldoom 1994a) were not surveyed or encountered. Further resource studies
at water depths >24m are needed.

There are restrictions and regulations in effect for the harvest of conch in the USVI. A bag limit
of 2 conchs per person per day (recreational fishers) has been in effect in the VINP in St. John
since 1962. No commercial take of conch is permitted in the VINP. Despite this regulation, no
difference in conch densities were detected between transects conducted in the VINP and other
sites outside VINP, St. John.

In St. Thomas and St. John, there was a moratorium on the harvest of queen conch from 1988 to
1992 (see Friedlander 1997). The density of queen conch increased from 13.4 conch/ha in 1990
to 63.7 conch/ha in 1996 on St. Thomas (Table 4). This suggests that the moratorium was
effective. However, this does not account for the decline in the density of queen conch on St.
John. This decline on St. John may be because about half of the sites were in the National Park
which has its own regulations that do not appear to be effectively enforced, and because the
moratorium was primarily done at the request of St. Thomas fishers who were therefore more
likely to adhere to the moratorium. Few St. John fishers are licensed or participate in the St.
John/St. Thomas Fisheries Advisory Committee (FAC).

Current queen conch regulations require fishers to harvest only queen conch that are at least 9" in
length or have a shell thickness of 3/8". Conch must be brought to shore whole in the shell.
Recreational harvesters can harvest only 6 conch per person or 24 per boat in territorial waters.
Commercial fishers can harvest 150 queen conch per commercial fisher per day. These
regulations are not effectively enforced because of the lack of enforcement officers dedicated to
enforcing marine fisheries laws.


Queen conch recruitment

During the 2001 survey, only 4 juvenile conchs were observed on the scooter transects
previously surveyed in 1990 and 1996 around St. Thomas. At the new St. Thomas site, Saba
Island, an additional 26 juvenile conch were observed in a shallow water seagrass bed (6 to 10
m). Juvenile and adult conch abundances varied between sites. Given the high degree of
variability and reports of high densities of juvenile queen conch in some un-sampled bays (e.g.
Brewers Bay, St. Thomas and an unsampled portion of Fish Bay, St. John), it is recommended
that funding for this project be increased to allow more adequate sampling of habitats in the
Virgin Islands. However the objective of this survey was to detect historic trends at established
stations over time, not to identify and survey new areas for conch.

The low numbers of juvenile queen conch found at most sites on St. Thomas and St. John may be
owing to lack of successful recruitment. According to Stoner and Ray (1996), at least 53.0 adult
conch/ha are needed for optimal reproduction to take place. Therefore many of the sites in St.
Croix clearly have sustainable densities. However, most sites around St. Thomas and St. John do
not have conch densities high enough for optimal reproduction.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 14
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

Conch larvae live in the upper water column for 16-28 days, feeding on phytoplankton (Stoner
and Ray 1996). Given the range of time for planktonic development before settlement, it is
likely that a portion of queen conch larvae returns to their natal habitat and a portion disperse
long distances. Genetic studies and analysis of queen conch larvae life history and ocean currents
in the Caribbean region suggest that larvae can travel long distances with the currents before
settling out of the plankton and metamorphosing (Stoner and Ray 1996). The prevailing water
current is from east to west in St. Thomas and St. John. This suggests that recruitment in St.
Thomas and St. John may be linked to the reproductive success of queen conch of British Virgin
Islands' (B.V.I located east of St. Thomas/St. John) conch stocks. Recruitment in the USVI may
be a function of how well the queen conch fishery in the B.V.I is managed and protected.

The low numbers of juveniles in St. Thomas/St. John may also be a function of the illegal
harvest of juveniles in the easily accessible shallow coastal waters around the islands. The
Division of Fish and Wildlife's knowledge of large populations of juveniles in Brewer's Bay and
Fish Bay is a function of telephone calls from members of the public who reported the illegal
harvest of juvenile queen conch from these bays. It was estimated that several hundred juvenile
queen conch were removed from Fish Bay and the Division of Environmental Enforcement
reported over 500 juveniles conchs removed and killed from Brewer's Bay in one incident.


Queen conch abundance related to habitat

Queen conchs were most abundant on algal plains and seagrass beds (Table 7 and Appendix 7).
Around St. John, much of the habitat surveyed was shallower than St. Thomas (Appendix 1).
Overall in St. John, conchs were found almost exclusively in seagrass beds (63% of all conchs on
scooter transects). Such was the case for 1996 surveys (Friedlander 1997) as well. Conchs were
found primarily in manatee grass (Syringodiumfiliforme) and turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum).

From 1990 (Friedlander et al 1994) to 2001, the percentage of surveyed habitat covered by
seagrass has increased, or remained relatively stable among the 22 common transects around St.
Thomas and St. John (Figure 12). In fact, the percentage of each of the major habitat types
surveyed on St. Thomas and St. John has remained rather uniform from 1990 (Friedlander et al
1994) to 2001 (Figure 12).

In St. Croix habitat was much more patchy in 2001 compared to 1981. Also, new habitats were
surveyed in 2001 compared with 1981 (Wood and Olsen 1983, see Figure 15). The habitat
patchiness and new habitats may be primarily due to hurricanes and storms within this 20-year
period (especially hurricanes Hugo in 1989, Marilyn in 1995 and Lenny in 1999). Other possible
contributing factors include anchor damage, water pollution, increased runoff and sedimentation,
and global warming. Data on conch density and size/age distribution by habitat are useful for
establishing refuges for various life stages of these organisms and estimating densities over the
entire shelf area.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 15
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

The effect of hurricanes on queen conch density

In September 1989, Hurricane Hugo struck the Virgin Islands with wind speeds up to 150 per
hour (Quinn 1991). It has been suggested that the effects of the hurricane retarded the conch
population recovery. For example, in Lameshur Bay, St. John, the population of conch after the
hurricane were 10% of what they were 3 years prior (Quinn 1991). In August 16 1995,
Hurricane Marilyn also struck the Virgin Islands with sustained winds of 104 mph with
maximum gust to 129 mph (NOAA 2000). Despite Marilyn's devastation, density of conch was
greater in 1996 than 1990 for St. Thomas (Table 3). The density increase was possibly a
function of the moratorium that was in effect for 5 years.


Age structure of queen conch

Many of the adult conchs observed around St. Thomas were old individuals. Juvenile abundance
was extremely low in most locations around St. Thomas (not including Saba Island) and much
lower than adult abundance.


Conclusion

In summary, abundance declined between 1996 (Friedlander 1997) and 2001 for common
transects in St. Thomas (Figure 8), and between 1981 (Wood and Olsen 1983) and 2001 for the 9
transects common to all survey years for St. John (Figure 6). If management regulations are not
enforced, continued decreases in conch abundance are expected in St. Thomas and St. John. St.
Croix, on the other hand, has abundant populations of conch at many sites. If laws are enforced
and the conch fishery properly managed, continued increases in conch abundance may be
achieved.

Any effective management strategy should include prohibition of recreational conch harvest
within park boundaries. Reserves have the benefit of providing migrants to surrounding areas,
enhancing reproduction, exporting larvae, and providing biological reference areas (Bohnsack
1996). Reserve areas for queen conch in the Bahamas have shown to have 31 times more adult
conch than fished areas (Stoner and Ray 1996). Protected sites within St. John's National Park
did not demonstrate increased conch abundance. This may indicate that they do not have much
protection. This is particularly confounding, because most of the sites included coral sand and
seagrass beds, which are used during summer spawning periods (Brownell and Stevely 1981).
Additionally, there are large rhodolith/rubble communities surrounding the island of St. John,
which provides deeper rubble habitats that are the primary winter feeding habitats for many older
conchs (Stoner and Sandt 1992).

Long term restocking of small conch into the natural environment probably is not an economic
way to replenish and support the fishery (Appeldoorn 1994a). Restocking the ocean with
hatchery-reared conch is a very costly project, considering the high mortality rate within the first
6-9 months of release (Appeldoorn 1994a). The cause of the initial decline in the conch
populations is not from natural recruitment failure, but from overfishing and/or destruction of






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 16
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

habitat, which result in recruitment failure (Appeldoorn 1994a). Conch populations can
ultimately be restored by effective resource management and heightened enforcement.

All management measures are only as good as the level of compliance. Generally, there are
insufficient resources and/or personnel for enforcement purposes (Uwate et al 2001).
Enforcement of conch regulations is often viewed in isolation. Allocation of resources toward
enforcement should be viewed in terms of maintaining the viability of all marine resources. The
worth of all resources is sufficient to warrant an investment in effective enforcement.

Finally, public education is probably one of the most important and long-lasting strategies for
managing fishery resources. Community awareness and public support for management
strategies can encourage restoration efforts. Cooperative management by everyone that uses
conch resources will ultimately benefit all involved groups.


LITERATURE CITED

Appeldoorn, R.S. 1987. Considerations and preliminary calculations of maximum sustainable
yield for the queen conch (Strombus gigas) resource of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Draft report submitted to the Caribbean Fishery Management Council, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.

Appeldoorn. R.S. 1992. Preliminary calculations of sustainable yields for queen conch
(Strombus gigas) in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Proc. Gulf Carib. Fish. Inst. 41: 95-
105.

Appeldoorn, R.S. 1994a. Queen conch management and research: status, needs, and priorities.
Pp. 301-319 in: R.S. Appledoorn and B. Rodriguez. Queen conch biology, fisheries, and
mariculture. Fund. Cientif. Los Roques, Caracas, Venezuela.

Appeldoorn, R.S. 1994b. Spatial variability in the morphology of queen conch and its
implications for management regulations. Queen conch biology, fisheries and mariculture. pp.
145-157 in: R.S. Appeldoorn and B. Rodriguez. Fund. Cientif Los Roques, Caracas, Venezuela.
356 pp.

Bohnsack, R. 1996. Maintenance and recovery of reef fishery productivity. Pages 283-313, in:
N.V.C. Polunin and C.M. Roberts (eds.). Reef fisheries. Chapman and Hall, London.

Boulon, Jr., R.H. 1987. A basis for long-term monitoring of fish and shellfish species in the
Virgin Islands National Park. Biosphere Report No. 22.

Brownell, W. and J. Stevely. 1981. The biology, fisheries, and management of the queen conch,
Strombus gigas. Marine Fisheries Review 43 (7): 1-12.

CFMC. 1988. Second preliminary draft: queen conch management plan. Caribbean Fishery
Management Council, San Juan, Puerto Rico.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 17
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

CFMC. 1999. Queen Conch stock assessment and management workshop. 105 pages.

CFMC. 2001. Draft-amendment 2 to the fishery management plan, queen conch resources of
Puerto Rico and the United States-amended rules and regulations "conch and whelk harvesting"
for the United Sates Virgin Islands.

Creswell, L. and M. Davis. 1991. Queen conch, the well-breed queen of the Caribbean. World
Aquaculture 22(1): 28-40.

Dammann A.E. and D.W. Nellis. 1992. A natural history atlas to the cays of the U.S. Virgin
Islands.Pineapple Press, Inc., Sarasota, FL. 11-18 pp.

Friedlander, A. 1997. Status of queen conch populations around the northern U.S. Virgin Islands
with management recommendations for Virgin Islands National Park. Report prepared for
Biological Resources Division United States Geological Survey Virgin Islands NP Field Station
St. John, USVI.

Friedlander, A., R.S. Appeldoorn and J. Beets. 1994. Spatial and temporal variations in stock
abundance of queen conch, Strombus gigas, in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Pages 51-60 in: R.S.
Appeldoorn, and B. Rodriguez Q. (eds.). Queen conch biology, fisheries and mariculture. Fund.
Cientif. Los Roques, Caracas, Ven.

Garmin Corporation. 2001. GPSMAP 76 owner's manual and reference guide. Garmin
International, Inc., Olathe, Kansas.

Munoz, L., P. Alcolado, I. Fraga, and P. Llorente. 1987. Status of populations and fisheries of
Strombus gigas in Cuba, with some results of juvenile rearing in pens. Proc. Gulf Carb. Fish.
Inst. 38: 353-361.

National Oceanic Atmospheric and Administration (NOAA). 2002. Natural disaster survey
report. http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/service_assessments/marilyn.pdf. (January 1996).

National Oceanic Service (NOS). 2000. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin
Islands: Habitat Classification Scheme. Prepared by NOAA National Ocean Service, National
Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,
Biogeography Program.

Quinn, N.J. 1991. Status of the queen conch resources in St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin
Islands is there hope for recovery? Eastern Caribbean Center, UVI.

Schweizer, D. and J.M. Posada. Draft. Distribution, density and abundance of the queen conch,
Strombus gigas, in the Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela. Department de
Biologia de Organismos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas, Venezuela. Draft submitted to
Bulletin of Marine Science.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 18
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

Stoner, A.W. and Ray, M. 1996. Queen conch, Strombus gigas, in fished and unfished locations
of the Bahamas: effects of a marine fishery reserve on adults, juveniles, and larval production.
Fishery Bulletin 94: 551-565.

Stoner, A.W. and V.J. Sandt. 1992. Population structure, seasonal movements and feeding of
queen conch, Strombus gigas, in deep-water habitats of the Bahamas. Bull. Mar. Sci. 51 (3):
287-300.

Uwate, K.R., W. Tobias, P. Nieves, H. Rivera, W. Ventura, and L. Critchley. 2001. Survey of
U.S. Virgin Island commercial fisher opinions and usage of new national monument areas (Buck
Island and south of St. John). Bureau of Fisheries, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Department of
Planning and Natural Resources, U.S. Virgin Islands. 13 pp.

Virgin Islands Rules and Regulations (VIRR). 1994. Amended rules and regulations "conch
and whelk harvesting" for the United States Virgin Islands, Subchapters 301 to 307, 316 and
325. Title 12, Chapter 9A. Rules and Regulations Commercial Fishing.

Wood, R.S. and D.O. Olsen. 1983. Application of biological knowledge to the management of
the Virgin Islands conch fishery. Department of Planning and Natural Resources-Division of
Fish & Wildlife, 14 pp.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Assistance with fieldwork around St. Croix was provided by the Division of Fish & Wildlife in
St. Croix. Involved staff members include William Tobias, Ivan Mateo, Hector Rivera, and
Willy Ventura. Barry Volson, Dr. Roger Uwate, and Ruth Gomez helped with data collection
and field assistance around St. Thomas and St. John (Division of Fish & Wildlife, St. Thomas).
Financial support for this study was provided by grant from the National Marine Fisheries
Service SEAMAP program.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

Figure 1. Conch Transect Sites in the U.S. Virgin Islands*'
(St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix*2) for
All Survey Years


16 f 1 J


9 10


1i 11 16 1


1 12 11


*notes:
1. These maps are not to scale.
2. For St. Croix, only transects 1 to 16 were surveyed in 2001.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001




Figure 2. Density of adult and juvenile queen conch
observed on scooter transects around St. Thomas, USVI in
2001


EAdult O Juvenile







Il


Sites


Note: Saba Islands is a new site added to the St. Thomas transect list in 2001




Figure 3. Density of adult and juvenile queen conch observed on
scotter transects around St. John, USVI in 2001


* Adult 0 Juvenile


U.UU


kv'~b~


Sites


J3U.UU
300.00
250.00
200.00
150.00
100.00
50.00
0.00


-I


80.00
70.00
60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00


~~~~
.o ~ :~
9






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 4. Density of adult and juvenile queen conch observed on
scooter transects around St. Croix in 2001.


600

500

400

300

200

100


*Adult OJuvenile


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16


Sites


*Note: Only the first 16 of the original 22 transects were surveyed in 2001



Figure 5. Mean density for adult and juvenile queen
conch observed on scooter transects around the
United States, Virgin Islands in 2001


* Adult O Juvenile


St. Thomas St. John St. Croix


Island


250.00

S200.00

150.00

g 100.00

50.00

0.00
0.00






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001




Figure 6. Mean density of adult and juvenile queen conch observed transects
around St. John, 1981 to 2001. Only the 9 transects common to all survey
years are used. Error bars are standard error of the mean (*)


80.00


5 60.00


S40.00


S20.00
C3


* AdultsO Juveniles


0.00 -


1981


1985


1990


1996


2001


*Note: No juvenile data available for St. John in
data from Friedlander (1997)


1981 and 1985. Source


Figure 7. Me an de ns ity of adult and juve nile que en
conch observed on 12 transects around St. John,
1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)


E Adults


0 Juveniles


4 I1


2001


1996

Year


*Note: 1990 and 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)


60.00

50.00

40.00

30.00

20.00

10.00

0.00


1990


-- I I ILI


N






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 8. Mean density of adult and juvenile queen
conch observed on 10 transects around St. Thomas,
1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)


E Adult O Juvenile


1990


1996
Year


2001


*Notes: 1) 1990 and 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)
2) No available data for St. Thomas in 1981 and 1985
3) Error bars are standard error of the mean


Figure 9. Mean density of adult queen conch observed
on transects around St. Croix, USVI in 1981 and2001


1981 2001

* 1981= 22 Transects O 2001= 16 Transects

*Notes: 1) 1981 data from Wood and Olsen (1983)
2) 1981 data provide an average weighted density
3) No standard deviation provided for 1981


50

40

30

20

10

0







SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 10 Mean density of adult and juvenile queen
conch observed on transects around St. Croix, USVI
in 1981 and2001 (*)
300

250 -
200

150

100 -

S 50

0


M 1981
0 2001:


=22 Transects/adult conch
S16 Transects/total conch


*Notes: 1) 1981 data from Wood and Olsen (1983)
2) Error bars are standard deviation of the mean
3) 1981 data provide an average weighted density
4) No standard deviation provided for 1981




Figure 11. Adult, juvenile, and total densities of queen
conch observed on transects around St. Croix in 2001


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Sites


600.00

500.00

400.00

S300.00

200.00

100.00

0.00






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 12. Percentage of habitat types encountered during
22 common transects around St. Thomas and St. John, USVI
in 1990, 1996, & 2001
100
90
80 1990 *1 0 1996 *1 0 2001
70
60
50
8 40
30 -
20 -
10 r
0

SD *2 CR *2 RB *2 SG *2 PV *2 AL *2

Habitat type

*Notes: 1) 1990 and 1996 data from Friedlander (1997) and Friedlander et al (1994)
2) Sand (SD), Coral Reef (CR), Rubble (RB), Seagrass (SG), Pavement (PV),
Algae (AL)


Figure 13. Mean density for adult and juvenile queen conch
by habitat type around St. Thomas, USVI in 2001
300.00
250.00 Adult O Juvenile

S200.00 -

c 150.00

S100.00
lO.OE


50.00

0.00


SD* CR* RB SG* PV* AL*

Habitat type


*Note: Sand (SD), Coral Reef (CR), Rubble (RB), Seagrass (SG), Pavement (PV),
Algae (AL)






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001

Figure 14. Mean density for adult and juvenile queen conch
by habitat type around St. John, USVI in 2001
50.00 -


45.00
40.00
35.00
30.00
25.00
20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00
0.00


SD* CR* RB* SG*
Habitat type


*Note: Sand (SD), Coral Reef (CR),
Pavement (PV), Algae (AL)


PV* AL*


Rubble (RB), Seagrass (SG),


Figure 15. Percentage of habitat types encountered around
St. Croix, USVI in 1981 and 2001.


E 1981=22 Transects *1 0 2001=16 Transects *2


L I


SI In


AL *3


SD *3 CR *3/4 RB *3 SG *3


Habitat type
*Notes: 1) 1981 data from Wood and Olsen (1983)
2) In 2001 only 16 of the original 22 transects were surveyed
3) Sand (SD), Coral Reef (CR), Rubble (RB), Seagrass (SG),
Algae (AL)
4) Coral Reef habitat includes Pavement (PV)


* Adult 0 Juvenile


100

80

60

40

20

0






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001



Figure 16. Mean density of adult and juvenile queen
conch by habitat type around St. Croix, USVI in 2001


300.00

250.00

200.00

150.00

100.00

50.00


0.00


SD* CR R SG* PV* AL *


Habitat type

*Note: Sand (SD), Coral Reef (CR), Rubble (RB),
Pavement (PV), Algae (AL)


Seagrass (SG),


Figure 17. Mean density of adult queen conch by habitat type
around St. Croix, USVI in 1981 & 2001


70.00
60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00


SD *2 CR *2/3 RB *2 SG *2


AL *2


Habitat type


*Notes: 1) 1981 data from Wood and Olsen (1983)
2) Sand (SD), Coral Reef (CR), Rubble (RB), Seagrass (SG), Algae (AL)
3) Coral Reef habitat includes Pavement (PV)


.1981 *1 2001




TF
I T







SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001



Figure 18. Adult, juvenile, and total queen conch densities by
depth for 22 common transects around St. Thomas and St.
70 John, USVI in 2001

60 Adults 0 Juveniles O Total

S50

a 40
30 -
P 30

20 "

10

0 ---
0-6 7-12 13-18 19-24 25-30
Depth (m)

*Note: No depth data available for 1981 and 1985


60

, 50

S40

30

' 20

10

0


Figure 19. Adult, juvenile, and total queen conch
densities by depth for 22 common transects around St.
Thomas and St. John, USVI in 1996 (*)


0-6 7-12 13-18 19-24 25-30
Depth (m)


*Notes: 1) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)
2) No depth data available for 1981 and 1985


* Adults 0 Juveniles 0 Total






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 20. Total queen conch density by depth for 22
common transects around St. Thomas and St. John,
USVI in 1990 (*)


-e


13-18


19-24


25-30


Depth (m)


*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al. (1994)
2) No depth data available for 1981 and 1985


Figure 21. Adult and juvenile mean queen conch densities
by depth for St. Thomas, USVI in 2001

U Adults E Juveniles


0-6 7-12 13-18 19-24 25-30


Depth (m)


S 15-

10
S10 -

5-


n-i


60

50

40
0
, 30



10

0






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 22. Adult and juvenile mean queen conch densities
by depth for St. John, USVI in 2001
12
S10 Adults 0 Juveniles


= 8



" 4
S2-
2
0


7-12


13-18
Depth (m)


19-24


25-30


Figure 23. Adult and juvenile mean queen conch densities
by depth for St. Croix, USVI in 2001
80


SAdults O Juveniles


19-24


,70 -
60 -
J 50
0 40
S30
S20

0


7-12


13-18
Depth (m)


25-30






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 24. Measured shell lengths for queen conch
around St. Thomas, USVI in 2001


IU
8-

S6-

S4-

2


6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
Shell length (cm)
*Note: Sexual maturity reference from Stoner and Ray (1996)


* 10
I 8
. 6
6-
o 4
2
Z: n


Figure 25. Measured shell lengths for queen conch
around St. John, USVI in 2001


6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

Shell length (cm)

*Note: Sexual maturity reference from Stoner and Ray (1996)


Approximate size at which sexual maturity begins *







RHn -H nnH
HH-


Approximate size at which sexual maturity begins (*)




n H H n I nn


..






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 26. Maturity categories for queen conch from
scotter transects around St. John, USVI in 2001 (*)
14 1


Juveniles


2
Maturity category


*Note: Maturity categories based on Friedlander (1997)



Figure 27. Shell length (cm) for queen conch observed on 22
scooter transects around St. Thomas and St. John, USVI in 1996
and 2001 (*1)


- 2001 --- 1996


6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Shell length (cm)


*Notes: 1) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)
2) Sexual maturity reference from Stoner and Ray (1996)


45
40
35
g 30
5 25
S20
15
10
5
0


I I 7 1 I I





SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 28. Measured shell lengths for queen conch
around St. Croix, USVI in 2001

I n Approximate size at which sexual maturity begins (*)


nnHHH ,


n il


fI


HH n


6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
Shell length (cm)


120
100
80
60
40
20
0


Figure 29. Maturity categories for queen conch from
scooter transects around St. Croix, USVI in 2001 (*)


Juveniles


Maturity category


*Note: Maturity categories based on Friedlander (1997)


S -in







SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 30. Shell length (cm) for queen conch observed on scooter transects
around St. Croix, USVIin 1981 & 2001 (*1).


70

60

50

S40

2 30

20

10


6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Shell length (cm)

*Notes: 1) Sexual maturity reference from Stoner and Ray (1996)
2) 1981 data from Wood and Olsen (1983)
3) 1981 shell length size-frequency distributions were provided
for juvenile conch only



Figure 31. Shell length (cm) for queen conch observed
around St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix, USVI in 2001


18
16
14
S12
S10
8
6
4
2
0


Size at maturity (20 cm) *


6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Shell Length (cm)


22 24 26 28


--STT --STJ -+-STX


*Note: Sexual maturity reference from Stoner and Ray (1996)






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 32. Density of queen conch observed
at Bolongo Bay, St. Thomas by sample year
1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)
6
S5 E Adult O Juvenile
4


2-


0


1990


1996


2001


Year

*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)


Figure 33. Density of queen conch observed at Fortuna
Bay, St. Thomas by sample year 1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)


E Adult 0 Juvenile


I -


1990


1996


2001


Year

*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)


100
80
60
40
20
0






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 34. Density of queen conch observed at
Inner Water Island, St. Thomas by sample year
250 1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)
Adult 0 Juvenile
'C 200 -

I 150-

. 100 -

50 -
0 LE I


1990


1996


2001


Year
*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)



Figure 35. Density of queen conch observed at
Linquist Bay, St. Thomas by sample year
1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)


100

80

60

40

20


* Adult O Juvenile


1990


1996


Year

*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)


Ii-


2001


---7-






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 36. Density of queen conch observed
at Magens Bay, St. Thomas by sample year
, 0 1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)


* Adult 0 Juvenile


U


1990


1996


2001


Year

*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)


Figure 37. Density of queen conch observed
at Outer Water Island, St. Thomas by sample
year 1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)
50
Adult O Juvenile-
S40

= 30
30

, 20

10-
lO~~ _


1990


1996


2001


Year

*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 38. Density of queen conch observed
at Perserverance, St. Thomas by sample
year 1990, 1996, 2001 (*)


1-
0.8

= 0.6

, 0.4

0.2


1990


1996


2001


Year

*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)





Figure 39. Density of queen conch observed
at Pillsbury, St. Thomas by sample year
1990, 1996, 2001(*)


* Adult 0 juvenile


1990


1996

Year


2001


*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)


* Adult 0 Juvenile


25

20

15

10 -

5-






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 40. Density of queen conch observed
at Secret Harbor, St. Thomas by sample
year 1990, 1996, 2001 (*)


E Adult 0 Juvenile


1990


1996


2001


Year

*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)


Figure 41. Density of queen conch
observed at West End, St. Thomas by
sample year 1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)


E Adult 0 Juvenile


1990


1996
Year


2001


*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 42. Density of queen conch onserved at
Fish bay, St. John by sample year 1990, 1996, &
2001 (*)


1981 1985 1990 1996 2001
Year


*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)
3) No juvenile data available for 1981 and 1985


Figure 43. Density of queen conch observed
at Francis Bay, St. John by sample year
1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)


12.00

' 10.00

S8.00

, 6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00


1981 1985 1990 1996 2001
Year

*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)


100.00

80.00

= 60.00

, 40.00

S20.00

0.00


E Adult O Juvenile
- AutOwnl






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 44. Density of queen conch observed at I
Haulover Bay, St. John by sample year
1990, 1996, & 2001(*)


200.00


4 150.00


& 100.00

50.00


0.00


1981 1985 1990 1996 2001
Year


*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)
3) No juvenile data available for 1981 and 1985


Figure 45. Density of queen conch onserved at
Johnson's Reef/Cinnamon Bay, St. John by
sample year 1990, 1996, 2001 (*)
1.00

. 0.80 Adult Juvenile

= 0.60
o

. 0.40

S0.20

0.00
1981 1985 1990 1996 2001

Year

*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)
3) No juvenile data available for 1981 and 1985






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 46. Density of queen conch observed at
Leinster bay, St. John by sample year
1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)
90.00
80.00 Adult Juvenile
70.00
60.00
50.00
S40.00
30.00 -
20.00
10.00
0.00
1981 1985 1990 1996 2001
Year

*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)
3) No juvenile data available for 1981 and 1985


Figure 47. Density of quenn conch observed at
Reef Bay, St. John by sample year
1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)
40.00
35.00
M Adults O Juveni
30.00
25.00
20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00 -
0.00


1981 1985 1990
Year


1996 2001


*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)
3) No juvenile data available for 1981 and 1985






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Figure 48. Density of queen conch observed
at Rendezvous Bay, St. John by sample year
1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)
100.00
U Adults O Juveniles
80.00 -

= 60.00 -

40.00 -

S20.00

0.00
1981 1985 1990 1996 2001
Year

*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)
3) No juvenile data available for 1981 and 1985




Figure 49. Density of queen conch observed
at Round Bay, St. John by sample year
1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)


1.UU -
0.90
, 0.80
| 0.70-
: 0.60 -
S0.50-
. 0.40 -
8 0.30 -
S 0.20 -
0.10 -
0.00


1981 1985 1990
Year


1996 2001


*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)
3) No juvenile data available for 1981 and 1985


* Adults O Juveniles






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001



Figure 50. Density of queen conch observed
at Turner Bay, St. John by sample year


70.00
60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00


1990, 1996, & 2001 (*)


1981 1985 1990 1996 2001
Year


*Notes: 1) 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994)
2) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997)
3) No juvenile data available for 1981 and 1985






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Table 1. Estimated conch landings (in pounds) for the U.S.V.I., 1993-2001 (*).
Area Year
1993- 1994- 1995- 1996- 1997- 1998- 1999- 2000-
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
St. Thomas/ 6,919 551 2,899 1,507 4,773 2,960 2,522 1,423
St.John
St. Croix 35,572 37,593 21,763 24,887 72,902 44,317 N/a 102,000
USVI 42,491 38,144 24,662 26,394 77,675 47,277 2,522 1,423
*Note: All data from State/Federal catch reports submitted to the Division of Fish &
Wildlife, DPNR and NMFS. Weights are in pounds of meat.


Table 2. Study Sites around St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix, USVI (Transect
numbers correspond to Figure 1*)
St. Thomas St. John
No. Site Name No. Site Name
1 Pillsbury Sound 12* Haulover
2 Linguist Bay 13* Leinster
3 Magens Bay 14* Francis
4 West End 15* Johnson's Reef/Cinnamon Bay
5 Fortuna Bay 16 Lovango
6 Perseverance Bay 17 Two Brothers
7 Water Island / Inside 18 Turner Bay
8 Water Island / Outside 19 Rendezvous Bay
9 Bolongo Bay 20 Fish Bay
10 Secret Harbor 21* Reef Bay
11 Saba Island (new site for 2001) 22* Lameshur Bay
23 Round Bay
St. Croix
1 Site 1 9 Site 9
2 Site 2 10 Site 10
3 Site 3 11 Site 11
4 Site 4 12 Site 12
5 Site 5 13 Site 13
6 Site 6 14 Site 14
7 Site 7 15 Site 15
8 Site 8 16 Site 16
*Note: Asterisks (*) denote location within Virgin Islands National Park.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Table 3. Number and densities (conch/ha) of juvenile and adult queen conch observed on sites
around the US Virgin Islands
ST. THOMAS 1990 1996 2001
SITES* Juvenile Adult Juvenile Adult Juvenile Adult
No. Density No. Density No. Density No. Density No. Density No. Density
Bolongo Bay 1 3.08 0 0.00 1 4.89 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
Fortuna Bay 0 0.00 2 4.88 36 93.29 8 20.73 0 0.00 0 0.00
Inner Water Island 0 0.00 21 45.05 2 5.89 67 197.36 0 0.00 22 115.91
Linguist Beach 3 5.20 13 22.55 28 93.92 15 50.31 4 18.75 11 51.57
Magens Bay 0 0.00 1 2.33 0 0.00 4 16.16 0 0.00 0 0.00
Outer Water Island 1 2.23 2 4.47 12 47.42 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
Perseverance Bay 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
Pillsbury Sound 1 2.35 1 2.35 0 0.00 11 21.20 0 0.00 0 0.00
Saba Island 26 284.14 2 21.86
Secret Harbor 1 3.00 3 9.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 16.17
West End 0 0.00 11 27.30 30 69.19 7 16.14 0 0.00 5 57.90
Mean 0.70 1.59 5.4 11.79 10. 9 31.46 11.2 32.19 2.73 27.54 3.82 23.95
*Notes: 1) 1996 data from Friedlander (1997), 1990 data from Friedlander et al. (1994).
2) No site data available for St.Thomas in 1981 and 1985, only St. John was surveyed.
3) Saba Island is a new site added in 2001.







SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Table 3 (continued). Number and densities (conch/ha) of juvenile and adult queen conch observed on
sites around US Virgin Islands
ST. 1981 1985 1990 1996 2001
JOHN Adult Adult Juvenile Adult Juvenile Adult Juvenile Adult
SITES*
No. Density No. Density No. Density No. Density No. Density No. Density No. Density No. Densit

Fish Bay 26 83.95 8 26.67 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.79 2 7.58 0 0.00 0 0.00
Francis Bay 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 10.70 0 0.00
Haulover 167 173.82 61 63.54 1 3.30 2 6.60 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
Bay
Johnson/ 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
Cinnamon
Bay
Lameshur 9 10.61 1 3.50 16 56.00 0 0.00 30 125.87 9 52.07 0 0.00
Leinster 128 77.42 59 35.76 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.59 0 0.00 0 0.00
Bay
Mingo/ 4 2.80 1 2.41 1 2.41 2 3.53 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
Lavango
Reef Bay 45 35.77 34 27.20 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 4 6.10 0 0.00 0 0.00
Rendezvous 32 42.41 68 90.67 0 0.00 4 8.35 5 14.34 5 14.34 0 0.00 0 0.00
Bay
Round Bay 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00
Turner Bay 58 58.29 34 37.78 1 2.63 22 57.75 11 24.89 4 9.05 2 26.87 1 13.43
Two 7 5.38 2 4.57 9 20.54 1 2.26 4 9.05 0 0.00 6 73.30
Brothers
Mean 39.67 40.87 29.3 31.29 0.50 1.37 4.50 12.64 1.67 4.07 4.17 14.72 1.00 7.47 0.58 7.23
3
*Notes: 1) 1981 data from Wood and Olsen (1983), 1985 data from Boulon (1987), 1990 and 1996 data from Friedlander (1997).
2) No juvenile data was available for queen conch in 1981 and 1985.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Table 3 (continued). Number and density (conch/ha) of juvenile and adult queen conch
observed on sites around the US Virgin Islands
2001
St. Croix Sites* Juveniles Adults
No. Density No. Density
Site 1 0 0.00 7 52.37
Site 2 25 247.13 5 49.43
Site 3 1 9.59 0 0.00
Site 4 16 138.10 10 86.31
Site 5 0 0.00 1 7.01
Site 6 0 0.00 0 0.00
Site 7 0 0.00 0 0.00
Site 8 0 0.00 13 36.17
Site 9 6 85.14 9 127.71
Site 10 0 0.00 0 0.00
Site 11 0 0.00 0 0.00
Site 12 9 48.88 1 5.43
Site 13 31 487.00 1 15.71
Site 14 1 2.67 0 0.00
Site 15 0 0.00 0 0.00
Site 16 12 137.98 5 57.49
Mean 6.31 72.28 3.25 27.35


iNotes:


1) No density data available tor individual sites in 1981 (total mean density
= 7.6 conch/ha).
2) No surveys were conducted in 1985, 1990, and 1996.
3) No surveys were conducted in 1985, 1990, and 1996.
4) Totals for density columns are mean values.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Table 4. Abundance and mean densities (conch/ha) of adult and juvenile queen conch observed on common transects
around the US Virgin Islands between 1981, 1985, 1990, 1996, and 2001 (*).
1981 1985 1990 1996 2001
Adults Adults Juvenile Adult Juvenile Adult Juvenile Adult
No. Density No. Density No Density No. Density No. Density No. Density No. Density No. Density
St. 7 1.59 54 11.79 109 31.46 112 32.19 4 1.88 40 24.16
Thomas
St. 476 40.87 264 31.29 6 1.37 54 12.64 20 4.07 50 14.72 12 7.47 7 7.23
John
St. 7.61 101 72.28 52 27.31
Croix
Total 476 24.24 264 31.29 13 2.96 108 24.43 129 35.53 162 47.17 117 98.50 99 58.70


1) 1981 data from Wood and Olsen (1983), 1985 data from Boulon (1987), 1990 data from Friedlander et al. (1994),
Friedlander (1997).
2) Wood and Olsen (1983) indicate that the average weighted adult density for St. Thomas and St. John is 9.7 adult/ha
3) Friedlander et al. (1994) was the only report that provided raw densities from St. John transects performed in 1981
4) There is no raw data available for St. Thomas in 1981 and 1985.
5) In 1985 only St. John was surveyed.


"Notes:






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Table 5. Total conch density by depth for common transects around St. Thomas
and St. John in 1990, 1996, and 2001 (*)
Depth (m) Total density (no./ha)

1990 (*) 1996 (*) 2001

0-6 5.10 13.60 0.00
7-12 4.32 29.70 18.96
13-18 17.17 49.30 58.95
19-24 11.18 33.20 16.65
25-30 11.21 51.40 0.00
*Note: 1990 data from Friedlander et al. (1994), 1996 data from Friedlander (1997).


Table 6. Area surveyed by depth range in
the US Virgin Islands, 2001
St. Thomas Area surveyed (m2) at each depth range Total area
0-6 7-12 13-18 19-24 25-30 surveyed (m2)
Bolongo Bay 0 312 1562 0 0 1874
Fortuna Bay 0 0 0 968 0 968
Inner Water 63 1833 0 0 0 1896
Island
Linguist Bay 0 144 1991 0 0 2135
Magens Bay 420 1832 1551 0 0 3803
Outer Water 0 0 0 1557 0 1557
Island
Perseverance 0 0 0 356 152 508
Bay
Pillsbury 0 72 130 520 0 722
Sound
Secret Harbor 0 0 1237 0 0 1237
West End 0 0 0 804 20 824
*Saba Island 0 916 0 0 0 916
Total 483 5,109 6,471 4,205 172 16,440






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Table 6 (continued). Area surveyed by depth range
in the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001
St. John Area surveyed (m2) at each depth range Total area
0-6 7-12 13-18 19-24 25-30 surveyed (m2)
Fish Bay 122 790 0 0 0 912
Francis Bay 0 0 935 0 0 935
Haulover Bay 0 0 1953 772 0 2675
Johnson Reef/ 215 536 375 0 0 1126
Cinnamon Bay
Lameshur 0 1728 0 0 0 1728
Leinster Bay 0 0 1278 0 0 1278
Mingo/Lovango 0 0 4631 0 0 4631
Reef Bay 268 4385 0 0 0 4653
Rendezvous Bay 0 1696 0 0 0 1696
Round Bay 0 0 0 515 0 515
Turner Bay 0 745 0 0 0 745
Two Brothers 0 0 818 0 0 818
Total 605 9,880 9,990 1,287 0 21,713

St. Croix
Site 1 0 1337 0 0 0 1337
Site 2 0 1012 0 0 0 1012
Site 3 0 1042 0 0 0 1042
Site 4 0 0 1158 0 0 1158
Site 5 0 1426 0 0 0 1426
Site 6 0 0 0 3773 0 3773
Site 7 0 0 1567 0 0 1567
Site 8 0 225 225 3145 0 3595
Site 9 0 0 0 704 0 704
Site 10 0 0 4041 0 0 4041
Site 11 0 1552 0 0 0 1552
Site 12 0 0 1840 0 0 1840
Site 13 0 636 0 0 0 636
Site 14 0 0 3748 0 0 3748
Site 15 0 1607 0 0 0 1607
Site 16 0 0 870 0 0 870
Total 0 8,837 13,449 7,622 0 29,908






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Table 7. Percentages and mean densities (conch/ha) for predominant
community types in the U.S. Virgin Islands
Habitat Percentage (%) Adult Mean Density
1981 (STT/STJ)*1
SD 16 9.31
CR 18 10.58
RB*2
SG 20 6.47
PV*2
AL 46 9.31
1985 (STT/STJ)*3
1990 (STT/STJ)*1
SD 30 10.48
CR 16 1.68
RB 14 24.10
SG 12 17.54
PV 0 0.00
AL 28 17.29
1996 (STT/STJ)*1
SD 25 20.2
CR 14 0.00
RB 13 12.12
SG 14 27.09
PV 0 0.00
AL 34 55.5
2001(STT/STJ)
SD 25 16.30
CR 11 1.75
RB 9 15.39
SG 18 23.14
PV 1 0.00
AL 36 34.74
*Notes:
1. 1981 data from Wood and Olsen (1983), 1990 data from Friedlander et al (1994),
1996 data from Friedlander (1997);
2. Rubble (RB) and Pavement (PV) were categorized as Coral Reef (CR) by Wood
and Olsen (1983);
3. There is no habitat data available for 1985.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Table 7 (continued). Percentages and mean densities for predominant community
types in the U.S. Virgin Islands
Habitat Percentage (%) Adult Mean Density
1981 (STX)*
SD 18 5.76
CR 26 7.79
RB 0 0.00
SG 15 2.40
PV 0 0.00
AL 41 10.15
2001(STX)
SD 5 7.36
CR 9 0.00
RB 4 0.00
SG 7 21.58
PV 48 15.86
AL 27 19.91
*Note: 1981 data from Wood and Olsen (1983).






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Appendix 1.
2001 U.S. Virgin Islands Transects GPS Coordinates, Compass Heading and Depths


Beginning locale Ending locale Compass
GPS Depth (m) GPS Depth (m) heading
St. Thomas
Bolongo Bay 18018.493' N 12.1 18018.426' N 9.7 1200
64o53.848' W 64054.092' W
Fortuna Bay 18o20.477' N 19.7 18o20.437' N 21.5 2800
65000.759' W 65000.883' W
Inner Water 18018.636'N 15.5 18018.504'N 17.3 0
Island 64o57.698' W 64o57.658' W
leg A
Inner Water 18018.636'N 16.7 18018.748' N 10 100
Island 64057.701' W 64057.695' W
leg B
Linquist Bay 18020.584'N 12.4 18020.544' N 8.8 3000
64051.141' W 64051.426' W
Magens Bay 18021.690' N 3.9 18021.996' N 17.0 3300
64055.626' W 64055.151' W
Outer Water 18018.438' N 16.7 18018.417' N 22.4 500
Island 64056.840' W 64056.631' W
Perseverance 18020.710' N 21.2 18020.642' N 25.8 950
Bay 64059.994' W 64000.003' W
Pillsbury Sound 18019.307' N 11.5 18019.246' N 23.6 900
64049.260' W 64049.184' W
*Saba Island 18018.452' N 6.4 18018.381' N 6.4 2700
65000.135' W 65000.236' W
Secret Harbor 18018.298' N 18.2 18018.377'N 16.7 800
64051.440' W 64051.295' W
West End 18021.094' N 22.7 18021.020' N 23.3 2200
65002.648' W 65002.738' W






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Appendix 1 (continued).


2001 U.S. Virgin Islands Transects GPS Coordinates, Compass Heading and Depths
Beginning locale Ending locale
GPS Depth GPS Depth Compass
(m) (m) heading
St John
Fish Bay 18019.240' N 1.8 18019.126' N 3.0 2000
64045.845' W 64045.880' W
Francis Bay 18021.905' N 16.7 18021.781' N 17.3 1850
64045.015' W 64044.992' W
Haulover Bay 18021.082' N 20 18021.248' N 16.7 3300
64040.724' W 64041.052' W
Johnson'sReef/ 18021.523' N 5.2 18021.520' N 15.5 2750
Cinnamon Bay 64045.860' W 64046.012' W
Lameshur Bay 18019.100' N 2.4 18018.871'N 11.2 2000
64043.397' W 64043.441' W
Leinster Bay 18020.584' N 15.2 18020.544' N 17.6 3050
64051.141'W 64051.426' W
Mingo/Lovango 18020.992' N 16.7 18021.209' N 18.2 1000
64049.005' W 64048.419' W
Reef Bay 18019.212' N 9.7 18019.290' N 7.6 3300
Leg A 64044.881' W 64044.922' W
Reef Bay 18019.290' N 7.6 18018.790' N 2.4 2250
Leg B 64044.922' W 64045.126' W
Rendezvous Bay 18019.016' N 12.7 18019.030' N 8.8 0
Leg A 64046.291' W 64046.294' W
Rendezvous Bay 18019.030'N 8.8 18018.950'N 11.2 2400
Leg B 64046.294' W 64046.374' W
Round Bay 18020.222' N 18.2 18020.254' N 21.5 3400
64040.756' W 64040.810' W
Turner Bay 18019.351'N 10.6 18019.269' N 12.1 1500
64047.862' W 64047.804' W
Two Brothers 18020.509'N 13.6 18020.478' N 15.2 1000
64048.944' W 64048.383' W






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Appendix l(continued)


2001 U.S. Virgin Islands Transects GPS Coordinates, Compass Heading and Depths
Beginning locale Ending locale
Conch Transects GPS Depth (m) GPS Depth Compass
(m) heading
St. Croix
Site 1 17046.573' N 6.1 17046.498' N 7.6 1180
6439.975' W 6439.811' W
Site 2 17046.892' N 11.2 17046.942' N 12.1 950
64038.538' W 6438.411' W
Site 3 17046.441' N 12.1 17046.385' N 13.0 1050
64037.536' W 64037.407' W
Site 4 17046.682' N 15.2 17046.692' N 15.2 1040
64036.990' W 64036.834' W
Site 5 17046.977' N 10 17046.965' N 12.4 1610
64o35.239' W 64035.047' W
Site 6 17045.522' N 21.2 17045.519' N 24.2 1150
64033.157' W 64032.648' W
Site 7 17044.592'N 18.2 17044.465' N 18.2 1160
64o33.226' W 64033.057' W
Site 8 17044.495' N 11.2 17044.082' N 19.4 2430
64034.693' W 64034.947' W
Site 9 17042.670' N 21.0 17042.646' N 21.5 2640
64036.386' W 64036.478' W
Site 10 17041.675' N 13.6 17041.294' N 14.2 2680
64039.524' W 6439.914' W
Site 11 17041.770' N 9.4 17041.923' N 9.4 2690
64041.003' W 64041.146' W
Site 12 17040.975' N 17.6 17040.777' N 17.9 2670
64042.005' W 64042.155' W
Site 13 17040.379' N 6.7 17040.303' N 12.1 1420
64046.567' W 64046.527' W
Site 14 17039.385' N 14.5 17039.089' N 12.7 2500
64047.744' W 64048.154' W
Site 15 17039.381' N 10.6 17039.218' N 12.4 1420
64049.381' W 64049.238' W
Site 16 17038.957' N 15.5 17039.059' N 16.1 3300
64049.363' W 64049.305' W






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Appendix 2.
Benthic habitat classification scheme* for 2001 transects
Major habitat types Habitat type description
encountered
(1) Unconsolidated Sediments Mud or sand with <10% cover of submerged vegetation
(2) Coral Reef Hardened substrate of unspecified relief formed by the deposition of
calcium carbonate by reef building corals and other organisms
(3) Colonized Pavement Flat, low-relief, solid carbonate rock with coverage of macroalgae,
hard coral, gorgonians, and other sessile invertebrates that are dense
enough to begin to obscure the underlying carbonate rock
(4) Rubble Scattered rocks or dead, unstable coral rubble often colonized with
algae
(5) Seagrass Habitat with 10% or more cover of Thalassia testudinum,
Syringodiumfiliforme, Halodule wrightii, Halophila ballonis, or
some combination thereof
(6) Algal Plain An area with 10% or greater coverage of any combination of
numerous species of red, green, or brown macroalgae
Note: Habitat classification based on NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS) habitat
classification (see NOS 2000).


Appendix 3. Conch maturity categories*
Stage Category Lip thickness (mm) Description
0 Juvenile No lip Any conch without flared lip

1 Newly mature 1 -7 mm Newly mature, shell clean.
adult Short time period for this stage.
2 Sexually mature 8 15 mm Sexually mature. Flared lip fully
adult formed. Little to no erosion on shell.
Shell color of periostracum is tan.
3 Old adult 16 33 mm Old adult, outer lip starting to erode.
Fouling starting to occur.
4 Very old adult 34 59 mm Lip is very thick and square.
(roller) Heavy erosion is present. Short total
length.
*Note: Maturity categories from Friedlander (1997).






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report 5
Period: January 1,2001 March 31,2001


Appendix 4. Total area (m2) surveyed for conch transects by year
1981 (*) 1985 (*) 1990 (*) 1996 (*) 2001
STT/STJ 212,000 71,900 82,978 74,226 38,155
(STJ only)
STX 178,000 29,910
*Notes: 1) 1981 data from Wood and Olsen (1983), 1985 data from Boulon (1987), 1990
data from Friedlander et al. (1994), 1996 data from Friedlander (1997).
2) In 1981 surveys were completed using towed-diver transects. Scooter
transects were used for all other survey years.


Appendix 5.
Area surveyed for predominant community types in the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001
Site Area surveyed (m2) of each habitat type
St. Thomas Sand Coral Rubbl Seagrass Pavement Algae Total area
Reef e surveyed (m2)
Bolongo Bay 312 562 0 125 0 875 1,874
Fortuna Bay 644 0 0 0 0 322 966
Inner Water 284 537 0 0 0 1,074 1,895
Island
Linguist Bay 0 0 0 356 0 1,778 2,134
Magens Bay 1,961 1,680 560 0 0 0 4,201
Outer Water 27 30 0 0 0 1,500 1,557
Island
Perseverance Bay 0 279 0 0 0 229 508
Pillsbury Sound 0 144 58 0 520 0 722
Secret Harbor 315 0 0 613 0 309 1,237
West End 0 0 432 0 0 0 432
*Saba Island 153 0 0 763 0 0 916
Total 3,696 3,232 1,050 1,857 520 6,087 16,442
St. John
Fish Bay 548 0 0 365 0 0 913
Francis Bay 127 0 0 0 0 807 934
Haulover Bay 454 636 0 0 0 1635 2725
Johnson Reef/ 268 0 268 0 0 590 1126
Cinnamon Bay
Lameshur 207 0 0 1175 0 346 1728
Leinster Bay 447 0 0 0 0 830 1277
Mingo/Lovango 0 0 2084 0 0 2547 4631
Reef Bay 2326 0 0 2148 0 179 4653
Rendezvous Bay 594 0 0 721 0 382 1697
Round Bay 78 271 0 0 0 116 465
Turner Bay 27 0 0 718 0 0 745
Two Brothers 655 0 0 0 0 164 819
Total 5,731 907 2,352 5,127 0 7,596 21,713






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Appendix 5 (continued).
Area surveyed for predominant community types in the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001
Site Area surveyed (m2) of each habitat type
St. Croix Sand Coral Rubble Seagrass Pavement Algae Total area
Reef Surveyed (m2)
Site 1 45 0 0 0 1248 45 1338
Site2 0 0 0 221 0 791 1012
Site 3 245 0 0 797 0 0 1042
Site 4 0 0 0 1158 0 0 1158
Site 5 509 0 662 0 255 0 1426
Site 6 0 0 0 0 3773 0 3773
Site 7 0 0 0 0 1567 0 1567
Site 8 824 599 0 0 0 2171 3594
Site 9 0 0 0 0 705 0 705
Site 10 0 0 0 0 4040 0 4040
Site 11 0 0 0 0 0 1552 1552
Site 12 0 0 0 0 491 1350 1841
Site 13 0 0 0 0 0 637 637
Site 14 0 1999 375 0 1374 0 3748
Site 15 0 0 0 0 771 836 1607
Site 16 0 0 0 0 0 870 470
Total 1,623 2,598 1,037 2,176 14,224 8,252 29,910




Appendix 6.
Number of adult and juvenile queen conch observed at each community type in
The U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001*
Site Habitat Type
St. Thomas Sand Coral Reef Rubble Seagrass Pavement Algae
Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv
Bolongo Bay 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fortuna Bay 0 0 0 0
Inner Water Island 0 0 2 0 20 0
Linguist Bay 1 1 10 3
Magens Bay 0 0 0 0 0 0
Outer Water 0 0 0 0 0 0
Island
Perseverance Bay 0 0 0 0
Pillsbury Sound 0 0 0 0 0 0
Secret Harbor 0 0 1 0 1 0
West End 5 0
Saba Island 0 1 0 2 25
Total 0 1 2 0 5 0 4 26 0 0 31 3
*Note: Blank cells represent the absence of habitat for transect.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Appendix 6 (continued).
Number of adult and juvenile queen conch observed at each community type in
The U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001*
Site Habitat Type
St. John Sand Coral Rubble Seagrass Pavement Algae
Reef
Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv
Fish Bay 0 0 0 0
Francis Bay 0 0 0 1
Haulover Bay 0 0 0 0 0 0
Johnson Reef/ 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cinnamon Bay
Lameshur 0 0 0 9 0 0
Leinster Bay 0 0 0 0
Mingo/ 0 0 0 0
Lovango
Reef Bay 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rendezvous Bay 0 0 0 0 0 0
Round Bay 0 0 0 0 0 0
Turner Bay 0 0 1 2
Two Brothers 1 0 5 0
Total 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 11 5 1
St. Croix
Site 1 3 0 2 0 2 0
Site 2 0 8 5 17
Site 3 0 1 0 0 0 0
Site 4 10 16
Site5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Site 6 0 0
Site 7 0 0
Site 8 0 0 0 0 13 0
Site 9 9 6
Site 10 0 0
Site 11 0 0
Site 12 0 0 1 9
Site 13 1 31
Site 14 0 0 0 1 0 0
Site 15 0 0 0 0
Site 16 5 12
Total 4 1 0 0 0 1 10 24 11 6 27 69
*Note: Blank cells represent the absence of habitat for transect.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Appendix 7
Density (conch/ha) of adult and juvenile queen conch at each community type in the U.S.
Virgin Islands, 2001.
Site Habitat Type
St. Thomas Sand Coral Rubble Seagrass Pavement Algae
Reef
Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv
Bolongo Bay 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Fortuna Bay 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Inner Water 0.0 0.0 10.5 0.0 105.4 0.0
Island
Linquist Bay 4.7 4.7 46.9 14.1
Magens Bay 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Outer Water 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Island
Perseverance 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Bay
Pillsbury 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Sound
Secret Harbor 0.0 0.0 8.1 0.0 8.1 0.0
West 57.9 0.0
End
Saba Island 0.0 10.9 21.9 273.2
Total 0.0 10.9 10.5 0.0 57.9 0.0 34.6 277.9 0.0 0.0 160.3 14.1
St. John
Fish Bay 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Francis Bay 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.7
Haulover Bay 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Johnson Reef 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Cinnamon
Bay
Lameshur 0.0 0.0 0.0 52.0 0.0 0.0
Leinster Bay 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Mingo/ 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lovango
ReefBay 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Rendezvous 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Bay
Round Bay 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Turner Bay 0.0 0.0 13.4 26.9
Two Brothers 73.3 0.0 61.1 0.0
Total 73.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.4 78.9 61.1 10.7
*Note: Blank cells represent the absence of habitat for transect.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Appendix 7 (continued).
Density (conch/ha) of adult and juvenile queen conch at each community type in U.S. Virgin
Islands, 2001*
Site Habitat Type
St. Sand Coral Reef Rubble Seagrass Pavement Algae
CroixL
Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv Adt Juv
Site 1 22.4 0.0 15.00 0.0 15.0 0.0
Site 2 0.0 79.1 49.4 168.1
Site 3 0.0 9.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Site 4 86.3 138.1
Site 5 7.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Site 6 0.0 0.0
Site 7 0.0 0.0
Site 8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 36. 0.0
Site 9 127.7 85.1
Site 10 0.0 0.0
Site 11 0.0 0.0
Site 12 0.0 0.0 5.4 48.9
Site 13 15.7 487.0
Site 14 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.7 0.0 0.0
Site 15 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Site 16 57.5 138.0
Total 29.5 9.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.7 86.3 217.2 142.7 85.1 179.2 841.9
*Note: Blank cells represent the absence of habitat for transect.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Appendix 8.
Total queen conch density (conch/ha) at each community type in
The U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001*
Site Habitat Type
St. Thomas Sand Coral Reef Rubble Seagrass Paveme Algae
nt
Bolongo Bay 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fortuna Bay 0.00 0.00
Inner Water Island 0.00 10.52 105.40
Linquist Bay 9.40 60.90
Magens Bay 0.00 0.00 0.00
Outer Water Island 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Perserverance Bay 0.00 0.00 0.00
Pillsbury Sound 0.00 0.00 0.00
Secret Harbor 0.00 8.10 8.10
West End 57.90
Saba Island 10.91 295.10
Total 10.91 10.52 57.90 312.50 0.00 174.40
St. John
Fish Bay 0.00 0.00
Francis Bay 0.00 10.70
Haulover Bay 0.00 0.00 0.00
Johnson Reef/ 0.00 0.00 0.00
Cinnamon Bay
Lameshur 0.00 52.07 0.00
Leinster Bay 0.00 0.00
Mingo/Lovango 0.00 0.00
Reef Bay 0.00 0.00 0.00
Rendezvous Bay 0.00 0.00 0.00
Round Bay 0.00 0.00 0.00
Turner Bay 0.00 40.30
Two Brothers 12.22 61.08
Total 12.22 0.00 0.00 92.37 71.78
*Note: Blank cells represent the absence of habitat for transect.






SEAMAP-C: USVI Queen Conch Stock Assessment: Final Report
Period: January 1,2001 March 31, 2001


Appendix 8 (continued).
Total queen conch density (conch/ha) at each community type in the U.S. Virgin
Islands, 2001.
St. Croix Sand Coral Rubble Seagrass Pavement Algae
Reef
Site 1 22.44 15.00 15.00
Site 2 79.08 217.50
Site 3 9.59 0.00
Site 4 224.41
Site 5 7.01 0.00 0.00
Site 6 0.00
Site 7 0.00
Site 8 0.00 0.00 36.17
Site 9 212.85
Site 10 0.00
Site 11 0.00
Site 12 0.00 54.31
Site 13 502.71
Site 14 0.00 2.67 0.00
Site 15 0.00 0.00
Site 16 195.47
Total 39.04 0.00 2.67 303.49 227.85 1021.16
*Note: Blank cells represent the absence of habitat for transect.




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