Group Title: Environmental teaching plans
Title: Atmospheric engine
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/CA01300920/00056
 Material Information
Title: Atmospheric engine
Series Title: Environmental teaching plans
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: St. Croix Environmental Education Team
Publisher: Division of Fish and Wildlife
Place of Publication: Frederiksted, VI
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: CA01300920
Volume ID: VID00056
Source Institution: University of the Virgin Islands
Holding Location: University of the Virgin Islands
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

00056AtmosphericEngine ( PDF )


Full Text











E.T. A LOCAL WAY OF LEARNING


Title: THE ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE

Author: Jane Ducey

Eulalie R. Rivera Elementary School-

Grade Level: 4-6

Concepts: Disciplines:

1. The Sun 1.Earth Science
6. Natural Resources

Objective:
With the information supplied and with the use of special charts, students will
complete the activities and record information, correctly identifying different
cloud types and making weather predictions.

Rationale:
The principal information that the forecaster needs about the atmosphere is its
weight (atmospheric pressure), temperature, moisture content (humidity) and
movement (wind speed and direction). All weather phenomena are the result of two
basic occurrences: the constant radiation energy from the sun and the 24hour
rotation of the earth alone with the 12-month orbit around the sun.

In the Eastern Caribbean there is very little correlation between barometric
pressure and winds. The wind comes from the East 99% of the time and about half
the time from the Southeast. Occasionally when a "Bermuda High" forms off the
North Carolina coast we get a change in wind direction.

Materials Needed:
Sling Psychrometer (two thermometers) Wind Velocity Chart
Barometer Relative Humidity Chart
Cloud Charts (Helpful) Anemometer
Forecasting Worksheet

What Causes Weather:

Because of the complicated factors which go into weather forecasting, go over
the following information with the students. The discussion is only cursory;
any additional material or audio-visuals would be helpful.

All of the sunlight that drives the various cycles of weather and climate must
come through the atmosphere before reaching the Earth's surface. Some
particulate matter can increase atmospheric reflection (NOX or S02)- Other
compounds such as


E-56














THE ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE

CO2 increases the absorption of radiation from below. Some of these things in
the atmosphere are natural, but most are manmade. The atmosphere is also a
transport medium for heat and water vapor, as well as for kinetic energy (wind).


The ocean stores heat that comes to it from the sun far better than does the
land. Subsurface currents, which are affected by basin contours, temperature
gradients and other factors, can carry heat from one area to another. The ocean
is also the major repository of water for evaporation and precipitation. (These
processes, because they involve phase changes, can transport large amounts of
heat without significant temperature changes). By contrast, land heats rapidly
during the day and cools rapidly at night; this cyclic behavior affects weather
patterns and gives rise to the extreme climates of inland areas.




Local weather conditions depend on the specific circumstances in that area.
Because of its great heat-holding capacity, water serves to temper the climate
of the earth. Islands like ours are noted for their year around mildness of
climate. Note on the weather and climate chart a simplified pattern of global
air movement Notice the effect of the earth's rotation on the routes taken by
the currents which are pushed back to the surface at the 300 "Horse" latitudes.
In the Northern Hemisphere all air currents deflect to the right. So the
currents that head back to the equator do not go directly. south but veer to the
west. These are the steady "trade winds" upon which the old mariners depended
to get to the islands:(Then caught the gulf stream and returned to Europe.)

Directions/Activity:

The make-up of the air can affect the weather. Humidity is a measure of the
amount of water vapor in the air. The amount of water vapor in the air can be
measured with an instrument called a sling psychrometer. The psychrometer
consists of two thermometers. One measures the true air temperature. The other
thermometer is covered with a piece of cloth which is dipped in water. This
thermometer will show a lowered temperature based on cooling caused by
evaporation of the water. The two thermometers are mounted on a board with a
chain attached. The psychrometer is swung around for a specific time period.
The two temperatures are read and from the chart the relative humidity is found.

The amount of water vapor air can contain before precipitation occurs depends on
the temperature. The higher the temperature the greater the amount of water
which can be held in the sky. Thus, if you have a high temperature during the
day and humidity of 50% you probably wouldn't get any rain or fog. If at night
the temperature cools, the air can't hold the water as well so the humidity
could chance to 100% and dew, fog drizzling might occur.

The air containing the water vapor is moving most of the time. This air
movement or wind is caused by differences in air temperature and air pressure.
We can measure the wind speed with an instrument called an anemometer. A sudden
change in wind speed or direction often means a chance in weather.


E.T.


E-56











E- 56

E. T.

THE ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE

Air has weight which can change depending on the density or thickness of the
air. We call this weight the air pressure. The air pressure is measured in
inches on an instrument called a barometer. If you have watched the weatherman
on TV you have probably noticed the highs and lows written on the weather map
The highs are areas with high pressure and usually mean fair weather. Highs have
winds which circulate in a clockwise manner A low is an area with low pressure

and usually means cloudy weather. Lows have winds which circulate in a
counter-clockwise direction. Where highs and lows meet there is a change in wind

direction, a change 3 gin temperature and a change in weather. A CHANGE IN AIR
PRESSURE indicates A CHANGE IN WEATHER. (See barometer pressure chart) A change
in temperature causes water vapor to form into visible water droplets called
clouds.

Clouds are formed by the air temperature and water vapor content at different
levels in the atmosphere. Clouds affect the earth in two ways:

1. They absorb energy from the sun.




2. They reflect heat energy from the earth back down, acting like a blanket to
help keep the earth warm. This is especially true at night.

The name of a cloud may describe the appearance and the altitude in which they
were formed.

The term strato means layer-like; stratus clouds are thin, layered
clouds and are a sign of fair weather.

The term cumulo means pile or heap; cumulus clouds usually are rain
clouds.

The term cirro means curl; cirrus clouds usually indicate a change to
rainy weather.

The term nimbo means rain; nimbus clouds are rain clouds.

To visualize the basic cloud types and the many variations, cloud
charts should be used.















E-56


E. T.

THE ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE

FORECASING WORKSHEET



1. Type of clouds

2. General meaning of cloud type

3. Wind velocity estimated from chart

4. Wind velocity from anemometer

5. Wind direction

6. Barometer reading

7. Is the barometer rising, steady or falling?

8. Use the wet-dry bulb thermometer to determine the relative humidity


9. What were the high and low temperature readings for the past 24 hours?

High Low


10. What is the present temperature?

11. What is your weather forecast? Why?

12. (After 24 hours) What was the weather really like?







Teacher Reference:

V.I. Energy Office Activities with wind
U.S.D.A. Rainfall charts
Project Introspection Hurricanes














E. T.

THE ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE


From all the above information and the measurements you will make,
able to predict the weather.


you should be


Evaluation:


1. Compare the daily weather forecasts on Channel 10 evening news,
Today, with the actual weather conditions.

2. How did the Channel 10 forecast compare with the one you made?

3. Do you think we should change weather if we have the ability to
or why not. Stage a debate on the subject or write a paper.


The Scene


do so? Why


4. Why would we want to change the weather?

5. How does pollution in the air affect weather?

6. How does pollution in the air affect the rain and the ground where the rain
falls?

7. Make a rough calculation of the distance the sand has traveled during the
hazy weather we experience in the islands which is caused by sand blown from the
Sahara region in Africa.

8. Members of the class may build their own weather instruments for taking basic
recordings.(e.g., sling psychrometer; wind vane; anemometer
mercurial barometer rain gauge, etc.)


E-56










E.T. E-56
THE ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE


WEATHER AND CLIMATE


GoC


300
1-lorso latitudes


STrado winds


00 Doldrums


3 Horse latitudes
300

Westerlies


600











E-56


THE ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE

Birth of Hurricanes


A hurricane is born in a hot moist air mass
over the ocean. The cyclonic motion is
often started as opposing trade winds whirl
around each other. This occurs during the
summer months when the Northeast and
Southeast trade winds converge north of the
equator.

The rotating low pushes air toward its
center, forcing the-hot moist air there to
rise. As the moist air rises, it slowly
cools and the moisture condenses. The
condensing moisture (rain) gives off heat,
further warming the rotation air mass which
becomes even lighter and rises more
rapidly.

As this whirling air rises, more warm moist
air flows in behind to replace it. More
condensation occurs, more heat is produced,
more warm moist air flows in and the storm
increases.

Hurricanes are so violent because of the
tremendous amounts of energy(heat) released
by the continuous condensation. This is
similar to a thunderstorm over land;
however, the hurricane has a virtually
inexhaustible supply of moist hot air to
feed it. The heat given off by
condensation causes the air in the
hurricane to rise faster and faster.
Surrounding air sweeps in rapidly until the
hurricane?


/C


30 n ;-
EAAT OF COm DEUfAMT iJ f1FTIS MA65






-4





300 MILE3


R/fE ACCELERATED LI/KE A B4LIOOV '


E.T.


(1;3
G 5u,



`i;








AT WHAT TIME OF DAY S THERE
ENOUGH WIND TO
MAKE ELECTRICITY
WHERE YOU LIVE?


Measure the wind
with the Beaufort
Wind Scale.
(Ahy ody over 5
gMwph c-AA be- used
-tio &ersta- elecdtr-it .)

Keep a record of
the wind speeds at
different times
of day.

At what time of day
do the fastest winds
usually occur?


breeze

(Cse-'3 zph)


190905~rA~


swma

larqae -whitl---e.-==__
Trac ^tts 3tjpalfl
Iurtfo. uj i~ e ____ i ,- v


wde a .te rs m 'I on
7 (32-3 MO d, FlTki.q t
(C3-3? mph) dipftcuft fV
-resh t -is 'W
8 tap.. brn~k oFa
(39-44- vp) treas
strove9 bt-^dchs
9 5a1e bre.lai voof
(I1-'54 up) daagead ". '
whole -es f nap u
10 gal davuaqe
(ss-c3Lph) evide -t
STorm widazprca ~
1 (CA- t+pk) da ,,a .. _'--I-I '-' '-
^ h u +r i ca o w - -, ..n9 I/ 'f. of V" -" .













E-56


THE ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE


Atlantic Ocean


The position of St. Croix
relative to St. Thomas and CARIBBEAN SEA
St. John has been shifted
north and west to fit drawing


LEGEND
Yearly Rainfall

I I 25-30
. 30--35"

j 35"-40~

407-45"

45"-50"

50"-55"


I


(inches)
I1

'U


SCALE
1 0.1 2 3 4


E.T.


a
~s69













E-56
E.T.


THE ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE


PSYCHROMETIC TABLE FOR RELATIVE HUMIDITY


Fahrenheit Temperatures 700 to 1080


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DRY AND WET BULB READINGS.


PSYCHROMETIC TABLE FOR RELATIVE HUMIDITY


Fahrenheit Temperatures 700 to 100


DIFFERENCE BETiEEN DRY AND WET BULB READINGS-
1 2 L 6 7 a 9 10 1f 12 13 i4 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 z2 25 26 27 28 29 30


60 56
61 57
62 S8
63 59
a 60'

a 61
65 62
66 63
67 63
67 &
68 65
69 65
69 66
70 67
70 67

71 68
71 6
72 69
72 69
72 *70


Lh Lo
L6 L2
17 "'
(s' 145
50 16
51 17
52 h9p

55' 52

56 53
57 SL
57 5t
58 55
59 56

59 57
fo 57
61 5b
61 59
62 59


33 30
35 32
37 31
38 35
O0 37

I1 38
L3 1o
L6 Li
L5 L2
L6 L3

L7 LL
L9 L6
So l7
51 La

52 L9
$2 50
53 ?1
5i) 51
54.$2


96 23
28 25
30 27
32 29
34 31

35 32
37 3t
38 35
39 37
tl 38
2 39
143 hO
L5 L2
ti6 1,3

47 Lb!
1,7 U1
L7 45
18- L7
SO 1,7
LTt'


7 4 1
10 7 I
12 9 7
1I 12 9
16 1 11
18 16 13
20 1 15i
22 20 17
2L 21 19
25 23 21
27 2a 22
28 26 721
29 27 25
31 29 26
32 30 25

33 31 29
3a 32 30
35 33 31
36 34 32
37 35 33


.'" PSYCHROMETIC.TABLE FOR RElAfiVE HUrIDITYO Fahrenheit Temperatures 300 to 68"


-DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DRY AND WET BULB READINGS
_ _ _--------------------*- - -


a 10 11 12 13 1
17 8V
22 13' I -
27 18 9'"
31 23 iL -6
35 2T7 1 12 4
38 ,1 23 16 9 2
L; 3hi 2 1 I 7
UI 57 31 2L I1 32 5
1,6 io 3~ 28 22 15 10
L8 L2 36 31 Z 19 i1

50 A '39 33 28- 22 17
51 L6 Lt 36 ; 25 20
SL LS 13 30 -J3' 25 23
55 50 L5 LO 35 31 26
57 52 L 2 36 33 23

S5 53 49 lh o 35 31
63 55 50 46 L1 37 33
61 5. 5$ 18 ts3 39 35
62 S < q L t5 Ul 37
63 59 ( 5 31 Lt I3 37
,*.. j


15 16 17 1i 19 20 21 22 2) 2 2 25 2 7 Z2 '2 Y



lrExpli. If dry bulb reading is 68 and -tt bulb
readings is S80 the relative humidity will be found
in tht 10 diIference column opposite 680. In this
c.te 55% as circled.


hI -

12" 7 2
15 13 6
18 lb 9
21 17 12 8
2U 2 15 11
27 22 18 IL 1
2 25 21 17 1
31 27 23 20 1
33 29 26 22 1
35 31 28 24 2


b
7 3
.3 6 2
3 9 6 2
6 1? 9 5 2
81 15 11 8 5 1
1 17 l, 11 8 4 1


i** 70
.72
7t
76
78

'80
82
Ca th
e r
w 86
90 M

e se
92O
96


102
10l
106
108


30
32
34(
36
35

L

-52
SL6



>... S6


62
64
60
6a


1 2 1


h 5

57 ,L7
60o 0
62 53
65 56
67 59
65 61
70 62
71 &
72 -65
73 67

7L 68
7569
76 70
77 71
77 72
78 73
79 7T
79 75
to 76
81 76


6 T

37 27
Li1 31
WL 35
hS 39
51 43
53 L6
55 LO5
57 51
59 53
60 5

62 $6
63 S8
,'5 59
66 61
67 62
68 63
69- &
70 66
71 66
72 67


I CA


____1


" r.
C h`










E.T. E-56

THE ATMOSPHERIC ENGINE

CLOUD FORMATION AND WEATHER


-I2v




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs