Group Title: Environmental teaching plans
Title: How the salt ponds add up
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/CA01300920/00027
 Material Information
Title: How the salt ponds add up
Series Title: Environmental teaching plans
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: St. Croix Environmental Education Team
Publisher: Division of Fish and Wildlife
Place of Publication: Frederiksted, VI
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: CA01300920
Volume ID: VID00027
Source Institution: University of the Virgin Islands
Holding Location: University of the Virgin Islands
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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E.T. A LOCAL WAY OF LEARNING


Title: HOW THE SALT PONDS ADD UP

Author: Eulalie R. Rivera Elementary School Environmental Education Team

Grade Level: 2-3


Concepts:
2. Ecosystem
4. Water
12. Stewardship


Disciplines
1.Math
2. Social Studies


Objective:

For the purpose of gaining familiarity with the names of the salt ponds of the Virgin Islands, students will do
addition word problems per attached activity with a majority of students performing at "C" or above level.

Rationale:

While the activity more directly involves word problem mathematics skill development, the nature of the
word problem deals with things vital to the Virgin Island environment, and in so doing, fosters an awareness
of the importance of salt ponds..

Directions:

1.Teacher could read the selection "Vanilla Clouds and Chocolate Holes", or discuss salt ponds from DCCA
Fact Sheet.

2.Distribute the math word problem work sheet. Allow about 20-25 minutes for completion.

3.Correct and score.

4.Ask children if they know/or have visited any of the salt ponds that are named in the activity. What do
they think of their importance to the Islands?


Resources:

Coastal Habitats: Salt Ponds, DCCA Environmental Fact Sheet No. 7.

Jadan, Ivan and Doris. "Vanilla Clouds and Chocolate Holes", The Holiday
Adventures of Ivan Environman. Cruz Bay, 1975. pp. 88-94.









Name:

Class:

HOW THE SALT PONDS ADD UP Score:
16-18 = A
13-15 =B
10-12 = C
7-9 = D


Ivan Environment, in The Holiday Adventures of Ivan Environment, tells a story of "Vanilla Clouds and
Chocolate Holes". This part of the story tells why salt ponds are important:

The pupils in Professor Pepe's class could see
for themselves how the little saltwater pond behind
Chocolate Hole trapped most of the chocolate-covered
mud that washed downhill after a heavy rain. They could
see for them selves why it is important to leave little salt
ponds and holes the way they are. "The little pond may hot
look like, much at first glance, said Pepe Ivan." "But imagine
how Chocolate Hole would look if people were to interfere with
the way the pond does its job. That's why the Virgin Islands has
laws now to prevent people from changing the shoreline and disturbing
little ponds like this."


There are many salt ponds in the Virgin Islands. See if you can work out these problems:

A. St.John

1. Hawksnest Bay, Foot of More Hill, Newfound Bay, Calabash Boom, Chocolate Hole (has 2), Hart Bay,
Great Lameshur Bay, Kiddel Bay, Harbor Point, Fortsberg, Turner Point, Elk Bay, Haulover Bay and
Privateer Bay are listed as small salt ponds. How many small salt ponds are there on St. John?

2. Europa Bay, the Salt Pond at Drunk Bay, and Pond Bay are all medium-sized salt ponds. How many
medium-sized salt ponds are there on St.John?

3. Chocolate Hole also has one large salt pond and there is another large one at Grootpan Bay. How many
large salt ponds are there?

4. How many small, medium, and large salt ponds are there all together on St. John?

B. St.Thomas

1. There are three small salt ponds each at Little Coculus Bay and at Water Point; there are two small salt
ponds each at St. John Bay, Foster Point, Cabrita Hill, Smith Bay and Mangrove Lagoon; and Smith Bay,
Foot of Flag.Hill, Coculus Point, Bolongo, Krabbepan Point, Great Bay North and Great Bay South,
Water Point, Scott Beach, Long Point, Bovoni Bay, Bolonao Bay, Frenchman Bay, the Cove between


E.T.


E-27







Frenchman and Morningstar, Perservance and Fortuna have a small salt pond each. How many small salt
ponds are there on St. Thomas?

2. There are medium-sized salt ponds at Frenchman Bay, Water Point, two each at Great Bay and Muller
Bay, Compass Point and Great Bay North. How many medium-sized salt ponds are there on St. Thomas?

3. Mangrove Lagoon has two large salt ponds, and Benner Bay, Vessup Bay, Red Bay, Mandahl Bay and St.
John Bay each have one large salt pond. How many large salt ponds are there on St. Thomas?

4. Mandahl Point is a very large salt pond. Write the number "I" in the blank for this very large salt pond on
St. Thomas.

5. How many small, medium, large and very large salt ponds are there all together on St. Thomas?

C. St.Croix

1. Robin Bay, Coakley Bay and Chenay Bay are large salt ponds. How many large salt ponds are there on
St. Croix?

2. Great Pond Bay and West End are called very large salt ponds. How many very large salt ponds are there
on St. Croix?

3. How many large and very large salt ponds are there on St. Croix?


D.Adding everything up:

1. How many small salt ponds are there on St. John, St. Thomas and St. Croix?

2. How many medium-sized salt ponds are there all together on the three Islands?

3. The three Islands have how many large salt ponds?

4. How many very large salt ponds are there in the Virgin Islands?

5. How many small, medium, large and very large salt ponds are there on the Virgin Islands all together?

6. Which Island has the most salt ponds?


EXTRA CREDIT:

On a geopolitical map of the Virgin Islands, have students mark the location of the salt ponds named in this
activity.










DCCA ENVIRONMENTAL FACT SHEET NO. 7
COASTAL HABITATS: SALT PONDS




What Are They?

Most salt ponds are former bays or parts of a bay. Over time, they became closed by reef or mangrove
growth across the bay. The closure may be accelerated by sand and rubble tossed up on the shallow closing,
berm by storms. Soil will follow and eventually a new sand beach may bind on the other side.

Once the bay is closed, the salt pond begins to act as a trap for fresh water and sediment which runs off
of adjacent uplands. If the salt pond did not exist, this runoff would go directly in to the bay. As such, salt
ponds serve an important buffering function, reducing, turbidity and salinity fluctuations in the bay.

In addition to fresh water, salt ponds may also still receive salt water from the outside bay. This will
percolate through the berm if it is porous enough. Evaporation in a closed pond is very rapid so that the
salinity increases and the pond, if not replenished from the bay or by rain water, will dry up completely
leaving crystallized salt on the surface. Occasionally, a pond berm will be breached by storm water from the
land or sea. When this occurs, the pond can be re-invaded by marine animals usually crabs and fishes.
These will die off as the pond recloses and salinity increases again.






Salt Ponds


Inland Bay bean, Turbid water, usually hypersaline,phyto- Dune or berm of Red and
man- portula- plankton, brine shrimp. Mud and silt sea sand. Rock,black
groves ca, sea bottom, algal mats, occasionally mullet. gravel, coral man-
and xe- purslane, Irubble. Beach groves,
rophitic fiddler morning glory, 'beach
scrub, crabs, sesuvium, scrub vegeta-
land wading growth, hermit tion.
crabs birds, crabs.




AI ,







What Lives There?


Because salt ponds are subject to eratic influxes of both fresh and salt water, they offer extremely
unstable and harsh habitat conditions. Nonetheless, it attracts fiddler crabs, large land crabs, flies, midaes,
and mosquitoes. A number of wading birds (stilts, sandpipers) feed along the edges of the ponds on crabs,
insect larvae, and other small animals. Kingbirds, martins and swallows feed on flying insects over the
water. Ponds may contain large numbers of brine shrimp'. These can give the pond a brownish-pink tinge.
Salt pond coloration, however, is highly variable, due to a variety of algae which may give it a green, orange,
brown, pink, or red color.

What Changes Occur There?

As mentioned above, we do know that salinity varies greatly ranging from nearby fresh water after a
storm to more than three times the salinity of seawater after periods of heavy evaporation. Periodic changes
of this magnitude can have a catastrophic impact on the' organisms inhabiting the pond. During a heavy
storm, masses of halophilic (salt loving) plants and insects are killed. These often account for the
occasional bad odor around salt ponds.

Salt ponds, which act as runoff and sediment traps, end up with high concentrations of pollutants.
Because most of the upper layers of pond sediments are highly organic and being decomposed, disturbing
these sediments usually releases obnoxious sulfide odors. If a pond is opened and these materials are
dispersed, they use up t@ available oxygen rapidly. This can kill plants and animals in the adjacent bay.

Location of Salt Ponds

The following chart shows the location of salt ponds on the three main islands. Compared to the other
islands, St. Croix has very few salt ponds. However, these are all large and receive runoff from very large
areas (watersheds). Accordingly, they contain more water and more plant and animal life. St. Thomas and
St. John have many more ponds which are smaller. Like the many pocket beaches, this is largely a
consequence of the differences in shoreline configuration. Most salt ponds from at the head of embayments,
a setting which also favors beach formation. In fact, in most cases, beaches and salt ponds occur together--a
characteristic association on all three islands.













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Location of Virgin Island salt ponds, excluding cays.


St. John
Hawksnest Bay (west) ........... ..............small
Foot of M ore Hill............ .......... .............small
Newfound Bay .........................................small
Calabash Boom..................................small
Turner (Enighed Pond)......... .................large
Chocolate Hole ......... ...........2 small, 1 large
Hart Bay ............. .............. ....... small
Europa Bay ................................ medium
Great Lameshur Bay ........... ...........small
Grootpan Bay............ ... ................. large
K iddel B ay.......................................... sm all
Salt Pond Drunk Bay .......... ...............medium
Harbor Point, Coral Bay........... .............. small
Fortsberg............................ .............. sm all
Turner Point ............ .......... .............. small
Elk B ay........... ............... ....... ........ sm all
H aulover Bay............ ..........................sm all
Pond Bay ........................................ medium
Privateer Bay .....................................small
St. Thomas
St. John Bay........................2 small, 1 large
Smith Bay ................ ...................1 (cove)
Foster Point ............. .................... 2 small
Mandahl Point .........................1 very large
Foot of Flag Hill ............ ......... ........1 small
Frenchman Bay.......................1.......... medium
Little Coculus Bay ............... ............. 3 small
Bolongo Bay............ ... ............... 1 small
Cabrita Hill....................... ................2 sm all
Water Point.......................... 1 medium, 3 small
Great Bay ............ ....................... 2 medium
Muller Bay................. .............2 medium
V essup Bay............ .......... ................ 1 large
Krabbepan Point .................................1 small


Compass Point ............... ...........1 medium
Mandahl Bay............. ... ............... 1 large
Smith Bay............. ....... ...............2 small
R ed B ay ............. ........... .............. large
Great Bay (north)........... .............small, medium
Great Bay (south) ................................. small
W ater Point........................................ sm all
Scott B each..........................................sm all
Benner Bay................. ...... ............. large
Mangrove Lagoon............... ............. 2 large
Long Point ................................ small
Bovoni Bay...................... ................small
B olongo............................ .............. sm all
Frenchman Bay.................................. small
Cove between Frenchman & Morningstar...... small
Perseverance............ .......... ............... sm all
Fortuna............ ... ........... .............. sm all


St. Croix
Great Pond Bay............ ...................very large
R obin B ay ............................................. large
West End................... .............. very large
Coakley Bay................... .. ................. large
Chenay Bay........... .........................l.arge















































Island Resources Foundation, V. I. Marine Environment (VICZM Program, Tech. Supplement No. 1, 1976).
(Editor: Marsha McLaughlin, Policy and Planning Unit, DCCA. Further info. Environmental Specialist,
DCZM).


Major Attributes Use Limitations
Salt ponds act as natural settling traps to protect Sediments are unstable for foundations; pilings are
marine resources. usually required.
Water level and salinity fluctuates greatly. This Filling may cause extrusion of pond sediments and
limits biota. will eliminate the pond's water catchment function.
Flooding may result.
Wildlife habitat, particularly for birds. Opening of salt ponds is generally undesirable
due to the threat of water pollution from pond
sediments.




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