Group Title: Environmental teaching plans
Title: Some understory trees
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/CA01300920/00095
 Material Information
Title: Some understory trees
Series Title: Environmental teaching plans
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: St. Croix Environmental Education Team
Publisher: Division of Fish and Wildlife
Place of Publication: Frederiksted, VI
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: CA01300920
Volume ID: VID00095
Source Institution: University of the Virgin Islands
Holding Location: University of the Virgin Islands
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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E.T. A LOCAL WAY OF LEARNING


Title: SOME UNDERSTORY TREES

Author: Jane Ducey
Eulalie R. Rivera Elementary School

Grade Level: 5-12

Concepts: Disciplines:
1. Energy 1. Social Studies
2. Ecosystem 2. Language Arts
3. Carrying Capacity 3. Science
8. Values & Attitudes 4. Art

Objective:
Student shall identify the tree and explain why it is named as it is or what ore
or fact is associated with the tree. Student shall identify trees that are
evergreen or deciduous, introduced or indigenous.

Rationale:
Many of our trees have lore or fact, aside from their use in the past as
medicinal plants (bush medicine), or connect with history outside the West
Indies. Many old remedies have had the active ingredient of their medicinal use
isolated biochemically today. The bush medicine came from Africa and also from
the Amerindians, some of whom still live on Dominica.

Materials Needed:
Use books and A/V materials to familiarize class with trees to be studied.
Bring to class a leaf or branch of the tree, or seed, or flowers.

At the site: Paper to sketch tree, bag for seeds, leaves, make rubbings of bark.

Teacher Reference Material:

"Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands," Little and Wadsworth,
Agriculture Handbook No. 249, USDA Forest Service, July, 1964.

"Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands," second volume, Little, Woodbury,
and Wadsworth, Agriculture Handbook, No. 449, USDA Forest Service, September,
1974.

An Introduction to the Ecosystem and Plants on St. Croix, USVI, Richard T.
Forman, Special Publication No. 7, West Indies Laboratory, P.O. Box 4010,
Christiansted.











SOME UNDERSTORY TREES
STUDY GUIDE
Trees:
1. Painkiller: Morinda. Native to India, this shiny-leaved evergreen tree is
found on sandy coasts. The name refers to the use of the leaves as a poultice
according to differing recipes, applied to swellings, or headache to give
relief. The fruit is multiple (syncarp) and unpleasant smelling although
edible. It is eaten by hogs in the islands. In Hawaii, the tree is called
famine fruit, referring to the distasteful though edible quality of the fruit.
The bark produces a red dye.

2. Breadfruit: Panapen. A handsome tree with edible fruit and dark shiny leaves
from one to three feet long, deeply lobed. The tree was introduced to Jamaica
from Tahiti and would have been here in 1789 but for the famous mutiny on
Captain William Bligh's ship, Bounty. However, he succeeded on the ship
Providence in 1793 bringing breadfruit. Fruits are gathered before maturity and
roasted or boiled as a starchy vegetable; or the young fruits can be sliced and
fried. A dessert and preserves are sometimes made from the male flower
clusters.

3. Inkberry: Box-briar. This is the Christmas tree of the Virgin Islands.
Before electric lights, small candles could be attached through the thorns on
the branches. It is effective as an outdoor Christmas tree, growing very
compactly in the light shade. The small leaves are broad, almost stalkless,
opposite or clustered. It is deciduous and native to the area. As the name
suggests, the white berries make a blue, black dye. The stems were used to
make fishing rods in the Virgin Islands.

4. Cacao: Chocolate-tree. This tree, the source of chocolate and cocoa, was
introduced from Mexico. It is evergreen and has fruits, yellow to brown when
ripe, which hang downward from the tree trunk. In the large five celled fruits
are many large chocolate-colored or purplish seeds one inch or more in length
and bitter tasting. Chocolate is prepared from the beans by roasting and
grinding. Tree needs moisture and shade to grow.

5. Cashew: Cashew-apple. An evergreen, often shrubby tree of sandy areas. The
edible cashew nut is the fruit but is encased in a shell which has a poisonous,
black and very acrid oil. In roasting, the oil is removed by heat, with care
taken to avoid the caustic fumes. As the nut matures, the receptacle at the
base enlarges rapidly, within a few days, into a fleshy fruit-like, pear shaped
structure which turns bright red or yellow. It is native to the West Indies and
in the Virgin Islands, the fruit is eaten and the nut discarded. An indelible
ink has been made from the milky sap.

6. Trumpet-tree: Cecropia. Distinguished by the few very large umbrella like
leaves which are white or silver underneath and easily seen when the wind blows.
Tree is evergreen if there is enough moisture. The trunk is solid but the
branches are hollow except for partitions at the nodes. They have been used to
make floats for fish nets and life preservers. When split in half they serve as
water troughs and gutters. Bats and birds are chief agents for seed dispersal.











E.T.


SOME UNDERSTORY TREES



7. Fishpoison: Dogwood: Ventura. Pinnate leaves, pinkish pea shaped flowers in
clusters distinguish this deciduous tree, native to the islands. Eye-catching
fruiting bodies are the yellow-green seed pods having four longitudinal
membranous or paper wings, hanging in clusters and slowly turning brown. The
Caribs threw bark root, young branches and powdered leaves into the water to
stun fish. The fish rose to the surface and could be caught before the effect
wore off.

8. Genipa: Jagua. The fruits of this West Indian deciduous tree are the source
of a sour refreshing drink. The immature fruits have a blue-black juice which
produces a lasting and indelible stain. It was used as a dye and as a tattoo by
the Indians to protect them against insect bites.

9. White Manjack: Mucilage manjack: Moral. A small deciduous tree planted along
highways for shade. It likes some sun. The white fruits which hang in bunches
almost year-round have a sticky flesh which works quite as well as Elmer's Glue.

10. Red Manjack: Capo colorado. Originally named and described from St. Croix
in 1793. It is a more handsome tree than the white manjack, having shiny leaves
and clusters of fleshy bright red round fruits. It may be evergreen or deciduous
depending upon the moisture it receives.













SOME UNDERSTORY TREES


Morinda, painkiller


Morinda citrifolla L.


Natural Size













SOME IP:DERSTOFY TREES


Panapen, pana de pepitas, breadfruit Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg

One-third natural size












1 I


E.T.

SOME UNDERSTORY TREES


Tintillo, box-briar


Randia aculeata L













E.T.

SOME UNDERSTORY TREES


Cacao, chocolate-tree


Theobroma cocao L


Two-thirds natural size













E.T.

SOME UNDERSTORY TREES


P'-, j ~ cashew


Anacardium occidentale I.


Natural size
































































Yagrumbo hembra, trumpet-tree
Leafy twig with male flower clusters (above), about one-third natural
size; fruit clusters (lower right), two-thirds natural size.


Cccropia peltata L.












SONM UNDERSTORY TREES


. ern::r, dogwood T

Leafy twig (above), fruit and flowers (lower right), natural size.

Piscidia carthagenensis Jacq.













E.T.

SOME UNDERSTORY TREES
























































Moral, white manjack


Cordia sulcata DC.


Two-thirds natural size.












E.T.

SOME UNDERSTORY TREES


Capa colorado, red manjack


Natural size.


Cordia nitida Vahl












Name


SOME UNDERSTORY TREES

EVALUATION:
Use the phrases at the bottom of the page to fill in the blanks to make the best
sense for all ten sentences.
A.
1. A poultice was made for a headache.

2. The branches of the Trumpet tree can be used

3. The indelible stain in the juice of unripe Genip fruits was used by
Indians.

4. If you run out of glue, a good substitute is

5. The dogwood tree can be

6. In the V.I. people throw away the fruit and eat the receptacle of

7. The inkberry tree was used in the past in the V.I.

8. A tree with seeds which are used in baking is

9. Mutiny of a ship's crew delayed in the Islands.

10. You can make a from the stems of the Inkberry tree.

the cocoa tree to tattoo their bodies
with Painkiller leaves as a Christmas tree
used to stun fish for fish net floats
good fishing rod berries of White Manjack
a Cashew apple the arrival of Breadfruit.

B. List the trees native to the islands of the West Indies.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

C. List the trees which are green all year if there is enough rain.

1.

2.

3.

4.















E. T.


SOME UNDERSTORY TREES



A. Write an essay about one tree. You might ask a parent or grandparent for
information, or get your information from a book. You could tell about the lore
or history or medicinal properties of the tree.


B. You might sketch the growth habit of some of the trees, or illustrate their
leaves.




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