Title: Title nineteen : health, part VI - regulatory provisions concerning public health : chapter 51 - drinking water standards : subchapter 1303 - Virgin Islands interim primary drinking water standards
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 Material Information
Title: Title nineteen : health, part VI - regulatory provisions concerning public health : chapter 51 - drinking water standards : subchapter 1303 - Virgin Islands interim primary drinking water standards
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Virgin Islands of the United States.
Publisher: Virgin Islands of the United States.
Publication Date: 1993
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Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States Virgin Islands
Caribbean
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: CA01300671
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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TITLE NINETEEN


HEALTH

PART VI. REGULATORY PROVISIONS CONCERNING
PUBLIC HEALTH



Chapter 51. Drinking Water Standards

Subchapter 1303. Virgin Islands Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards



Section 1303-11. Applicability

This chapter establishes primary drinking water regulations pursuant to Section 1412 of the
Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Safe Drinking Water Act (Public Law 93-523);
and related regulations applicable to public water systems.

Source. Sections 1303-11 to 1303-53: Regulations to provide for Virgin Islands Interim Primary Drinking Water
Standards issued by the Department of Conservation and Cultural Affairs, dated June 16, 1977, and approved by
the Governor. Filed with Lieutenant Governor June 16, 1977; File No. 986. Amended October 13, 1994 adding
Sections 1303-54 through 1303-70.

Authority. 19 V.I.C. Section 1303.

Publication. The regulations set out as chapter 51, Drinking Water Standards, contained a certificate which
provided such regulations shall take effect without the usual prior publication because of compelling
circumstances. The promulgation of these regulations by June 24, 1977 was necessary in order to permit the
transfer of primary enforcement responsibility from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to the
Department of Conservation and Cultural Affairs of the Virgin Islands, effective July 1, 1977. Similarly,
Amendments promulgated in 1994 updated the regulations to maintain primacy for the Virgin Islands
Government for the enforcement of amended standards mandated by the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

Section 1303-12. Definitions

As used in this chapter, the term:

(a) "Act" means the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Safe Drinking Water Act,
Public Law 93-523.

(b) "Action level" is the concentration of lead or copper in water specified in
Section1303.58(c) which determines, in some cases, the treatment requirements contained in the
Lead and Copper Rule that a water system is required to complete.

(c) "Approved laboratory" means a laboratory approved by the DPNR or certified by the U.S.
EPA.

(d) "Approved source" when used in reference to a bottled water plant's product water or
water used in the plant's operations, means the source of water whether it be from a spring,
artisan well, drilled well, public or community water system or any other source that has been
inspected and the water sampled, analyzed, and found to be of safe and sanitary quality. The
presence in the plant of a current certificate or notification of approval from the DPNR shall
constitute approval of the source.

(e) "Artesian water" means bottled water from a well tapping a confined aquifer in which the
water level stands above the water table. Artesian water shall meet the requirements of natural
water.

(f) "BAT" means the best technology treatments techniques which the administrator of the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, after examination for efficacy under field conditions and
not solely under laboratory conditions, are available (taken cost into consideration). For
purposes of setting maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for Synthetic Organic Chemicals any
BAT must be atleast as effective as granular activated carbon.

(g) "Bottled water" means water that is placed in a sealed container or package and is offered
for sale for human consumption or other consumer uses.
(h) "Bottled water plant" means any place or establishment in which bottled water is prepared
for sale.

(i) "Compliance Cycle" means the nine-year [calendar year] cycle during which public water
systems must monitor. Each compliance cycle consists of three three-year compliance periods.
The first calendar year cycle begins January 1, 1993 and ends December 31, 2001; the second
begins January 1, 2002 and ends December 31, 2010; the third begins January 1, 2011 and ends
December 31, 2019.









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(j) "Compliance Period" means a three-year [calendar year] period within a aompliance
cycle. Each compliance cycle has three three-year compliance periods. Within the first
compliance cycle, the first compliance period runs from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1995;
the second from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 1998; the third from January 1, 1999 to
December 31, 2001.

(k) "Confluent growth" means a continuous bacterial growth covering the entire filtration
area of a membrane filter, or a portion thereof, in which bacterial colonies are not discrete.

(1) "Contaminant" means any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or
matter in water.

(m) "Corrosion inhibitor" means a substance capable of reducing the corrosivity of water
toward metal plumbing materials, especially lead and copper, by forming a protective film on the
interior surface of those materials.

(n) "Disinfectant" means any oxidant, including but not limited to chlorine, chlorine dioxide,
chlorimines, and ozone added to water in any part of the treatment or distribution process, that is
intended to kill or inactivate pathogenic microorganism.

(o) "Domestic or other non-distribution system plumbing problem" means a coliform
contamination problem in a public water system with more than one service connection that is
limited to the specific service connection from which the coliform-positive sample was taken.
(p) "Dose equivalent" means the product of the absorbed dose from ionizing radiation and
such factors as account for differences in biological effectiveness due to the type of radiation and
in its distribution in the body as specified by the International Commission on Radiological Units
and Measurements (ICRU).

(q) "DPNR" means the United States Virgin Islands, Department of Planning & Natural
Resources. DPNR is the regulatory entity for all provisions of the Virgin Islands Safe Drinking
Water Act.
During any period when the Virgin Islands Government does not have primary enforcement
responsibility pursuant to Section 1413 of the Act, the authority associated with DPNR is
assumed by the Regional Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

(r) "Effective corrosion inhibitor residual", for the purpose of the Lead & Copper Rule,
means a concentration sufficient to form a passivating film on the interior walls of a pipe.

(s) "First draw sample" means a one (1) liter sample of tap water, collected in accordance
with Section1303-64(b)(2), that has been standing in plumbing pipes at least six (6) hours and is









Safe Drinking Water Act
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collected without flushing the tap.

(t) "Ground water under the direct influence of surface water" means any water beneath the
surface of the ground with (1) significant occurrence of insects or other macro-organisms, algae,
or large-diameter pathogens such as Giardia lamblia, or (2) significant and relatively rapid shifts
in water characteristics such as turbidity, temperature, conductivity, or pH which closely
correlate to climatological or surface water conditions.

(u) "Gross alpha particle activity" means the total radioactivity due to alpha particle emission
as inferred from measurements on a dry sample.

(v) "Gross beta particle activity" means the total radioactivity due to beta particle emission as
inferred from measurements on a dry sample.
(w) "Halogen" means one of the chemical elements chlorine, bromine or iodine.

(x) "Initial Compliance Period" means the first full three-year compliance period which
begins at least eighteen (18) months after promulgation, except for contaminants listed at
Sectionl303-21(b)(1, 5, 8, 11, 16), Section1303-22 (a)(19-33) and Sectionl303-28(a)(19-21).
Initial compliance period for these contaminants will represent the first full three-year
compliance period after promulgation for systems with one hundred and fifty (150) or more
service connections (January 1993-December 1995), and first full three-year compliance period
after the effective date of the regulation (January 1996-December 1998) for systems having fewer
than one hundred and fifty (150) service connections.

(y) "Large water system", for the purpose of the Lead and Copper Rule, means a water
system that serves more than 50,000 persons.

(z) "Lead service line", means a service line made of lead which connects the water main to
the building inlet and any lead pigtail, gooseneck or other fitting which is connected to such lead
line.

(aa) "Man-made beta particle and photon emitters" means all radionuclides emitting beta
particles and/or photons listed in Maximum Permissible Body Burdens and Maximum
Permissible Concentration of Radionuclides in Air or Water for Occupational Exposure, NBS
Handbook 69, except the daughter products of thorium-232, uranium-235 and uranium-238.

(bb) "Maximum contaminant level", means the maximum permissible level of a contaminant
in water which is delivered to any user of a public water system.

(cc) "Maximum total trihalomethane potential (MTP)" means the maximum concentration of
total trihalomethane produced in a given water containing a disinfectant residual after seven (7)









Safe Drinking Water Act
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days at a temperature of 250 C or above.


(dd) "Medium-size water system", for the purpose of the Lead and Copper Rule, means a
water system that serves greater than thirty-three hundred (>3,300) and less than or equal to fifty
thousand (<50,000) persons.

(ee) "Natural water" means bottled spring, mineral, artesian, or well water which is derived
from an underground formation and is not derived from a municipal system or public water
supply.

(ff) "Near the first service connection" means at one of the twenty percent (20%) of all
service connections in the entire system that are nearest the water supply treatment facility,as
measured by water transport time within the distribution system.

(gg) "Optimal corrosion control treatment", for the purpose of the Lead and Copper Rule,
means the corrosion control treatment that minimizes the lead and copper concentrations at users'
taps while insuring that the treatment does not cause the water system to violate any national
primary drinking water regulations.

(hh) "Performance evaluation sample" means a reference sample provided to a laboratory for
the purpose of demonstrating that
the laboratory can successfully analyze the sample within the limits of performance specified by
the Agency where the true value of the reference material is unknown to the laboratory at the
time of the analysis.

(ii) "Person" means an individual, corporation, company, association, partnership, state, and
includes the Government of the Virgin Islands and any department, agency or instrumentality
thereof, or Federal agency.

(jj) "Picocurie (pCi)" means that quantity of radioactive material producing 2.22 nuclear
transformations per minute.

(kk) "Plant operator" means any person who owns or operates a bottled water plant.



(11) "Point of entry treatment device" means a treatment device applied to the drinking water
entering a house or building for the purpose of reducing contaminants in drinking water
throughout the house or building.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

(mm) "Point of use treatment device" means a treatment device applied to a single tap used for
the purposes reducing contaminants in the drinking water at that one tap.

(nn) "Public water system" means a system for the provision to the public of piped water for
human consumption, if the system has at least fifteen (15) service connections or regularly serves
an average of a least twenty-five (25) individuals daily at least sixty (60) days out of the year.
This term includes (1) any collection, treatment, storage, and distribution facilities under the
control of the operator of the system, and (2) any collection pretreatment storage facilities not
under the system's control which are used primarily in connection with the system.

(1) "Community water system" means a public water system which serves at least
fifteen (15) service connections used by year-round residents or regularly serves at least
twenty-five (25) year-round residents.

(2) "Non-community water system" means a public water system that does not
regularly serve at least twenty-five (25) of the same persons over six (6) months per year.

(3) "Non-transient non-community water system" means a public water system that is
not a community water system as defined in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, and that
regularly serves at least twenty-five (25) of the same individuals over six (6) months per
year.

(oo) "Rem" means the unit of dose equivalent from ionizing radiation to the total body or any
internal organ or organ system. A milliremm" (mrem) is 1/1000 of a rem.

(pp) "Repeat Compliance Period" means any subsequent compliance period after the initial
compliance period.
(qq) "Sanitary Survey" means an on site review of the water source, facilities, equipment,
operation and maintenance of a public water system for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy
of such sources, facilities, equipment, operation and maintenance for producing and distributing
safe drinking water.

(rr) "Service line sample" means a one (1) liter sample of water, collected in accordance with
Sectionl303-64(b)(3), that has been standing for at least six (6) hours in a service line.

(ss) "Single family structure," for the purpose of the Lead & Copper Rule, means a building
constructed as a single-family residence that is currently used as either a residence or a place of
business.

(tt) "Small water system", for the purpose of the Lead & Copper Rule, means a water system
that serves 3,300 persons or fewer.









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(uu) "Spring water" means water derived from an underground formation from which water
flows naturally to the surface of the earth.

(vv) "Standard sample" means the aliquot of finished drinking water that is examined for the
presence of coliform bacteria.

(ww) "Supplier of water" means any person who owns or operates a public water system.

(xx) "System with a single service connection" means a system which supplies water to
consumers via a single service line.

(yy) "Too numerous to count" means that the total number of bacterial colonies exceeds two-
hundred (200) on a 47 mm diameter membrane filter used for coliform detection.

(zz) "Total Trihalomethanes" (TTHM) means the sum of the concentration in milligrams per
liter of the trihalomethane compounds trichloromethanee, (chloroform), dibromochloromethane,
bromodichloromethane and tribromomethane (bromoform), rounded to two significant figures.

(aaa) "Trihalomethane" (THM) means one of the family of organic compound, named as
derivatives of methane, wherein three of the four hydrogen atoms in methane are each substituted
by a halogen atom in the molecular structure.

(bbb) "Water dealer" means any person who imports bottled water or causes bulk water to be
transported for bottling, human consumption or other consumer uses.


Section 1303-13. Coverage

This chapter shall apply to each public water system, unless the public water system meets all of
the following conditions:

(a) Consists only of distribution and storage facilities (and does not have any collection and
treatment facilities);

(b) Obtains all of its water from, but is not owned or operated by, a public water system to
which such regulations apply;

(c) Does not sell water to any person; and

(d) Is not a carrier which conveys passengers in interstate commerce.









Safe Drinking Water Act
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Section 1303-14. Variances or Exemptions

a) Variances or Exemptions from certain provisions of these regulations may be granted,
pursuant to sections 1415 and 1416 of the Act by the entity with primary enforcement
responsibility. Provisions under Part 142, National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations
Implementation-subpart E (Variances) and subpart F (Exemptions) apply where the
Environmental Protection Agency has primary enforcement responsibility.

b) No variances or exemptions from the maximum contaminant level in Section 1303-24 of
this chapter are permitted.


Section 1303-15. Siting requirements

Before a person may enter into a financial commitment for or initiate construction of a new
public water system or increase the capacity of an existing public water system, he shall notify
DPNR and, to the extent practicable, avoid locating part or all of the new or expanded facility at
a site which:

(a) Is subject to significant risk from earthquakes, floods, fires or other disasters which could
cause a breakdown of the public water system or a portion thereof; or

(b) Except for intake structures, is within the flood-plain of a 100-year flood or is lower than
any recorded high tide where appropriate records exist. The U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency will not seek to override land use decisions affecting public water systems citing which
are made at state or local government levels.


Section 1303-16. Effective dates

Except as provided for in Paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section and in 1303-58 (a), the
regulations set forth in this chapter shall take effect on June 24, 1977 or at the time of
promulagation for regulations promulgated by any past, present and future amendments to the
Act. Prior to the promulgation of any amendment the regulatory authority resides with the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency under 40 CFR, Parts 141 and 142.

(a) The effective dates for Sectionl303-21 are as follows:

(1) The effective date of paragraph (b)(9) is October 2, 1987.









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(2) The effective date for paragraphs (b)(2), (3), (6), (7), (10), and (12) through (15) is
July 30, 1992.


(3) The effective date for paragraph (b)(4) is January 1, 1993.

(4) The effective date for Paragraphs (b)(1), (5), (8), (11), and (16) is Janaury 17,
1994.

(b) The effective dates for Section1303-22 are as follows:

(1) The effective date for (a)(1) through (a)(18) is July 30, 1992

(2) The effective date for (a)(26) is August 17, 1992.

(3) The effective date for (a)(19) through (a)(25) and (a)(27) through (a)(33) is
January 17, 1994

(c) The effective dates for Sectionl303-28 are as follows:

(1) The effective date for paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(8) is January 9, 1989

(2) The effective date for (a)(9) through (a)(18) is July 30, 1992.

(3) The effective date for (a)(19) through (a)(21) is January 17, 1994.

(d) The effective date for Section1303-55 is as follows:

The regulations set forth in Section1303-55 shall take effect eighteen (18) months from the date
of promulgation. All requirements must be completed within twelve (12) months following the
effective date.

(e) The effective date for Sectionl303-56 is as follows:

The regulations set forth in Sectionl303-56 shall take effect eighteen (18) months from the date
of promulgation. All requirements must be completed within twelve (12) months following the
effective date.
Section 1303-17. Requirements for water used for human consumption that is transported
by truck or tanker.

(a) All trucks and tankers that are engaged in the transportation of water for human

9









Safe Drinking Water Act
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consumption shall be inspected and registered annually by the DPNR prior to being placed into
service, to ensure their sanitary condition.

The first inspection shall be performed no later than sixty (60) days after the effective date of
these regulations and during the month of January thereafter.

(1) It is the presumption of these regulations that any water delivered by truck or
tanker to a cistern or storage tank in a public water system or a private residence is water
that is being transported for human consumption.

(2) A record of the current DPNR inspection and certification, in the form of a valid
inspection sticker, must be displayed in a conspicuous location on the rear of the truck. If
a current sticker is not affixed to a truck that transports water for human consumption
then the truck is considered in violation of this section and subject to penalties under
Section 1309-1 of the Virgin Islands Rules and Regulations.

(b) All trucks or tankers that have transported any hazardous or toxic materials) must be
subject to inspection by the DPNR to ensure that such trucks or tankers are free of all hazardous
or toxic materials) before they will be allowed to transport water for human consumption.

(c) All trucks and tankers transporting water for human consumption are required to maintain
records indicating the frequency of cleaning and disinfecting of the trucks or tankers and the
types of chemicals and materials used in the cleaning process. All records must be made
available upon request of DPNR.


(d) The truck or tanker operator must enter each load of water in a manifest which must
describe, at a minimum: the source of the water; the date the water was loaded into the truck, the
name and address of the recipient of the water; and the date of delivery.

(e) The truck or tanker operator must make available upon request of a customer a written
certificate that the water is from a source that is in compliance with the Virgin Islands Safe
Drinking Water Act, and written proof of certification by the DPNR that the truck or tanker has
passed inspection and has approval from the DPNR to transport water.

(f) The Commissioner has the power, sixty (60) after this amendment goes into effect, to
prohibit trucks and tankers that do not comply with these regulations from transporting water for
human consumption.

(g) After the effective date of these regulations no tanker truck that has been used to carry
any product other than drinking water, milk or other products utilized for human consumption









Safe Drinking Water Act
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can be newly placed into service to transport potable water without express written permission
from the Commissioner. All truckers and trucking companies in the business of transporting
water for human consumption must maintain records of previous use for each tanker truck from
its date of manufacture to the date it was put into service as a potable water hauler. These
records must include any and all hazardous, toxic or special material or waste that was
transported by the tanker truck in the past. These records must be made available upon request of
DPNR.

(1) If records indicate that a tanker truck has previously been used for transportation
of hazardous or potentially toxic materials in the past, or if records do not exist to confirm
hazardous or potentially toxic materials were not transported by that tanker truck, then the
Commissioner may prohibit the trucking company from using that truck for the
transportation of water for human consumption.


(i) The Commissioner may require sampling of water from the inside of a
truck that may have transported hazardous or potentially toxic materials to be
completed prior to use of a truck for transportation of water for human
consumption. This sampling may, at the discretion of the Commissioner, be for
any chemical, physical, microbiological and/or radiological contaminants.

(h) After the effective date of these regulations trucks and tankers used for transporting water
for human consumption may not be used for other purposes without prior written permission of
the Commissioner.

(i) After the effective date of these regulations, trucks and tankers used for the transporting
of water for human consumption may only be used for transporting water for human
consumption from water sources approved and regulated by DPNR. To be approved by DPNR,
these water sources must, at a minimum, perform all water quality monitoring required for
transient public water systems. Increased monitoring for chemical constituents can be required at
the discretion of the Commissioner. The owner of the water source is responsible for completing
the required water quality monitoring and reporting the results to DPNR as required by Section
1303-51. The distribution of water from an unregulated source to tankers and trucks for
distribution for the purposes of human consumption is prohibited. The transportation of water
from an unregulated source for use for human consumption is also prohibited.


Section 1303-21. Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals

(a) The maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for nitrate and nitrite apply to all public water
systems (community, non-community and non-transient, non-community water systems). The









Safe Drinking Water Act
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maximum contaminant levels for the other inorganic contaminants specified in paragraphs (b) of
this section apply to community and non-transient, non-community water systems.

(b) The following are the maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals:


Maximum Contaminant Levels for Inorganic Chemicals

Contaminant MCL (mg/l)

(1) Antimony 0.006

(2) Arsenic 0.05

(3) Asbestos 7 Million Fibers/liter (longer than 10 m)

(4) Barium 2

(5) Beryllium 0.004

(6) Cadmium 0.005

(7) Chromium 0.1

(8) Cyanide 0.2

(9) Fluoride 4.0

(10) Mercury 0.002

(11) Nickel 0.1

(12) Nitrate 10 (as Nitrogen)

(13) Nitrite 1 (as Nitrogen)

(14) Total Nitrate & Nitrite 10 (as Nitrogen)

(15) Selenium 0.05

(16) Thallium 0.002









Safe Drinking Water Act
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(c) The following are identified as the best available technology (BAT), treatment technique,
or other means available for achieving compliance with the maximum contaminant level for
inorganic contaminants identified in paragraph (b) of this section, except fluoride:


BAT FOR INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

CHEMICAL NAME BAT(s)

Antimony 2, 7

Asbestos 2, 3, 8

Beryllium 1, 2, 5, 6, 7

Barium 5, 6, 7, 9

Cadmium 2, 5, 6, 7

Chromium 2, 5, 62, 7

Cyanide 5, 7, 10

Mercury 21, 4, 61, 71

Nickel 5, 6, 7

Nitrate 5, 7, 9

Nitrite 5, 7

Selenium 1, 23, 6, 7, 9

Thallium 1, 5


1 BAT only if influent Hg concentrations (less than or equal to) 10 g/1.
2 BAT for Chromium III only
3 BAT for Selenium IV only










Safe Drinking Water Act
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Key to BATs in Table


1 = Activated Alumina
3 = Direct and Diatomite Filtration
5 = Ion Exchange
7 = Reverse Osmosis
9 = Electrodialysis


2 = Coagulation/Filtration
4 = Granular Activated Carbon
6 = Lime Softening
8 = Corrosion Control
10= Chlorine


Section 1303-22. Maximum contaminant levels for synthetic organic chemicals

(a) The following are the maximum contaminant levels for synthetic organic chemicals.
They apply to community and non-transient, noncommunity water systems. Compliance with
maximum contaminant levels for synthetic organic chemicals is calculated pursuant to section
1303-44.


Maximum Contaminant Levels for Synthetic Organic Chemicals

CAS No. Contaminant MCL (mg/l)

(1) 15972-60-8 Alachlor 0.002

(2) 116-06-3 Aldicarb 0.003

(3) 1646-87-3. Aldicarb sulfoxide 0.004

(4) 1646-87-4 Aldicarb sulfone 0.002

(5) 1912-24-9 Atrazine 0.003

(6) 1563-66-2 Carbofuran 0.04

(7) 57-74-9 Chlordane 0.002

(8) 96-12-8 Dibromochloropropane 0.0002

(9) 94-75-7 2,4-D 0.07

(10) 106-93-4 Ethylene dibromide 0.00005

(11) 76-44-8 Heptachlor 0.0004









Safe Drinking Water Act
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Maximum Contaminant Levels for Synthetic Organic Chemicals

CAS No. Contaminant MCL (mg/l)
(12) 1024-57-3 Heptachlor epoxide 0.0002

(13) 58-89-9 Lindane 0.0002

(14) 72-43-5 Methoxychlor 0.04

(15) 1336-36-3 Polychlorinated biphenyls 0.0005

(16) 87-86-5 Pentachlorophenol 0.001

(17) 8001-35-2 Toxaphene 0.003

(18) 93-72-1 2,4,5-TP 0.05

(19) 50-32-8 Benzo[a]pyrene 0.0002

(20) 75-99-0 Dalapon 0.2

(21) 103-23-1 Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate 0.4

(22)117-81-7 Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 0.006

(23) 88-85-7 Dinoseb 0.007

(24) 85-00-7 Diquat 0.02

(25) 145-73-3 Endothall 0.1

(26) 72-20-8 Endrin 0.002

(27) 1071-53 Glyphosate 0.7

(28) 118-74-1 Hexachlorobenzene 0.001

(29) 77-47-4 Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 0.05

(30) 23135-22-0 Oxamyl (Vydate) 0.2

(31) 1918-02-1 Picloram 0.5


(32) 122-34-9


Simazine


0.004









Safe Drinking Water Act
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Maximum Contaminant Levels for Synthetic Organic Chemicals

CAS No. Contaminant MCL (mg/l)

(33) 1746-01-6 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) 3x10-8



(b) The maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes (the sum of the concentrations
of bromodichloromethane, dibromo- chloromethane, tribromomethane (bromoform), and
trichloromethane (chloroform)) is 0.10 mg/1, and applies only to community water systems which
serve a population of 10,000 or more individuals and which add a disinfectant (oxidant) to the
water in any part of the drinking water treatment process. Compliance with the maximum
contaminant level for total trihalomethanes is calculated pursuant to Section 1303-44B.


Section 1303-23. Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity

The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to both community water systems
and non-community water systems using surface water sources in the whole or in part. The
maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a representative entry
points) to the distribution system are:

(a) One (1) turbidity unit (TU), as determined by a monthly average pursuant to section
1303-42, except that five (5) or fewer turbidity units may be allowed if the supplier of water can
demonstrate to DPNR that the higher turbidity does not do any of the following:

(1) Interfere with disinfection;
(2) Prevent maintenance of an effective disinfection agent throughout the distribution
system; or
(3) Interfere with microbiological determinations.

(b) Five (5) turbidity units based on an average for two (2) consecutive days pursuant to
section 1303-42.

Section 1303-24. Maximum microbiological contaminant levels

(a) The maximum contaminant level is based on the presence or absence of total coliforms in
a sample, rather than coliform density.

(1) For a system which collects at least forty (40) samples per month, if no more than









Safe Drinking Water Act
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five percent (5%) of the samples collected during a month are total coliform-positive, the
system is in compliance with the MCL for total coliforms.

(2) For a system which collects fewer than forty (40) per month, if no more than one
(1) sample collected during a month is total coliform-positive, the system is in
compliance with the MCL for total coliforms.

(b) Any fecal coliform-positive repeat sample or E.coli positive repeat sample, or any total
coliform-positive repeat sample following a fecal coliform-positive or E. coli-positive routine
sample, or surveillance sample collected by DPNR constitutes a violation of the MCL for total
coliforms. For purposes of the public notification requirements in Section1303-52, this is a
violation that may pose an acute risk to health.

(c) A public water system shall determine compliance with the MCL for total coliforms in
paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section for each month in which it is required to monitor for total
coliforms.

(d) Consistent with the Administrator's determination under section 1412 of the Federal Act,
the following constitutes the best technology, treatment techniques, or other means available for
achieving compliance with the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms in paragraphs (a)
and (b) of this section:

(1) Protection of wells from contamination by coliforms by appropriate placement
and construction;

(2) maintenance of a disinfectant residual throughout the distribution system;
(3) proper maintenance of the distribution system including appropriate pipe
replacement and repair procedures, main flushing programs, proper operation and
maintenance of storage tanks and reservoirs, and continual maintenance of positive water
pressure in all parts of the distribution system;

(4) filtration and/or disinfection of surface water, as described in Subpart H of 40
CFR, or disinfection of ground water using strong oxidants such as chlorine, chlorine
dioxide, or ozone;

(5) the development and implementation of an EPA-approved Wellhead Protection
Program under section 1428 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).

(e) Maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) for microbiological contaminants.

MCLGs for the following contaminants are as indicated:









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments



MCLGs

CONTAMINANT MCLG

Total Coliforms (including fecal coliforms 0
and Escherichia coli



Section 1303-25. Maximum contaminant levels for radium-226, radium 228, and gross
alpha particle radioactivity in community water systems

The following are the maximum contaminant levels for radium-226, radium-228, and gross alpha
particle radioactivity:

(a) Combined radium-226 and radium-228 -- 5pCi/l.

(b) Gross alpha particle activity (including radium-226 but excluding radon and uranium) --
15pCi/l.
Section 1303-26. Maximum contaminant levels for beta particle and photon radioactivity
from man-made radionuclides in community water systems

(a) The average annual concentration of beta particle and photon radioactivity from man-
made radionuclides in drinking water shall not produce an annual dose equivalent to the total
body or any internal organ greater than four millirem/year.

(b) Except for the radionuclides listed in Table A, the concentration of man-made radionuclides
causing four millirem total body or organ dose equivalents shall be calculated on the basis of a
two liter per day drinking water intake using the one hundred and sixty-eight (168) hour data
listed in "Maximum Permissible Body Burdens and Maximum Permissible Concentration of
Radionuclides in Air or Water for Occupational Exposure," NBS Handbook 69 as amended
August 1963, U.S. Department of Commerce. If two or more radionuclides are present, the sum
of their annual dose equivalent to the total body or to any organ shall not exceed four
millirem/year.


Average annual concentrations assumed to produce a total body or organ dose of four
millirem/yr









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


Radionuclide Critical Organ per liter/Pci

Tritium Total body 20,000

Strontium-90 Bone marrow 8



Section 1303-27. Prohibition on the use of lead pipes, solder and flux

(a) In General Any pipe, solder or flux which is used after June 19, 1986 in the installation
or repair of:





(1) Any public water system, or

(2) any plumbing in a residential or nonresidential facility providing water for human
consumption which is connected to a public water system, shall be lead-free. Lead-free,
for the purposes of this section, is defined, (i) when used with respect to solder and flux,
as solder and flux not containing more than 0.2% lead, and (ii) when used with respect to
pipe and pipe fittings as pipe and pipe fittings containing no more than 8.0% lead. This
subsection shall not apply to leaded joints necessary for the repair of cast iron pipes.

(b) Public Notice Requirements Each public water system shall identify and provide notice
to persons that may be affected by lead contamination of their drinking water where such
contamination results from either of the following:

(1) The lead content in the construction material of the public water distribution
system, or

(2) corrosivity of the water supply sufficient to cause leaching of lead.

Notice shall be provided notwithstanding the absence of a violation of any national drinking
water standard. The manner and form of notice are specified in Section 1303-52(g).

(c) Enforcement -

(1) Enforcement of the prohibition The requirements of subsection (a) shall be
effective in the Virgin Islands on June 19, 1988. The Commissioner shall enforce such









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

requirements through the Virgin Islands Plumbing Codes, or such other means of
enforcement as the Commissioner may determine to be appropriate.





(2) Monitoring and testing requirements -

(i) If the Commissioner, in the interest of the protection of public health,
deems it necessary, the owner or operator of a public water system shall be
required to:

(A) Monitor, test and analyze the corrosivity level of the system's water
at a frequency determined by the Commissioner.

(B) Monitor, test and analyze the lead content of the system's water at a
frequency determined by the commissioner.

(C) Report findings to the Commissioner in accordance with Section
1303-51.

(D) Replace lead and lead containing materials as deemed necessary by
the Commissioner in accordance with the Lead and Copper Rule.

(E) Establish and maintain monitoring and inspection records.

(ii) To carry out the purpose of these regulations, the Commissioner or his
authorized representative upon presentation of his credentials:

(A) Shall have access to any premises where a public water system or
any part thereof is located or any premise where records are required to be
maintained;

(B) may at reasonable times have access to and copy any records
required to be maintained;

(C) may inspect any solder, pipe and building materials for their lead
content;

(D) and may have access to any sample for the purpose of field or
laboratory analysis of any pipe, solder, flux or materials which are used in









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

the installation or repair of any public water system or part thereof.


Section 1303-28. Maximum contaminant levels for volatile organic chemicals

(a) The following maximum contaminant for volatile organic chemicals apply to community
and non-transient, non-community water systems.


Maximum Contaminant Levels for Volatile Organic Chemicals

CAS No. Contaminant MCL (mg/l)

(1) 75-01-4 Vinyl chloride 0.002

(2) 71-43-2 Benzene 0.005

(3) 56-23-5 Carbon tetrachloride 0.005

(4) 107-06-2 1,2-Dichloroethane 0.005

(5) 79-01-6 Trichloroethylene 0.005

(6) 106-46-7 Para-Dichlorobenzene 0.075

(7)75-35-4 1,1-Dichloroethylene 0.007

(8) 71-55-6 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 0.2

(9) 156-59-2 cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene 0.07

(10) 78-87-5 1,2-Dichloropropane 0.005

(11) 100-41-4 Ethylbenzene 0.7

(12) 108-90-7 Monochlorobenzene 0.1

(13) 95-50-1 o-Dichlorobenzene 0.6

(14) 100-42-5 Styrene 0.1









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Maximum Contaminant Levels for Volatile Organic Chemicals

CAS No. Contaminant MCL (mg/l)
(15) 127-18-4 Tetrachloroethylene 0.005

(16) 108-88-3 Toluene 1

17) 156-60-5 trans-1 ,2-Dichloroethylene 0.1

(18) 1330-20-7 Xylenes (total) 10

(19) 75-09-2 Dichloromethane 0.005

(20) 120-82-1 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 0.07

(21) 79-00-5 1, 1, 2 -Trichloroethane 0.005



(b) As indicated in the Table below either granular activated carbon (GAC), packed tower
aeration (PTA), or both are identified as the best technology, treatment technique, or other
means available for achieving compliance with the maximum contaminant level for organic
contaminants identified in paragraph (a) of this section and paragraph (a) of Section 1303-22:


BAT FOR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

CAS # Chemical GAC PTA OX

15972-60-8 Alachlor X

116-06-3 Aldicarb X

1646-87-4 Aldicarb sulfone X

1646-87-3 Aldicarb sulfoxide X

1912-24-9 Atrazine X


Benzene


71-43-2









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BAT FOR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

CAS # Chemical GAC PTA OX

1563-66-2 Carbofuran X

56-23-5 Carbon tetrachloride X X

57-74-9 Chlordane X

94-75-7 2,4-D X

96-12-8 Dibromochloropropane X X

95-50-1 o-Dichlorobenzene X X

107-06-2 1,2-Dichloroethane X X

156-59-2 cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene X X

156-60-5 trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene X X

75-35-4 1,1-Dichloroethylene X X

78-87-5 1,2-Dichloropropane X X

106-93-4 Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) X X

100-41-4 Ethylbenzene X X

76-44-8 Heptachlor X

1024-57-3 Heptachlor epoxide X

58-89-9 Lindane X

72-43-5 Methoxychlor X


Monochlorobenzene


108-90-7









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and Amendments


BAT FOR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

CAS # Chemical GAC PTA OX

106-46-7 para-Dichlorobenzene X X

1336-36-3 Polychlorinated biphenyls X

87-86-5 Pentachlorophenol X

100-42-5 Styrene X X

93-72-1 2,4,5-TP (Silvex) X

127-18-4 Tetrachloroethylene X X

71-55-6 1,1,1-Trichloroethane X X

79-01-6 Trichloroethylene X X

108-88-3 Toluene X X

8001-35-2 Toxaphene X

75-01-4 Vinyl chloride X

1330-20-7 Xylene X X

50-32-8 Benzo[a]pyrene X

75-99-0 Dalapon X

75-09-2 Dichloromethane X

103-23-1 Di (2-ethylhexyl) adipate X X

117-81-7 Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate X


Dinoseb


88-85-7









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


BAT FOR ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

CAS # Chemical GAC PTA OX

85-00-7 Diquat X

145-73-3 Endothall X

72-20-8 Endrin X

1071-83-6 Glyphosate X

118-74-1 Hexachlorobenzene X

77-47-3 Hexachlorocyclopentadiene X X

23135-22-0 Oxamyl (Vydate) X

1918-02-1 Picloram X

122-34-9 Simazine X

120-82-1 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene X X

79-00-5 1,1,2-Trichloroethane X X

1746-01-6 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) X



(c) The following is the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes (the sum of
the concentrations of bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, tribromomethane
(bromoform) and trichloromethane (chloroform)). The maximum contaminant level for these
chemicals apply to all community water systems that serve a population of 10,000 or more
individuals and which add a disinfectant (oxidant) to the water in any part of the drinking water
treatment process. Compliance with the maximum contaminant level of this section is calculated
pursuant to Section 1303-44B.


Total trihalomethanes(the sum --
of the concentrations of
bromodichloromethane,


Maximum contaminant level,
milligrams per liter = 0.10









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

dibromochloromethane,
tribromomethane (bromoform) and
trichloromethane (chloroform))


Section 1303-29. Variances and exemptions from the Maximum Contaminant Levels for
Synthetic Organic Chemicals

(a) The Commissioner, pursuant to Section 1303 of the Virgin Islands Safe Drinking Water
Act, identifies the following as the best technology, treatment techniques, or other means
available for achieving compliance with the maximum contaminant levels for synthetic organic
chemicals: removal using packed tower aeration; and, removal using granular activated carbon
(except for vinyl chloride).

(b) As a condition for granting a variance, except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section,
community water systems and non-transient, non-community water systems shall install and use
a packed tower aeration or granular activated carbon (except for vinyl chloride).

(c) If a system can demonstrate through comprehensive engineering assessments, which may
include pilot plant studies, that the use of packed tower aeration or granular activated carbon
(except for vinyl chloride) would achieve only a deminimus reduction in contaminants, the
DPNR may issue a schedule of


compliance that requires the system being granted the variance to examine other treatment
methods as a condition of obtaining the variance.

(d) If the DPNR determines that a treatment method identified in paragraph (c) of this section
is technically feasible, the Commissioner may require the system to install and/or use that
treatment method in connection with a compliance schedule issued under the provisions of
Section 1415(a)(1)(A) of the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act. The DPNR determination shall
be based upon studies by the system other relevant information.

(e) The DPNR may require a water system to use bottled water, point-of-source-use-devices,
or other means as a condition of granting a variance or an exemption from the requirements of
2303-28(a), to avoid unreasonable risk to health.

(f) A public water system that uses bottled water as a condition for receiving a variance or
exemption from the requirements of section 1303-28 shall meet the following requirements in
either paragraph (f)(l) or (f)(2) of this section in addition to the requirements of paragraph (f)(3)
of this section:









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


(1) All bottled water shall be from a source that is in compliance with the Safe
Drinking Water Act and shall not contain any constituent in quantities that may be
injurious to health. The public water system shall implement a monitoring plan approved
by the DPNR to reasonably assure that the bottled water meets all MCLs. The public
water system shall monitor a representative sample of bottled water for all contaminants
regulated under Section 1303-28 for the first quarter that it supplies the bottled water to
the public, and annually thereafter. An owner or operator of a public water system that
supplies bottled water shall submit the monitoring results to DPNR annually.

(2) The public water system shall obtain a certification from the bottled water
company that the bottled water has been taken from an approved source as defined in 21
CFR 129.3 (a) and 19 VIR&R 1303-33 (e)(2); the bottled water company has conducted
monitoring in accordance with 21 CFR 129.80 (g)(1) through (3) and 19 VIR&R 1303-33
(c); and the bottled water does not exceed any MCLs or quality limits as set out in 21
CFR 103.35, 110129, and 19 VIR&R 1303-33. The public water system shall submit the
certification to DPNR the first quarter after it supplies bottled water and annually
thereafter.

(3) The public water system is fully responsible for the provision of sufficient
quantities of bottled water to every person supplied by the public water system, via door-
to-door bottled water delivery.

(g) A public water system that uses point-of-source devices as a condition for receiving a
variance or exemption must meet the same requirements for point-of entry devices as set out in
Section 1303-31.


Section 1303-30. Use of other non-centralized treatment devices

A public water system shall not use bottled water or point-of-use devices to achieve compliance
with an MCL. Bottled water or point-of-use devices may be used on a temporary basis to avoid
an unreasonable risk to health.


Section 1303-31. Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry
devices

(a) Public water systems may use point of entry devices to comply with maximum
contaminant levels only if they meet the requirements of this section.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

(b) It is the responsibility of the public water system to operate and maintain the point of
entry treatment system.

(c) The public water system shall develop and obtain DPNR approval for a monitoring plan
before point of entry devices are installed for compliance. Under the plan approved by the
DPNR, point of entry devices must provide health protection equivalent to central water
treatment. "Equivalent" means that the water would meet all National Primary Drinking Water
Regulations and would be of acceptable quality similar to water distributed by a well-operated
central treatment plant. In addition to the VOCs, monitoring shall include physical
measurements and observations such as total flow treatment and mechanical condition of the
treatment equipment.

(d) Water systems shall properly apply effective technology under a plan approved by DPNR
to maintain the microbiological safety of the water.

(1) The owner or operator of a water system shall certify performance of point-of-
entry devices to the DPNR's satisfaction, including satisfactory evidence of field testing
and thorough engineering design reviews of point of entry devices.

(2) In the selection of design and application of the point of entry device, an owner or
operator of a water system shall employ measures to counteract the known tendency for
increase on heterotrophic bacteria concentrations in water treated with activated carbon.
To ensure that the microbiological safety of the water is not compromised, an owner or
operator is required to take such necessary measures as the use of frequent back-washing,
post-contractor disinfection, and Heterotrophic Plate Count monitoring.

(e) To ensure the protection of all consumers, every building connected to a system shall
have a point of entry device, installed, maintained, and adequately monitored. Every building is
subject to treatment and monitoring of its water system and sale of the property does not alter the
rights and responsibilities of the public water system consumer.




Section 1303-32. Bottled water and point-of-use devices

(a) As a condition for granting an exemption from the requirements of section 1303-28 of
this chapter, a public water system may be required to use bottled water of point of use devices.

(b) A public water system that uses bottled water as a condition of obtaining an exemption
from the requirements of section 1303-28 shall meet the requirements set out in section 1303-









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

29(f) of this chapter.

(c) A public water system that uses point-of-use devices as a condition for receiving an
exemption must meet the requirements set out in Sections 1303-29(g) and 1303-31.


Section 1303-33. Bottled water regulations

(a) Product quality

(1) All bottled water shall be from a source that is in full compliance with the
drinking water regulations and shall not contain any constituent in quantities that may be
injurious to health, as established by the DPNR and the Virgin Islands Safe Drinking
Water Act. All bottled water shall meet standards prescribed by the DPNR.

(2) Bottled water shall not exceed any maximum contaminant levels established in
Chapter 51 of the Virgin Islands Drinking Water Standards 19 VIR&R section 1303-2 et
sec, or any other maximum contaminant level established by the EPA or DPNR under the
Safe Drinking Water Act.

(b) Manufacturing practices and operational requirements

(1) All bottled water shall be filtered, processed and packaged in accordance with the
Food and Drug Administration


(FDA) Good Manufacturing Practice Regulations (GMP's), 21 CFR Parts 110 and 129,
and any other regulations prescribed by the DPNR or other authorized agencies.

(2) Bottled water production, including transporting, processing, packaging, and
storage, shall be conducted under such conditions and controls as are necessary to
minimize the potential for microbiological contamination of the finished product. These
conditions and controls shall include the following:

(i) Bottled water shall be subject to effective germicidal treatment by
ozonation or carbonation at a minimum of three (3) volumes of carbon dioxide or
other equivalent disinfection approved by the DPNR.

(ii) Bottled water shall not be transported and stored in bulk tanks or
processed or bottled through equipment of lines used for any non-food product.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

(A) In order to minimize the potential for microbiological
contamination of the finished product, non-carbonated bottled water shall
not be transported,stored, processed, or bottled in or through lines or
equipment through which has passed any food product other than water
which is likely to contribute nutrients for microbiological growth.

(B) Bottled water shall not be transported, stored, processed, or bottled
through lines or equipment through which any food product other
than water has passed except under procedures approved by the DPNR that
prevent the potential for microbiological contamination in bottled water.

(C) Where ozone is used as a germicidal agent for bottled water, all
gaskets. o-rings, and similar flexible materials shall be made of silicon
rubber, teflon, or other ozone-resistant material. These flexible parts shall
be replaced whenever they show evidence of surface deterioration.

(3) Each bottled water plant operator and water dealer shall develop and maintain a
procedure for product recall and implement that procedure for any product which the
operator or dealer knows or has reason to believe may have been affected by the
circumstances that may adversely affect safety for the consumer:

In order to facilitate product identification or recall, each bottled water product
shall contain a unique code that is designed to remain affixed to the container
during use and which contains either the date of manufacture or a lot or batch
number (not extending for a period of longer than seven (7) days) and which
identifies a specific set of primary containers or units of the same size, type and
style produced under nearly uniform conditions. In addition, each bottled water
product shall be affixed with a permanent date stamp indicating the date of
bottling for that individual container (month and year).

(4) Artesian water may be collected with the assistance of external force to enhance
the natural underground pressure so long as such measures do not alter the physical
properties, composition and quality of the water.

(5) Natural water shall not be modified by blending with water of another type or by
deletion or addition of dissolved solids except as related to disinfection or other treatment
to reduce the concentration of any naturally-present constituent which exceeds
government-sanctioned or approved safety standards or guidelines set forth by the DPNR.
It may be collected and transported by pumps, pipes, tunnels, trucks or similar devices.

(6) Spring water shall be collected only at the spring or through a bore hole that is









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

adjacent to the point of emergence. Spring water collected with the assistance of
external force to protect the water shall retain all the physical properties of and be of the
same composition and quality as the water that flows naturally to the surface of the earth.

(7) A bottled water plant shall be operated under the supervision of a competent
person qualified by experience, education or training to operate and maintain the plant
facilities. The person supervising plants operations must demonstrate to DPNR's
satisfaction that she/he has the requisite competence. Proof of competency includes but is
not limited to a demonstration that the person has received training or instruction, has
work experience in or holds a certificate covering training in source and product
sanitation, operation and maintenance of water treatment technology, and the
maintenance and monitoring of source and product water quality in accordance with these
bottled water standards.

(c) Source water monitoring

(1) The plant operator shall be responsible for sampling and analysis of all approved
sources for the contaminants specified in the Virgin Islands Safe Drinking Water Act to
assure that product water derived from approved sources continues to comply with the
Primary Drinking Water Standards. Such monitoring shall be done in accordance with
the regulations for community public water systems set forth in the Virgin Islands Safe
Drinking Water Act.

(2) In lieu of source monitoring required by this section and the DPNR, a plant operator
using a public water system as its source may obtain and display a certificate from the
system demonstrating that the public water system conducts the required monitoring.

(3) Where a bottled water plant operator, water dealer or regulatory agency (specifically
DPNR) knows or has reason to believe that a contaminant not otherwise monitored is
present in the source water due to a spill, release of hazardous substance, or otherwise,
and its presence would create a potential health hazard to consumers, the plant operator or
water dealer, upon such information, shall monitor the source water for the contaminant,
and shall cease operation upon confirmation that the source has been contaminated.

(4) Detection of contaminants in source monitoring required by Section 1303 shall be
followed immediately by a program of periodic monitoring to confirm the presence in the
source water of said contaminants. If such listed, unregulated contaminants are
confirmed to be present in the source water as to exceed a published US EPA Health
Advisory or US FDA Action Level or DPNR determination of acute health risk for
drinking water, the plant operator or water dealer shall employ appropriate treatment
techniques to remove or to reduce said contaminant in the product water below the









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

concentration and shall employ a program of periodic monitoring for the contaminant in
the source water until such time as the contaminant is not detectable in the source water.

(5) The required source water sampling shall be performed by qualified personnel and
required analysis shall be performed by an approved laboratory. Records of the required
sampling and analyses shall be maintained on file at the plant for not less than five (5)
years and shall be available for official review upon the request of DPNR.

(d) Finished product monitoring

(1) To assure that bottled water complies with the Virgin Islands Safe Drinking Water
Act, the following product monitoring using representative samples derived from the
bottled product shall be performed:

(i) For microbiological contaminants specified in the Virgin Islands Safe
Drinking Water Act, analyze weekly

a representative sample from a batch or segment of continuous production for
each type of bottled water produced at the plant.

(ii) For chemical, physical and radiological contaminants specified in the
Virgin Islands Safe Drinking Water Act, analyze annually a representative sample
from a batch or segment of continuous production, run for each type of bottled
water produced by the plant.

(2) The required product water sampling shall be performed by qualified personnel
and required analyses shall be performed by a certified laboratory.

(3) Records of required sampling and analysis shall be maintained at the plant not less
than five years and shall be available for official review upon request of DPNR.

(e) Labeling Requirements

(1) All bottled water shall conform to applicable territorial and federal labeling laws
and regulations.

(2) Printed information or graphics relative to recognized uses of the water shall not
imply properties of the product or preparation methods which are not factual.

(3) The term "pure" may appear on the label only when used to identify the contents
as "purified water". Where the term is used, the method of preparation shall be stated on









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

the label. For purposes of this section "pure or purified water" means bottled water
produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis, or other suitable process and that
meets the definition of purified water in the most recent edition of the United States
Pharmacopeia.




Section 1303-41. Microbiological contaminant sampling and analytical requirements

(a) Routine Monitoring:

(1) All community and non-community water systems within sixty (60) days of the
effective date of these regulations shall submit to DPNR a site plan for collecting
samples.

(2) The site plan must include an accurate diagram of the configuration of the system.

(3) The site plan must demonstrate that the sites selected are representative of the
water throughout the distribution system.

(4) Public water systems shall mail or deliver site plans to the Department of
Planning & Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Supervision Program, Division of
Environmental Protection. For the St. Croix Systems site plans should be sent to the St.
Croix office, and for St. Thomas or St. John systems site plans should be sent to the St.
Thomas office.

(5) Upon approval of a site plan, DPNR shall stamp the plan and return it by mail to
the water system within thirty (30) days of receipt.

(6) If DPNR cannot approve the site plan, DPNR shall return the plan with a written
explanation of the deficiencies and instructions for their correction. Upon notification of
DPNR's disapproval of a site plan, the water system has fifteen (15) days to revise and
resubmit the plan to DPNR.

(7) If after resubmission a site plan is not approved by DPNR, DPNR may consider
the water system to be out of compliance with the requirements of this section.

(8) If the resubmitted site plan is disapproved, DPNR retains the right to modify the
plan; and the water supplier shall implement the plan as modified by DPNR. DPNR is
the









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

final arbiter in any dispute regarding the adequacy of any site plan and any activities performed
under this section, and shall resolve any such dispute in the best interest of the public. DPNR
retains the right to modify an approved site plan as required to abate water contamination.
Notwithstanding, DPNR shall provide the water system an opportunity for a hearing on the
matter.

(9) A public water system shall maintain as approved site plan at the system's
premises or at a location readily accessible to the system and to DPNR's personnel.

(10) If a water system plans to modify the configuration of the system, the owner or
operator of the system shall notify DPNR and submit a revised site plan to reflect the
modification within sixty (60) days of such planned modification in accordance with the
procedures established under paragraphs 2-8 of this subsection.

(11) DPNR shall routinely review site plans during sanitary surveys and site visits and
as the Commissioner finds necessary to protect the public health.

(12) A public water system shall collect total coliform samples at sites that are
representative of the water throughout the distribution system according to a written
sample site plan.

(b) Total Coliform Monitoring Frequency For Community Water Systems.

The for community water systems is based on the population served by the system, as follows:


Total Coliform Monitoring Frequency For Community Water Systems

Population served Minimum number of samples per month

25 to 1,0001 1

1,001 to 2,500 2

2,501 to 3,300 3

3,301 to 4,100 4

4,101 to 4,900 5


4,901 to 5,800









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


Total Coliform Monitoring Frequency For Community Water Systems

Population served Minimum number of samples per month

5,801 to 6,700 7

6,701 to 7,600 8

7,601 to 8,500 9

8,501 to 12,900 10

12,901 to 17,200 15

17,201 to 21,500 20

21,501 to 25,000 25

25,001 to 33,000 30

33,001 to 41,000 40

41,001 to 50,000 50

50,001 to 59,000 60

59,001 to 70,000 70

70,001 to 83,000 80

83,001 to 96,000 90

96,001 to 130,000 100

130,001 to 220,000 120

220,001 to 320,000 150

320,001 to 450,000 180









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


Total Coliform Monitoring Frequency For Community Water Systems

Population served Minimum number of samples per month
450,001 to 600,000 210

600,001 to 780,000 240

780,001 to 970,000 270

970,001 to 1,230,000 300

1,230,001 to 1,520,000 330

1,520,001 to 1,850,000 360

1,850,001 to 2,270,000 390

2,270,001 to 3,020,000 420

3,020,001 to 3,960,000 450

3,960,001 or more 480

1. Includes Public Water Supplies which have at least fifteen (15) service connections, but serve fewer than twenty-
five (25) persons.





(c) Monitoring for Non-Community Systems

The monitoring frequency for total coliforms for non-community water systems is as follows:

(1) A non-community water system using only ground water (except ground water
under the direct influence of surface water, as defined in Sectionl303-12) and serving
one-thousand (1,000) persons or fewer shall monitor each calendar quarter that the system
provides water to the public.

(2) A non-community water system using only ground water (except ground water
under the direct influence of surface water, as defined in Sectionl303-12) and serving

36









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

more than one-thousand (1,000) persons during any month shall monitor at the same
frequency as a like-sized community water system, as specified in section Sectionl303-
41(b). For systems using ground water under the direct influence of surface water,
paragraph (4) of this section applies.

(3) A non-community water system using surface water, in total or in part, shall
monitor at the same frequency as a like-sized community water system, as specified in
section Section1303-41(b) regardless of number of persons served.

(4) A non-community water system using ground water under the direct influence of
surface water, as defined in Sectionl303-12, shall monitor at the same frequency as a
like-sized community water system, as specified in section Sectionl303-41(b). The
system shall begin monitoring at this frequency beginning three(3) months after DPNR
determines that the ground water is under the direct influence of surface water.

(5) The public water system shall collect samples at regular time intervals throughout
the month, except that a system which uses only ground water (except ground water
under the influence of surface water, as defined in Sectionl303-12), and serves four-
thousand and nine-hundred (4,900)


persons or fewer, may collect all required samples on a single day if they are taken from
different sites, and DPNR does not prescribe a different schedule of sampling.

(6) A public water system that uses surface water or ground water under the direct
influence of surface water, as defined in Sectionl302-12, and does not practice filtration
in compliance with Subpart H of 40 CFR shall collect at least
one sample near the first service connection each day the turbidity level of the source
water, measured as specified in Section1303-74(b)(2), exceeds 1 NTU. This sample must
be analyzed for the presence of total coliforms. When one or more turbidity
measurements in any day exceed 1 NTU, the system shall collect this coliform sample
within twenty-four (24) hours of the first exceedance. Sample results from this coliform
monitoring are included in determining compliance with the MCL for total coliforms in
Sectionl303-24.

(d) Special Purpose Samples.

Special purpose samples, such as those taken to determine whether disinfection practices are
sufficient following pipe placement, replacement, or repair are not used to determine compliance
with the MCL for total coliforms in Sectionl303-24. Repeat and DPNR collected surveillance
samples taken pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section are not considered special purpose









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

samples, and must be used to determine compliance with the MCL for total coliforms in
Sectionl303-24.

(e) Repeat Monitoring.

For the purpose of these rule and regulations "force majeure" means any cause which prevents
performance of any of the activities under these rules and regulations due to causes which are
outside the control of the public water system and cannot be avoided by the exercise of
reasonable diligence, and includes: Acts of God-acts occasioned exclusively by violence of
nature without the interference of any human agency; war; riot and strikes.

(1) If a routine or surveillance monitoring sample collected by DPNR is total
coliform-positive, the public water system shall collect a set of repeat samples within
twenty-four (24) hours of being notified of the positive result. DPNR shall waive the
twenty-four (24) hour resampling period when a force majeure event occurs. DPNR shall
extend the time of resampling to the first business day after the force majeure event is
over. A system that collects more than one (1) routine sample/month shall collect no
fewer than three (3) repeat samples for each total coliform-positive sample found. A
system that normally collects one (1) routine sample/month or fewer shall collect no
fewer than four (4) repeat samples for each total coliform-positive sample found.

(2) The system shall collect at least one (1) repeat sample from the sampling tap
where the original total coliform-positive sample was taken, and at least one (1) repeat
sample at a tap within five (5) service connections upstream and at least one (1) repeat
sample at a tap within five (5) service connections downstream of the original sampling
site.

(3) The system shall collect all repeat samples on the same day, except that a system
with a single service connection shall collect the required set of repeat samples over a
four-day period or subject to DPNR's approval, may collect a larger volume repeat
samples) in one (1) or more sample containers of any size, as long as the total volume
collected is at least 400ml (300ml for systems which collect more than one (1) routine
sample/month).

(4) If one (1) or more repeat samples in the set is total coliform-positive, the public
water system shall collect an additional set of repeat samples in the manner specified in
paragraphs (e)(1)-(3) of this section. The additional samples must be collected within
twenty-four (24) hours of being notified of the positive result. DPNR shall waive the
twenty-four (24) hour resampling period in an event of force majeure. DPNR shall
extend the time for resampling to the first business day after the force majeure event is
over. The system shall repeat this process until either total coliforms are not detected in









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

one complete set of repeat samples or the system determines that the MCL for total
coliforms in Section1303-24 has been exceeded and notifies DPNR.

(5) If a system collecting fewer than five (5) routine samples/month has one (1) or
more total coliform-positive samples and DPNR does not invalidate the samples) under
paragraph (f) of this section, the system shall collect at least five (5) routine samples
during the next month the system provides water to the public.

(6) After a system collects a routine sample, and before it learns the results of the
analysis of that sample, if it collects another routine samples) from within five (5)
adjacent service connections of the initial sample, and the initial sample after analysis is
found to contain total coliforms, then the system may count the subsequent samples) as a
repeat sample instead of as a routine sample.

(7) In determining compliance with the MCL for total coliforms in Sectionl303-
24(a), DPNR shall include results of all routine and repeat samples, DPNR-collected
surveillance samples and all samples that have not been invalidated.

(f) Invalidation of total coliform samples.

A total coliform-positive sample invalidated under this paragraph does not count towards
meeting the minimum monitoring requirements of this section.

(1) DPNR shall invalidate a total coliform-positive sample only if the conditions of
paragraph (i), (ii), or (iii) of this section are met. DPNR may not invalidate a total
coliform-positive sample solely on the ground that all repeat samples are total coliform-
negative.

(i) The laboratory establishes that improper sample analysis caused the total
coliform-positive result.
(ii) DPNR on the basis of the results of repeat samples collected as required by
paragraphs (1)-(4) of section Sectionl303-41(e), determines that the total
coliform-positive sample resulted from a domestic or other non-distribution
system plumbing problem. DPNR may not invalidate a sample on the basis of
repeat sample results, unless all repeat samples collected at the same tap as the
original total coliform-positive sample are also total coliform-positive, and all
repeat samples collected within five (5) service connections of the original tap are
total coliform-negative (e.g., DPNR shall invalidate a total coliform-positive
sample on the basis of repeat samples if all the repeat samples are total coliform-
negative, or if the public water system has only one (1) service connection).









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

(iii) DPNR has substantial grounds to believe that a total coliform-positive
result is due to a circumstance or a condition which does not reflect water quality
in the distribution system. In this case, the system shall still collect all repeat
samples required under paragraphs (1)-(4) of Sectionl303-41(e), and use them to
determine compliance with the MCL for total coliforms in Sectionl303-24.

(iv) To invalidate a total coliform-positive sample under this subsection, the
Commissioner shall issue a written, signed Notice of Invalidation, which states
the specific cause of the total coliform invalidation and specifies the actions taken
or to be taken by the
system to correct the problem. The Notice of Invalidation must be made available
to EPA and the public.

(2) A laboratory shall invalidate a total coliform sample (unless total coliforms are
detected) if the sample produces a turbid culture in the absence of gas production using an
analytical method where gas formation is examined (e.g., the Multiple-Tube Fermentation
Technique), produces a turbid culture in the absence of an acid reaction in the Presence-
Absence (P-A) Coliform Test, or exhibits confluent growth or produces colonies too
numerous to count with an analytical method using a membrane filter (e.g. Membrane
Filter Technique). If a laboratory invalidates a sample because of such interference, the
system shall collect another sample from the same location as the original sample within
twenty-four (24) hours of being notified of the interference problem, and have it analyzed
for the presence of total coliforms. The system shall continue to re-sample within twenty-
four (24) hours and have the samples analyzed until it obtains a valid result. The
Commissioner shall waive the twenty-four (24) hour time limit for reasons of force
majeure on a case by case basis.

(g) Sanitary Surveys.

(1) Public water systems which do not collect five or more routine samples/month
shall undergo an initial sanitary survey by June 29, 1994 for community public water
systems and June 24, 1996 for non-community water systems. Thereafter, a system shall
undergo another sanitary survey every five years. DPNR shall review the results of each
sanitary survey to determine whether the existing monitoring frequency is adequate and
what additional measures, if any, the system needs to undertake to improve drinking
water quality.

(2) Sanitary surveys shall be performed by DPNR personnel.

(h) Fecal coliforms/Escherichia coli (E. coli) testing.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

(1) If any routine, repeat, or DPNR collected surveillance sample is total coliform-
positive, the system or DPNR, as appropriate, shall analyze that total coliform-positive
culture medium to determine if fecal coliforms are present, except that the system may
test for E. Coli in lieu of fecal coliforms. If fecal coliforms or E. Coli are present, the
system shall notify DPNR by the end of the day when the system is notified of the test
result. If the system is

notified of the result after the DPNR office is closed, the system shall notify DPNR
before the end of the next business day.

(i) Analytical methodology.

(1) The standard sample volume required for total coliform analysis regardless of
analytical method used is 100ml.

(2) A public water system need only determine the presence or absence of total
coliforms. A determination of total coliform density is not required.

(3) Public water systems must conduct total coliform analyses in accordance with one
of the analytical methods in the following table. These methods are contained in the 18th
edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1992,
American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street NW., Washington DC 20005.
A description of the Colisure Test may be obtained from the Millipore Corporation,
Technical Services Department, 80 Ashby Road, Bedford, MA 01730.

Organism Methodology Citation

Total Coliforms1 Total Coliform 9221A, B.
Fermentation Technique2'3'4

Total Coliform Membrane 9222A, B, C
Filter Technique

Presence-Absence (P-A) 9221D.
Coliform Test4'5

ONPG-MUG Test6 9223.
Colisure Test7

'The time from sample collection to initiation of analysis may not exceed thirty (30) hours









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

Lactose broth, as commercially available, may be used in lieu of lauryl tryptose broth, if the system conducts at least
twenty-five (25) parallel tests between this medium and lauryl tryptose broth using the water normally tested, and
this comparison demonstrates that the false-positive rate for total coliforms, using lactose broth, is less than 10
percent (10%).
3If inverted tubes are used to detect gas production, the media should cover these tubes at least one-half to two-
thirds after the sample is added.
4No requirement exists to run the completed phase on ten percent (10%o) of all total coliform-positive confirmed
tubes.
5Six-times formulation strength may be used if the medium is filter-sterilized rather than autoclaved.
6The ONPG-MUG Test is also known as the Autoanalysis Colilert System.
The Colisure Test must be incubated for twenty-eight (28) hours before examining the results. If an examination of
the results at twenty-eight (28) hours is not convenient, then the results may be examined at any time between
twenty-eight (28) and forty-eight (48) hours.


(4) [Reserved]

(5) Public water systems shall conduct fecal coliform analysis in accordance with the
following procedures. When the MTF Technique or Presence-Absence (P-A) Coliform
Test is used to test for total coliforms, shake the lactose-positive presumptive tube or P-A
bottle vigorously and transfer the growth with a sterile 3mm loop or sterile applicator
stick into a brilliant green lactose bile broth and EC medium to determine the presence of
total and fecal coliforms, respectively. For EPA-approved analytical methods which use
a membrane filter, remove the membrane containing the total coliform colonies from the
substrate with a sterile forceps and carefully curl and insert the membrane into a tube of
EC medium. (The laboratory may first remove a small portion of selected colonies for
verification). Gently shake the inoculated EC tubes to insure adequate mixing and
incubate in a water bath at 44.5 0.2C for twenty-four (24) two (2) hours. Gas
production of any amount in the inner fermentation tube of the EC medium indicates a
positive fecal coliform test. The preparation of EC medium is described in the 18th
edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1992,
Method 9221E --


pp. 9-52, paragraph la. Public water systems need only determine the presence or
absence of fecal coliforms; a determination of fecal coliform density is not required.

(6) Public water systems must conduct analysis of Escherichia Coli in accordance
with one of the following analytical methods:

(i) EC medium supplemented with 50 g/ml of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-
glucuronide (MUG) (final concentration). EC medium is described in the 18th
edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1992,









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

Method 9221E-p.9-52, paragraph la. MUG may be added to the EC medium
before autoclaving. EC medium supplemented with 50 g/ml of MUG is
commercially available. At least 10 ml of EC medium supplemented with MUG
must be used. The inner inverted fermentation tube may be omitted. The
procedure for transferring a total coliform-positive culture to EC medium
supplemented with MUG shall be as specified in paragraph (i)(5) of this section
for transferring a total coliform-positive culture to EC medium. Observe
fluorescence with an ultraviolet light (366 nm) in the dark after incubating the
tube at 44.5 +/- 0.2 oC for 24 +/- 2 hours; or

(ii) Nutrient agar supplemented with 100 g/ml 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-
glucuronide (MUG) (final concentration). Nutrient agar is described in the 18th
edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1992,
p.9-47 to 9-48. This test is used to determine if a total coliform-positive sample,
as determined by the Membrane Filter Technique or any other method in which a
membrane filter is used, contains E. Coli. Transfer the membrane filter
containing a total coliform colony(ies) to nutrient agar supplemented with 100
g/ml (final concentration) of MUG. After incubating the agar plate at 35 oC for
4


hours, observe the colony(ies) under ultraviolet light (366nm) in the dark for
flourescence. Ifflourescence is visible, E. Coli are present.

(iii) Minimal medium ONPG-MUG (MMO-MUG) Test, as set forth in the
article "National Field Evaluation of a Defined Substrate Method for the
Simultaneous Detection of Total Coliforms and E. Coli from Drinking Water:
Comparison with Presence-Absence Techniques" (Edberg et al.), Applied and
Environmental Microbiology, Volume 55, pp. 1003-1008, April 1989. (Note: The
Autoanalysis Colilert System is an MMO-MUG test). If the MMO-MUG test is
total coliform-positive after a 24-hour incubation, test the medium for
flourescence with a 366-nm ultraviolet light (preferably with a 6-watt lamp) in the
dark. Ifflourescence is observed, the sample is E. Coli- positive. Ifflourescence
is questionable (cannot definitively read) after 24 hours incubation, incubate the
culture for an additional 4 hours (but not to exceed 28 hours total), and again test
the medium for flourescence. The MMO-MUG Test with the hepes buffer in lieu
of the phosphate buffer is the only approved formulation for the detection of E.
Coli.

(iv) The Colisure Test. A description of the Colisure Test may be obtained
from the Millipore Corporation, Technical Services Department, 80 Ashby Road,









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

Bedford, MA 01730.

(7) As an option to paragraph (i)(6)(iii) of this section, a system with a total coliform-
positive, MUG-negative, MMO-MUG test may further analyze the culture for the
presence ofE. Coli by transferring a 0.1 ml, 28-hour MMO-MUG culture to EC medium
+ MUG with a pipet. The formulation and incubation conditions of EC medium + MUG,
and observation of the results are described in paragraph (i)(6)(i) of this section.


Section 1303-42. Turbidity sampling and analytical requirements

(a) Samples shall be taken by suppliers of water for both community water systems and non-
community water systems at a representative entry points) to the water distribution system at
least once per day, for the purpose of making turbidity measurements to determine compliance
with section 1303-23. If DPNR determines that a reduced sampling frequency in a non-
community system will not pose a risk to the public health, it can reduce the required sampling
frequency. The option of reducing the turbidity frequency shall be permitted only in those public
water systems that practice disinfection and which maintain an active residual disinfectant in the
distribution system, and in those cases where DPNR has indicated in writing that no
unreasonable risk to health exists under the circumstances of this option. The turbidity analysis
shall be made by the Nephelometric Method in accordance with the recommendations set forth in
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health
Association, 18th Edition, 1992 or "Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Substances in
Environmental Samples", EPA-600/R-93-100, August 1993. Analytical test procedures
contained in Technical Notes on Drinking Water Methods, EPA-600/R-94-173, October 1994
shall be utilized.

(b) If the result of a turbidity analysis indicates that the maximum allowable limit has been
exceeded, the sampling and measurement shall be confirmed by resampling as soon as
practicable and preferably within one (1) hour. If the repeat sample confirms that the maximum
allowable limit has been exceeded, the supplier of water shall report to DPNR within forty-eight
(48) hours. The repeat sample shall be the sample used for the purpose of calculating the
monthly average. If the monthly average of the daily samples exceeds the maximum allowable
limit, or if the average of two (2) samples taken on consecutive days exceeds 5TU, the supplier
of water shall report to DPNR and notify the public as directed in section 1303-51 and section
1303-52.


(c) Sampling for non-community water systems shall begin within two (2) years after the
effective date of this chapter.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

(d) The requirements of this section 1303-42 shall apply only to public water systems which
use water obtained in whole or in part from surface sources.


Section 1303-43. Inorganic chemical sampling and analytical requirements

Community water systems and non-transient, non-community water systems shall conduct
monitoring to determine compliance with the maximum contaminant levels specified in Section
1303-21 in accordance with this section. Non-community water systems shall conduct
monitoring to determine compliance with the nitrate and nitrite maximum contaminant levels in
Section 1303-21 (as appropriate) in accordance with this section.

(a) Analyses for the purpose of determining compliance with Section 1303-21 are required as
follows:

(1) GROUNDWATER SAMPLING POINTS: Groundwater systems shall take a minimum
of one sample at every entry point to the distribution system which is representative of
each well after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point) beginning in the initial
compliance period. The system shall take each sample at the same sampling point unless
conditions make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment
plant.

(2) SURFACE WATER SAMPLING POINTS: Surface water systems [Note: For purposes
of this paragraph, surface water systems include systems with a combination of surface
and ground sources] shall take a minimum of one (1) sample at every entry point to the
distribution system after any application of treatment or in the distribution system at a
point which is representative of each source after treatment (hereafter called a sampling
point) beginning in the initial compliance

period. The system shall take each sample at the same sampling point unless conditions
make another sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant.

(3) MULTIPLE SOURCES: If a system draws water from more than one (1) source and
the sources are combined before distribution, the system must sample at an entry point to
the distribution system during periods of normal operating conditions (i.e., when water is
representative of all sources being used).

(4) COMPOSITE SAMPLING: DPNR may reduce the total number of samples which
must be analyzed by allowing the use of compositing. Composite samples from a
maximum of five (5) sampling points are allowed provided that the detection limit of the
method used for analysis is less than one-fifth of the MCL. Compositing of samples must










Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

be done in the laboratory.

(i) If the concentration in the composite sample is greater than or equal to
one-fifth of the MCL of any inorganic chemical, then a follow-up sample must be
analyzed within fourteen (14) days from each sampling point included in the
composite. These samples must be analyzed for the contaminants which exceeded
one-fifth of the MCL in the composite sample. Detection limits for each
analytical method are the following:


DETECTION LIMITS FOR INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

Contaminant MCL (mg/1) Detection Limit (mg/1)

Antimony 0.006 Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.003(0.0008)6
Atomic Absorption; Platform

Asbestos 7 MFL2 Transmission Electron Microscopy 0.01 MFL

Barium 2 Atomic Absorption; furnace technique: 0.002
Atomic Absorption; direct aspiration: 0.1
Inductively Coupled Plasma: 0.002(0.001')

Beryllium 0.004 Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.0002
Atomic Absorption; Platform 0.000026
Inductively Coupled Plasma3
0.0003

Cadmium 0.005 Atomic Absorption; furnace technique 0.0001
Inductively Coupled Plasma 0.001'

Chromium 0.1 Atomic Absorption; furnace technique 0.001
Inductively Coupled Plasma 0.007(0.001)'

Cyanide 0.2 Distillation, Spectrophotometric4 0.02
Distillation, Automated,
Spectrophotometric4 0.005
Distillation, Selective Electrode4 0.05
Distillation, Amenable, Spectrophotometric' 0.02

Mercury 0.002 Manual Cold Vapor Technique 0.0002
Automated Cold Vapor Technique 0.0002


Nickel


Atomic Absorption; Furnace


0.001(0.0006)6










Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


DETECTION LIMITS FOR INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

Contaminant MCL (mg/1) Detection Limit (mg/1)
Atomic Absorption; Platform
Inductively Coupled Plasma3 0.005
ICP-Mass spectrometry 0.0005

Nitrate 10 (as N) Manual Cadmium Reduction 0.01
Automated Hydrazine Reduction 0.01
Automated Cadmium Reduction 0.05
Ion Selective Electrode 1
Ion Chromatography 0.01

Nitrite 1 (as N) Spectrophotometric 0.01
Automated Cadmium Reduction 0.05
Manual Cadmium Reduction 0.01
Ion Chromatography 0.004

Selenium 0.05 Atomic Absorption; furnace 0.002
Atomic Absorption; gaseous hydride 0.002

Thallium 0.002 Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.001(0.0007)6
Atomic Absorption; Platform
ICP-Mass Spectrometry



Using concentration technique in Appendix A to EPA Method 200.7.
S MFL = million fibers per liter > 10 m.
S Using a 2X preconcentration step as noted in method 200.7. Lower MDLs may be achieved when using a
4x preconcentration.
S Screening methods for total cyanides.
Measures"free" cyanides
S Lower MDLs are reported using stabilized temperature graphite furnace atomic adsorption

(ii) If the population served by the system is > (greater than) 3,300 persons, then compositing
may only be permitted by DPNR at sampling points within a single system. In systems serving
(less than or equal to) 3,300 persons, DPNR may permit compositing among different systems
provided the five (5) sample limit is maintained.

(iii) If duplicates of the original sample taken from each sampling point used in the composite
are available, the system may use these instead of resampling. The duplicates must be analyzed
and the results reported to DPNR within fourteen (14) days of collection.

(5) LOCATION OF IOC MONITORING REQUIREMENTS: The frequency of monitoring for asbestos shall
be in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section; the frequency of monitoring for antimony, barium,
beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium and thallium shall be in










Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

accordance with paragraph (c) of this section; the frequency of monitoring for nitrate shall be in accordance
with paragraph (d) of this section; and the frequency of monitoring for nitrite shall be in accordance with
paragraph (e) of this section.

(b) The frequency of monitoring conducted to determine compliance with the maximum contaminant level for
asbestos specified in Section 1303-21 shall be conducted as follows:















(1) INITIAL SAMPLING FREQUENCY: Each community and non-transient, non-community water system
is required to monitor for asbestos during the first three-year compliance period of each nine-year
compliance cycle beginning in the compliance period starting January 1, 1993.

(2) SAMPLING DURING WAIVER: If the system believes it is not vulnerable to either asbestos
contamination in its source water or due to corrosion of asbestos-cement pipe, or both, it may apply to
DPNR for a waiver of the monitoring requirement in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. If DPNR grants the
waiver, the system is not required to monitor.

(3) BASIS FOR AN ASBESTOS WAIVER: DPNR may grant a waiver based on a consideration of the
following factors:

(i) Potential asbestos contamination of the water source, and

(ii) the use of asbestos-cement pipe for finished water distribution and the corrosive nature of
the water.

(4) EFFECT OF AN ASBESTOS WAIVER: A waiver remains in effect until the completion of the three-
year compliance period. Systems not receiving a waiver must monitor in accordance with the provisions of
paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(5) DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM VULNERABILITY FOR ASBESTOS: A system vulnerable to asbestos
contamination due solely to corrosion of asbestos-cement pipe shall take one (1) sample at a tap served by
asbestos-cement pipe and under conditions where asbestos contamination is most likely to occur.

(6) SOURCE WATER VULNERABILITY FOR ASBESTOS: A system vulnerable to asbestos contamination
due solely to source water shall monitor in accordance with the provision of paragraph (a) of this section.

(7) COMBINED ASBESTOS VULNERABILITY: A system vulnerable to asbestos contamination due both to
its source water supply










Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments















and corrosion of asbestos-cement pipe shall take one sample at a tap served by asbestos-cement pipe and
under conditions where asbestos contamination is most likely to occur.

(8) VIOLATION OF THE ASBESTOS MCL: A system which exceeds the maximum contaminant levels as
determined in Section 1303-43(i) of this section shall monitor quarterly beginning in the next quarter after
the violation occurred.

(9) ASBESTOS RELIABLY & CONSISTENTLY BELOW THE MCL: DPNR may decrease the quarterly
monitoring requirement to the frequency specified in paragraph (b)(1) provided DPNR has determined that
the system is reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level. In no case can DPNR make
this determination unless a groundwater system takes a minimum of two (2) quarterly samples and a surface
(or combined surface/ground) water system takes a minimum of four (4) quarterly samples.

(10) GRANDFATHERED ASBESTOS DATA: If monitoring data collected after January 1, 1990 are
generally consistent with the requirements of Sectionl303-43(b), then DPNR may allow systems to use that
data to satisfy the monitoring requirement for the initial compliance period beginning January 1, 1993.

(c) The frequency of monitoring conducted to determine compliance with the maximum contaminant levels in
Sectionl303-43(i) for antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, nickel,
selenium, and thallium shall be as follows:

(1) IOCS SAMPLING FREQUENCY: Groundwater systems with one hunred and fifty (150) service
connections or more shall take one sample at each sampling point for all contaminants in Sectionl303-28(c)
during each compliance period (during each compliance period) beginning in the compliance period starting
January 1, 1993. Surface water systems (or combined surface/ground) with one hundred and fifty (150)
service connections or more shall take one (1) sample annually for all contaminants in Sectionl303-28(c)
at each









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments




sampling point beginning January 1, 1993. Groundwater systems with less than one hundred and
fifty (150) service connections shall take one sample at each sampling point for barium,
cadmium, chromium, fluoride, mercury, and selenium during each compliance period (once
every three (3) years) beginning in the compliance period starting January 1, 1993 and for
antimony, beryllium, cyanide, nickel, and thallium beginning in the compliance period starting
January 1, 1996. Surface water systems (or combined surface/ground) with less than one
hundred and fifty (150) service connections shall take one (1) sample annually for barium,
cadmium, chromium, fluoride, mercury, and selenium beginning in the compliance period
starting January 1, 1993 and for antimony, beryllium, cyanide, nickel, and thallium beginning in
the compliance period starting January 1, 1996.

(2) IOCs SAMPLING WAIVER: The system may apply to DPNR for a waiver from the
monitoring frequencies specified in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. DPNR may grant a
public water system a waiver for monitoring of cyanide, provided DPNR determines that
the system is not vulnerable due to a lack of an industrial cyanide source.

(3) IOC SAMPLING DURING A WAIVER: A condition of the waiver shall require that a
system shall take a minimum of one (1) sample while the waiver is effective. The term
during which the waiver is effective shall not exceed one (1) compliance cycle (i.e., nine
(9) years).

(4) BASIS FOR AN IOC WAIVER & GRANDFATHERED DATA: DPNR may grant a
waiver provided surface water systems have monitored annually for at least three (3)
years and groundwater systems have conducted a minimum of three (3) rounds of
monitoring. (At least one (1) sample shall have been taken since January 1, 1990.) Both
surface and groundwater systems shall demonstrate that all previous analytical results
were less than the maximum contaminant level. Systems that use a new water source are
not eligible for a waiver until three rounds of monitoring from the new source have been
completed.

(5) BASIS FOR THE IOC SAMPLING FREQUENCY DURING A WAIVER: In determining the
appropriate reduced monitoring frequency, DPNR shall consider:

(i) Reported concentrations from all previous monitoring;

(ii) the degree of variation in reported concentrations; and

(iii) other factors which may affect contaminant concentrations such as









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

changes in groundwater pumping rates, changes in the system's configuration,
changes in the system's operating procedures, or changes in stream flows or
characteristics.

(6) EFFECT OF AN IOC WAIVER: A decision by DPNR to grant a waiver shall be made
in writing and shall set forth the basis for the determination. The determination may be
initiated by DPNR or upon an application by the public water system. The public water
system shall specify the basis for its request. DPNR shall review and, where appropriate,
revise its determination of the appropriate monitoring frequency when the system submits
new monitoring data or when other data relevant to the system's appropriate monitoring
frequency become available.

(7) EXCEEDANCE OF AN IOC MCL: Systems which exceed the maximum
contaminant levels as calculated in Section 1303-43(i) of this section shall monitor
quarterly beginning in the next quarter after the violation occurred.

(8) IOCs RELIABLY & CONSISTENTLY BELOW THE MCL: DPNR may decrease the
quarterly monitoring requirement to the frequencies specified in paragraphs (c)(1) and
(c)(2) provided it has determined that the system is reliably and consistently below the
maximum contaminant level. In no case can DPNR make this determination unless a
ground water


system takes a minimum of two (2) quarterly samples and a surface water system takes a
minimum of four quarterly samples.

(d) All public water systems (community; non-transient, non-community; and
non-community systems) shall monitor to determine compliance with the maximum contaminant
level for nitrate in Sectionl303-21.

(1) INITIAL NITRATE SAMPLING: Community and non-transient, non-community water
systems served by groundwater systems shall monitor annually beginning January 1,
1993; systems served by surface water shall monitor quarterly beginning January 1, 1993.

(2) GROUNDWATER REPEAT NITRATE SAMPLING FREQUENCY: For community and
non-transient, non-community water systems, the repeat monitoring frequency for ground
water systems shall be quarterly for at least one (1) year following any one sample in
which the concentration is fifty percent (50%) of the MCL. DPNR may allow a
groundwater system to reduce the sampling frequency to annually after four (4)
consecutive quarterly samples are reliably and consistently less than the MCL.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

(3) SURFACE WATER REPEAT NITRATE SAMPLING FREQUENCY: For community and
non-transient, non-community water systems, DPNR may allow a surface water system to
reduce the sampling frequency to annually if all analytical results from four (4)
consecutive quarters are < fifty percent (50%) of the MCL. A surface water system shall
return to quarterly monitoring if any one sample is fifty percent (50%) of the MCL.

(4) TRANSIENT NON-COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEM NITRATE SAMPLING FREQUENCY:
Each transient non-community water system shall monitor annually beginning January 1,
1993.

(5) SCHEDULING ANNUAL NITRATE REPEAT SAMPLES: After the initial round of
quarterly sampling is completed, each community and non-transient non-community
system which is monitoring annually shall take subsequent samples during the quarters)
which previously resulted in the highest analytical result.

(e) All public water systems (community; non-transient, non-community; and transient,
non-community systems) shall monitor to determine compliance with the maximum contaminant
level for nitrite in Sectionl303-21 (b).

(1) INITIAL NITRITE SAMPLING: All public water systems shall take one (1) sample at
each sampling point in the compliance
period beginning January 1, 1993 and ending December 31, 1995.

(2) UNDER THE NITRITE TRIGGER LEVEL: After the initial sample, systems where an
analytical result for nitrite is < fifty percent (50%) of the MCL shall monitor at the
frequency specified by DPNR.

(3) ABOVE THE NITRITE TRIGGER LEVEL: For community, non-transient,
non-community, and transient non-community water systems, the repeat monitoring
frequency for any water system shall be quarterly for at least one (1) year following any
one (1) sample in which the concentration is fifty percent (50%) of the MCL. DPNR
may allow a system to reduce the sampling frequency to annually after determining the
system is reliably and consistently less than the MCL.

(4) SCHEDULING OF ANNUAL NITRITE REPEAT SAMPLES: Systems which are
monitoring annually shall take each subsequent sample during the quarters) which
previously resulted in the highest analytical result.

(f) Confirmation Sampling.

(1) DEADLINE FOR IOCS CONFIRMATION SAMPLES: Where the results of sampling for









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride,
mercury, nickel, selenium, or thallium indicate an exceedance of the maximum
contaminant level, DPNR may require that one
additional sample be collected as soon as possible after the initial sample was taken (but
not to exceed two (2) weeks) at the same sampling point.

(2) DEADLINE FOR NITRATE & NITRITE CONFIRMATION SAMPLES: Where nitrate or
nitrite sampling results indicate an exceedance of the maximum contaminant level, the
system shall take a confirmation sample within twenty-four (24) hours of the system's
receipt of notification of the analytical results of the first sample. Systems unable to
comply with the twenty-four (24) hour sampling requirement must immediately notify the
consumers served by the area served by the public water system in accordance with
Sectionl303-52. Systems exercising this option must take and analyze a confirmation
sample within two (2) weeks of notification of the analytical results of the first sample.

(3) COMPLIANCE CALCULATIONS & CONFIRMATION SAMPLES: If a DPNR-required
confirmation sample is taken for any contaminant, then the results of the initial and
confirmation sample shall be averaged. The resulting average shall be used to determine
the system's compliance in accordance with paragraph (i) of this section. DPNR has the
discretion to delete results of obvious sampling errors.

(g) DPNR may require more frequent monitoring than specified in paragraphs (b), (c), (d)
and (e) of this section or may require confirmation samples for positive and negative results at its
discretion.

(h) Systems may apply to DPNR to conduct more frequent monitoring than the minimum
monitoring frequencies specified in this section.

(i) Compliance with Section 1303-21 shall be determined based on the analytical results)
obtained at each sampling point.

(1) SAMPLING FREQUENCIES GREATER THAN ANNUAL: For systems which are
conducting monitoring at a frequency greater than annual, compliance with the maximum
contaminant levels for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium,
chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium, or thallium is determined by a
running annual average at each sampling point. If the average at any sampling point is
greater than the MCL, then the system is out of compliance. If any one sample would
cause the annual average to be exceeded, then the system is out of compliance
immediately. Any sample below the method detection limit shall be calculated at zero for
the purpose of determining the annual average.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

(2) SAMPLING FREQUENCIES OF ANNUAL OR LESS: For systems which are monitoring
annually, or less frequently, the system is out of compliance with the maximum
contaminant levels for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium,
chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium, or thallium if the level of a
contaminant at any sampling point is greater than the MCL. If a confirmation sample is
required by DPNR, the determination of compliance will be based on the average of the
two (2) samples.

(3) COMPLIANCE CALCULATIONS FOR NITRATE & NITRITE: Compliance with the
maximum contaminant levels for nitrate and nitrite
is determined based on one (1) sample if the levels of these contaminants is below the
MCLs. If the levels of nitrate or nitrite exceed the MCLs in the initial sample, a
confirmation sample is required in accordance with paragraph (f)(2) of this section, and
compliance shall be determined based on the average of the initial and confirmation
samples.

(4) SEPARABLE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: If a public water system has a distribution
system separable from other parts of the distribution system with no interconnections,
DPNR may allow the system to give public notice to only the area served by that portion
of the system which is out of compliance.

(j) Each public water system shall monitor at the time designated by DPNR during each
compliance period.

(k) Inorganic Analysis.

(1) ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR IOCS: Analysis for the following
contaminants shall be conducted in accordance with the methods in the following
Table, or their equivalent as determined by DPNR. Criteria for analyzing barium,
beryllium, cadmium, calcium, chromium, copper, lead, selenium, sodium and
thallium with digestion or directly without digestion, and other analytical test
procedures are contained in Technical Notes on Drinking Water Methods, EPA-
600/R-94-173, October 1994. This document also contains approved
analytical test methods which remain available for compliance monitoring until July 1,
1996. These methods will not be available for use after July 1, 1996.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


Antimony


ICP-Mass Spectrometry


2200.8


Hydride-Atomic Absorption --------- D-3697-92

Atomic Absorption; Platform 2200.9


Atomic Absorption; Furnace


3113B


Inductively Coupled Plasma 2200.7 3120B
Arsenic

ICP-Mass Spectrometry 2200.8

Atomic Absorption; Platform 2200.9

Atomic Absorption; Furnace --------- D-2972-93C 3113B

Hydride Atomic Absorption --------- D-2972-93B 3114B

Asbestos Transmission Electron 9100.1
Microscopy

Transmission Electron 10100.1
Microscopy

Barium Inductively Coupled Plasma 2200.7 3120B

ICP-Mass Sprectrometry 2200.8

Atomic Absorption; Direct --------- 3111D

Atomic Absorption; Furnace --------- 3113B

Beryllium Inductively Coupled Plasma 2200.7 3120B

ICP-Mass Sprectrometry 2200.8

Atomic Absorption; Platform 2200.9

Atomic Absorption; Furnace --------- D-3645-93B 3113B


2200.7


Inductively Coupled Plasma


Cadmium









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


ICP-Mass Spectrometry

Atomic Absorption; Platform

Atomic Absorption; Furnace


2200.8

2200.9


3113B


Chromium Inductively Coupled Plasma 2200.7 3120B



ICP-Mass Spectrometry 2200.8

Atomic Absorption; Platform 2200.9

Atomic Absorption; Furnace --------- 3113B

Cyanide Manual Distillation followed by --------- 4500-CN-C.

Spectrophotometric Amenable --------- D2036-91B 4500CN-G

Spectrophotometric Manual --------- D2036-91A 4500-CN-E 5I-3300-85

Semi-automated 6335.4

Selective Electrode --------- 4500CN-F

Flouride Ion Chromatography 6300.0 D4327-91 4110B


Manual Distill; Color. --------- 4500F-B,D.
SPADNS

Manual Electrode --------- D1179-93B 4500F-C.

Automated Electrode --------11380-
75WE

Automated Alizarin --------- 4500F-E 11129-71W


Mercury


Manual, Cold Vapor

Automated, Cold Vapor


2245.1

1245.2


D3223-91


3112B









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


ICP-Mass Spectrometry

Inductively Coupled Plasma


2200.8

2200.7


3120B


ICP-Mass Spectrometry 2200.8

Atomic Absorption; Platform 2200.9

Atomic Absorption; Direct --------- 3111B


Atomic Absorption; Furnace


3113B


Nitrate Ion Chromatography 6300.0 D4327-91 4110B B-1011

Automated Cadmium 6353.2 D3867-90A 4500-N03-F
Reduction

Ion Selective Electrode --------- 4500-N03-D 7601

Manual Cadmium Reduction

Nitrite Ion Chromatography 6300.0 D4327-91 4110B B-1011

Automated Cadmium 6353.2 D3867-90A 4500-N03-F
Reduction

Manual Cadmium Reduction --------- D3867-90B 4500-N03-E

Spectrophotometric --------- 4500-N02-B

Selenium Hydride-Atomic Absorption --------- D3859-93A 3114B

ICP-Mass Spectrometry 2200.8

Atomic Absorption; Platform 2200.9

Atomic Absorption; Furnace --------- D3859-93B 3113B


Nickel









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


Thallium


ICP-Mass Spectrometry

Atomic Absorption; Platform


2200.8
2200.9


Lead Atomic Absorption; Furnace --------- D3559-90D 3113B

ICP-Mass Spectrometry 2200.8

Atomic Absorption; Platform 2200.9

Copper Atomic Absorption; Furnace --------- D1688-90C 3113B



Atomic Absorption; Direct --------- D1688-90A 3111B
Aspiration

ICP 2200.7 3120B

ICP-Mass Spectrometry 2200.8

Atomic Absorption; Platform 2200.9

pH Electrometric 1150.1 D1293-84 4500-H+-B


------------- 150.2

Conductivity Conductance --------- D1125-91A 2510B

Calcium EDTA Titimetric --------- D511-93A 3500-Ca-D

Atomic Absorption; Direct --------- D511-93B 3111B
Aspiration

Inductively-Coupled Plasma 2200.7 3120B

Alkalinity Titrimetric --------- D1067-92B 2320B


Ortophos-
phatel2


Electrometric Titration


51-1030-85









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


Colorimetric, automated,
ascorbic acid


6365.1


4500-P-F


Clorimetric, ascorbic acid, --------- D515-88A 4500-P-E
single reagent

Colorimetric, --------- --------------- I-1601-85
phosphomolybdate;

automated-segmented flow; --------- --------------- I-2601-90

automated discrete --------- --------------- -2598-85


Ion Chromatography

Colorimetric, molybdate blue;


6300.0


D4327-91


4110


5 -1700-85


automated-segmented flow --------- --------------- -2700-85

Colorimetric --------- D859-88

Molybdosilicate --------- 4500-Si-D

Heteropoly blue --------- 4500-Si-E

Automated method for --------- 4500-Si-F
molybdate-reactive silica


Inductively-coupled plasma


2200.7


3120B


Temperature Thermometric --------- 2550B

Sodium Inductively-Coupled Plasma 2200.7

Atomic Absorption; direct --------- 3111B
aspiration

1 Methods 150.1, 150.2 and 245.2 are available from US EPA, EMSL, Cincinnati, OH 45268. The identical
methods were formerly in "Methods for Chemical Analyses of Water and Wastes", EPA-600/4-79-020, March 983,
which is available at NTIS, PB84-128677.


Silica










Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

2 "Methods for the Determination of Metals in Environmental Samples-Suppplement I", EPA -600/R-94-111, May
1994. Available at NTIS, PB 94-184942.
3 The procedures shall be done in accordance with the Annual Book ofASTMStandards, 1994, Vols. 11.01 and
11.02, American Society for Testing and Materials. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of
the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Copies may be obtained from the
American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103. Copies may be inspected at
EPA's Drinking Water Docket, 401 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460; or at the Office of the Federal Register,
800 North Capitol Street, NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC.
4The procedures shall be done in accordance with the 18th edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of
Water and Wastewater, 1992, American Public Helath Association. This incorporation by reference was approved
by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Copies may be
obtained from the American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20005. Copies
may be inspected at EPA's Drinking Water Docket, 401 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460; or at the Office of
the Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC.
5Available from Books and Open-File Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Box 25425,
Denver, CO 80225-0425.
6 "Methods for the Determination of Inoprganic Substances in Environmental Samples", EPA-600/R-93-100, August
1993. Available at NTIS, PB94-121811.
7 The procedure shall be done in accordance with the Technical Bulletin 601 "Standard Method of Test for Nitrate
in Drinking Water", July 1994, PN 221890-001, Analytical Technology, Inc. This incorporation by reference was
approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Copies
may be obtained form ATI Orion, 529 Main Street, Boston, MA 02129. Copies my be inspected at EPA's Drinking
Water Docket, 401 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460; or at the Office of the Federal Register, 800 North
Capitol Street, NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC.
8 Method B-100.1, "Waters Test Method for Determination of Nitrite/Nitrate in Water Using Single Column Ion
Chromatography", Millipore Corporation, Waters Chromatography Division, 34 Maple Street, Milford, MA 01757.
9 Method 100.1, "Analytical Method for Determination of Asbestos Fibers in Water", EPA-600/4-83-043, EPA,
September 1983. Available at NTIS, PB83-260471.
10 Method 100.2, "Determination of Asbestos Structure Over 10- m In Lenght In Drinking Water", EPA-600/R-94-
134, June 1994. Available at NTIS, PB83-260471.
1 The procedures shall be done in accordance with the Industrial Method No. 129-71W, "Fluoride in Water and
Wastewater", December 1972, and Method No. 380-75WE, "Fluoride in Water and Wastewater", February 1976,
Technicon Industrial Systems. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register
in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. Copies may be obtained from the Technicon Industrial
Systems, Tarrytown, NY 10591. Copies may be obtained form ATI Orion, 529 Main Street, Boston, MA 02129.
Copies my be inspected at EPA's Drinking Water Docket, 401 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460; or at the
Office of the Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC.
12 Unfiltered, no digestion of hydrolysis.

(2) Sample Collection Procedures for IOCs: Sample collection for antimony,
asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury,
nickel, nitrate, nitrite, selenium, and thallium under this section shall be conducted
using the sample preservation, container, and maximum holding time procedures
specified in the table below:


Contaminant Preservative1 Container2 Time3










Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


Contaminant Preservative1 Container2 Time3

Antimony Cone HNO3 to pH<2 P or G 6 months

Asbestos Cool, 4 C P or G

Barium Conc HNO3 to pH<2 P or G 6 months

Beryllium Conc HNO3 to pH<2 P or G 6 months

Cadmium Conc HNO3 to pH<2 P or G 6 months

Chromium Conc HNO3 to pH<2 P or G 6 months

Cyanide Cool, 4 C, NAOH to pH >124 P or G 14 days

Fluoride None P or G 1 month

Mercury Conc HNO3 to pH<2 P or G 28 days

Nickel Conc HNO3 to pH<2 P or G 6 months

Nitrate Chlorinated Cool, 4 C P or G 28 days.

Non-chlorinated Conc H2SO4 to pH<2 P or G 14 days

Nitrite Cool, 4 C P or G 48 hours.

Selenium Conc HNO3 to pH<2 P or G 6 months

Thallium Conc HNO3 to pH<2 P or G 6 months

1. If HNO3 cannot be used because of shipping restrictions, sample may be initially preserved by icing and
immediately shipping it to the laboratory. Upon receipt in the laboratory, the sample must be acidified with con HO3
to pH <2. At time of analysis, sample container should be thoroughly rinsed with 1:1 HNO3; washings should be
added to sample.

2. P = plastic, hard or soft; G = glass, hard or soft.

3. In all cases, samples should be analyzed as soon after collection as possible.

4. See methods) for the information for preservation.

(3) LABORATORY CERTIFICATION: Analysis under this section shall only be
conducted by laboratories that have received approval by EPA or DPNR.

61









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

Laboratories may conduct sample analysis under provisional certification until
January 1, 1996. To receive approval to conduct analyses for antimony, asbestos,
barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cyanide, fluoride, mercury, nickel,
nitrate, nitrite, selenium, and thallium the laboratory must:

(i) Analyze Performance Evaluation samples which include those
substances provided by EPA Environmental Monitoring and Support
Laboratory or equivalent samples provided by DPNR.

(ii) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses that are within the
following acceptance limits:



Contaminant Acceptance Limit

Antimony 6Pound30 at 0.006 mg/1

Asbestos 2 standard deviations based on study statistics

Barium 15% at 0.15 mg/1

Beryllium 15% at 0.001 mg/1

Cadmium 20% at 0.002 mg/1

Chromium 15% at 0.Olmg/1

Cyanide 25% at 0. mg/1

Fluoride 10% at 1 to 10 mg/1

Mercury 30% at 0.0005 mg/1

Nickel 15% at 0.01 mg/1

Nitrate 10% at 0.4 mg/1

Nitrite 15% at 0.4 mg/1









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


Contaminant Acceptance Limit
Selenium 20% at 0.01 mg/1

Thallium 30% at 0.002 mg/1



(1) Analyses for the purpose of determining compliance with Section l303-21(a) shall be
conducted using the requirements specified in paragraphs (1) through (q) of this section.

(1) Analyses for all community water systems utilizing surface water sources shall be
completed by June 24, 1978. These analyses shall be repeated at yearly intervals.

(2) Analyses for all community water systems utilizing only ground water sources
shall be completed by June 24, 1979. These analyses shall be repeated at three-year
intervals.

(3) For non-community water systems, whether supplied by surface or ground
sources, analyses for nitrate shall be completed by December 24, 1980. These analyses
shall be repeated at intervals determined by DPNR.
(4) DPNR has the authority to determine compliance or initiate enforcement action
based upon analytical results and other information compiled by their sanctioned
representatives and agencies.

(m) If the result of an analysis made under paragraph (1) of this section indicates that the level
of any contaminant listed in Section1303-21(a) exceeds the maximum contaminant level, the
supplier of the water shall report to DPNR within seven (7) days and initiate three (3) additional
analyses at the same sampling point within one (1) month.

(n) When the average of four (4) analyses made pursuant to paragraph (m) of this section,
rounded to the same number of significant figures as the maximum contaminant level for the
substance in question, exceeds the maximum contaminant level, the supplier of water shall notify
DPNR pursuant to Sectionl303-51 and give notice to the public pursuant to Sectionl303-52.
Monitoring after public notification shall be at a frequency designated by DPNR and shall
continue until the maximum contaminant level has not been exceeded in two (2) successive
samples or until a monitoring schedule as a condition to a variance, exemption or enforcement
action shall become effective.

(o) The provisions of paragraphs (m) and (n) of this section notwithstanding, compliance
with the maximum contaminant level for nitrate shall be determined on the basis of the mean of









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

two (2) analyses. When a level exceeding the maximum contaminant level for nitrate is found, a
second analysis shall be initiated within twenty-four (24) hours, and if the mean of the two (2)
analyses exceeds the maximum contaminant level, the supplier of water shall report his findings
to DPNR pursuant to Sectionl303.51 and shall notify the public pursuant to Sectionl303-52.

(p) For the initial analyses required by paragraph (1)(1), (2) or (3) of this section, data for
surface waters acquired within one (1) year prior to the effective date and data for ground waters
acquired within three (3) years prior to the effective date of this part may be substituted at the
discretion of DPNR.

(q) [Reserved]


Section 1303-44A. Organic chemicals other than trihalomethanes, sampling and analytical
requirements

(a)-(d) Reserved.

(e) Analyses for the contaminants in this section shall be conducted using the following EPA
methods or their equivalent as approved by DPNR or EPA. Methods 502.2, 505, 507, 508,
508A, 515.1 and 531.1 are in Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds In Drinking
Water, EPA-600/4-88-039, December 1988, Revised, July 1991. Methods 506, 547, 550, 550.1
and 551 are in Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds In Drinking Water-
Supplement I, EPA-600/R-90-020, July 1990. Methods 515.2, 524.2, 548.1, 549.1, 552.1 and
555 are in Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds In Drinking Water-Supplement
II, EPA-600/R-92-129, August 1992. Method 1613 is titled "Tetra-through Octa-Chlorinated
Dioxins and Furans by Isotope-Dilution HRGC/HRMS", EPA-821-B-94-005, October 1994.
Method 6651, shall be followed in accordance with the 18th edition of Standard Methods for the
Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1992, American Public Health Association. Method
6610, shall be followed in accordance with the 18th edition of Standard Methods for the
Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1994, American Public Health Association. Other
analytical test procedures are contained in Technical Notes on Drinking Water Methods, EPA-
600/R-94-173, October 1994. This document contains approved analytical methods which
remain available for compliance monitoring until July 1, 1996. These methods will not be
available for use after July 1, 1996. EPA Methods 504.1, 508.1 and 525.2 are available from
EPA EMSL, Cincinnati, OH 45268.



CONTAMINANT METHOD









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


CONTAMINANT METHOD
Benzene 502.2, 524.2

Carbon Tetrachloride 502.2, 524.2, 551

Chlorobenzene 502.2, 524.2

1,2-Dichlorobenzene 502.2, 524.2

1,4-Dichlorobenzene 502.2, 524.2

1,2-Dicloroethane 502.2, 524.2

cis-Dichloroethylene 502.2, 524.2

trans-Dichloroethylene 502.2, 524.2

Dichloromethane 502.2, 524.2

1,2-Dichloropropane 502.2, 524.2

Ethylbenzene 502.2, 524.2

Styrene 502.2, 524.2

Tetrachloroethylene 502.2, 524.2, 551

1,1,1-Trichloroethane 502.2, 524.2, 551

Trichloroethylene 502.2, 524.2, 551

Toluene 502.2, 524.2

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 502.2, 524.2

1,1-Dichloroethylene 502.2, 524.2

1,1,2-Trichloroethane 502.2, 524.2

Vinyl Chloride 502.2, 524.2

Xylenes (total) 502.2, 524.2

2,3,7,8-TCDD (dioxin) 1613

2,4-D 515.2, 555, 515.1









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


CONTAMINANT METHOD
2,4,5-TP (Silvex) 515.2, 555, 515.1

Alachlor 5051, 507, 525.2, 508.1

Atrazine 5051, 507, 525.2, 508.1

Benzo(a)pyrene 525.2, 550, 550.1

Carbofuran 531.1, 6610

Chlordane 505, 508, 525.2, 508.1

Dalapon 552.1, 515.1

Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate 506, 525.2

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 506, 525.2

Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) 504.1, 551

Dinoseb 515.2, 555, 515.1

Diquat 549.1

Endothall 548.1

Endrin 505, 507, 525.2, 508.1

Ethylene dibromide (EDB) 504.1, 551

Glyphosate 547, 6651

Heptachlor 505, 507, 525.2, 508.1

Heptachlor Epoxide 505, 507, 525.2, 508.1

Hexachlorobenzene 505, 507, 525.2, 508.1

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 505, 507, 525.2, 508.1

Lindane 505, 507, 525.2, 508.1

Methoxychlor 505, 507, 525.2, 508.1

Oxamyl 531.1, 6610









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


CONTAMINANT METHOD
PCBs2 (as decachlorobiphenyl) 508A

PCBs2 (as Aroclors) 505, 508

Pentachlorophenol 515.2, 525.2, 555, 515.1

Picloram 515.2, 555, 515.1

Simazine 5051, 507, 525.2, 508.1

Toxaphene 505,508,525.2

Total Trihalomethanes 502.2, 524.2, 551

1A nitrogen-phosphorous detector should be substituted for the electron capture detector in
Method 505 (or another approved method should be used) to determine alachlor, atrazine and
simazine, if lower detection limits are required.

2PCBs are quantitatively identified as Aroclors and measured for compliance purposes as
decachlorobiphenyl.
(f) Beginning on January 1, 1993: analysis of the contaminants listed in Section1303-28
(a)(1) through (18), and beginning January 1, 1996: analysis of the contaminants listed in
Sectionl303-28(a)(19) through (21), for the purpose of determining compliance with the
maximum contaminant level shall be conducted as follows:

(1) VOC GROUNDWATER MONITORING PROTOCOLS: Groundwater systems shall take
a minimum of one sample at every entry point to the distribution system which is
representative of each well after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point). Each
sample must be taken at the same sampling point unless conditions make another
sampling point more representative of each source, treatment plant, or within the
distribution system.

(2) VOC SURFACE WATER MONITORING PROTOCOLS: Surface water systems (or
combined surface/ground) shall take a minimum of one (1) sample at points in the
distribution system that are representative of each source or at each entry point to the
distribution system after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point). Each sample must
be taken at the same

sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of
each source, treatment plant, or within the distribution system.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

(3) MULTIPLE SOURCES: If the system draws water from more than one (1) source and
the sources are combined before distribution, the system must sample at an entry point to
the distribution system during periods of normal operating conditions (i.e., when water
representative of all sources is being used).

(4) INITIAL VOCs SAMPLING FREQUENCY: Each community and non-transient non-
community water system shall take four (4) consecutive quarterly samples for each
contaminant listed in Section1303-28(a)(2) through (18) during each compliance period,
beginning in the compliance period starting January 1, 1993 and (19) through (21)
beginning in the compliance period starting on January 1, 1996.

(5) GRANDFATHERED VOC DATA WITH No DETECTS: If the initial monitoring for
contaminants listed in Sectionl303-28(a)(1) through (8) and the monitoring for the
contaminants listed in Section1303-28(a)(9) through (18) as allowed in paragraph (f)(18)
has been completed by December 31, 1992, and the system did not detect any
contaminant listed in Section1303-28(a)(1) through (18), then each ground and surface
water system may take one (1) sample annually beginning January 1, 1993. If the initial
monitoring for contaminants listed in Sectionl303-28(a)(19) through (21) as allowed in
paragraph (f)(18) has been completed by December 31, 1995, and the system did not
detect any contaminant listed in Sectionl303-28(a)(19) through (21), then each ground
and surface water system may take one (1) sample annually beginning January 1, 1996

(6) REDUCED VOC SAMPLING FOR GROUNDWATER SYSTEMS: After a minimum of
three (3) years of annual sampling, DPNR may allow groundwater systems with no
previous detection of any contaminant listed in Sectionl303-28(a) to take one (1) sample
during each compliance period.
(7) VOC SAMPLING WAIVERS: Each community and non-transient, non-community
groundwater system which does not detect a contaminant listed in Sectionl303-28(a)(1) through
(21) may apply to DPNR for a waiver from the requirements of paragraphs (f)(5) and (f)(6) of
this section after completing the initial monitoring. For the purposes of this section, detection is
defined as 0.0005 mg/1. A waiver shall be effective for no more than six (6) years (two (2)
compliance periods). DPNR may also issue waivers to small systems for the initial round of
sampling for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene.

(8) BASIS FOR A VOC SAMPLING WAIVER: DPNR may grant a waiver after evaluating
the following factorss:

(i) Knowledge of previous use (including transport, storage, or disposal) of
the contaminant within the watershed or zone of influence of the system. If a
determination by DPNR reveals no previous use of the contaminant within the
watershed or zone of influence, a waiver may be granted.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


(ii) If previous use of the contaminant is unknown or it has been used
previously, then the following factors shall be used to determine whether a waiver
is granted.

(A) Previous analytical results.

(B) The proximity of the system to a potential point or non-point
source of contamination. Point sources include spills and leaks of
chemicals at or near a water treatment facility or at manufacturing,
distribution, or storage facilities, or from hazardous and municipal waste
landfills and other waste handling or treatment facilities.

(C) The environmental persistence and transport of the contaminants.

(D) The number of persons served by the public water system and the
proximity of a smaller system to a larger system.

(E) How well the water source is protected against contamination, such
as whether it is a surface or groundwater system. Groundwater systems
must consider factors such as depth of the well, the type of soil, and
wellhead protection. Surface water systems must consider watershed
protection.

(9) VOC WAIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUNDWATER SYSTEMS: As a condition of
the waiver a groundwater system must take one (1) sample at each sampling point during
the time the waiver is effective (i.e., one (1) sample during two (2) compliance periods or
six (6) years) and update its vulnerability assessment considering the factors listed in
paragraph (8) of this section. Based on this vulnerability assessment DPNR must
reconfirm that the system is non-vulnerable. If DPNR does not make this reconfirmation
within three years of the initial determination, then the waiver is invalidated and the
system is required to sample annually as specified in paragraph (5) of this section.

(10) VOC WAIVER REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE WATER SYSTEMS: Each community
and non-transient surface water system which does not detect a contaminant listed in
Sectionl303-28(a)(1) through (21) may apply to DPNR for a waiver from the
requirements of (f)(5) of this section after completing the initial monitoring. Systems
meeting this criteria must be
determined by the DPNR to be non-vulnerable based on a vulnerability assessment during
each compliance period. Each system receiving a waiver shall sample at the frequency
specified by DPNR (if any).









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


(11) DETECTION OF A VOC: If a contaminant listed in Section1303-28(a)(2) through
(21) is detected at a level exceeding 0.0005 mg/1 in any sample, then:
(i) The system must monitor quarterly at each sampling point which resulted
in a detection.

(ii) DPNR may decrease the quarterly monitoring requirement specified in
paragraph (1 1)(i) of this section provided it has determined that the system is
reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level. In no case shall
DPNR make this determination unless a groundwater system takes a minimum of
two (2) quarterly samples and a surface water system takes a minimum of four (4)
quarterly samples.

(iii) If DPNR determines that the system is reliably and consistently below the
MCL, DPNR may allow the system to monitor annually. Systems which monitor
annually must monitor during the quarters) which previously yielded the highest
analytical result.

(iv) Systems which have three (3) consecutive annual samples with no
detection of a contaminant may apply to DPNR for a waiver as specified in
paragraph (f)(7) of this section.

(v) Groundwater systems which have detected one (1) or more of the
following two-carbon organic compounds: trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene,
1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, cis- 1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-
dichloroethylene, or 1,1-dichloroethylene shall monitor quarterly for vinyl
chloride. A vinyl chloride sample shall be taken at each sampling point at which
one (1) or more of the two-carbon organic compounds was detected. If the results
of the first analysis do not detect vinyl chloride, DPNR may reduce the quarterly
monitoring frequency of vinyl chloride monitoring to one (1) sample during each
compliance period. Surface water systems are required to monitor for vinyl
chloride as specified by DPNR.

(12) MCL VIOLATION WITH FOLLOW UP RELIABLY & CONSISTENTLY BELOW THE
MCL: Systems which violate the requirements of Section1303-28(a)(1) through (21), as
determined by paragraph (15) of this section, must monitor quarterly. After a minimum
of four (4) consecutive quarterly samples which show the system is in compliance as
specified in paragraph (15) of this section the system and DPNR determines that the
system is reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level, the system
may monitor at the frequency and time specified in paragraph (1 1)(iii) of this section.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

(13) VOC CONFIRMATION SAMPLES: DPNR may require a confirmation sample for
positive or negative results. If a confirmation sample is required by DPNR, the result
must be averaged with the first sampling result and the average is used for the compliance
determination as specified by paragraph (15). DPNR has the discretion to delete results of
obvious sampling errors from this calculation.

(14) VOC COMPOSITE SAMPLES: DPNR may reduce the total number of samples a
system must analyze by allowing the use of compositing. Composite samples from a
maximum of five (5) sampling points are allowed, provided that the detection limit of the
method used for analysis is less than one-fifth of the MCL. Compositing of samples must
be done in the laboratory and analyzed within fourteen (14) days of sample collection.

(i) If the concentration in the composite sample is 0.0005 mg/1 for any
contaminant listed in Section1303-28(a), then a follow-up sample must be taken
and analyzed within fourteen (14) days from each sampling point included in the
composite.

(ii) If duplicates of the original sample taken from each sampling point used in
the composite are available, the system may use these instead of resampling. The
duplicate must be analyzed and the results reported to DPNR within fourteen
(14) days of collection.
(iii) Compositing may only be permitted by DPNR at sampling points within a
single system, unless the population served by the system is 3,300 persons. In
systems serving 3,300 persons, DPNR may permit compositing among different
systems provided the five (5) sample limit is maintained.

(iv) Compositing samples prior to GC analysis.

(A) Add 5 ml or equal larger amounts of each sample (up to five (5)
samples are allowed) to a 25 ml glass syringe. Special precautions must
be made to maintain zero headspace in the syringe.

(B) The samples must be cooled at 4 C during this step to minimize
volatilization losses.

(C) Mix well and draw out a 5 ml aliquot for analysis.

(D) Follow sample introduction, purging, and desorption steps
described in the method.

(E) If less than five (5) samples are used for compositing, a









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

proportionately small syringe may be used.

(v) Compositing samples prior to GC/MS analysis.

(A) Inject 5 ml or equal larger amounts of each aqueous sample (up to
five samples are allowed) into a 25 ml purging device using the sample
introduction technique described in the method.

(B) The total volume of the sample in the purging device must be 25
ml.

(C) Purge and desorb as described in the method.


(15) VOC COMPLIANCE CALCULATIONS: Compliance with Section1303-28(a)(1)
through (21) shall be determined based on the analytical results obtained at each sampling
point.

(i) For systems which are conducting monitoring at a frequency greater than
annual, compliance is determined by a running annual average of all samples
taken at each sampling point. If the annual average of any sampling point is
greater than the MCL, then the system is out of compliance. If the initial sample
or a subsequent sample would cause the annual average to be exceeded, then the
system is out of compliance immediately.

(ii) If monitoring is conducted annually, or less frequently, the system is out of
compliance if the level of a contaminant at any sampling point is greater than the
MCL. If a confirmation sample is required by DPNR, the determination of
compliance will be based on the average of two (2) samples.

(iii) If a public water system has a distribution system separable from other
parts of the distribution system with no interconnections, DPNR may allow the
system to give public notice to only that area served by that portion of the system
which is out of compliance.

(16) [Reserved]

(17) LABORATORY CERTIFICATION: Analysis under this section shall only be conducted
by laboratories that are certified by EPA or DPNR according to the following conditions
(Laboratories may conduct sample analysis under provisional certification until Janaury 1,
1996):









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


(i) To receive certification to conduct analyses for the contaminants in
Section1303-28(a)(2) through (21) the laboratory must:

(A) Analyze Performance Evaluation samples which include these
substances provided by EPA Environmental Monitoring and Support
Laboratory or equivalent samples provided by DPNR.

(B) Achieve the quantitative acceptance limits under paragraphs
(f)(17)(i)(C) and (D) of this section for at least eighty percent (80%) of the
regulated organic chemicals listed in Section1303-28(a)(2) through (21).

(C) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses performed under
(f)(17)(i)(A) that are within twenty percent (20%) of the actual amount
of the substances in the Performance Evaluation sample when the actual
amount is greater than or equal to 0.010 mg/1.

(D) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses performed under
(f)(17)(i)(A) of this section that are within forty percent (40%) of the
actual amount of the substances in the Performance Evaluation sample
when the actual amount is less than 0.010 mg/1.

(E) Achieve a method detection limit of 0.0005 mg/1 according to EPA
procedures in Appendix B of Part 136 of 40 CFR Chapter 1.

(F) Be currently approved by EPA or DPNR for the analyses of
trihalomethanes Section 1303-50.

(ii) To receive certification for vinyl chloride, the laboratory must:

(A) Analyze Performance Evaluation samples provided by EPA
Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory or equivalent samples
provided by DPNR.

(B) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses performed under
(f)(17)(ii)(A) of this section that are within forty percent (40%) of the
actual amount of vinyl chloride in the Performance Evaluation sample.

(C) Achieve a method detection limit of 0.0005 mg/1, according to
EPA procedures in Appendix B of Part 136 of 40 CFR Chapter 1.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

(D) Obtain certification for the contaminants listed in Section 1303-
28(a) (1) through (21).

(18) GRANDFATHERED VOC DATA: DPNR may allow the use of monitoring data
collected after January 1, 1988 required under section 1445 of the Act for purposes of
initial monitoring compliance. If the data are generally consistent with the other
requirements in this section, DPNR may use these data (i.e., a single sample rather than
four (4) quarterly samples) to satisfy the initial monitoring requirement of paragraph
(f)(4) of this section. Systems which use grandfathered samples and did not detect any
contaminants listed in Sectionl303-28(a)(19) through (21) shall begin monitoring
annually in accordance with paragraph (f)(5) of this section beginning January 1, 1996.

(19) INCREASED VOC SAMPLING: DPNR may increase required monitoring where
necessary to detect variations within the system.

(20) LABORATORY CERTIFICATION: Each certified laboratory must determine the
method detection limit (MDL), as defined in 40 CFR Chapter 1, Appendix B to Part 136,
at which it is capable of detecting VOCs. The acceptable MDL is 0.0005 mg/1. This
concentration is the detection concentration for purposes of this section.

(21) DPNR DESIGNATED VOC SAMPLING SCHEDULES: Each public water system shall
monitor at the time designated by DPNR within each compliance period.
(g) For systems in operation before January 1, 1993, for purposes of initial monitoring,
analysis of the contaminants listed in Section 1303-28(a)(1) through (8) for purposes of
determining compliance with the maximum contaminant levels shall be conducted in the same
manner listed in Section1303-44A (f). However, monitoring frequency for these systems should
occur as follows:

All community water systems and non-transient, non-community water systems serving more
than 10,000 people shall analyze all distribution or entry-point samples, as appropriate,
representing all source waters beginning no later than January 1, 1988. All community water
systems and non-transient non-community water systems serving from 3,300 to 10,000 people
shall analyze all distribution or entry-point samples, as required in this paragraph (g),
representing source waters no later than January 1, 1989. All other community and non-transient,
non-community water systems shall analyze distribution or entry-point samples, as required in
this paragraph (g), representing all source waters beginning no later than January 1, 1991.

(h) Analysis of the contaminants listed in Section1303-22(a) for the purposes of determining
compliance with the maximum contaminant level shall be conducted as follows [Note:
monitoring for the contaminants aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, and aldicarb sulfone shall be
conducted in accordance with Sectionl303-57]:









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


(1) SOC GROUNDWATER MONITORING PROTOCOLS: Groundwater systems shall take
a minimum of one (1) sample at every entry point to the distribution system which is
representative of each well after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point).
Each sample must be taken at the same sampling point unless conditions make another
sampling point more representative of each source or treatment plant.

(2) SOC SURFACE WATER MONITORING PROTOCOLS: Surface water systems [Note:
For purposes of this paragraph, surface water systems include systems with a combination
of surface and ground sources] shall take a minimum of one (1) sample at points in the
distribution system that are representative of each source or at each entry point to the
distribution
system after treatment (hereafter called a sampling point). Each sample must be taken at the
same sampling point unless conditions make another sampling point more representative of each
source or treatment plant.

(3) MULTIPLE SOURCES: If the system draws water from more than one source and
the sources are combined before distribution, the system must sample at an entry point to
the distribution system during periods of normal operating conditions (i.e., when water
representative of all sources is being used).

(4) SOC MONITORING FREQUENCY:

(i) Each community and non-transient non-community water system shall
take four consecutive quarterly samples for contaminants listed in Sectionl303-
22(b)(1)and (5) through (18) during each compliance period beginning with the
initial compliance period. Each community and non-transient non-community
water system shall take four (4) consecutive quarterly samples for contaminants
listed in Sectionl303-22(b)(19) through (33) during each compliance period
beginning with the compliance period starting January 1, 1996.

(ii) Systems serving more than 3,300 persons which do not detect a
contaminant in the initial compliance period, may reduce the sampling frequency
to a minimum of two (2) quarterly samples in one (1) year during each repeat
compliance period.

(iii) Systems serving less than or equal to 3,300 persons which do not detect a
contaminant in the initial compliance period may reduce the sampling frequency
to a minimum of one (1) sample during each repeat compliance period.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments



(5) SOC SAMPLING WAIVERS: Each community and non-transient water system may
apply to DPNR for a waiver from the requirement of paragraph (4) of this section. A
system must reapply for a waiver for each compliance period.

(6) BASIS FOR AN SOC SAMPLING WAIVER: DPNR may grant a waiver after
evaluating the following factorss: Knowledge of previous use (including transport,
storage, or disposal) of the contaminant within the watershed or zone of influence of the
system. If a determination by DPNR reveals no previous use of the contaminant within
the watershed or zone of influence, a waiver may be granted. If previous use of the
contaminant is unknown or it has been used previously, then the following factors shall
be used to determine whether a waiver is granted.

(i) Previous analytical results.

(ii) The proximity of the system to a potential point or non-point source of
contamination. Point sources include spills and leaks of chemicals at or near a
water treatment facility or at manufacturing, distribution, or storage facilities, or
from hazardous and municipal waste landfills and other waste handling or
treatment facilities. Non-point sources include the use of pesticides to control
insect and weed pests on agricultural areas, forest lands, home and gardens, and
other land application uses.

(iii) The environmental persistence and transport of the pesticide or PCBs.

(iv) How well the water source is protected against contamination due to such
factors as depth of the well and the type of soil and the integrity of the well casing.

(v) Elevated nitrate levels at the water supply source.

(vi) Use of PCBs in equipment used in the production, storage, or distribution
of water (i.e., PCBs used in pumps, transformers, etc.).

(7) DETECTION OF AN SOC: If an organic contaminant listed in Section1303-22(a) is
detected (as defined by paragraph (18) of this section) in any sample, then:

(i) Each system must monitor quarterly at each sampling point which resulted
in a detection.

(ii) DPNR may decrease the quarterly monitoring requirement specified in









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

paragraph (7)(i) of this section provided it has determined that the system is
reliably and consistently below the maximum contaminant level. In no case shall
DPNR make this determination unless a groundwater system takes a minimum of
two (2) quarterly samples and a surface water system takes a minimum of four (4)
quarterly samples.

(iii) After DPNR determines the system is reliably and consistently below the
maximum contaminant level DPNR may allow the system to monitor annually.
Systems which monitor annually must monitor during the quarter that previously
yielded the highest analytical result.

(iv) Systems which have three (3) consecutive annual samples with no
detection of a contaminant may apply to DPNR for a waiver as specified in
paragraph (f) of this section.

(v) If monitoring results in detection of one (1) or more of certain related
contaminants (aldicarb, aldicarb sulfone, aldicarb sulfoxide and heptachlor,
heptachlor epoxide), then subsequent monitoring shall analyze for all related
contaminants.

(8) MCL VIOLATION WITH FOLLOW UP RELIABLY/CONSISTENTLY BELOW THE MCL:
Systems which violate the requirements of Section 1303-22(a) as determined by
paragraph (11) of this section must monitor quarterly. After a minimum of four (4)
quarterly samples show the system is in compliance and DPNR determines the system is
reliably and consistently below the MCL, as specified in paragraph (11) of this section,
the system shall monitor at the frequency specified in paragraph (7)(iii) of this section.

(9) SOC CONFIRMATION SAMPLING: DPNR may require a confirmation sample for
positive or negative results. If a confirmation sample is required by DPNR, the result
must be averaged with the first sampling result and the average used for the compliance
determination as specified by paragraph (11). DPNR has discretion to delete results of
obvious sampling errors from this calculation.

(10) COMPOSITE SOC SAMPLING: DPNR may reduce the total number of samples a
system must analyze by allowing the use of compositing. Composite samples from a
maximum of five (5) sampling points are allowed, provided that the detection limit of the
method used for analysis is less than one-fifth of the MCL. Compositing of samples must
be done in the laboratory and analyzed within fourteen (14) days of sample collection.

(i) If the concentration in the composite sample detects one (1) or more
contaminants listed in Section1303-22(a), then a follow-up sample must be taken









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

and analyzed within fourteen (14) days from each sampling point included in the
composite.

(ii) If duplicates of the original sample taken from each sampling point used in
the composite are available, the system may use these duplicates instead of
resampling. The duplicate must be analyzed and the results reported to DPNR
within fourteen (14) days of collection.

(iii) If the population served by the system is > 3,300 persons, then
compositing may only be permitted by DPNR at sampling points within a single
system. In systems serving 3,300 persons, DPNR may permit compositing
among different systems provided the five (5) sample limit is maintained.

(11) SOC COMPLIANCE CALCULATIONS: Compliance with Section1303-22(a) shall be
determined based on the analytical results obtained at each sampling point.

(i) For systems which are conducting monitoring at a frequency greater than
annual, compliance is determined by a running annual average of all samples
taken at each sampling point. If the annual average of any sampling point is
greater than the MCL, then the system is out of compliance. If the initial sample
or a subsequent sample would cause the annual average to be exceeded, then the
system is out of compliance immediately. Any samples below the detection limit
shall be calculated as zero for purposes of determining the annual average.

(ii) If monitoring is conducted annually, or less frequently, the system is out of
compliance if the level of a contaminant at any sampling point is greater than the
MCL. If a confirmation sample is required by DPNR, the determination of
compliance will be based on the average of two (2) samples.

(iii) If a public water system has a distribution system separable from other
parts of the distribution system with no interconnections, DPNR may allow the
system to give public notice to only that portion of the system which is out of
compliance.

(12) [Reserved]

(13) ANALYSIS FOR PCBs: Analysis for PCBs shall be conducted using the methods in
paragraph (e) of this section:

(i) Each system which monitors for PCBs shall analyze each sample using
either Method 505 or Method 508.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


(ii) If PCBs (as one of seven Aroclors) are detected (as designated in this
paragraph) in any sample analyzed using Methods 505 or 508, the system shall
reanalyze the sample using Method 508A to quantitate PCBs (as
decachlorobiphenyl).


Aroclor Detection Limit (mg/1)

1016 0.00008

1221 0.02

1232 0.0005

1242 0.0003

1248 0.0001

1254 0.0001

1260 0.0002


(iii) Compliance with the PCB MCL shall be determined based upon the
quantitative results of analyses using Method 508A.

(14) GRANDFATHERED SOC DATA: If monitoring data collected after January 1, 1990,
are generally consistent with the requirements of Sectionl303-57, then DPNR may allow
systems to use that data to satisfy the monitoring requirement for the initial compliance
periods.

(15) DPNR DESIGNATED SAMPLING SCHEDULES: Each public water system shall
monitor at the time designated by DPNR within each compliance period.

(16) DPNR AUTHORITY: DPNR has the authority to determine compliance or initiate
enforcement action based upon analytical results and other information compiled by its
sanctioned representatives and agencies.


(17) DPNR DESIGNATED SOC MONITORING SCHEDULE: Each public water system shall
monitor at the time designated by DPNR within each compliance period.

(18) SOC DETECTION LIMITS: Detection as used in this paragraph shall be defined as










Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


greater than or equal to the following concentrations for each contaminant.

SOC DETECTION LIMITS


Alachlor


0.0002


Aldicarb 0.0005

Aldicarb sulfoxide 0.0005

Aldicarb sulfone 0.0008

Atrazine 0.0001

Benzo[a]pyrene' 0.00002

Carbofuran 0.0009

Chlordane 0.0002

Dalapon 0.001

Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) 0.00002

Di (2-ethylhexyl) adipate 0.0006

Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 0.0006

Dinoseb 0.0002

Diquat 0.0004

2,4-D 0.0001

Endothall 0.009

Endrin 0.00001

Ethylene dibromide (EDB) 0.00001

Glyphosate 0.006

Heptachlor 0.00004

Heptachlor epoxide 0.00002

Hexachlorobenzene. 0.0001










Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 0.0001

Lindane 0.00002

Methoxychlor 0.0001

Oxamyl 0.002

Picloram 0.0001

Polychlorinatedbiphenyls (PCBs) 0.0001
(as decachlorobiphenyl)

Pentachlorophenol 0.00004

Simazine 0.00007

Toxaphene 0.001

2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) 5x10-9

2,4,5-TP (SIl\ c\ 0.002



(19) LABORATORY CERTIFICATION: Analysis under this section shall only be conducted
by laboratories that have received certification by EPA or DPNR and have met the
following conditions:

(i) To receive certification to conduct analyses for the contaminants in
Section 1303-22(a) the laboratory must:

(A) Analyze Performance Evaluation samples which include those
substances provided by EPA Environmental Monitoring and Support
Laboratory or equivalent samples provided by DPNR.

(B) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses that are within the
following acceptance limits:





DBCP 40.

EDB 40










Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


Alachlor 45.

Atrazine 45.

Benzo[a]pyrene 2 standard deviations.

Carbofuran 45.

Chlordane 45.

Dalapon 2 standard deviations.

Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate 2 standard deviations.

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 2 standard deviations.

Dinoseb 2 standard deviations

Diquat 2 standard deviations

Endothall 2 standard deviations

Endrin 30.

Glyphosate 2 standard deviations.

Heptachlor 45.

Heptachlor epoxide 45.

Hexachlorobenzene 2 standard deviations.

Hexachloro-cyclopentadiene 2 standard deviations.

Lindane 45

Methoxychlor 45

Oxamyl 2 standard deviations.

Hexachlorobenzene 2 standard deviations.

Hexachloro-cyclopentadiene 2 standard deviations.

PCBs (as Decachlorobiphenyl) 0-200.

Picloram 2 standard deviations.










Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


bimazine


2 standard deviations


Section 1303-44B. Total trihalomethanes sampling, analytical and other requirements

(a) Community Water Systems which serve a population of 10,000 or more individuals and
which add a disinfectant (oxidant) to the water in any part of the drinking water treatment process
shall sample and analyze for total trihalomethanes in accordance with this section. Sampling and
analyses shall begin immediately after the date of promulgation of this regulation. Compliance
with this regulation shall be achieved within one year of the date of promulgation. For the
purpose of this section, the minimum number of samples required to be taken by the system shall
be based on the number of treatment plants used by the system except that multiple wells
drawing raw water from a single aquifer may, with DPNR's approval, be considered one
treatment plant for determining the minimum number of samples. All samples taken within an
established frequency shall be collected within a twenty-four (24) hour period.





(b) (1) For all community water systems utilizing surface water sources in whole or in part,
and for all community water systems utilizing only groundwater sources that have not
been determined by DPNR to qualify for the monitoring requirements of paragraph (c) of
this section, analyses for total trihalomethanes shall be performed at quarterly intervals on
at least four water samples for each treatment plant used by the system. At least twenty-


Toxaphene 45.

Aldicarb 2 standard deviations

Aldicarb sulfoxide 2 standard deviations.

Aldicarb sulfone 2 standard deviations

Pentachlorophenol 50.

2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) 2 standard deviations

2,4-D 50

2,4-TP 50









Safe Drinking Water Act
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five percent (25%) of the samples shall be taken at locations within the distribution
system reflecting the maximum residence time of the water in the system. The remaining
seventy-five percent (75%) shall be taken at representative locations in the distribution
system, taken into account number of persons served, different sources of water and
different treatment methods employed. The results of all analyses per quarter shall be
arithmetically averaged and reported to DPNR within thirty (30) days of the system's
receipt of such results. Results shall also be reported to EPA until such monitoring
requirements have been adopted by the Government of the Virgin Islands. All samples
collected shall be used in the computation of the average, unless the analytical results are
invalidated for technical reasons. Sampling and analyses shall be conducted in
accordance with the methods listed in paragraph (e) of this section.

(2) Upon the written request of a community water system, the monitoring frequency
required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section may be reduced by DPNR to a minimum of
one sample analyzed for TTHMs per quarter taken at a point in the distribution system
reflecting the maximum residence time of the water in the system, upon a written
determination by DPNR that the data from at least one (1) year of monitoring in
accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section and local conditions demonstrate that
total trihalomethane concentrations will be consistently below the maximum contaminant
level.

(3) If at any time during which the reduced monitoring frequency prescribed under
this paragraph applies, the results from any analysis exceed 0.10 mg/1 of TTHMs and
such results are received, or if the system makes any significant change to its source of
water or treatment program, the system shall immediately begin monitoring in accordance
with the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, which monitoring shall continue
for at least one (1) year before the frequency may be reduced again. At the option of
DPNR, a system's monitoring frequency may and should be increased above the
minimum in those cases where it is necessary to detect variations of TTHM levels within
the distribution system.

(c) (1) Upon written request to DPNR, a community water system utilizing only ground
water sources may seek to have the monitoring frequency required by paragraph (b)(1) of
this section reduced to a minimum of one (1) sample for maximum TTHM potential per
year for each treatment plant used by the system taken at a point in the distribution system
reflecting maximum residence time of the water in the system. The system shall submit
to DPNR the results of atleast one (1) sample analyzed for maximum TTHM potential for
each treatment plant used by the system taken at a point in the distribution system
reflecting the maximum residence time of the water in the system. The system's
monitoring frequency may only be reduced upon written determination by DPNR that,









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments


based upon the data submitted by the system, the system has a maximum TTHM potential
of less than 0.10 mg/1 and that, based upon assessment of the local conditions of the
system, the system is not likely to approach or exceed the maximum contaminant level
for total TTHMs. The results of all analyses shall be reported to DPNR within thirty (30)
days of the system's receipt of such results. Results shall also be reported to EPA until
such monitoring requirements have been adopted by the Government of the Virgin
Islands. All samples collected shall be used for determining whether the system must
comply with the monitoring requirements of paragraph (b) of this section, unless the
analytical results are invalidated for technical reasons. Sampling and analysis shall be
conducted in accordance with the methods listed in paragraph (e) of this section.

(2) If at any time during which the reduced monitoring frequency prescribed under
paragraph (c)(1) of this section applies, the results from any analysis taken by the system
for maximum TTHM potential are equal to or greater than 0.10 mg/1, and such results are
confirmed by at least one (1) check sample taken promptly after such results are received,
the system shall immediately begin monitoring in accordance with the requirements of
paragraph (b) of this section and such monitoring shall continue for at least one (1) year
before the frequency may be reduced again. In the event of any significant change to the
system's raw water or treatment program, the system shall immediately analyze an
additional sample for maximum TTHM potential taken at a point in the distribution
system reflecting maximum residence time of the water in the system for the purpose of
determining whether the system must comply with the monitoring requirements of
paragraph(b) of this section. At the option of DPNR, monitoring frequencies may and
should be increased above the minimum in those cases where this is necessary to detect
variation of TTHM levels within the distribution system.

(d) Compliance with Section1303-28(c) shall be determined based on a running annual
average of quarterly samples collected by the system as prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) or (2) of
this section. If the average of samples covering any twelve (12) month period exceeds the
Maximum Contaminant Level, the supplier of water shall report to DPNR pursuant to
Sectionl303-51 and notify the public pursuant to Sectionl303-52. Monitoring after public
notification shall be at a frequency designated by DPNR and shall continue until a monitoring
schedule as a condition to a variance, exemption or enforcement action shall become effective.

(e) Sampling and analyses made pursuant to this section shall be conducted by the total
trihalomethane methods as directed in Section 1303-44A(e), and in Technical Notes on Drinking
Water Methods, EPA-600/R-94-173, October 1994.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments
(f) Before a community water system makes any significant modifications to its existing
treatment process for the purposes of achieving compliance with 1303-28(c), such system must
submit and obtain DPNR approval of a detailed plan setting forth its proposed modification and
those safeguards that it will implement to ensure that the bacteriological quality of the drinking
water served by such system will not be adversely affected by such modification.

Each system shall comply with the provisions set forth in the DPNR-approved plan. At a
minimum, a DPNR approved plan shall require the system modifying its disinfection practice to:

(1) Evaluate the water system for sanitary defects and evaluate the source water for
biological quality.

(2) Evaluate its existing treatment practices and consider improvements that will
minimize disinfectant demand and optimize finished water quality throughout the
distribution system.

(3) Provide baseline water quality survey data of the distribution system. Such data
should include the results from monitoring for coliform and fecal coliform bacteria, fecal
streptococci, standard plate counts at 35 C and 20 C, phosphate, ammonia nitrogen and
total organic carbon. Virus studies should be required where source waters are heavily
contaminated with sewage effluent.

(4) Conduct additional monitoring to assure continued maintenance of optimal
biological quality in finished water, for example, when chlorimines are introduced as
disinfectants or when prechlorination is being discontinued. Additional monitoring may
also be required by DPNR for chlorate, chlorite and chlorine dioxide when chlorine
dioxide is used. Standard plate count analyses should also be required by the DPNR as
appropriate before and after any modifications.


(5) Consider inclusion in the plan of provisions to maintain an active disinfectant
residual throughout the distribution system at all times during and after modification.


Section 1303-45. Analytical methods for radioactivity

(a) The methods specified in "Interim Radiochemical Methodology for Drinking Water,"
Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, EPA-600/4-75-008, USEPA, Cincinnati,
Ohio 45268, or those listed below, are to be used to determine compliance with sections 1303-25
and 1303-26 (radioactivity) except in cases where alternative methods have been approved in
accordance with section 1303-47.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

(1) Gross Alpha and Beta-Method 302 "Gross Alpha and Beta Radioactivity in
Water." "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," 13th Edition,
American Public Health Association, New York, N.Y., 1971.

(2) Total Radium-Method 304 "Radium in Water by Precipitation," Ibid.

(3) Radium-226-Method 305 "Radium-226 by Radon in Water," Ibid.

(4) Strontium-89, 90-Method 303 "Total Strontium and Strontium-90 in Water," Ibid.

(5) Tritium-Method 306 "Tritium in Water," Ibid.

(6) Cesium-134-ASTM D-2459 "Gamma Spectrometry in Water," 1975 Annual Book
of ASTM Standards, Water and Atmospheric Analysis, Part 31, American Society for
Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1975).

(7) Uranium-ASTM D-2907 "Microquantities of Uranium in Water by Fluorometry,"
Ibid.


(b) When the identification and measurement of radionuclides other than those listed in
paragraph (a) is required, the following references are to be used, except in cases where
alternative methods have been approved in accordance with section 1303-47.

(1) Procedures for Radiochemical Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Aqueous Solutions,
H.L. Krieger and S. Gold, EPA-R4-73-014. USEPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, May 1973.

(2) HASL Procedure Manuel, Edited by John H. Harley, HASL 300, ERDA Health
and Safety Laboratory, New York, N.Y., 1973

(c) For the purpose of monitoring radioactivity concentrations in drinking water, the required
sensitivity of the radioanalysis is defined in terms of a detection limit. The detection limit shall
be that concentration which can be counted with a precision of plus or minus one hundred
percent (100%) at the ninety-five percent (95%) confidence level (1.96 where is the standard
deviation of the net counting rate of the sample).

(1) To determine compliance with section 1303-25(a) the detection limit shall not
exceed 1 pCi/1. To determine compliance with section 1303-25(b) the detection limit
shall not exceed 3 pCi/1.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments
(2) To determine compliance with section 1303-26 the detection limits shall not
exceed the concentration listed in the table below.


Detection Limits for Man-Made Beta
Particle and Photon Emitters

Radionuclide Detection Limit

Tritium 1,000 pCi/l

Strontium-89 10 pCi/1

Strontium-90 2 pCi/1

Iodine-131 1 pCi/1

Cesium-134 10 pCi/1

Gross beta 4 pCi/1

Other radionuclides 1/10 of the applicable limit



(d) To judge compliance with the maximum contaminant levels listed in sections 1303-25
and 1303-26, averages of data shall be used and shall be rounded to the same number of
significant figures as the maximum contaminant level for the substances in question.


Section 1303-46. Monitoring frequency for radioactivity in community water systems.

(a) Monitoring requirements for gross alpha particle activity, radium-226 and radium-228.

(1) Initial sampling to determine compliance with section 1303-25 shall begin within
two years of the effective date of these regulations and the analysis shall be completed
within three years of the effective date of these regulations. Compliance shall be based
on the analysis of an annual composite of four (4) consecutive quarterly samples or the
average of the analyses of four (4) samples obtained at quarterly intervals.

(i) A gross alpha particle activity measurement may be substituted for the
required radium-226 and radium-228 analysis, provided, that the measured gross
alpha particle activity does not exceed 5 pCi/1 at a confidence level of ninety-five
percent (95%) (1.65









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

where is the standard deviation of the net counting rate of the sample). In
localities where radium-228 may be present in drinking water, it DPNR may
require radium-226 and/or radium-228 analyses when the gross alpha particle
activity exceeds 2 pCi/1.

(ii) When the gross alpha particle activity exceeds 5pCi/l, the same or an
equivalent sample shall be analyzed for radium-226. If the concentration of
radium-226 exceeds 3pCi/l the same or an equivalent sample shall be analyzed for
radium-228.

(2) For the initial analysis required by paragraph (a)(1), data acquired within one (1)
year prior to the effective date [June 24, 1977] of this chapter may be substituted at the
discretion of DPNR.

(3) Suppliers of water shall monitor at least once every four (4) years following the
procedure required by paragraph (a)(1). At the discretion of DPNR, when an annual
record taken in conformance with paragraph (a)(1) has established that the average annual
concentration is less than half the maximum contaminant levels established by section
1303-25, analysis of a single sample may be substituted for the quarterly sampling
procedure required by paragraph (a)(1).

(i) More frequent monitoring shall be conducted when ordered by DPNR in
the vicinity of mining or other operations which may contribute alpha particle
radioactivity to either surface or ground water sources of drinking water.

(ii) A supplier of water shall monitor in conformance with paragraph (a)(1)
within one (1) year of the introduction of a new water source for a community
water system. More frequent monitoring shall be conducted when ordered by
DPNR in the event of possible contamination or when changes in the distribution
system or treatment processing occur which may increase the concentration of
radioactivity in finished water.
(iii) A community water system using two or more sources having different
concentrations of radioactivity shall monitor source water, in addition to water
from a free-flowing tap, when ordered by DPNR.

(iv) Monitoring for compliance with section 1303-25 after the initial period
need not include radium-228 except when required by DPNR, provided, that the
average annual concentration of radium-228 has been assayed at least once using
the quarterly sampling procedure required by paragraph (a)(1).









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments
(v) Suppliers of water shall conduct annual monitoring of any community
water system in which the radium-226 concentration exceeds # pCi/1, when
ordered by DPNR.

(4) If the average annual maximum contaminant level for gross alpha particle activity
or total radium as set forth in section 1303-25 is exceeded, the supplier of a community
water system shall give notice to DPNR pursuant to section 1303-51 and notify the public
as required by section 1303-52. Monitoring at quarterly intervals shall be continues until
the annual average concentration no longer exceed the maximum contaminant level or
until a monitoring schedule as a condition to a variance, exemption or enforcement action
shall become effective.

(b) Monitoring requirements for man-made radioactivity in community water systems.

(1) Within two (2) years of the effective date [June 24, 1977] of this chapter, systems
using surface water sources and serving more than 100,000 persons and such other
community water systems as are designated by DPNR shall be monitored for compliance
with section 1303-26 by analysis of a composite of four (4) consecutive quarterly samples
or analysis of four quarterly samples. Compliance with section 1303-26 may be assumed
without further analysis if the average annual concentration of gross beta particle activity
is less than 50 pCi/1 and if the average annual
concentrations of tritium and strontium-90 are less than those listed in Table A, provided, that if
both radionuclides are present the sum of their annual dose equivalents to bone marrow shall not
exceed 4 millirem/year.

(i) If the gross beta particle activity exceeds 50 pCi/1, an analysis of the
sample must be performed to identify the radioactive constituents present and the
appropriate organ and total body doses shall be calculated to determine
compliance with section 1303-26.

(ii) Suppliers of water shall conduct additional monitoring, as ordered by
DPNR, to determine the concentration of manmade radioactivity in principal
watersheds designated by DPNR.

(iii) At the discretion of DPNR, suppliers for water utilizing only ground
waters may be required to monitor for man-made radioactivity.

(2) For the initial analysis required by paragraph (b)(1) data acquired within one (1)
year prior to the effective date [June 24, 1977] of this chapter may be substituted at the
discretion of DPNR.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments
(3) After the initial analysis required by paragraph (b)(1) suppliers of water shall
monitor at least every four (4) years following the procedure given in paragraph (b)(1).

(4) Within two (2) years of the effective date of these regulations the supplier of any
community water system designated by DPNR as utilizing waters contaminated effluents
from nuclear facilities shall initiate quarterly gross beta particle and iodine-131
radioactivity and annual monitoring for strontium-90 and tritium.

(i) Quarterly monitoring for gross beta particle activity shall be based on the
analysis of monthly samples or the analysis of a composite of three (3) monthly
samples. The former is recommended. If the gross beta particle activity in a
sample exceeds 15 Pci/1, the same or an equivalent sample shall be analyzed for
strontium-89 and cesium-134. If the gross beta particle activity exceeds 50 pCi/1,
an analysis of the sample must be performed to identify the major radioactive
constituents present and the
appropriate organ and total body doses shall be calculated to determine
compliance with section 1303-26.

(ii) For iodine-131, a composite of five (5) consecutive daily samples shall be
analyzed once each quarter. As ordered by DPNR, more frequent monitoring
shall be conducted when iodine-131 is identified in the finished water.

(iii) Annual monitoring for strontium-90 and tritium shall be conducted by
means of the analysis of a composite of four (4) consecutive quarterly samples or
analysis of four (4) quarterly samples. The latter procedure is recommended.

(iv) DPNR may allow the substitution of environmental surveillance data taken
in conjunction with a nuclear facility for direct monitoring of man-made
radioactivity by the supplier of water where DPNR determines such data is
applicable to a particular community water system.

(5) If the average annual maximum contaminant level for man-made radioactivity set
forth in section 1303-26 is exceeded, the operator of a community water system shall give
notice to DPNR pursuant to section 1303-51 and to the public as required by section
1303-52. Monitoring at monthly intervals shall be continued until the concentration no
longer exceeds the maximum contaminant level or until a monitoring schedule as a
condition to a variance, exemption or enforcement action shall become effective.

Section 1303-47. Alternative analytical technique

With the written permission of DPNR, concurred on by the Administrator of the U.S.









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments
Environmental Protection Agency, an alternative analytical technique may be employed. An
alternative technique shall be acceptable only if it substantially equivalent to the prescribed test
in both precision and accuracy as it relates to the determination of compliance with any
maximum contaminant level. The use of the alternative technique shall not decrease the
frequency of monitoring required by this chapter.


Section 1303-48. Approved laboratories

For the purpose of determining compliance with sections 1303-41 through 1303-47, samples may
be considered only if they have been analyzed by a laboratory approved by DPNR except that
measurements for turbidity and free chlorine residual may be performed by any person acceptable
to DPNR.


Section 1303-49. Monitoring of consecutive public water systems

When a public water system supplies water to one or more public water systems, DPNR may
modify the monitoring requirements imposed by this part to the extent that the interconnection of
the systems justifies treating them as a single system for
monitoring purposes. Any modified monitoring shall be conducted pursuant to a schedule
specified by DPNR and concurred in by the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency.


Section 1303-51. Reporting requirements

(a) Except where a shorter reporting period is specified in this chapter, the supplier of water
shall report to DPNR within forty (40) days following a test, measurement or analysis required to
be made by this chapter, the results of that test, measurement or analysis.

(b) The supplier of water shall report to DPNR within forty-eight (48) hours the failure to
comply with any primary drinking water regulation (including failure to comply with monitoring
requirements) set forth in this chapter.

(c) A public water system that has exceeded the MCL for total coliforms in Sectionl303-24
shall report the violation to DPNR no later than the end of the next business day after the system
learns of the violation, and shall notify the public in accordance with Sectionl303-52. The
public water system that has failed to comply with the sampling site plan requirements and
required monitoring shall report the violation to DPNR within two (2) days after the system
discovers, or should have discovered, the violation and shall notify the public in accordance with









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments
Section 1303-52.

(d) The supplier of water is not required to report analytical results to DPNR in cases where a
DPNR certified laboratory performs the analysis and reports the results directly to DPNR which
would normally receive such notification from the supplier. However, the responsibility of
assuring that DPNR is notified resides with the public water system.

(e) The water supply system, within ten (10) days of completion of each public notification
required pursuant to 1303-52 shall submit to DPNR a representative copy of each type of notice
distributed, published, posted, and/or made available to the persons served by the system and/or
to the media.

(f) The water supply system shall submit to DPNR within the time stated in the request,
copies of any records required to be maintained under 1303-53 hereof or copies of any
documents then in existence which DPNR of EPA is entitled to inspect pursuant to the authority
of Section 1445 of the Safe Drinking Water Act or the equivalent provisions of Virgin Island
law.

(g) Reporting requirements for tap water monitoring for lead and copper and for water
quality parameter monitoring are as follows:

(1) A water system shall report the information specified below for all tap water
samples within the first ten (10) days following the end of each applicable monitoring
period specified in Section1303-64 and Section1303-65 and Section1303-66 (i.e., every
six (6) months, year, or three (3) years).

(i) The results of all tap samples for lead and copper including the location of
each site and the criteria under Sectionl303-64(a)(3),(4),(5),(6), and/or (7) under
which the site was selected for the system's sampling pool.

(ii) A certification that each first draw sample collected by the water system is
one (1) liter in volume and, to the best of their knowledge, has stood motionless in
the service line, or in the interior plumbing of a sampling site, for at least six (6)
hours.

(iii) Where residents collected samples, a certification that each tap sample
collected by the residents was taken after the water system informed them of
proper sampling procedures specified in Sectionl303-64(b)(2).

(iv) The 90th percentile lead and copper concentrations measured from among
all lead and copper tap water samples collected during each monitoring period









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments
(calculated in accordance with Section 1303-58(c)(3)).

(v) With the exception of initial tap sampling conducted pursuant to
Sectionl303-64(d)(1), the system shall designate any site which was not sampled
during previous monitoring periods, and include an explanation of why sampling
sites have changed.

(vi) The results of all tap samples for pH, and where applicable, alkalinity,
calcium, conductivity, temperature, and orthophosphate or silica collected under
Section 1303-65(b)-(e).


(vii) The results of all samples collected at the entry points) to the distribution
system for applicable water quality parameters under Sectionl303-65(b)-(e).

(2) By the applicable date in Sectionl303-64(d)(1) for commencement of monitoring,
each community water system which does not complete its targeted sampling pool with
tier 1 sampling sites meeting the criteria in Sectionl303-64(a)(3) shall send a letter to
DPNR justifying its selection of tier 2 and/or tier 3 sampling sites under Sectionl303-64
(a)(4) and/or (a)(5).

(3) By the applicable date in Sectionl303-64(d)(1) for commencement of monitoring,
each non-transient, non-community water system which does not complete its sampling
pool with tier 1 sampling sites meeting the criteria in Section1303-64(a)(6) shall send a
letter to DPNR justifying its selection of sampling sites under Sectionl303-64(a)(7).

(4) By the applicable date in Sectionl303-64(d)(1) for commencement of monitoring,
each water system with lead service lines that is not able to locate the number of sites
served by such lines required under Section1303-64(a)(9) shall send a letter to DPNR
demonstrating why it was unable to locate a sufficient number of such sites based upon
the information listed in Sectionl303-64(a)(2).

(5) Each water system that requests that DPNR reduce the number and frequency of
sampling shall provide the information required under Sectionl303-64(d)(4).

(h) Source water lead and copper monitoring reporting requirements are as follows:

(1) A water system shall report the sampling results for all source water samples
collected in accordance with Sectionl303-66 within the first ten (10) days following the
end of each









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments

source water monitoring period (i.e., annually, per compliance period, per compliance
cycle) specified in Section1303-66.

(2) With the exception of the first round of source water sampling conducted pursuant
to Section1303-66(b), the system shall specify any site which was not sampled during
previous monitoring periods, and include an explanation of why the sampling point has
changed.

(i) By the applicable dates under Sectionl303-59, systems shall report the following
information regarding corrosion control treatment reporting requirements:

(1) For systems demonstrating that they have already optimized corrosion control,
information required in Sectionl303-60(b) (2) or (3).

(2) For systems required to optimize corrosion control, their recommendation
regarding optimal corrosion control treatment under Sectionl303-60(a).

(3) For systems required to evaluate the effectiveness of corrosion control treatments
under Section1303-60(c), the information required by that paragraph.

(4) For systems required to install optimal corrosion control designated by DPNR
under Section1303-60(d), a letter certifying that the system has completed installing that
treatment.

(j) By the applicable dates in Sectionl303-61, systems shall provide the following
information regarding source water treatment for lead and copper reporting requirements to
DPNR:

(1) If required under Sectionl303-61(b)(1), their recommendation regarding source
water treatment.

(2) For systems required to install source water treatment under Sectionl303-
61(b)(2), a letter certifying that the system has completed installing the treatment
designated by DPNR within twenty-four (24) months after DPNR designated the
treatment.

(k) Systems shall report the following information to DPNR to demonstrate compliance with
the lead service line replacement reporting requirements of Section1303-62:

(1) Within twelve (12) months after a system exceeds the lead action level in









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments
sampling referred to in Sectionl303-62(a), the system shall demonstrate in writing to
DPNR that it has conducted a materials evaluation, including the evaluation in
Section1303-64(a), to identify the initial number of lead service lines in its distribution
system, and shall provide DPNR with the system's schedule for replacing annually at least
seven percent (7%) of the initial number of lead service lines in its distribution system.

(2) Within twelve (12) months after a system exceeds the lead action level in
sampling referred to in Section1303-62(a), and every twelve (12) months thereafter, the
system shall demonstrate to DPNR in writing that the system has either:

(i) Replaced in the previous twelve (12) months at least seven percent (7%) of
the initial lead service lines (or a greater number of lines specified by DPNR
under Sectionl303-62(f)) in its distribution system, or

(ii) Conducted sampling which demonstrates that the lead concentration in all
service line samples from an individual liness, taken pursuant to Sectionl303-
64(b)(3), is less than or equal to 0.015 mg/L. In such cases, the total number of
lines replaced and/or which meet the criteria in Section1303-62(b) shall equal at
least seven percent (7%) of the initial number of lead lines identified under
paragraph (a) of this section (or the percentage specified by DPNR under
Section1303-62(f)).



(3) The annual letter submitted to DPNR under paragraph (e)(2) of this section shall
contain the following information:

(i) The number of lead service lines scheduled to be replaced during the
previous year of the system's replacement schedule.

(ii) The number and location of each lead service line replaced during the
previous year of the system's replacement schedule.

(iii) If measured, the water lead concentration and location of each lead service
line sampled, the sampling method, and the date of sampling.

(4) As soon as practicable, but in no case later than three months after a system
exceeds the lead action level in sampling referred to in Section1303-62(a), any system
seeking to rebut the presumption that it has control over the entire lead service line
pursuant to Section1303-62(d) shall submit a letter to DPNR describing the legal
authority (e.g., Virgin Islands statutes, public service contracts or other applicable legal









Safe Drinking Water Act
and Amendments
authority) which limits the system's control over the service lines and the extent of the
system's control.

(1) Public education program reporting requirements are as follows:

By December 31 st of each year, any water system that is subject to the public education
requirements in Section1303-63 shall submit a letter to DPNR demonstrating that the system has
delivered the public education materials that meet the content requirements in Section1303-63(a)
and (b) and the delivery requirements in Section1303-63(c). This information shall include a list
of all the newspapers, radio stations, television stations, facilities and organizations to which the
system delivered public education materials during


the previous year. The water system shall submit the letter required by this paragraph annually
for as long as it exceeds the lead action level.

(m) Reporting of additional monitoring data is as follows:

Any system which collects sampling data in addition to that required by the Lead and Copper
Rule shall report the results to DPNR within the first ten (10) days following the end of
applicable monitoring period under SectionSectionl303-64, 1303-65 and Section1303-66 during
which the samples are collected.

(n) Special Reports:

(1) DPNR shall report to EPA by May 15, August 15, November 15 and February 15
of each year the following information related to each system's compliance with the
treatment techniques for lead and copper under 40 CFR Part 141, Subpart I during the
preceding calendar quarter. Specifically, DPNR shall report the name and PWS
identification number of:

(i) Each public water system which exceeded the lead and copper action
levels and the date upon which the exceedance occurred.

(ii) Each public water system required to complete the corrosion control
evaluations specified in Section1303-60(c) and the date DPNR received the
results of the evaluations from each system.

(iii) Each public water system for which DPNR has designated optimal
corrosion control treatment under Section1303-60(d), the date of the
determination, and each system that completed installation of treatment as









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certified under Section1303-51.

(iv) Each public water system for which DPNR has designated optimal water
quality parameters under Section1303-60(f) and the date of the determination.
(v) Each public water system which DPNR has required to install source water
treatment under Sectionl303-61(b)(2), the date of the determination, and each
system that completed installation of treatment as certified under Section 1303-51.

(vi) Each public water system for which DPNR has specified maximum
permissible source water levels under Sectionl303-61(b)(4).

(vii) Each public water system required to begin replacing lead service lines as
specified in Section1303-62, each public water system for which DPNR has
established a replacement schedule under Section1303-62(f), and each system
reporting compliance with its replacement schedule under Section1303-51.


Section 1303-52. Public Notification

(a) The owner or operator of a public water system who fails to comply with an applicable
MCL or treatment technique established by the Virgin Islands Safe Drinking Water Act and
Rules and Regulations, or fails to comply with the requirements of any schedule prescribed in
conformity with a variance or exemption, shall notify persons served by the system as follows:

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, the owner or operator of a
public water system shall give notice:

(i) By publication for not less than three (3) consecutive days in a daily
newspaper of general circulation in the area served by the system as soon as
possible, but in no case later than fourteen (14) days after the violation or failure.
If the area served by a public water system is not served by a daily newspaper of
general circulation, notice shall instead be given by publication in a weekly
newspaper of general circulation serving the area; and

(ii) By mail delivery (by direct mail or with the water bill), or by hand
delivery, not later than forty-five (45) days after the violation or failure. The
DPNR may waive mail or hand delivery if it determines that the owner or operator
of the public water system in violation has corrected the violation or failure within
the forty-five (45) day period. The DPNR must make the waiver in writing and
within the forty-five (45) day period; and









Safe Drinking Water Act
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(iii) For violations of the MCLs for contaminants that may pose an acute risk to
human health, by furnishing a copy of the notice to the radio and television
stations serving the area served by the public water system as soon as possible but
in no case later than seventy-two (72) hours after the violation. The following
violations are acute violations:

(A) Any violations specified by the DPNR as posing an acute risk to
human health.

(B) Violation of the MCL for nitrate or nitrite as defined in
Section1303-43(d) and 1303-43 (d)(1) and determined according to
Section 1303-43(i)(3).

(C) Violation of the MCL for total coliforms when fecal coliforms or
E. Coli are present in the water distribution system, as specified in Section
1303-24.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, following the initial notice
given under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the owner or operator of the public water
system shall give notice at least once every three (3) months by mail delivery (by direct
mail or with the water bill) or by hand delivery, for as long as the violation or failure
exists.

(3) (i) In lieu of the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section,
the owner or operator of a community water system in an area that is not served
by a daily or weekly newspaper of general circulation shall give notice by hand
delivery or by continuous posting in conspicuous places within the area served by
the system. Notice by hand delivery or posting shall begin as soon as possible,
but no later than seventy-two (72) hours after the violation or failure for acute
violations (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section), or fourteen (14) days
after the violation or failure for any other violation. Posting shall continue for as
long as the violation or failure exists. Notice by hand delivery shall be repeated at
least every three (3) months for as long as the violation or failure exists.

(ii) In lieu of the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section,
the owner or operator of a non-community water system may give notice by hand
delivery or by continuous posting in conspicuous places within the area served by
the system. Notice by hand delivery or posting shall begin as soon as possible,
but no later than seventy-two (72) hours after the violation or failure for acute
violations (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section), or fourteen (14) days
after the violation or failure for any other violation. Posting must continue for as









Safe Drinking Water Act
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long as the violation or failure exists. Notice by hand delivery shall be repeated at
least every three (3) months for as long as the violation or failure exists.

(b) Other violations, variances and exemptions: The owner or operator of a public water
system who fails to perform monitoring as required by Section 1303(c) of the Virgin Islands Safe
Drinking Water Act and the Virgin Islands Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards, or fails to
comply with a testing procedure established by this Chapter, or is subject to a variance or
exemption under 19 V.I.C. Subsection 1304, shall notify the public served as follows:


(1) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3) or (b)(4) of this section, the owner or
operator of a public water system shall give notice within three (3) months of the
violation or granting of a variance or exemption by publication in a daily newspaper of
general circulation in the area served by the system. If the area served by a public water
system is not served by a daily newspaper of general circulation, notice shall instead be
given by publication in a weekly newspaper of general circulation serving the area.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3) or (b)(4) if this section, following the
initial notice given under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the owner or operator of the
public water system shall give notice at least once every three (3) months by mail delivery
(by direct mail or with the water bill) or by hand delivery, for as long as the violation or
failure exists. Repeat notice of the existence of a variance or exemption shall be given
every three (3) months for as long as a variance or exemption remains in effect.

(3) (i) In lieu of the requirements of paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section, the
owner or operator of a community water system in an area that is not served by a
daily or weekly newspaper of general circulation shall give notice within three (3)
months of the violation or granting of a variance or exemption, by hand delivery
or by continuous posting in conspicuous places within the area served by the
system. Posting must continue for as long as the violation exists or a variance or
exemption remains in effect. Notice by hand delivery shall be repeated at least
every three (3) months for as long as the violation exists or a variance or
exemption remains in effect.

(ii) In lieu of the requirements of paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section, the
owner or operator of a non-community water system may give notice within three
(3) months of the violation or the granting of the variance or exemption by hand
delivery or by continuous posting in conspicuous places within the area served by
the system. Posting shall continue for as long as the violation exists or a variance
or exemption remains in effect. Notice by hand delivery shall be repeated at least
every three (3) months for as long as the violation exists or a variance or




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