• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Preface
 Frontispiece
 Introduction
 American interest dates back to...
 Negotiations for purchase...
 Formal transfer
 Appendix A. Convention between...
 Appendix B. Convention between...
 Appendix C. Convention between...
 Appendix D. Ceremony in St. Thomas...
 Appendix E. Ceremony in St. Croix...
 Bibliography






Title: Historical Account of the Purchase and Transfer of the Danish West Indies
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 Material Information
Title: Historical Account of the Purchase and Transfer of the Danish West Indies
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: University of the Virgin Islands
Publisher: University of the Virgin Islands
Place of Publication: Virgin Islands
Publication Date: 2002
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Bibliographic ID: CA01300717
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of the Virgin Islands
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Preface
        Preface 1
        Preface 2
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Introduction
        Page 1
    American interest dates back to Pre-Revolutionary War days
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Negotiations for purchase of Islands
        Page 5
        Page 5a
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 11a
        Page 12
        Page 12a
    Formal transfer
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Appendix A. Convention between his majesty the King of Denmark, and the United States of America, concerning the cession of the Islands of St. Thomas and St. John in West Indies
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Appendix B. Convention between the United States and Denmark for the cession of the Danish West Indies, signed at Washington, January 24, 1902
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Appendix C. Convention between the United States and Denmark for the cession of the Danish West Indies, signed at New York, August 4, 1916
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Appendix D. Ceremony in St. Thomas - the Virgin Islands program of transfer
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Appendix E. Ceremony in St. Croix - Part I
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Bibliography
        Page 45
        Page 46
Full Text













it l


An Historical o ., tunt of the

Purchase n -i' answer
of the Danisn Vest Indies
u.dar h :.
ESEA i
')epla t:r.- :








A detailed account of the Transfer is presented in

this booklet to provide teachers with reference material

on this significant event in Virgin Islands History. In

addition, an extensive supplement has been included with

the text. This material is not readily available to the

classroom teacher. Therefore, it is included here in the

hope that teachers will find it valuable not only in teach-

ing about the Transfer, but also other related areas. It

should be used as a reference throughout the school year.

The complete text of three treaties have been included

because of the wealth of information which they provide

on the Transfer and other related historical events. The

newspaper accounts of the ceremonies, and the music in-

cluded, provide excellent material for developing creative

plays and other language arts activities.

This is another work in a series of instructional

materials prepared under the auspices of Project Introspec-

tion, ESEA Title III.


March 14, 1969


Booklet No. 9









PROPERTY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
GOVERNIEVIT OF THE U.S. V'IRGI ISLAND.:


PREPARED BY ESEA TITLE III
PROJECT INTROSPECTION; FOR 6SE
IN ALL PUBLIC AND NONPROFIT PRIVATE
SCHOOLS IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS







































U.S. Merchant Ships the Mainstay of Commerce in the Danish West Indies.








AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE PURCHASE

AND TRANSFER OF THE DANISH WEST INDIES


Introduction


The Danish West Indies constituted the entire extent of

Denmark's territorial claims in the Caribbean. The Danish territory

was limited to St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix, together with

all adjacent islets and rocks. The first permanent Danish Colony

was founded on St. Thomas in 1665. St. John was made a part of the

Danish West Indies in 1717 in defiance of all British claims to that

island. It was not until 1733 that St. Croix became a part of the

Danish West Indies when it was purchased from France for 750,000

livres. The three islands gained the status of Danish Crown Colonies

in 1775 when the Danish West India Company sold its rights in the

three islands to the King of Denmark. It is interesting to note

that the three islands were not bound together politically until

the middle of the 18th Century.

These islands, the Danish West Indies, later came to be known

as the "Virgin Islands of the United States of America" at the time

of the Transfer. The islands are now an unincorporated territory of

the United States of America and the people are citizens of the

United States. The capital is Charlotte Amalie on the island of

St. Thomas.

A proposal for the purchase of the Danish West Indies was

first tendered by the United States in 1865. The formal transfer

of the islands was the culmination of a series of diplomatic episodes







-2 -
which took place between the two nations throughout a fifty-two

year period. The following account will treat the factors rela-

ted to American interest in the islands, their attempts to pur-

chase the islands, and the formal transfer of the islands to the

United States.

American Interest Dates Back to
Pre-Revolutionary War Days

Trade between the Danish West Indies and the American Colo-

nies was probably the beginning of American territorial interest

in these islands. Mr. J. Antonio Jarvis records that: "Even be-

fore the Revolutionary War, the people of the Colonies of Massachu-

setts and Virginia were very much interested in the Danish West

Indian Islands. A great deal of trading had taken place between

the mainland and the islands, and many merchants in New England

were dealers in the sugar and rum which the islands exported. Some

even settled in St. Croix."l

Commerce in the Danish West Indies during the 19th Century

was predominantly with American firms. As the years went by, a

close relationship developed between the people of the islands and

the United States, a relationship which has lasted up to the pre-

sent time. This relationship was nurtured by common commercial

interests and other considerations.

As the United States grew into a maritime power and her

trade expanded, the need arose for coaling stations and defense out-

posts in the West Indies. This need became vital to her future de-

velopment and survival. The islands had the potential for fulfill-



J. Antonio Jarvis, Brief History of the Virgin Islands
(St. Thomas: The Art Shop, 1938), p. 114.







- 3-


ing these needs, and therefore grew in significance in the scheme

of America's future expansion policies. Meanwhile, the Danish West

Indies continued to thrive commercially as a result of American trr'".


Acquisition of Islands Matter of Survival


Certain events which took place during the Civil War con-

vinced Official Washington of the need to secure territory in the

West Indies. On April 19, 1861, President Lincoln declared a block-

ade of the Confederacy. Great Britain, France and other maritime

powers supported the Confederacy while closing their West Indian

ports to Union fleets.

It is said that Great Britain aided the Confederacy to such

an extent that the South almost defeated the Union's fleets and

raised the blockade. An excerpt from a report submitted to the

Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations by G. V. Fox,

Assistant Secretary of the Navy, provides some evidence of British

involvement in this phase of the War.

Captain Fox reported that:

"England menaces our coast with four strategic points Hali-
fax, Bermuda, Nassau, and Jamaica. At these stations were
concentrated the munitions and supplies which encouraged the
Rebels and afforded to them material aid. Owing to their
proximity, British merchants were enabled to use for blockade
purpose small light-draft steamers, well adapted for entering
the numerous shallow harbors of the South at night. If these
positions had belonged to the United States, or if there had
been no English stations so close to us, larger steamers
would have been necessary to attempt the blockade; such ves-
sels must have had a greater draft of water, thereby restrict-
ing their entrance to daylight and fewer ports.

"That I do not exaggerate the importance of the naval stations
of Great Britain on the coast of the United States is evident
in remembering that, of fifteen hundred vessels and $32,000,000






4 -

of property condemned prize to the Navy, nearly all be-
longed to British merchants, and was captured passing
between the English ports I have mentioned and our South-
ern harbors. Excepting a naval force upon our rivers,
and co-operating movements with the army, the navy of the
United States, during the Rebellion, was shedding its
blood and expanding the treasure of the country in efforts
defensive against Great Britain."2

Russia gave moral support to the Union and neglected no

opportunity to show the world the extent of her friendship in the

darkest days of the struggle. Assistance also came from Denmark

who had shown sympathy with the Union's cause from the very be-

ginning. Without infringing upon her policy of neutrality, Den-

mark afforded every possible advantage to the United States Navy

in permitting access to the coaling and supply station in

St. Thomas, and proved the fidelity of her friendship by prevent-

ing the hoisting of the Confederate ensign in any Danish port.

The unfriendly actions of the British government made a

painful impression on President Lincoln, and led him to consider

means of terminating the nation's dependence on foreign govern-

ments for naval repairs and supplies of coal during war. One of

his first acts in foreign relations was to authorize the commence-

ment of negotiations for the purchase of the Danish West Indies.

The aggressive activities of various European powers toward

certain Caribbean Islands during this period also posed a threat

to American supremacy in the Western Hemisphere. Spanish intrigues

in Santo Domingo, and the establishment of Maximillan's empire in

Mexico in 1864, were hemispheric crises which created a great deal


2James Parton, The Danish Islands: Are We Bound in Honor
To Pay For Them? (Boston, Mass: Osgood and Co., 1869), p.74.






- 5 -


of insecurity among Americans. It was also feared that Prussian

aggrandizement resulting from the 1864 War against Denmark might

lead Austria to demand the Danish West Indies as compensation.

The Navy Department played an important role in the selec-

tion of the Danish West Indies as the best location for a fortified

naval supply station in the Caribbean. Vice Admiral Porter advised

President Lincoln and Secretary Seward of the strategic value of

the islands. His survey established the fact that of the forty-five

islands of importance in the West Indies, the Danish possessions of

the Virgin group of the Antilles were peculiarly adapted to the pur-

pose of anchorage and defense. He strongly advised the acquisition

of the islands, Vice Admiral Porter's recommendations were in agree-

ment with observations made by various naval officers, merchants,

missionaries, and historians who had visited the islands.

Negotiations for Purchase

of Islands


The United States first entered into negotiations with

Denmark for the purchase of the islands on January 7, 1865. william

Seward, Secretary of State in the Lincoln Cabinet, strongly advocated

the purchase and made the first advances to Denmark through the

Danish Minister, General Raasloff.

Secretary Seward was committed to the principle of territorial

expansion with a patriotic zeal. Some historians have referred to

him as a proponent of Manifest Destiny. Prior to the commencement

of negotiations, he had already formulated a Caribbean policy which
























































LincoZn Pondering the Purchase of the Danish West Indieas.






- 6 -


included among other things, the acquisition of certain Caribbean

Islands to serve as outposts for American defense. If matters had

been left to Secretary Seward and the Navy Department, the United

States would have been in possession of the islands in 1867; however,

several developments were to obstruct favorable action that year.

The Secretary of State had received President Lincoln's whole-

hearted support in pursuing the purchase of the islands. This sup-

port abruptly came to an end with the President's assassination on

the night of April 14, 1865. The Secretary and his son, Frederick,

were also wounded by Lincoln's assassins. Under the circumstances,

the negotiations were allowed to lapse for several months. During

December 1865, Secretary Seward took a Caribbean cruise which he

claimed to be of no political significance, but strictly "a quest

for health." This trip confirmed his previous assumptions about

the value of the islands to the nation's defense, and upon his re-

turn he resumed negotiations with renewed interest and determination.

His Caribbean trip stirred up a great deal of criticism from

his own country men, who viewed it as an act of imperialism. The

domestic problems of the nation during this period of Reconstruction

preoccupied the minds of the majority of Americans; they were not

readily disposed to Mr. Seward's policy. Opposition to the purchase

began to grow at this point.

Andrew Johnson's accession to the Presidency brought doubts

and misgivings as to the future success of the negotiations autho-

rized by his predecessor. For a time it seemed as if this apprehen-

sion was groundless because President Johnson also favored the pur-






7 -

chase negotiations to acquire the islands. The circumstances of

his impeachment, however, had disastrous effects on the final out-

come of the negotiations.

Treaty of October 24, 1867

The negotiations which had begun in January of 1865 did

not come to an end until the signing of the Treaty of October 24,

1867. Both nations bargained hard and persistently, for each one

stood to gain from the sale. Two very interesting terms emerged

from this treaty: (1) that only the islands of St. Thomas and

St. John would be purchased, and (2) that a plebiscite on the sale

be held in the islands.

Gruelling exchanges to establish a purchase agreement for

the islands had lasted for more than a year, when on July 17, 1866,

Secretary Seward made an offer of $5,000,000 in gold for the purchase

of the islands of St. Thomas(and adjacent islets), St. Croix and

St. John. The Danish Government rejected this offer and made a coun-

ter proposition. They offered to cede all three islands to the

United States for $15,000,000, or St. Thomas and St. John for

$10,000,000 with the consent of the people.

The United States submitted a modified proposition to Den-

mark for the purchase of the three islands, making a firm offer of

$7,500,000. The Danish Government declined this offer also, and

countered with a proposal which gave the United States two distinct

options: (1) to purchase St. Thomas and St. John for $7,500,000 or

(2) to purchase only St. Croix for the sum of $3,750,000.

Just at that stage in the negotiations an undisclosed condi-

tion of sale was revealed by Count Frijs, the Danish Minister of

Foreign affairs. He sent a dispatch from his government informing





- 8 -


Mr. Seward that his government was willing to sell the three islands,

but that the consent of France would have to be secured for the sale

of St. Croix. He further stated that the reason for this condition

of sale was that the Danish Government was obligated to offer the

island of St. Croix to France before any other purchaser could be

considered. The Danish Government took the position that if Consent

was withheld, they would keep the island rather than sell to France.

The United States chose to purchase only St. Thomas and St. John

for $7,500,000.

After the price was agreed upon there remained one major

obstacle to ending the negotiations. The United States was adamantly

opposed to the inclusion of the terms for a plebiscite in the treaty.

Denmark insisted upon securing the consent of the population as a

necessary requirement for the execution of the sale. The Danish

Government refused to yield on this point and the United States con-

ceded to the popular vote. A treaty was finally signed by both na-

tions on October 24, 1867, and the struggle for ratification began.

By the time the treaty came up for ratification American

interest in the purchase had declined. On November 25, 1867, the

House of Representatives voted overwhelmingly against any further

purchase of territory. President Johnson, however, still favored

the treaty and continued to support it.

By this time there was a great deal of skepticism develop-

ing among supporters of the purchase due to recent developments in

the islands. Three Epidemics struck St. Thomas late in 1866 and

lasted for over three months, finally ending in January 1867. Hun-

dreds of people died from yellow fever, smallpox, and cholera during

this period.






9 -

St. Thomas had not quite recuperated from the damaging con-

sequences of these plagues, when a series of natural disasters fol-

lowed. The island was hit by a severe hurricane on October 29, 1867,

and one month later all three islands suffered the devastations of an

earthquake and tidal wave. These were indeed grave times for the

Danish West Indies.

The plebiscite stipulated in the Treaty of 1867 was held

on January 9, 1868, in St. Thomas, a time when the aftermath of the

recent horrors were still evident and fresh in the minds of the peo-

ple. Danish West Indians welcomed the change of sovereignty. On

St. Thomas the vote was 1,039 in favor of the sale and 22 against.

On the following day the balloting was held in St. John, where the

vote was 205 in favor and none against.

The Danes, encouraged by this response, acted promptly and

on January 28, 1868, the treaty was approved by the Folksthing, the

lower house of the Rigsdag. On January 30 the Landsthing, the up-

per house, gave its approval and the treaty was signed by King

Christian V on January 31, 1868. Denmark's swift action made no im-

pression on the United States Senate where a policy of deliberate

inactivity had prevailed. Secretary Seward had secured extensions

of time as the period for ratification had lapsed, but opposition to

the purchase effectively blocked action on the treaty.

The impeachment proceedings of President Andrew Johnson fol-

lowing closely behind the Danish ratification of the treaty did not

help to improve the chances for ratification by the U.S. Senate.

The trial began on March 13, 1868, and when it concluded in late May,

the President was acquited. lie had hoped that the Democrats would






10 -

nominate him for President in 1868, but instead they choose the for-

mer Governor of New York, Horatio Seymour who lost the election to

General Ulysses S. Grant. The bitter political rivalries that de-

veloped during this internal struggle caused the treaty to be shelved

indefinitely. At that point it seemed evident that the treaty was

doomed to defeat.

On June 11, 1868, the people of St. Croix petitioned the

Danish Government to include their island in the sale. Denmark had

now been assured that France would not present any obstacles to the

sale. She therefore urged the United States to reconsider opening

parallel negotiations for the purchase of St. Croix. This move

came at a time when the negotiations for the purchase of St. Thomas

and St. John were in serious jeopardy of defeat by the Senate and

Secretary Seward rejected the proposal. Circumstances made it im-

possible for him to reverse his former position.

With the change of administration in Washington during 1869,

all hopes for ratification of the treaty came to an end. A major

factor in the hostility towards the treaty was the feeling among

many in official circles that this venture was one of Seward's

schemes for colonial expansion and personal agrandisement. This

hostility was not confined to the American Senate. President Grant,

who succeeded President Andrew Johnson, was not in favor of the pur-

chase. He preferred to negotiate for the annexation of the Dominican

Republic instead of purchasing the Danish West Indies. In the year

1870 the United States Govornrent officially decided against pur-

chasing the islands.

Even though the treaty had been promptly ratified by both

houses of the Danish Rigsdag, the United States Senate refused to ra-






11

tify it. The United States handling of this treaty was interpreted

as a breach of faith with Denmark and aroused the indignation of

many citizens and foreigners. The people of the islands were left in

a state of disillusionment and disappointment.

Treaty of January 24, 1902

Several attempts were made to reopen negotiations on the

sale of the islands during the period from 1870 to 1902, but these

attempts were fruitless. Negotiations for the purchase of all

three islands were reopened in 1900 by John Hay, Secretary of State

under President McKinley which resulted in the signing of a treaty in
Washington on January 24, 1902, The price was then set-at $5,000,000

in United States gold coins for all three islands. Secretary Hay had

been more successful in gaining concessions from the Danish Govern-

ment than Seward, but the Danes were not to be taken for granted.

The strongest argument in favor of purchasing the islands

at this time was the fear that they might be transferred to some

European power unfriendly to the United States. There was in addi-

tion, much more support from the American press and key officials in

Washington than during the previous negotiations.

The American Senate ratified this treaty on February 19,

1902, during President Theodore Roceevelt's administration. The out-

look for passage in the Danish Rigsdag seemed promising, but these

hopes were diminished on October 22, 1902, when the treaty was de-

feated in the Landsthing. Further negotiations on the sale were

kept in abeyance until 1915.

Treaty of August 4, 1916

The moment was now propitious for cession of the Danish

West Indies to the United States of America. Economic conditions












































Wortd War I Brought About Economic Disaster in the Danish West Indies.






S 12

in the Islands were critical and the situation was steadily growing

worse. World War I had brought about economic disaster. Commer-

cial houses were closed down and the estates on St. Croix were only

in business because of the island's neutrality. The three islands

had become a financial burden for Denmark, who could no longer afford

the expense of administering to their needs.

President Wilson and other officials regarded the German

submarine campaign as a growing menace to the maintenance of the

Monroe Doctrine, and hastened to reopen negotiations for the purchase

of the Danish Islands. Many were convinced that the German political

system and democracy were not compatible and that this system posed

a threat to democracy. They believed that America's task was to save

Democracy even if it meant going to war to prevent a German victory.

The United States had to have the islands in the event of

war against Germany. As the war progressed in Europe, there was

widespread fear among Americans that Germany might establish bases

on the islands. Denmark was not in a position to defend the islands

against German conquest. Moreover, German occupation of the islands

would have crippled American defense. Americans were cognizant of

the strategic position of *he islands in the Caribbean. They were,

therefore, determined to secure them in order to establish naval

bases for the protection of the Panama Canal.

The United States was forced into a position that demanded

the acquisition of the islands. A major segment of the American

press favored the sale, and public interest was high. There was

strong support for the sale in Denmark, and in the islands.

Dr. Viggo Christensen and D. Hamilton Jackson represented

the people of the islands at hearings in the Danish Parliament. They




























6'


German Submarines Were a Menace to American Security During World War I.






- ii -


relayed the wishes of the people who had looked forward to the

transfer as their only hope for the improvement of the economic con-

ditions of the islands. The circumstances of the times were just

right for the cession of the Danish West Indies to the United States

of America.

On August 4, 1916, the Secretary of State, Robert Lansing,

met with Danish Minister Constantine Brun to sign a treaty agreeing

to the purchase of the Danish West Indies. -The ratifications of the

treaty were formally exchanged in Washington, D.C. on January 17,

1917, ceding the Danish West Indies to the United States of America.

On January 25th, President Wilson issued a proclamation

setting forth the treaty and all its implications. The Danish

authorities published His Majesty's (King Christian X) proclamation

on March 9, 1917.

Formal Transfer

Ten weeks later, two impressive ceremonies marked the

formal transfer of the islands. Zabriskie outlines the events of

the formal transfer in these words:

"The Danish West Indies were formally transferred to the
United States of America at four o'clock on the afternoon
of Saturday, March 31, 1917, on payment, in the large dip-
lomatic reception room of the Senate, War, and Navy Depart-
ments building in Washington, of a Treasury warrant for
$25,000,000 to Minister Constantine Brun of Denmark,. The
warrant, representing twenty-five million dollars in gold,
was taken to the State Department by Secretary of the Trea-
sury William G. MIcAdoo, who smilingly explained to the
Danish Minister that he brought the money in the form of a
Treasury warrant because the actual gold coin would weigh
nearly forty-eight tons. He then turned over the warrant
to Secretary of State Robert Lansing, who handed it to
Minister Brun. The latter presented to Mr. Lansing a for-
mal receipt.

"In the official group present at this epoch-making trans-
action were Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels, whose
department will have general supervision over the new ter-
ritory, Rear-Admiral James H. Oliver, who had just previously






S 14

been appointed to be Governor of the islands and who left
for St. Thomas later on in the day, Minister Constantine
Brun, Secretary of State Robert Lansing, and Secretary of
the Treasury William G. McAdoo.

"Immediately after the warrant had been turned over to the
Danish Envoy, Commander Edwin T. Pollock of the U.S.S.
Hancook, at St. Thomas, was notified by cable and radio of
that fact and advised to receive the islands in the name of
the United States. At the same time a dispatch was flashed
to acting Governor Henri Konow at St. Thomas informing him
the purchase price had been received by Minister Brun, and
that "all conditions for the definite transfer of the islands
have been fulfilled." These two dispatches left Washington,
D.C. over a special telegraph wire from the Navy Department.
They were flashed to New York, where a transfer was made to
the Porto Rican cable. Received in Porto Rico, the messages
were wirelessed to the Haneock, at St. Thomas and rushed
ashore. Only twenty minutes' time was required to send the
message through.

"After the receipt of the two messages at St. Thomas, the
ceremonies were simple but extremely impressive."4

A New Era Dawns

The Transfer Day ceremonies of March 31, 1917, officially

concluded a series of diplomatic episodes between Denmark and the

United States for the purchase of the Danish West Indies. March 31

has since been set aside as a local holiday to commemorate the

event. -

On that day, over half a century ago, islanders experienced

mixed emotions about the transfer. Even though they had longed for,

and finally welcomed the change, many of the people cherished the

memory of life under Danish rule. To this day, many senior citizens

who lived in the islands during that era, relate their experiences

with pride. They also exprei deep warmth and affection for the

Danes.


Zabriskie, Luther K., The Virgin Islands of the United
States of America, (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1918) pp.294-295.







- 15 -


Some who witnessed the Transfer Day ceremonies of March 31,

1917, voiced the concern that islanders might live to regret the

change of sovereignty. As the Fifty-Second Anniversary of the

Transfer approaches, Virgin Islanders have no reason for regrets.

The formal transfer ushered in a new day of hope and opportunity

for them, which far exceeds the expectations of even the most astute

politician of that day.

The people have made phenomenal progress under American

leadership. The islands have been transformed from the ravages of

economic disaster into a dynamic center of economic development.

The Virgin Islands of the United States of America, now has the

highest income par capital in the Caribbean.





Written by:
Mavis H. Donovan Brady
Director, ESEA Title III



































































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Press and Information Department of the Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, 1964), pp. 23-24.


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eeh rrog ow damp
Fluee skrye dee flue vad flucte can
wo store for Danmarks Kristian
wo store for Danmarks Kristian
eeh camp?


Kong Kristian stod ved hojen Mast
i RBg og Damp;
hans vaerge hamrede saa fast,
at Gotens Hjelm og Hjerne brast,
da sank hvert fjendtlig Spejl og Mast
i Rgig og Damp.
Fly skreg de, fly, hvad flygte kan,
hvo staar for Danmarks Kristian,
hvo star for Danmarks Kristian,
I Kamp?

Niels Juel gay agt paa Stormens Brag,
nu er det Tid,
han hejsede det rdde Flag,
og slog paa Fjenden Slag i Slag;
da skreq de hdjt blandt Stormens Brag,
nu er det Tid!
Fly skreg de hver som ved et Skjul,
hvo kan bestaa for Danmarks Juel
hvo kan bestaa for Danmarks Juel
i Strid?

0 Nordhav! Glimt af Vessel brod
den tykke Sky;
da ty'de Kaemper til dit Sk#d,
thi med ham lyntee Skraek of Dod,
fra Vallen hortes Vraal, som bred
den tykke Sky.
Fra Danmark lyner Tordenskjold,
hver give sig i Himlens Vold
hver give sig i Himlens Vold
og fly!

Du Danskes Vej til Ros og Magt,
sortladne Hav!
modtag din Ven, som uforsagt
tor msde Faren med Foragt
og stolt som du mod Stormens Magt,
sortladne Hav!
or rask igennem Larm og Spil
oq Kamp of Sejer far mig til
og Kamp of Sejer f#r mig til
min Gray.


(Text)









DANISH NATIONAL HYMN


King Christian stood by lofty mast,
In mist and smoke,
His sword was hammering so fast,
Throt Gothic helm and brain it passed,
Then sank each hostile hulk and mast,
In mist and smoke.
"Fly," shouted they; "fly he who can'."
Who braves of Denmark's Christian,
Who braves of Denmark's Christian the stroke.

ils Juel gave heed to th' tempest's roar,
Now is the hourly
He flew his blood-red flag once more,
And smote upon the foe full sore,
And shouted loud throl tempest's roar,
"Now is the hour."
"FlyP' shouted the, "for shelter flyL"
Of Denmark's Juel who can defy,
Of Dennark's Juel who can defy the pow'r?

North seal a glimpse of Vessel rent Thy murky seal
Then champions to thine arms were sent;
Death's terror glared wherc'er he went;
And oft was heard a wail, that rent Thy murky skyl
From Denmark thunders Tordenskioll
Let each to Heav'n commend his soul,
Let each to Heav'n commend his soul and fly.

0 Path to Danish fame and might
Dark rolling wave
Receive thy friend who, scorning flight,
Meets ev'ry danger with despite,
As thou dost meet the tempest's might,
Dark rolling wave
IMid mingled pleasures and alarms,
And war and victory, be thine arms,
'lid war and victory be thine arms my gravel










1I. L,. .' l' L .',


1. Der er et yndigt land,
det star red brede b/ge
naer sa]ten $storstrand,
nmr salten 0sterstrmnd;
det buster sig i bakke, dal,
det hedder gale Danmark,
og det er Frejas sal~
og det er Frejas sal.

2. Der sad i forduls tid
de harniskckladte kaemper
:,: udhvilede fra strid; :,:
sa drog de fren til fjenders men,
nu hvile deres bene
:,: bag hjeans bautesten. :,:

3. Det land endnu er skont;
thi b a sig seen bal ter,
:,: og 1vet star sa grsnt; :,:
og acdle kvinder, sk!nne mrer
og mend og raske svende
:,: bebo de danskes $er. :,:

A. *Fort sprog er staerkt og bl dt,
vor tro er ren og lutret,
:,: og modet er ej dFdt. :,:
Vort game Danmark skal best,
sa laenge b gen spejler
s:, sin Lop i b lgen blal :,:

End







APPENDIX A


CONVENTION BETWEEN HIS MAJESTY THE
KING OF DENMARK,
AND
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

CONCERNING THE CESSION OF THE ISLANDS OF ST.
THOMAS AND ST. JOHN IN WEST INDIES.


His Majesty the King of Denmark and the United States
of America being desirous of confirming the good understand-
ing which exists between them, have for that purpose appointed
as Plenipotentiaries, his Majesty the King of Denmark, Count
Christian Emil Juel Vind-Frijs, President of the Council of
the Ministers and Minister for Foreign Affairs, Grandcross. of
the Order of Daneborg, and decorated with the Cross of honor
of the same Order, and the President of the United States,
George H. Yeaman, accredited as their Minister Resident to
his said Majesty, and the said Plenipotentiaries having ex-
changed their full powers, which were found to be in due form,
have agreed upon the signed the following articles:

ARTICLE I

His Majesty the King of Denmark agrees to cede to the
United States by this Convention immediately upon the exchange
of the ratifications thereof, the islands of St. Thomas and
St. John, in the West Indies, with the adjacent islands and
rocks, situated north of the 18th degree of north latitude.

His Majesty the King of Denmark will, however, not exer-
cise any constraint over the people, and will therefore, as
soon as practicable, give them an opportunity of freely expres-
sing their wishes in regard to this cession.

ARTICLE II

In the cession of territory and dominion made by the pre-
ceeding article and included the right of property of the crown
of Denmark in all public lots and squares, vacant lands, and
all public buildings, fortifications, barracks, and other edi-
fices which are not private individual property. It is however,








understood that the Lutheran Congregation shall remain in
possession of the churches which are now used by them, and
the sums due the Danish treasury by individuals are reserved
and do not pass by this cession.

Any government archives, papers and documents relative
to the territory and dominion aforesaid, which may be now
existing there, shall be left in possession of the agent of
the United States appointed in accordance with Article IV;
but an authenticated copy of such of them as may be required
will be at all times given by the United States to the Danish
Government, or to such Danish officers or subjects as may apply
to them.
ARTICLE III

The inhabitants of the said island shall be protected
in their liberty, their religion, their property, and private
rights, and they shall be free to remain where they now re-
side, or to remove at any time, retaining the property which
they possess in the said island, or disposing thereof and
removing the proceeds wherever _tqey please, without their
being subjected on this account to any contribution, tax, or
charge whatever. Those who shall prefer to remain in the
said islands, may either retain the title and the rights of
their natural allegiance, or acquire those of citizens of
the United States. But they shall make their election within
two years from the date of the exchange of ratifications of
this convention; and those who shall remain in the said islands
after the expiration of that tnrm, without having declared
their intention to retain their natural allegiance, shall be
considered to have elected to become citizens of the United
States.
ARTICLE IV

Immediately after the pay..ent ': the United States of
the sum of money stipulated for in the fifth article of this
Convention, His Majesty the King of Denmark will appoint an
agent or agents for the purpose of formally delivering to a
similar agent or agents, appointed on 1P.half of the United
States, the territory, islands, property, and appurtenances
which are ceded as above, including any fortifications or
military posts which may be in the ceded territory, and for
doing any other act which may be necessary in regard thereto.








But the cession with the right of immediate possession is
nevertheless to be deemed complete and absolute on the ex-
change of ratifications, without waiting for such formal
delivery. Any Danish troops, which may be in the territory
or aforesaid islands shall be withdrawn as soon as may be
reasonable and conveniently practicable.

ARTICLE V

In consideration of the cession aforesaid, the United
States agree to pay, at the treasury in Washington, within
three months after the exchange of the ratifications of this
convention, to the diplomatic representative or other agent
of His Majesty the King of Denmark, duly authorized to receive
the same, seven millions five hundred thousand dollars, in gold.

The cession conveys to the United States the said islands
and appurtenances in full and entire sovereignty, with all the
dominion, rights and powers which Denmark now possess and can
exercise in them, free and unincumbered by any grants, condi-
tions, privileges or franchises in any way affecting or limiting
the exercise of such sovereignty.

ARTICLE VI

When this convention shall have been duly ratified by His
Majesty the King of Denmark, by and with the consent of the
Rigsdag on the one part, and on the other by the President of
the United States, by and with the advise and consent of the
United States, by and with the advise and consent of the Senate,
the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington, within four
months from the date hereof, or sooner if possible.

In faith whereof the respective plenipotentiaraPs have
signed this convention and thereto affixed the seals of their
arms.

Done at Copenhagen, the 24th of October, in the year of
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven.

GEO. H. YEAMAN, [L. S.I
C. E. JUEL-VIND-FRIJS, [L. S.]






APPENDIX B


CONVENTION BETWEEN THE UNITED
STATES AND DENMARK FOR THE CESSION
OF THE DANISH WEST INDIES

SIGNED AT WASHINGTON, JANUARY 24, 1902. RATI-
FICATION ADVISED BY THE SENATE FEBRUARY 17, 1902.
RATIFIED BY THE PRESIDENT, MARCH 1, 1902.


The United States of America and His Majesty the King of
Denmark being desirous of confirming the good understanding which
exists between them, have to that end appointed as plenipotentiaries

The President of the United States:

John Hay, Secretary of State of the United States; and His
Majesty the King of Denmark:

Mr; Constantin Brun, Commander of Danneborg and decorated with
the Cross of Honor of the same Order, His Majesty's Chamberlain and
Ehvoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Washington; who,
having mutually exhibited their full powers, which were found to be
in due form, have agreed upon the following articles
ARTICLE I

His Majesty the King of Denmark agrees to ceed to the United
States immediately upon the exchange of the ratifications of this
convention the Islands of Saint Thomas, Saint John and Sainte Croix,
in the West Indies, with the adjacent Islands and rocks, comprising
in said cession all title and claims of title to the territories in
and about said islands over which the Crown of Denmark now exercises,
asserts or claims jurisdiction.

This cession conveys to the United States the said Islands and
appurtenances in full sovereignty, entire and unincimbered except as
stipulated in the present Convention, with all the dominion, rights
and powers which Denmark now possesses, exercises, asserts and claims
therein; it being however understood and agreed that the consummation
of said cession does not import the transference of the United States
of the financial claims now held by Denmark against the Colonial trea-
suries of the Islands, it being agreed that these claims are alto-
gether extinguished in consequence of the cession. And it is moreover








understood and agreed, that the United States will assume and
continue to discharge from the time of the cession the obligations
heretofore incumbent upon the Danish Government towards the St.
Thomas Floating Dock Company and the West India and Panama Telegraph
Company.

No responsibility of any kind whatever is incumbent on the
Danish Government, nor on the United States Government, as to the
guaranty which, conformably to the ordinance of June 16, 1876, the
Colonial treasury of Sainte Croix has assumed with regard to the
payment of an interest of five per cent per annum to the holders of
shares of the "Sainte Croix Fallessukkerkogerier" Company limited.
ARTICLE II

The aforesaid title conveys to the United States the absolute
fee and ownership of all public, Government or Crown lands, public
buildings, ports, harbors, fortifications, barracks, and all other
public property of every kind and description belonging to the
Government of Denmark, together with every right and appurtenance
thereunto appertaining: it being however agreed that the arms and
military stores existing in the islands at the time of the cession
and belonging to the Government of Denmark shall remain the property
of that Government and shall, as soon as circumstances will permit,
be removed by it, unless they, or parts thereof, may before have been
bought by the Government of the United States upon a special agree-
ment made with the Government of Denmark; it being however under-
stood that flags and colors, uniforms and such arms or military
objects as are marked as being the property of the Danish Government
shall not be included in such purchase.

It is moreover agreed and understood: first, that the congrega-
tions belonging to the Danish National Church shall remain in pos-
session of the churches which are now used by them, together with
the parsonages appertaining thereunto, and secondly, that sums due
to the Danish treasury by individuals are reserved and do not pass
by this cession; and where the Danish Government shall at the time
of the cession hold property taken over by the Danish Treasury for
sums due by individuals, such property shall not pass by this ces-
sion, but the Danish Government shall sell or dispose of such prop-
erty and remove its proceeds within two years from the date of the
exchange of ratifications of this convention, the United States
Government being entitled to sell by public auction, to the credit
of the Danish Government, what may not have been sold before expira-
tion of the said term of two years.








The Danish Government retains the claims held by the same as
a creditor against the "Ste. Croix Fallessukkerkogerier" Company
limited; should that Government acquire the ownership of property
belonging to this Company in the island of Ste. Croix, the above
provision regarding a sale within two years shall apply to such
property; the two years however to begin from the date of the
acquirement of ownership of said property which shall be within
three years from the exchange of the ratifications of the present
treaty.

Any Government archives, papers and documents relative to the
islands ceded and the dominion of the same, which may now be exis-
ting there, shall pass by this cession, but an authenticated copy
of such documents or papers as may be required will be at all times
given by the United States to the Danish Government or to such pro-
perly authorized Danish officers or subjects as may apply for them.

ARTICLE III

Danish subjects residing in said islands may remain therein
or may remove therefrom at will, retaining in either event all
their rights of property, including the right to sell or dispose
of such property or its proceeds; and in case they remain in the
islands, they shall continue until otherwise provided, to enjoy
all the private, municipal and religious rights and liberties
secured to them by the law now in force. If the present laws are
altered, the said inhabitants shall not thereby be placed in a
less favorable position in respect to the above mentioned rights
and liberties than they now enjoy. Those who remain in the islands
may preserve their allegiance to the Crown of Denmark by making,
before a court of record, within two years from the date of the
exchange of ratifications of this convention, a declaration of their
decision to preserve such allegiance, in default of which declara-
tion they shall be held to have renounced it and to have accepted
allegiance to the United States; but such election of Danish alle-
giance shall not, after the lapse of the said term of two years, be
a bar to their renunciation of their preserved Danish allegiance
and their election of allegiance to the United States and admission
to the nationality thereof on the same terms as may be provided
according to the laws of the United States, for other inhabitants
of the islands.

The civil rights and the political status of the inhabitants
of the islands shall be determined by the Congress, subject to the
stipulations contained in the present convention.








Danish subjects not residing in the islands but owning
property therein at the time of the cession shall retain their
rights of property, including the right to sell or dispose of
such property, being placed in this regard on the same basis
as the Danish subjects residing in the islands and remaining
therein or removing therefrom to whom the first paragraph of
this article relates.

ARTICLE IV

Formal delivery of the territory and property ceded as afore-
said shall be made immediately after the payment by the United
States of the sum of money stipulated in the fifth article hereof;
but the cession with the right of immediate possession is never-
theless to be deemed complete on the exchange of the ratifications.
of this convention, and any Danish troops which may be in the is-
lands aforesaid shall be withdrawn as soon thereafter as may be
practicable, but not later than six months after the said exchange;
it being however understood that if those persons, after having
terminated their Danish service, do not wish to leave the islands,
they shall be allowed to remain there as civilians.

This Colonial Treasury shall continue to pay the yearly allow-
ances now given to heretofore retired functionaries appointed in
the Islands but holding no Royal Commissions, unless those allow-
ances may have until now been paid in Denmark.

ARTICLE V

In full consideration of the cession of said islands in full
sovereignty, entire and unincumbered except as stipulated in the
present Convention, the United States agrees to pay, within ninety
days from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this con-
vention, in the City of Washington to the diplomatic representative
or other agent of His Majesty the King of Denmark, duly authorized
to receive the money, the sum of five million dollars in gold coin
of the United States.

ARTICLE VI

In case of differences of opinion arising between the High
Contracting Parties in regard to the interpretation or application
of this convention, such differences, if they cannot be regulated
through diplomatic negotiations, shall be submitted for arbitration
to the permanent court or arbitration at the Hague.







ARTICLE VII

The ratifications of this Convention shall be exchanged at
Washington, within six months from the date hereof, after it
shall have been ratified by both the High Contracting Parties
according to their respective procedure.

In faith whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have
signed and sealed this convention, in the English and Danish
languages.

Done at Washington the 24th day of January in the Year of
our Lord one thousand nine hundred and two.


JOHN HAY (Seal)
C. BRUNN (Seal)







APPENDIX C


CONVENTION BETWEEN THE UNITED
STATES AND DENMARK FOR THE CESSION
OF THE DANISH WEST INDIES


SIGNED AT NEW YORK, AUGUST 4, 1916; RATIFICATION ADVISED
BY THE SENATE, SEPTEMBER 7, 1916; RATIFIED BY THE
PRESIDENT, JANUARY 26, 1917; PATIFIED BY DENMARK,
DECEMBER 22, 1916; RATIFICATIONS EXCHANGED AT WASH-
INGTON JANUARY 17, 1917; PROCLAIMED, JANUARY 25, 1917.


Treaty Series No. 629
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

A PROCLAMATION

Whereas a Convention between the United States of America
and Denmark providing for the cession to the United States of all
territory asserted or claimed by Drenmark in the West Indies, in-
cluding the islands of St. Thomas, St. John and St. Croix, together
with the adjacent islands and rocks, was concluded and signed by
their respective Plenipotentiaries at the City of New York on the
fourth day of August, one thousand nine hundred and sixteen, the
original of which Convention, being in the English and Danish lan-
guages, is word for word as follows:

The United States of Antmrica and His Majesty the King of
Denmark being desirous of confirming the good understanding which
exists between them, have to that end appointed as Plenipotentaries,

The President of the Unitad States:

Mr. Robert Lansing, Secretary of State "f the United States,
and His Majesty the King of Der.nark:

Mr. Constantin Brun, His Majesty's Envoy extraordinary and
Minister plenipotentiary at Washington, who, having mutually ex-
hibited their full powers which wore found to be in due form,
have agreed upon the following articles:







ARTICLE 1

His Majesty the King of Denmark by this convention cedes to
the United States all territory, dominion and sovereignty, pos-
sessed, asserted or claimed by Denmark in the West Indies includ-
ing the Islands of Saint Thomas, Saint John and Saint Croix to-
gether with the adjacent islands and rocks.

This cession includes the right of property in all public,.
government, or crown lands, public buildings, wharves, ports,
harbors, fortifications, barracks, public funds, rights, franchises,
and privileges, and all other public property of every kind of des-
cription now belonging to Denmark together with all appurtenances
thereto.

In this cession shall also be included any government archives,
records, papers or documents which relate to the cession or the
rights and property of the inhabitants of the Islands ceded, and
which may now be existing either in the Islands ceded or in Denmark.
Such archives and records shall be carefully preserved, and authen-
ticated copies thereof, as may be required shall be at all times
given to the United States Government or the Danish Government, as
the case may be, or to such properly authorized persons as may apply
for them.

ARTICLE 2

Denmark guarantees that the cession made by the preceding
article is free and unencumbered by any reservations, privileges,
franchises, grants, or possession, held by any government, corpor-
ations, syndicates, or individuals, except as herein mentioned.
But it is understood that this cession does not in any respect
impair private rights which by law belong to the peaceful possess-
ion of property of all kinds by private individuals of whatsoever
nationality, by municipalities, public or private establishments,
ecclesiastical or civic bodies, or any other associations having le-
gal capacity to acquire and possess property in the-Islands ceded.

The congregations belonging to the Danish National Church shall
retain the undisturbed use of the churches which are now used by
them, together with the parsonages appertaining thereunto and other
appurtenances, including the funds allotted to the churches.







ARTICLE 3

It is especially agreed, however, that:

1) The arms and military stores existing in the Islands at
the time of the cession and belonging to the Danish Government
shall remain the property of that Government and shall, as soon
as circumstances will permit, be removed by it, unless they, or
parts thereof, may have been bought by the Government of the United
States; it being however understood that flags and colors, uniforms
and such arms or military articles as are marked as being the pro-
perty of the Danish Government shall not be included in such
purchase.

2) The movables, especially silver plate and pictures which
may be found in the government buildings in the islands ceded and
belonging to the Danish Government shall remain the property of
that Government and shall, as soon as circumstances will permit,
be removed by it.

3) The pecuniary claims now held by Denmark against the
colonial treasuries of the islands ceded are altogether extinguished
in consequence of this cession and the United States assumes no re-
sponsibility whatsoever for or in connection with these claims.
Expected is however the amount due to the Danish Treasury in account
current with the West-Indian colonial treasuries pursuant to the
making up of accounts in consequence of the cession of the islands;
should on the other hand this final accounting show a balance in
favour of the West Indian- colonial treasuries, the Danish Treasury
shall pay that amount to the colonial treasuries.

4) The United States will maintain the following grants,
concessions and licenses, given by the Danish Government, in accord-
ance with the terms on which they are given:

a. The concession granted to "Det vestindiske Kompagni" (The
West-Indian Company) Ltd. by the communications from the Ministry
of Finance of January 18th 1913 and of April 16th 1913 relative to
a license to embank, drain, deepen and utilize certain areas in
St. Thomas Harbor and preferential rights as to commercial, indus-
trial or shipping establishments in the said Harbor.

b) Agreement of August 10th and 14th, 1914 between the munici-
pality of St. .Thomas and St. John and "Det vestindiske Kompagni"
Ltd. relative to the supply of the city of Charlotte Amalie with
electric lighting.








c. Concession of March 12th 1897 to "The Floating Dock-Com-
pany of St. Thomas Ltd.", subsequently transferred to "The St.
Thomas Engineering and Coaling Company Ltd." relative to a float-
ing dock in St. Thomas Harbor, in which concession the maintenance,
extension, and alteration of the then existing repairing ship are
reserved.

d. Royal Decree Nr. 79 of November 30th 1914 relative to
the subsides from the colonial treasures of St. Thomas and Sainte
Croix to "The West India and Panama Telegraph Company Ltd."

e. Concession of November 3rd, 1906, to K.B. Hey to establish
and operate a telephone system on St. Thomas island, which concession
has subsequently been transferred to the "St. Thomas Telefonselskab"
Ltd.
f. Concession of February 28th 1913 to the municipality of
Saite Croix to establish and operate a telephone systeif in Sainte
Croix.

g. Concession of July 16th 1915 to Ejnar Svendsen, an Engineer,
for the construction and operation of an electric light plant in the
city of Christiansted, Sainte Croix.

h. Concession of June 20th 1904 for the establishment of a
Danish West-Indian bank of issue. This bank has for a period of 30
years acquired the monopoly to issue bank-notes in the Danish West-
India islands against the payment to the Danish Treasury of a tax
amounting to ten percent of its annual profits.

i. Guarantee according to the Danish supplementary Budget Law
for the financial year 1908-1909 relative to the St. Thomas Harbor's
four percent loan of 1910.

5) Whatever sum shall be due to the Danish Treasury by private
individuals on the date of the exchange of ratifications are reserved
and do not pass by this cession; and where the Danish Government at
that date holds property taken over by the Danish Treasury for sums
due by private individuals, such property shall not pass by this
cession, but the Danish Government shall sell or dispose of such
property and remove its proceeds within two years from the date of
the exchange of ratifications of this convention; the United States
Government being entitled to sell by public auction, to the credit
of the Danish Government, any portion of such property remaining
unsold at the expiration of the said term of two years.








6) The Colonial Treasuries shall continue to pay the yearly
allowances now given to heretofore retired functionaries appointed
in the islands but holding no Royal Commissions, unless such allow-
ances may have until now been paid in Denmark.
ARTICLE 4

The Danish Government shall appoint with convenient despatch
an agent or agents for the purpose of formally delivering to a
similar agent or agents appointed on behalf of the United States,
the territory, dominion, property, and appurtenances which are
ceded hereby, and for doing any other act which may be necessary
in regard thereto. Formal delivery of the territory and property
ceded shall be made immediately after the payment by the United
States of the sum of money stipulated in this conventions but the
cession with the right of immediate possession is nevertheless to
be deemed complete on the exchange of ratifications of this conven-
tion without such formal delivery. Any Danish military or naval
forces which may be in the islands ceded shall be withdrawn as soon
as may be practicable after the formal delivery, it being however
understood that if the persons constituting these forces, after
having terminated their Danish service, do not wish to leave the
Islands, they shall be allowed to remain there as civilians.
ARTICLE 5

In full consideration of the cession made by this convention,
the United States agrees to pay, within ninety days from the date
of the exchange of ratifications of this convention, in the City
of Washington to the diplomatic representative or other agent of
His Majesty the King of Denmark duly authorized to receive the
money, the sum of twenty-five million dollars in gold coin of the
United States.

ARTICLE 6

Danish citizens residing in said islands may remain therein
or may remove therefrom at will, retaining in either event all
their rights of property, including the right to sell or dispose
of such property or its proceeds; in case they remain in the Islands,
they shall continue until otherwise provided, to enjoy all the
private, municipal and religious rights and liberties secured to
them by the laws now in force. If the present laws are altered,
the said inhabitants shall not thereby be placed in a less favor-
able position in respect to the above mentioned rights and liberties
than they now enjoy. Those who remain in the islands may preserve
their citizenship in Denmark by making before a court of record,
within one year from the date of the exchange of ratifications







of this convention, a declaration of their decision to preserve
such citizenship; in default of which declaration they shall be
held to have renounced it, and to have accepted citizenship in
the United States; for children under eighteen years the said
declaration may be made by their parents or guardians. Such
election of Danish citizenship shall however not, after the lapse
of the said term of one year be a bar to their renunciation of
their preserved Danish citizenship and their election of citizen-
ship in the United States and admission to the nationality there-
of on the same terms as may be provided according to the laws of
the United States, for other inhabitants of the islands.

The civil rights and the political status of the inhabitants
of the islands shall be determined by the Congress, subject to the
stipulations contained in the present convention.

Danish citizens not residing in the islands but owning pro-
perty therein at the time of the cession, shall retain their rights
of property including the right to sell or dispose of such property,
being placed in this regard on the same basis as the Danish citizens
residing in the islands and remaining therein or removing therefrom,
to whom the first paragraph of this article relates.

ARTICLE 7

Danish subjects residing in the Islands shall be subject in
matters civil as well as criminal to the jurisdiction of the courts
of the Islands, pursuant to the ordinary laws governing the same,
and they shall have the right to appear before such courts, and to
pursue the same course therein as citizens of the country to which
the courts belong.

ARTICLE 8

Judicial proceedings pending at the time of the formal delivery
in the islands ceded shall be determined according to the following
rules:

(1) Judgments rendered either in civil suits between private
individuals, or in criminal matters, before the date mentioned, and
with respect to which there is no recourse of right to review under
Danish law, shall be deemed to be final, and shall be executed in
due form and without any renewed trial whatsoever by the competent
authority in the territories within which such judgments are to be
carried out.








If in a criminal case a mode of punishment has been applied
which, according to new rules, is no longer applicable on the
islands ceded after delivery, the nearest corresponding punishment
in the new rules shall be applied.

(2) Civil suits or criminal actions pending before the first
courts, in which the pleadings have not been closed at the same
time, shall be confirmed before the tribunals established in the
ceded islands after the delivery, in accordance with the law which
shall thereafter be in force.

(3) Civil suits and criminal actions pending at the said time
before the Superior Court or the Supreme Court in Denmark shall
continue to be prosecuted before the Danish courts until final
judgment according to the law hitherto in force. The judgment shall
be executed in due form by the competent authority in the territories
within which such judgment should be carried out.
ARTICLE 9

The rights of property secured by the copyrights and patents
acquired by Danish subjects in the Islands ceded at the time of
exchange of the ratifications of this treaty, shall continue to be
respected.
ARTICLE 10

Treaties, conventions and all other international agreements
of any nature existing between Denmark and the United States shall
eo ipso extend, in default of a provision to the contrary, also to
the ceded islands.
ARTICLE 11

In case of differences of opinion arising between the High
Contracting Parties in regard to the interpretation or application
of this convention, such differences, if they cannot be regulated
through diplomatic negotiations, shall be submitted or arbitration
to the permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague.
ARTICLE 12

The ratifications of this convention shall be exchanged at
Washington as soon as possible after ratification by both the High
Contracting Parties according to their respective procedure.








In faith whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed
and sealed this convention, in the English and Danish languages.
Done at New York this fourth day of August, one thousand nine
hundred and sixteen.

[SEAL] ROBERT LANSING
[SEAL) C. BRUN






APPENDIX D


CEREMONY IN ST. THOMAS

THE VIRGIN ISLANDS PROGRAM
OF TRANSFER


The formal transfer, mentioned in article 4 of the convention,
of all the islands to the Representative of the United States of
America, Commander Edwin T. Pollock, took place at St. Thomas
through Governor Henri Konow as Representative of His Majesty King
Christian the Tenth of Denmark.

A guard of honor from the cruiser Vatkyrian under Command of
an officer and with the band on its right wing drew up in front of
the barracks, with their back to the building, and the American
guard of honor drew up right opposite, facing the Danish guard.
The non-commissioned officer in acting charge of the barracks and
the gun crew took their stand at the salute battery, and men des-
ignated to lower and hoist the National Flag of the respective
countries took their stand at the flagstaff.

The officials or those specially invited to attend the cere-
mony took their stands as follows, turning their back to the fort:

Nearest to the King's wharf the officials and then the mem-
bers of the Colonial Council, the Consular body, and other parties
invited.

When the Representative of the United States left the American
man-of-war a salute of fifteen guns was fired from the Valkyrien
flying the United States Flag from her foremast, and the same salute
was fired from the fort on the landing of the Representative.

On his landing he was received by the Governor and the Colonial
Secretary together with whom he passed along the front of the Danish
guard of honor, passed the officials and those specially invited,
before the front of the American guard of honour, and thereafter to
the barracks officer-quarters, where the protocol regarding the'
transfer was signed.

This being accomplished the Governor took his stand in front
of the Danish guard of honour, the United States Represeniative in
front of the American guard of honour. In the name of His Majesty
King Christian the Tenth, the Governor proclaimed the islands
transferred to the United States of America upon which the guards
of honour presented arms, the Danish National Flag was lowered while
the Danish band played the National Anthem, and a salute of twenty-
one guns was fired from the salute battery and all the men-of-war.








The guards of honour changed places.

The Representative of the United States proclaimed the
islands taken into possession, the guard of honour presented
arms, the American National Flag was hoisted while the American
band played the American National Anthem and a salute of twenty-
one guns was fired from the battery and all the men-of war.

After prayer by Bishop E.C. Greider, the Agent for the United
States, Commander Edwin T. Pollock, U.S. Navy, announced his being
duly appointed Acting Governor of the Virgin Islands of the United
States of America.

The retired Governor having passed the front of the Danish
guard of honour, the guard marched off.

The newly appointed Governor then returned to the U.S.S.
Hanoock, whereupon a salute of seventeen guns was fired on his
honour as Acting Governor of the Virgin Islands of the United States
of America.


Throngs Gather to Witness Imposing Ceremony


The long-expected has happened. The Transfer of the Danish
West Indies to the United States has been effected. Time fulfil-
leth all things.

The ceremony took place Saturday afternoon in presence of a
multitude of people who crowded every spot wherefrom a view could
be obtained, and from the hilltops as well sightseers gathered.
On the ramparts of the Fort the crowd standing recalled the days of
the Fastelavn festival.

The hour fixed was four o'clock and the place was the Saluting
Battery. Perfect weather favored the ceremony, which was most im-
posing and impressive. All the effect that military glamour lands
to such an occasion was produced, and so was the solemnity of the
occasion unmistakably demonstrated by the most perfect order and
behaviour throughout the proceedings.

Though there was the shortest possible notice given for effect-
ing arrangements, every detail of the program was carried through
faultlessly. Not a hitch was perceived. It was sad but grand.

There was full naval, military, and civil representation, the
Police Corps, Fire Brigade, Officials, Consuls, Clergy, and specially
invited guests being within the enclosure where stood the guards of
honour from the U.S.S. Hancock, and H.M.S. Valkyrien.








Soon after, the two Governors appeared. Passing in front of
the guards, the distinguished representatives advanced along the
line of gentlemen, to whom the new Governor was introduced, and
shook hands with each, repeating the civility after the function
was over.

An interval followed while the Representatives in presence of
witnesses read and signed the Protocol of the Transfer. As the
moments passed anxiousness became tense, increasing with palpitating
impatience as they left the room.

The supreme moment had come. Vith a graceful sweep Governor
Konow drew his sword from the scabbard and facing Governor Pollock,
who did the same, in clear tones announced that by order of King
Christian the Tenth he delivered the Danish West Indian Islands to
the United States of America.

As the last words fell from his lips and amid the boom of guns
the Danish flag was lowered, sliding down slowly and waving grace-
fully until it went out of view, watched with mingled sentiments of
gladness and sorrow, a. scene of profound but touching beauty, one
that moved stout hearts and faint hearts to tears which could not be
restrained, and which none were ashamed to shed-a spectacle never
to be witnessed again and never to be forgotten. It descended at
twelve minutes to five.

There are thoughts and feelings which no pen however gifted can
adequately describe. Of such a nature were those which this trans-
cendent event evoked as the old standard was removed.

Governor Pollock having taken the islands into custody on behalf
of the United States, announced the same in a clear voice, and ex-
pressed the hope that the people of the islands would have no cause
to regret the change.

At seven minutes to five, amidst the same deep silence and the
combined salutes, the American flag was hoisted, its bright stripes
gleaming in the sunlight, to the joy of those who long wished to see
it there, and now the hope of all who are called upon to pay it
allegiance.

An appropriate prayer by Bishop Greider of the Moravian Church,
followed by the reading by the Governor of the President's Procla-
mation to the People, and the pronouncing of the Benediction by the
Protestant Bishop Collymore of Porto Rico, brought the great cere-
mony to a close.

Thus passed into history a notable event.






APPENDIX E


CEREMONY IN ST. CROIX PART I


At the very moment the purchase sum of twenty-five million
dollars gold was paid over to the Danish Minister in Washington
on Saturday afternoon the Danish West Indies were transferred to
the United States. It took place at St. Thomas, Christiansted,
and Frederiksted at the same moment, four o'clock precisely in
the afternoon.
FREDERIKSTED

Putting aside all rumours going the rounds on Saturday morning,
we can begin by stating that the U.S.8. Olympia. Capt. Bion B.
Bierer, arrived here about noon during a pouring rain. The military
commander at Frederiksted, Premier Lieutenant Haagensen, and the
pilot from Christiansted, Mr. Norgaard, went on board. The orders
were that the vessel should land a detachment of twenty men and then
proceed to Christiansted to salute the port. But on account of her
large draught the vessel could not pass the bar of Christiansted
harbour, and therefore remained here, dispatching by automobiles a
detachment of marines to Christiansted. The American Consular
Agent, Mr. Robt. L. Merwin, of course paid a visit on board, and on
leaving was accorded the regular consular salute of five guns.
After landing, the Consul took the Commander of the vessel in an
automobile to his residence for refreshments. Meanwhile the vessel's
launches landed piles of stores and equipment on the wharf, which
were later removed into the Fort, where the Gendarmes' quarters were
given up to the new force.

From three o'clock people from the town and country gathered
in front of the Fort and as the steeple-clock struck four, His
Honour the Policemaster, in the presence of a detachment of Danish
Gendarmes and American Marines, the Lutheran Parson, Joh. Faber,
Police Assistant Lund, Inspector of Customs W. Bjerg, and several
U.S. naval officers, read aloud the following proclamation under
profound silence:
"By order of His Majesty the King of Denmark,
Commodore Konow, Governor ad interim of the
Danish West Indies, in this moment delivers
these Islands to representatives of the United
States of America.

"In conformity with this act the Danish Flag
will now be taken down from all public buildings."






After this Parson Faber took the Policemaster's place and
asked the people to join with him in prayer for the old flag.
He thereafter gave thanks to God for what good had been accom-
plished under Dannebrog during the centuries it had been waving
over these islands. He prayed that our shortcomings and the mis-
takes we had made under this flag be forgotten, and that God in
the coming days would bless the Danish King and the Danish nation
under Dannebrog,-and also that God in the future would bestow His
blessings upon these islands and the population under the new flag.

Then twenty-one guns were fired, "Dannebrog" lowered, and "Stars
and Stripes" hoisted under salute of another twenty-one guns. To
try to describe the emotion or feeling felt during the brief but
touching ceremony is beyond our ability; everybody that was present
undoubtedly felt much the same.

CHRISTIANSTED

On account of suspension of mail between Christiansted and
here we are not able to get the news concerning the Transfer in
Christiansted in time for to-day's publication. We hear that it
took place in much the same way as down here. No salute was fired.
The Maohias was expected to have arrived, but for some reason or
the other she did not turn up.
KINGSHILL

At Kingshill Gendarmerie station the Danish Flag was lowered
in the presence of the Sergeant and Gendarmerie force. No American
Flag was substituted.-West End News (A. Ovesen, Editor), April 2,
1917.

IN ST. CROIX PART II

THE HANDING OVER

"By order of His Majesty, the King of Denmark, Commodore Konow,
Governor ad interim of the Danish West Indies, delivers at this mo-
ment these islands to the representative of the United States of
America. In conformity with this act the Danish Flag is now taken
down from all public buildings."

Following these words, spoke. by Despatching Secretary Jacobsen,
the highest authority in the island at present, the Danish Flag was
taken down from the Fort, while King Christian was being played.
In another place will be found the order in which the ceremony was
performed.








THE GOING OF OLD DANNEBROG AND THE COMING OF
OLD GLORY


Saturday, 31st, March 1917, will go down in our history as a
most eventful day-the day that Old Dannebrog passed away and Old
Glory stepped in.

All day, from early morning, up to four o'clock, the people
from the country streamed into town and assembled on Herald Square
to witness the impressive ceremony of changing the National Flag.

At 3:30 the Gendarmes, headed by Captain Fuglede in command,
marched from the barracks and lined up in a large open space on
Herald Sguare, where also, a minute afterwards, a detachment of a
Philadelphia Regiment, a Marine Division, faced them. The Gendarmes
saluted the American soldiers by presenting arms, and the latter in
turn saluted the Gendarmes in the same manner. The American regiment
was commanded by First Lieutenant Willing.

Precisely at four P.M., His Hon. the Govt. Secretary, in the
presence of the Colonial Council, who came in a body, read the Royal
Act, whereupon Captain Fuglede ordered the Danish Flag taken down
from the Fort; while the Industrial Band played the Danish National
Anthem, and both Gendarmes and American soldiers presented arms.

Dannebrog was now down for all time, and Old Glory was to go up.

The Gendarmes and Americans shouldered arms and marched in each
other's places. Lieutenant Willing then ordered the American National
Flag hoisted, while the regiments presented arms.

Old Glory was now up and St. Croix was to be known, now and from
henceforth, as a portion of American territory.

It was a very touching sight to see the Old Flag pulled down,
but, at the same time, it was a glorious one to see the Star Spangled
Banner go up.-The Herald (D. Hamilton Jackson, Editor), April 2,
1917.







.BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books


Child, Thurston. Our Virgin Islands A History of the Virgin
Islands for the Junior High School Grades. Charlotte
Amalie, St. Thomas, V.I.: Department of Education, 1937.

Denmark: An Official Handbook. Copenhagen, K.: Krak 17
Nyporv, April 1, 19(4. Prepared by the Press and Infor-
mation Department of the Royal Danish Ministry Of Foreign-
Affairs, Christianborg Palace, Copenhagen.

Faulkner, Harold Underwood. American Political and Social Bistory.
New York: Appleton Century Crofts, Inc., 1948.

Jarvis, J. Antonio. Brief History of the Virgin Islands.
St. Thomas, V.I.: The Art Shop, 1938.

Morison, Samuel E. Growth of the American Republic. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1962.

Mussey, David and Link, Arthur. An American Republic. Boston,
Mass.: Ginn and Co., 1963.

Paiewonsky, Ralph M., Governor. Messages of the Governor.
New Hampshire: Equity Publishing Corporation, 1962; 1963.

Parton, James. The Danish West Indies: Are VWes found to Pay for
flte? Boston, Mass: Osgood and Co., 1869. in Honor

Schlesinger, Meier Arthur. Political and Social Growth of the
United States: 1852-1933. New York: Macmillan, 1914.

Seward, Olive Risley. A Diplomatic Episode. New York: Scribner,
1887.

Tansill, Charles C. The Purchase of the Danish West Indies.
Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins Press, 1932.

West, Willis M. History of the American People. Boston: Allyn,
1918. & Bacon

World Book Enoyotopedia. Chicago: Field Enterprises, 1966.

Zabriskie, Luther K. The Virgin Islands of the United States of
America: Historical and Descriptive Commercial and Industrial
Facts, Figures, and Resources. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons,
1918.








Articles and Periodicals


S0 Years. (Cormemorating the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Transfer
of the Virgin Islands to the United States of America; St.
Thomas Friends of Denmark Society, March 31, 1957.

Virgin Islands Golden Jubilee, The Daily News (St. Thomas, V.I.),
April 3, 1967.

Virgin Islands Magasine. IV (Commemorative Edition 25th Anniver-
sary of the Transfer; March 31, 1942),




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