• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 Background
 Project planning
 Data collection and organizati...
 Field findings and data analys...
 Management recommendations for...
 The next steps
 Public awareness/participation...
 Bibliography






Title: Final report : wellhead protection project
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Title: Final report : wellhead protection project
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: United States Virgin Islands. Department of Planning and Natural Resources.
University of the Virgin Islands. Conservation Data Center. ( Contributor )
Publisher: United States Virgin Islands. Department of Planning and Natural Resources.
Publication Date: 2001
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Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America
Caribbean
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Volume ID: VID00001
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Title Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    List of Figures
        List of Figures
    Background
        Page 1
    Project planning
        Page 2
    Data collection and organization
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Field findings and data analysis
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Management recommendations for wellhead protection areas
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    The next steps
        Page 18
    Public awareness/participation mechanisms
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Bibliography
        Page 22
        Page 23
Full Text


Final Report



Wellhead Protection Project

Submitted by the

Virgin Islands
Department of Planning and
Natural Resources and
the University of the Virgin
Islands Conservation Data
Center


February 28, 2001









WELLHEAD PROTECTION PROJECT








Marjorie Emanuel, Syed Syedali,
Stevie Henry and Dayle Barry


Project No. VI00-03


Agreement No. HQ96GR02705











February 28, 2001






Water Resources Research Institute
University of the Virgin Islands
St. Thomas, USVI 00802









DISCLAIMER






The research on which this report is based was financed in part by the U. S. Department
of the Interior, United States Geological Survey, through the Virgin Islands Water
Resources Research Institute. The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect
the views and policies of the U. S. Department of the Interior, nor does mention of trade
names or commercial products constitute their endorsement by the United States
Government.










ABSTRACT






Wellhead Protection Project


Title:


Investigators:

Project Period:

Project Description:


Marjorie Emanuel, Stevie Henry, Syed Syedali and Dayle Barry

March 1, 2000 through February 28, 2001

The Wellhead Protection Project undertaken by the Department of
Planning and Natural Resources and the University of the Virgin
Islands is a pilot project which:
Selected sample wells to be surveyed;
Calculated and delineated Wellhead Protection
Areas (WHPAs);
Inventoried Wellhead Protection Areas for potential
sources of contamination;
Analyzed the findings of the inventory; and
Proposed management recommendations for
Wellhead Protection Areas

The Department of Planning and Natural Resources will utilize the
methodologies and recommendations in this report to establish a
Wellhead Protection Program (WHPP) as mandated by the June
1986 amendments to the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act
(SDWA). The public participation processes and guidelines
outlined in this report will be invaluable to the successful
establishment of the WHPP.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


B background ........................................ ......................... ........................ .............. 1
P project P planning ........................................................................................... . 2
Project A dm inistration ....... .......................... ........ ..... .............. .......... .. 2
Sample Selection.................... .. ....... ......... .................. 3
D ata Collection and Organization............... ............................. ................. .............. 3
G general ................ .... ......................... .......... ................. ......... 3
DPNR and USGS Groundwater Site Inventory Database ........................................... 4
Calculated Fixed Radii and the Simplified Variable Shapes Delineation methods........ 4
W H PA G IS M apping ...................... ............ ... .... .... ..................... .............. 5
Trimble GeoExplorer H Global Positioning System Receiver and Pathfinder
S oftw are ................................................... .............. ......... ...... 6
Field Findings and Data Analysis ........................... ....... .................................... 6
G en eral ................................. ................. ........................................ . 6
A adventure W ellfield Survey ........................................................................ 6
B arren Spot W ellfi eld Survey ......................................... .......................................... 8
B ethlehem W ellfi eld Survey ........................................... .......................................... 9
C oncordia W ellfi eld Survey................................................................................... ....... 10
Golden Grove W ellfield Survey ................................................... ...................... 11
La G range W ellfield Survey ...................... ................. ................... .............. 12
N egro B ay W ellfield Survey...................... .. ............. ....................... ............. 13
Management Recommendations for Wellhead Protection Areas ................................... 14
G e n e ra l ...................... .. ............. .. ....................................................... 1 4
Permitting Structure ............................................... .............. 15
L location al R equirem ents .............................................................................................. 16
O operational R equirem ents........................................................ ........... .............. 17
Closure R equirem ents ................................................... ..... .. .......... 17
General Management ................................................... 18
The N ext Steps..................................... ............. 18
Public Awareness/Participation Mechanisms ....................................................... 19
Local M edia ................ ............... .... .................. ................. ............. 20
W ater Resources Research Institute Seminar .............. .............................. ....... ....... 20
Nonpoint Source Pollution Conference ......................................................... 20
Nonpoint Source Pollution Committee Newsletter................................................. 20
30th Annual St. Croix Agriculture and Food Fair .............................................. 20
P profession al P ub location s .............................................................................................. 2 1
W orld W ide W eb Posting ....................... ................................................................ 21
Wellhead Protection Program Development............... .................................... 21
B ib lio g rap h y ............................................................................................... ........ ...... 2 2



Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page i
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 1. Adventure Wellfield -
Figure 2. Barren Spot Wellfield
Figure 3. Bethlehem Wellfield -
Figure 4. Concordia Wellfield -
Figure 5. Golden Grove Wellfield


Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination..... 7
- Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination... 8
Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination...... 9
Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination.... 10
- Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination


....................................... ........................ .............. 11
Figure 6. LaGrange Wellfield Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination.... 12
Figure 7. Negro Bay Wellfield Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination... 13
































Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page ii














WELLHEAD PROTECTION PROJECT
FINAL PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

Department of Planning and Natural Resources
and
University of the Virgin Islands Conservation Data Center
February 28, 2001









BACKGROUND

The United States Congress approved amendments to the Federal Safe Drinking Water
Act (SDWA) in June 1986, thus providing a mechanism for states to protect groundwater
sources of public water supply systems (PWSS) from contamination, which may have an
adverse effect on human health through the establishment of a state wellhead protection
program (WHPP). The Virgin Islands Department of Planning and Natural Resources
(DPNR), Division of Environmental Protection (DEP), is charged with the
implementation and administration of the WHPP. At present, the US Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) has not approved the draft Virgin Islands (VI) WHPP. It is
anticipated that once an EPA-approved VI WHPP is in place, DPNR will become eligible
for federal grants to implement the program.

The VI WHPP must include the following elements:
1) address the roles of various territorial, federal and other agencies within the
context of the WHPP;
2) develop and evaluate the methodology for the delineation of wellhead protection
areas (WHPAs);
3) establish a process for developing an inventory of potential contamination
sources;
4) identify management mechanisms adequate to protect groundwater supplies;
5) incorporate contingency plans for public water systems;
6) establish requirements for new well development; and









7) establish and expand the venue for public participation in the development and
management of a WHPP.

In order to effectively accomplish the above elements of the WHPP, strong inter-agency
cooperation, documented in a task-specific Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) must
be developed between DPNR and various stakeholders. Specifically, the Eastern
Caribbean Center (ECC) has entered into an MOU with DPNR to evaluate the
methodology for the delineation of WHPAs on the island of St. Croix (element 2),
inventory potential contamination sources within the delineated WHPAs (element 3), and
to prepare standards for the protection of wells that are utilized for public drinking water
supply (element 4). The referenced MOU resulted in a joint project for the practical
application of standardized methods of defining WHPAs. The project also incorporates
the planning process to ensure proper management of those areas in order to protect the
groundwater resources that are utilized by the public. The project is intended to be
developed and used as a model that can be applied for water quality protection of wells
providing public drinking water within the U.S. Virgin Islands and in other small tropical
islands with similar hydrogeological and topographical conditions. As noted previously,
existing and planned Memoranda of Understanding with other agencies and stakeholders
will cover other aspects of VI WHPP development.

The project is funded by a grant from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), through the
Water Resources Research Grant Program administered by the University of the Virgin
Islands Water Resources Research Institute (WRRI). The WRRI has contracted the
Conservation Data Center, a unit within the ECC to be the lead agency of this project.

The project has been organized into four phases: project planning; data collection and
organization; data analysis and preparation of standards; and final submission.


PROJECT PLANNING

Project planning commenced immediately after the grant was awarded, with certain
budget change requests reflecting modifications that were necessary to effectively
implement the project.

PROJECT ADMINISTRATION

The project was administered jointly by the primary research team composed of staff
from the Department of Planning and Natural Resources and the University of the Virgin
Islands. As stated above, a Memorandum of Understanding between DPNR and UVI
formalized this collaboration. The Conservation Data Center, a unit within the ECC that
collects, analyzes and disseminates information on the natural resources of the Territory,
served as the point of contact for the Water Resources Research Institute, the grant
administrator.


Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 2









The Conservation Data Center's role included:
Hiring temporary staff for data collection;
Providing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) support for the project;
Cooperating in the researching and development of standards that would
appropriately protect Wellhead Protection Areas;
Management of receipt and disbursement of funds from the WRRI;
Providing data archiving and backup services for the project data and mapping;
and
Assisting in the preparation of the final report.

The Department of Planning and Natural Resources participated by:
Supervising temporary staff hired for the project;
Developing and implementing the methodology for delineation of the Wellhead
Protection Areas;
Developing the system for inventorying potential sources of contamination;
Cooperating in the researching and development of standards that would
appropriately protect Wellhead Protection Areas; and
Assisting in the preparation of the final report.

SAMPLE SELECTION

The project is limited to the delineation of WHPAs for each of the seven wellfields
owned/operated by the VI Water and Power Authority (WAPA) on St. Croix. WAPA
operates the major public water system in the VI, and supplies potable water (from wells
and desalination plant) to approximately 30,000 customers on St. Croix through a piped
distribution system. Sample wells from within each of the seven wellfields were selected
during this phase, and well data were obtained. Field data collection personnel were also
hired during this first phase of the project.

A closer evaluation of these WAPA wellfields indicate that they are all tapping the most
productive aquifer on St. Croix, namely the Kingshill carbonate rock system aquifer.
Consequently, a deviation from the initial plan to sample wells representative of the three
types of aquifers present in the Virgin Islands fractured volcanic bedrock aquifers,
carbonate rock system aquifer, and alluvial deposit aquifers had to be made. Due to the
limited aerial extent and lower yields of the fractured volcanic bedrock aquifers and
alluvial deposit aquifers, they are not fully developed on St Croix.


DATA COLLECTION AND ORGANIZATION

GENERAL

The data collection and organization phase was operational from June 26th through
August 25, 2000. During this period of time, the field researchers were taught to utilize
the following: 1) DPNR and USGS Groundwater Site Inventory (GWSI) database, 2) the
Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 3









Calculated Fixed Radii and the Simplified Variable shapes methods of Wellhead
Protection Area calculations 3) ArcView Geographic Information System (GIS) to
delineate the WHPAs and 4) Trimble GeoExplorer H Global Positioning System (GPS)
receiver and Pathfinder software for field data collection. Each task is described in
detail in the following sections but is summarized below.

An extensive literature survey was conducted to gather pertinent information regarding
the well (depth, pumping rates, etc.) and hydrogeology of the WAPA well fields selected
for study. The information was used to define the size of the wellhead protection areas
surrounding each selected well field, using either the Calculated Fixed Radii method or
the Simplified Variable shapes method. The extent of the WHPAs for each selected well
field was then developed into the ArcView GIS and superimposed onto a digital
orthophoto of St. Croix. Once the WHPAs had been established and delineated onto the
aerial photograph, the WHPAs were then inventoried for various contamination sources
using the Trimble GeoExplorer H Global Positioning System receiver and Pathfinder
software.

DPNR AND USGS GROUNDWATER SITE INVENTORYDATABASE

The USGS completed a comprehensive well location survey for its GWSI database in the
U.S. Virgin Islands in 1990. The database is continually updated and maintained by
DPNR. Well-specific and hydro geologic information was obtained from the GWSI and
supplemented by WAPA. The information was used as the input parameters for the
Calculated Fixed Radii or the Simplified Variable shapes methods. The specific types of
data that were gathered (well pumping rate, porosity of the aquifer and open screen
interval, hydraulic gradient, hydraulic conductivity, saturated thickness and hydrologic
divides) are provided in Attachment 1.

Where well specific data were not available, default values were used based on previous
scientific studies conducted by the USGS on the carbonate rock aquifers. It was reported
that the depth to the top of the water table could range from 5 feet (Concordia Wellfield)
to 60 feet (Golden Grove Wellfield) below ground surface. Similarly, well yields ranged
from less than 5 gallons per minute (Adventure Wellfield) to 80 gallons per minute
(Golden Grove Wellfield). Aquifer specific capacity ranged from 1 to 14 gallons per
minute per foot draw down (Adventure Wellfield) with a corresponding aquifer
transmissivity ranging from 180 to 3,300 feet squared per day.

CALCULA TED FIXED RADIII i O) THE SIMPLIFIED VARIABLE SHAPES DELINEA TION METHODS

The two criteria for WHPA delineations used for this project are: 1) 10-20 year average
time required for the groundwater to flow to the well (Time of travel = TOT); and 2) the
effects of hydrologic boundaries (e.g., faults, guts and ridge lines). These criteria allow a
technical definition of the WHPA such that the WHPA will represent the actual
contributing area (zone of contribution = ZOC) for that well (or well field).


Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 4









The WHPA identified zones based on the following:
1. Ownership of the area surrounding the wellhead.
2. A 10-20 year TOT within the ZOC to assure an effective pollution
mitigation response to a known pollution source.

The delineation of the WHPA was achieved using one of two methods, based on the
amount and quality of information available: 1) Calculated Fixed Radii Method, and 2)
Simplified Variable Shapes Method. The Calculated Fixed Radius (CFR) method of
WHPA delineation uses a simple volumetric flow equation to calculate a radius around
the wellhead for a given TOT. The data required to determine a CFR include the time of
travel, well pumping rate, porosity of the aquifer and open screen interval.

The Simplified Variable Shapes (SVS) method requires, in addition to the data specified
above, data for hydraulic gradient, hydraulic conductivity, saturated thickness, and
hydrologic divides. SVS provides a more realistic down-gradient and lateral limits to the
water source for the well.

Choice of the delineation method was dependent upon several factors including: 1)
population served by the well or well field, 2) threat of contamination to the well or well
field, 3) amount and quality of data available. The WHPA results of the CFR and SVS
methods are provided in Attachment 2.

WHPA GIS MAPPING

Once the radii of the WHPAs were calculated using the CFR and SVS methods, GIS
layers of the buffer zones for each well field were delineated using the AV GIS buffer
tool. The buffer tool requires a spatially referenced feature in order to create a zone of a
specified distance. Using a data layer comprised of wells operated by the Water and
Power Authority, two or more wells were selected from each well field to produce a
buffer zone that covered all the wells in each well field (see Table 1).


Table 1 Wells Selected for Buffers
WELL FIELD No. of WAPA No. of WAPA WELLS
WELLS SELECTED FOR BUFFER
Negro Bay 6 2
La Grange 6 5
Golden Grove 9 6
Concordia 5 3
Bethlehem 2 2
Barren Spot 9 4
Adventure 9 6
TOTAL 46 28


These WHPA delineations are depicted in Attachment 5.

Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 5









TRIMBLE GEOEXPLORER II GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM RECEIVER AND PATHFINDER@
SOFTWARE

An inventory of potential sources of groundwater contamination, within each WHPA,
was performed according to the categories listed in Table 2. Each potential source of
contamination was georeferenced, using a Global Positioning System (GPS) and was then
photo documented. The georeferenced positions were converted into an ArcView
shapefile and superimposed onto their respective WHPAs. A listing of potential sources
of contaminants is provided in Attachment 4.


FIELD FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS

GENERAL

Potential sources of contamination were grouped into five categories as established by a
draft DPNR report, Wellhead Protection Program for the United States Virgin Islands
(July, 1999). While the draft report actually notes six categories of potential
contamination, field observations were not able to detect Category VI contaminants -
Naturally occurring sources whose discharge is created and/or exacerbated by human
activity. Figures 1-7 quantify, in a graphic manner, the distribution of the sources of
contamination found in each sample wellfield.


Table 2 Categories of Sources of Contamination


CONTAMINANT CATEGORY
Category I
Category II


Category III

Category IV


Category V


DESCRIPTION
Sources designed to discharge substances
Sources designed to store, treat, and/or
dispose of substances; discharge through
unplanned release
Sources designed to retain substances
during transport or transmission
Sources discharging substances as a
consequence of other planned activities
Sources providing conduit of inducing
discharge through altered flow patterns


ADVENTURE WELLFIELD SURVEY


This site encompassed a total of fourteen (14) wells 9 operated by the Water and Power
Authority (WAPA), 2 production wells and 3 other production wells. The 10-year
Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) encompasses a total of 111.59 acres, while the 20-
year WHPA comprises a total of 177 acres. A total of 35 potential sources of

Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 6









contamination were identified in the Adventure WHPA. As was evident in all the sample
wellfields, the largest single category of potential
sources of contamination in the WHPA was Category II
sources (57%). (See Figure 1.) These included illegally
dumped materials, municipal trash containers, above
ground storage of materials, and underground storage.
The next largest class of contaminants in this wellfield
was Category V (17%) sources providing conduit. In .
addition to the production wells, this category included -
other production wells and construction excavation.
Category III sources -- sources designed to retain
substances, encompass 17% of the contaminants found
in the Adventure wellfield. Pipelines were the only Category il sources in this wellfield.

Aside from the wells, the 10-year WHPA is relatively free of contaminants, with three
open dumps and some pipelines. The majority of the sources of contamination (26) occur
in the 20-year WHPA. Of the sources of contamination found in this wellfield, the open
dumps are potential sources of metals and hydrocarbons potential health risks for
cancer, liver, kidney and circulatory disorders. Illegal dumping is also a source of
microbiological contamination, which can lead to gastrointestinal illnesses and
meningitis. Lead from pipes and solder are also a health risk for nerve problems and
birth defects.

Figure 1. Adventure Wellfield Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination


Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 7


A ditur* h*g IR.&d
DdIT'ibuwn lFatfga"r. VithIn Buffe Area.


E=E


WVmr iMr nn BUA r4 = 35









BARREN SPOT WELLFIELD SURVEY


The Barren Spot wellfield is in the midst of a suburban
section of the island of St. Croix; and its WHPA
comprises approximately 212 acres.1 The mixed-use
development in the area surrounding the wellfield
precipitated the identification of a total of 94 potential
sources of contamination. The four types found in this
wellhead protection area were Categories II, III, IV and
V. (See Figure 2.) Of the potential sources of
contamination found within the Barren Spot WHPA, '.
65% were Category II, 15% were Category V, 13% oi
were Category III, 6% were Category IV and 1% was
Category 1.

Some of the distinct potential sources of contamination in this WHPA include: land
application of pesticides and/or fertilizers, materials and stockpiles, open burning sites,
residences, surface impoundments, material transport and transfer operations, animals,
and fertilizer storage/application. These land uses can potentially introduce
hydrocarbons, microbiological contaminants, and chemical contaminants. These types of
contaminants have been linked to cancer, liver and kidney defects, methemoglobinemia
(blue baby syndrome) and gastrointestinal illnesses.

Figure 2. Barren Spot Wellfield Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination

Barren Spot Wellfeld
DiMstbUton of Ca1tgorle Wilhln ButMf Are=





As


1 The 10-year WHPA was not delineated for the Barren Spot Wellfield because of its close proximity to the
20-year buffer boundary.
Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 8


Cbgy *Ca~IpryZ( DCntlcry3 *C*,gr~4 *rdtcry











BETHLEHEM WELLFIELD SUR VEY


The Bethlehem wellfield, consisting of only two
WAPA wells, has a 10-year wellhead protection
area of approximately 106 acres, and a 20-year
WHPA that is 1911/2 acres. The field inventory
revealed a total of 38 potential sources of
contamination within the 20-year WHPA, with the
overwhelming majority of these sources being
Category II sources (89%). These included above
ground storage of unknown substances, materials
stockpiles, illegal open dumps, and inactive
underground storage tanks at a closed gas station
within the WHPA. Other potential sources of
contamination were found in Categories III, IV and V, and included material
transportation and transfer operations, municipal sewer pipelines, and animal feedlots.
(See Figure 3.)

The contaminants found in this WHPA are potential sources of metal and lead leachate,
microbiological contamination, and hydrocarbons from waste oil, which can result in
cancer, acute gastrointestinal illnesses and meningitis.


Figure 3. Bethlehem Wellfield Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination

BEtllnehmm WOl I lki
D fribltrion of Categories WItl n Bffer Areas


Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 9


IMCatagory2 oCarteg 3 MCategory4 *Category


Srww air L"rmiAT = N










CONCORDIA WELLFIELD SURVEY


The Concordia wellfield, located in the north central part of St. Croix, is comprised of a
total of 5 WAPA wells. The 20-year WHPA incorporates of a total of 173.43 acres, with
a wide mix of land uses.2 Almost 3 of the potential sources of contamination found in
the WHPA are Category II sources. The next highest category, comprising 13% of the
inventoried potential sources of contamination, was
Category V, which includes construction excavation, ).
improperly abandoned wells, production wells, and
other production wells. The remaining 13% is split
between Category IV, with 9%, Category II (3%),
and Category I (1%). The types of land uses found
in these categories consisted of pipelines, animal
feedlots and land application of pesticides and/or
fertilizer.

The contaminants found in this WHPA are potential sources of leaching metals from
improperly disposed materials, chemicals from pesticide application, microbiological
contamination from animal feedlots and wastes, and hydrocarbons from waste oil, which
can result in cancer, liver and kidney defects, acute gastrointestinal illnesses and
meningitis.


Figure 4. Concordia Wellfield Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination


Concordia Wellfield
Distribution of Categories Within Buffer Areas



1%
1 3%
OCategory4

SCategry2






74%


Tht? S~ rey WtEnBufferAres = 16



2 The 10-year WHPA was not delineated for the Concordia Wellfield because of its proximity to the 20-
year buffer boundary.
Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 10











GOLDEN GROVE WELLFIELD SURVEY


The Golden Grove WHPA consists of approximately 121 acres, with a total of 15 wells
of various types.3 Included in the WHPA are the Patrick Sweeny Police Station and the
St. Croix Motor Vehicle Bureau (MVB). Half of the potential sources of contamination
were Category II sources (above ground storage, containers and illegal open dumps),
including waste oil stored at the MVB. (See Figure 5.) The remaining 50% of the
potential sources of contamination were split between Category 11n (13%), Category IV
(8%) and Category V (29%). Land uses identified within those categories included sewer
lines, animals, irrigation, construction
excavation, improperly abandoned wells,
production wells and other production wells.

Potential health risks from these contamination
sources include cancer from hydrocarbons
associated with the storage of waste oil,
methemoglobinemia associated with leachate
from feedlots for animals and treated sewage,
acute gastrointestinal illnesses from
overflowing or leaking sewer pipes, and liver
and kidney problems from metals leaching into the water table from illegally dumped
materials.


Figure 5. Golden Grove Wellfield Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination

Golden Grwve Wilflel
Ol rlbuon oateg Cqn Wdi Bufer Arns

13%


















3 The 10-year WHPA was not delineated for the Golden Grove Wellfield because of its close proximity to
the 20-year buffer boundary.
Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 11











LA GRANGE WELLFIELD SURVEY


Two 20-year wellhead protection areas were established to the north and east of
Frederiksted for the La Grange wellfield.4 Located in a suburban to rural section of the
island of St. Croix, the two WHPAs comprise a total of 173 acres. During the inventory,
a total of 58 potential sources of contamination in
three categories were identified and mapped. In
Category II, the field researchers found above
ground storage, containers, open burning sites,
open dumps, residences, and underground storage
tanks. These potential sources accounted for 85%
of those found within the La Grange WHPAs.
Animal grazing sites were the only Category IV '
source found in this WHPA and encompassed 5% '. -"*
of the inventoried sources; while Category V uses :
(10% of the potential sources of contamination in this WHPA) included construction
excavation, production wells and other production wells. (See Figure 6.)

As discussed above, microbiological contaminants from animals and human wastes can
cause gastrointestinal illnesses and meningitis. Metals leaching into groundwater from
illegal dumpsites can pose risks for liver and kidney problems. There is also a risk of
methemoglobinemia associated with leachate from feedlots for animals.


Figure 6. LaGrange Wellfield Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination

La GrannipllWa" d
D n&Ct&Lr C aeigo*n fm Within Brut Airu a





E5%











PmEffiA VW*I~je.E, Sica -W



4 The 10-year WHPA was not delineated for the La Grange Wellfield because of its proximity to the 20-
year buffer boundary.
Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 12










NEGRO BAY WELLFIELD SURVEY


Located in an industrial area between the Henry E. Rohlsen Airport and the Melvin
Evans Highway, and encompassing portions of both, the Negro Bay 10-year wellhead
protection area consists of a total of 1311 2 acres, while the 20 WHPA is comprised of
20112 acres. A total of 71 potential sources of contamination were inventoried in the 20-
year WHPA, with the majority found in the
northern half of the WHPA. As in all other
WHPAs, Category II sources of contamination
were found to occur most frequently (68%),
while Category IV sources occurred the least
(1%). Pipelines, a Category III use, accounted
for 20% of the sources of contamination found in
the WHPA; and Category V uses accounted for
the remaining 11%. The sources of
contamination found in this WHPA include:
above ground storage, containers, materials
stockpiles, illegal open dumps, underground storage tanks, pipelines, irrigation,
construction excavation, improperly abandoned wells, production wells and other
production wells.

The types of materials and substances found within the WHPA pose risks for nerve
problems and birth defects from lead leaching from piping and solder; liver and kidney
problems from metals leaching into the groundwater from illegally dumped materials;
acute gastrointestinal illnesses from overflowing or leaking sewer pipes; and cancer from
hydrocarbons.


Figure 7. Negro Bay Wellfield Distribution of Potential Sources of Contamination


68%


Negro Bay Wellfieid
Distribution of Categories Within Buffer Areas




20%

SCategory 2
o Category 3
1% 0 Category 4
U Category 5
11%




Total Survey Within Bu~ter Areas = 71


Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 13











MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WELLHEAD
PROTECTION AREAS

GENERAL

The seven Wellhead Protection Areas (WHPAs) that were selected for study are
representative of other WHPAs on St. Croix. Based on the wellhead protection areas
project team's findings and data analysis (both of which have been discussed in previous
sections of this report) several standards are hereby recommended that the US Virgin
Islands government can utilize to address current potential contamination sources in
WHPAs, and prevent or mitigate future potential sources of contamination from
occurring in areas of public drinking water supplies in the US Virgin Islands.

The purpose of the US Virgin Islands Wellhead Protection Areas (WHPAs) Management
Standards is to:

1. protect the public drinking water supply of the US Virgin Islands from those land use
activities that could contaminate groundwater, and

2. protect aquifer recharge areas from land use activities that could inhibit their recharge
capabilities.

Subsequent to the adoption of US Virgin Islands wellhead protection areas management
standards, the Department of Planning and Natural Resources (DPNR) will play a pivotal
role in the implementation and administration of the standards. Of the host of standards
or mechanisms that are available to governments for the protection of groundwater
resources from pollutants, several are recommended for adoption in the US Virgin
Islands. The standards are not costly to implement, and would be politically feasible.

The management standards include: a site plan review for applications for new wells and
other land use activities that could adversely impact groundwater; minimum location
distances for the siting of new wells from potential sources of contamination, minimum
location distances between wellhead protection areas and land use activities that could be
potential sources of contamination; monitoring of wellhead protection areas to determine
the quality of groundwater; inventorying of wellhead protection areas for new potential
sources of contamination; notification requirement for hazardous spills within wellhead
protection areas; closure requirement for wells that are to be abandoned; identification
and mapping by DPNR of aquifer recharge areas; rezoning of property to allow
compatibility between land use and aquifer recharge areas; public notification
requirement by DPNR of substances hazardous to groundwater resources; amortization or
grand fathering of existing land uses that potential sources of contamination to WHPAs;
and public awareness/participation to gamer public awareness and support for
groundwater protection activities.

Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 14










PERMITTING STR UCTURE

Site Plan Review Team

The Department of Planning and Natural Resources shall appoint a Site Plan Review
Team, which will be responsible for reviewing all applications for new wells, non-
residential development, subdivisions of three or more lots on individual septic systems,
and single lot residential developments in excess of two dwellings in the second tier of
the Coastal Zone.

The Site Plan Review Team shall be comprised of staff of the divisions of Building
Permits, Environmental Protection, Comprehensive and Coastal Zone Planning, and
Archaeology and Historic Preservation. The Site Plan Review Team shall review, and
approve or disapprove all applications for the developments that have been identified in
the afore-section of this report. Each permit application for appropriation, use or
development shall be reviewed by the Wellhead Protection Area Task Force for
compliance with Wellhead Protection Area Management Standards. The Department
shall not issue a permit for any proposed development that the Team has found to be non-
compliant.

Site Plan Review

The site plan review shall require the submission of a separate form (Form "B"), which
will become part of the site plan review submissions that are set forth in the Virgin
Islands Zoning, Building and Housing Laws and Regulations. The following information
is required for all applications for new wells, non-residential developments, subdivisions
of three or more lots on individual septic systems, and single lot residential developments
in excess of two dwelling units in Tier 2 of the coastal zone:

A comprehensive description of the proposed development, including, but not limited to
the following:
1. Location of all existing public drinking water supply wells within a 1000-foot radius
of the proposed development.
2. A mapping of sensitive hydrogeological or natural resources or delineated WHPAs
within a 1,000-foot radius of the development.
3. The development's potential impact to groundwater quality. For new and existing
public water supply systems utilizing groundwater, a WHPA shall be delineated and
inventoried for potential contaminant sources by the applicant.
4. A listing of the types and amounts of all hazardous materials to be generated, stored,
manufactured, treated, discharged, used, or transported to or from the development
(other than those associated with normal household use), and the provisions for
disposal of the materials.
5. A listing of potential sources of contamination that exist on the property to be
developed.

Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
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6. A description of the types and amount of waste that will be generated, as well as the
methods) to be employed for waste disposal.
7. Other additional information as may be required by the site plan review team.

LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Requirementsfor Siting of New Wells

New wells intended to be used for public drinking water supply shall not be constructed
in areas that are subject to flooding, or in areas of potential sources of contamination.
The applicant is responsible for delineating the WHPA based upon projected well
construction details and anticipated well pumping rates. The applicant is also responsible
for inventorying the delineated WHPA; and the following potential sources of
contamination must be excluded from the WHPA:

1. Above and underground storage tanks
2. Auto service, repair or painting facilities
3. Feedlots
4. Cemeteries (human and animal)
5. Industrial, commercial or institutional facilities, which use, store or dispose hazardous
materials
6. Major subdivision with private septic tanks
7. Manufacture, use or storage of hazardous
8. Open burning of materials containing hazardous substances
9. Quarries and mining operations
10. Rifle and pistol ranges
11. Sanitary landfills and junkyards
12. Sewage treatment facilities

Requirements for Location of Potential Sources of Contamination

Subsequent to the adoption of the wellhead protection area standards, the following land
uses activities shall be prohibited within designated wellhead protection areas:

1. Above and underground storage tanks
2. Auto service, repair or painting facilities
3. Feedlots
4. Cemeteries (human and animal)
5. Industrial, commercial or institutional facilities which use, store or dispose hazardous
substances
6. Major subdivision with private septic tanks
7. Manufacture, use or storage of hazardous substances
8. Open burning of materials containing hazardous substance
9. Quarries and mining operations
10. Rifle and pistol ranges

Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
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11. Sanitary landfills and junkyards
12. Sewage treatment facilities

OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Accessibility

All wells that are part of the public drinking water supply shall be accessible for
inspection and testing by the Department.

Inspections

The Department shall annually inspect all wellhead protection areas for new potential
sources of contamination, and shall map all new potential sources of contamination that
are detected. When new potential sources of contamination are found, the Department
shall notify the owners of such property, or the operator of the potential sources of
contamination, for immediate remediation action.

Water Quality Testing

The Department shall annually inspect the well mechanics of all wells used for public
drinking water supply, and test the water supply for bacteria, nitrate, fertilizers, pesticides
or petroleum products.

Notification Regarding Spills

Any property owner shall be responsible to notify the Department of the spill of
petroleum products, caustic substances or other hazardous materials within a wellhead
protection area or within 100 feet of a wellhead protection area. Notification shall be
given within twenty-four (24) hours.

It shall be illegal to discard any potential source of contamination within a WHPA. Any
property owner shall be liable for the costs of investigation, enforcement and remediation
of any potential sources of contamination discarded within a wellhead protection area.


CLOSURE REQUIREMENTS

For the purpose of preventing the contamination of aquifer recharge areas, the owner of a
well upon abandoning the well shall notify the Department, and shall effectively seal the
well with the supervision of a licensed well driller or pump installer to the satisfaction of
the Department.



Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 17









GENERAL MANAGEMENT

Identification and Mapping by DPNR ofAquifer Recharge Areas.

The Department of Planning and Natural Resources shall identify and map those areas,
which are essential to the recharge of wells used for public drinking water supply. The
maps shall be kept current of all changes, and be made available to all permitting and
licensing agencies within the US Virgin Islands.

Rezoningfor Compatibility between Land Use Activity and Aquifer Recharge Areas.

Aquifer recharge areas that are zoned for densities and impervious surface coverage that
are incompatible with the recharge of the aquifer shall be identified for rezoning to a
density that would permit adequate recharge.

Public Notices by DPNR of Substances Hazardous to Areas of Public Drinking Water
Supply

The Department of Planning and Natural Resources shall semi-annually publish notices
in a newspaper of general circulation and on the radio, of those substances that the federal
and local Environmental Protection Agencies have deemed to be potentially hazardous if
discarded into the soil, with instructions for the proper use and storage of the substances.

Amortization/Grand Fathering ofLand Use Activities that are Potential Sources of
Contamination.

Within six (6) months of the adoption of the wellhead protection areas management
standards, the Department shall identify properties with existing land use activities that
are potential sources of contamination to WHPAs to be phased out over a period of time
sufficient to amortize the investment or grand fathered (permitted as a preexisting
nonconforming use).


THE NEXT STEPS

Under the auspices of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Department of Planning and
Natural Resources is mandated to establish a Wellhead Protection Program for those
wells used for public water supply. As a result of the groundwork laid by this research
project, DPNR now has the foundation, methodology and management recommendations
for the development of a Virgin Islands Wellhead Protection Program. The following
steps are recommended in Wellhead Protection: A Guide for Small Communities (an
EPA publication).

1. Develop a community planning team to initiate and implement the program The
publication recommends a team comprised of community organizations,
regulatory agencies, government agencies and the private sector. DPNR has had
Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 18









several successful examples of this type of effort, including the Mooring
Committee (which developed amendments to mooring laws and regulations) and
the Nonpoint Source Pollution Committee (which hosts the annual Nonpoint
Source Pollution Conference). This pilot effort was a joint project between the
University of the Virgin Islands and the Department, which engaged the
assistance of the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority. Future development
of a Territorial program would have to involve private operators of public water
supply wells, the Department of Health, environmental organizations such as the
St. Croix Environmental Organization and the Environmental Association of St.
Thomas St. John, and property owners within delineated WHPAs.
2. Delineate the Wellhead Protection Area The methodologies for delineating
WHPAs has been tested and proven feasible through this pilot project. The
technology for mapping those areas using Geographic Information Systems has
been demonstrated to be effective.
3. Identify and locate potential sources of contamination Because of its relatively
small size, field inventory appears to be an effective and accurate process for
identifying and locating potential sources of contamination. The use of Global
Positioning Systems to pinpoint exact locations of sources proved invaluable
during the course of this pilot project; and this process is recommended for use in
the development of a Territorial Wellhead Protection Program.
4. Manage the wellhead protection area Several management recommendations
have been provided in the Management Recommendations section of this report.
The individuals comprising the community planning team will undoubtedly have
many more sound recommendations for implementation of an effective Wellhead
Protection Program. Management will have to incorporate both regulatory and
non-regulatory mechanisms in order to be effective and sustained. Some of the
regulatory standards recommended above include: revised permitting
requirements; setbacks for certain types of development; water quality testing;
and closure requirements. Some non-regulatory mechanisms that should be
explored include ongoing public education on issues related to WHPAs and land
donations within WHPAs.
5. Plan for the future This step involves regular review, evaluation and update of
the Wellhead Protection Program. Problems in plan implementation would be
identified and solutions to those problems would be developed.

Using the methodologies described in this report and applying the steps outlined above,
the Department of Planning and Natural Resources has the basis for the creation of an
effective Wellhead Protection Program for the U.S. Virgin Islands.


PUBLIC AWARENESS/PARTICIPATION MECHANISMS

During the coming year, the project team will engage a number of processes in order to
ensure that the public has the opportunity to consider the information gathered during the
course of this research project, as well as the potential adverse impacts that may be
realized if a viable wellhead protection program is not established in the U.S. Virgin
Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 19









Islands. It is hoped that increased awareness and the ensuing change in behaviors and
practices by both the construction industry and homeowners will result in improved water
quality throughout the Virgin Islands.

LOCAL MEDIA

The project principals, with the approval of the Water Resources Research Institute, will
provide a copy of the project's final report findings, analysis and recommended actions,
in summary form, to the local print and electronic media in order to facilitate presentation
to the wider Virgin Islands public. Other opportunities for exposure will include at least
one appearance on a local talk show and a guest editorial in the print media.

WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE SEMINAR

The project principals will make a presentation at a Water Resources Research Institute
Seminar, detailing the methodology, findings and conclusions of the project. These
seminars are usually held in one of the University's televideo conference rooms,
permitting audience participation on two islands. Local media are usually invited to these
seminars, and coverage of the topic would be facilitated.

NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION CONFERENCE

One of the principals on the project team made a presentation during the 6th Annual
Nonpoint Source Pollution Conference, which included some of the findings of the
wellfield inventories. During the next NPS Conference, the project team will present
final findings, analysis and recommendations to the over-100 participants that attend this
annual event. Additionally, press coverage will provide information from this forum to a
wider audience.

NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION COMMITTEE NEWSLETTER

Information regarding this project will be published in the NPS Update, a quarterly
newsletter published by the Virgin Islands Nonpoint Source Pollution Committee and
produced by UVI's Cooperative Extension Service. The newsletter is intended to inform
the public about ongoing NPS pollution control and prevention projects in the Territory.

30TH ANNUAL ST. CROIXAGRICULTUREAND FOOD FAIR

During the 30th Annual St. Croix Agriculture and Food Fair, attended by approximately
60,000 individuals during the 3-day event, the project team displayed, in poster form, an
overview of the wellhead protection project. Many fair participants such as farmers and
homeowners rely heavily of groundwater, and utilize substances that could be potential
sources of contamination, such as pesticides and fertilizers.



Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 20










PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS


The project team will submit a revised version of its final report to the Journal of the
American Planning Association (JAPA) for review and publication. JAPA is ajuried
quarterly that is published by the American Planning Association.

WORLD WIDE WEB POSTING

The Conservation Data Center will post a copy of the project's final report on the World
Wide Web at the site, http://cdc.uvi.edu.

WELLHEAD PROTECTION PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

The Department of Planning and Natural Resources intends to use this pilot project as an
impetus to develop a Territory-wide Wellhead Protection Program, as provided for in the
1986 Safe Drinking Water Act. As a part of that project's development, the Department
will institute a significant public participation program. This will permit the public a
wide variety of forums for input as DPNR develops a WHPP for the U.S. Virgin Islands.































Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 21









BIBLIOGRAPHY

Seminar Publication, Wellhead Protection: A Guide for Small Communities, United
States Environmental Protection, EPA/625/R-93/002, February 1993

Rhode Island Wellhead Protection Program, Rhode Island Department of Environmental
Management, February 1990

City of Dayton Well Field Protection Program Report, Office of Environment Protection
and Department of Water, September 1991

Wellhead Protection Strategies For Confined-Aquifer Settings, United States
Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 570/9-91-008, June 1991

Wellhead Protection Program State Of Louisiana, Department of Environment Quality-
Groundwater Protection Division, March 1990

Proposed New York State Wellhead Protection Program, New York State Department of
Environmental Conservation, May 1990

Model Assessment For Delineating Wellhead Protection Areas, United States
Environmental Protection Agency, EPA440/6-88-002, May 1988

Delineation Of Wellhead Protection Areas In Fractured Rocks, United States
Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 570/9-91 009, June 1991

Texas Wellhead Protection Program, Texas Water Commission and Texas Department
Of Health, June 1989/Revised January 1990

Wellhead Protection Plan, State Of Connecticut Department Of Environmental Protection
Bureau Of Water Management Planning & Standards Division, February 1990

Wyoming Wellhead Protection Program Guidance Document,
http://www.wrds.uwyo.edu/wrds/deq/whp/

Wellhead Protection Workbook For Local Municipal Water Planning Team, Lancaster
County Planning Commission Water Resources Task Force, fall 1966.

Pennsylvania Wellhead Protection Program, Pennsylvania Bureau of Water Management
and the Department of Environmental Protection, January 1990.

Wellhead Protection Programs: Tools for Local Governments, US Environmental
Protection Agency. EPA 440/6-89-002, April 1989.



Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 22











Protecting Local Groundwater Resources, Department of Agricultural Resources
Economics, AREP93, October 1993.

Sample Wellhead Protection Ordinances, American Planning Association, August 1995.



















































Wellhead Protection Project Final Report
February 28, 2001
Page 23




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