VI Marine Park Project
VI MARINE PARK PROJECT
This document faithfully reproduces
VI Marine Park Project
web pages as found on April 8, 2007.
VI Marine Park Project http://rps.uvi.edu/VIMarinePark.html
VI MARINE PARK PROJECT
The Government of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) has embarked on a project to develop a
Marine Park System Plan for the Territory. This project has five main components:
1. Preparation of a Marine Park System Plan for the USVI;
2. Preparation of a Resource Description Report for the marine environment in the USVI;
3. A Socio-economic Assessment of the uses and users of the marine resources in the USVI;
4. Preparation of a Management Plan for the proposed marine park for the east end of St. Croix; and
5. Preparation of an information brochure about the marine parks.
The University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) is coordinating this project on behalf of the
Department of Planning and Natural Resources (DPNR). UVI will be working with other
institutions, such as The Nature Conservancy (TNC), and Island Resources Foundation (IRF), to
carry out this timely and important project.
During the period August to November 2001, personnel involved in the project will be
contacting stakeholder groups, and the wider community in general, in an effort to solicit
information and guidance concerning the marine environment.
Members of the public can use this web page to obtain general information on protected areas, as well
as provide information and guidance to the project. Documents available for downloading from this
a. A Community I This provides information on the project, its objectives, its
outputs, and the long-term possibilities for protected areas in the USVI.
b. Information on the Categories i Areas. This provides information on the different types of
protected areas and the management objectives of each type.
c. Information on the of marine protected areas.
d. Information on Mn agemfor protected areas. This includes the Tables of Content from a
number of management plans for sites in the Caribbean.
e. Information on national System for protected areas. This shows the difference between site
planning and system planning, and provides information on the reason for system planning.
f A list of publications that is provided as I for persons interested in marine
g. The Questionnaire that is being used to gather information for the proposed marine protected areas
on marine fishery reserves.
VI MARINE PARK PROJECT
COMMUNITY INFORMATION DOCUMENT
The International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) is an intemationally-agreed initiative that was
launched in 1994 to address the rapid decline of coral reefs. ICRI is said to be a "blueprint
for conservation of coral reefs", and is implemented through partnerships among
governments, international organizations (such as the United Nations Environment
Programme and the World Bank), and non-governmental organizations.
In response to both this global initiative, and the growing environmental crisis within the
U.S., President William Clinton issued the Coral Reef Protection Executive Order 13089 on
June 11, 1998. In addition to policies affecting coral reef conservation, the Executive Order
established the United States Coral Reef Task Force. The Task Force, working with
governmental and non-governmental organizations, prepared the National Action Plan to
Conserve Coral Reefs.
The US National Action Plan to Conserve Coral Reefs was developed to guide the
sustainable use of coral reef ecosystems within the jurisdiction of the U.S.A., including its
Territories and Commonwealths. Sustainable use simply means that coral reef ecosystems
should be used and managed in such a manner as to ensure the security of the economic,
cultural, social, and environmental values and benefits of such ecosystems in perpetuity.
As part of the National Action Plan to Conserve Coral Reefs, the Government of the United
States Virgin Islands (USVI) has embarked on a project to develop a Marine Park System
Plan for the USVI.
THE USVI MARINE PARK PROJECT
This marine park project has five main components:
1. Preparation of a Marine Park System Plan. The System Plan will, among other
things, provide the guidelines and processes for establishment of marine protected
areas in the USVI, set out clearly the linkages between the management institutions,
and identify sites that require management.
2. Preparation of a Resource Description Report for the marine environment in the
USVI. This report will provide a statement of the status of the natural resources
within the marine environment, identifying important resources and habitats that
3. A Socio-economic Assessment of the uses and users of the marine resources in the
USVI. This assessment will identify the patterns of resource uses, the value of those
natural resources to the USVI economy, and the future demand for those resources.
4. Preparation of a Management Plan for the proposed marine park for the east amd of
St. Croix. The management plan will identify resources that require protection within
the specific area, will propose boundaries for a marine park, propose management
objectives for the park, and recommend the types of activities that may or may not be
permitted within the park.
5. Preparation of an information brochure about the USVI marine parks, which can be
used by residents and visitors.
The University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) is coordinating this project on behalf of the
Department of Planning and Natural Resources (DPNR), and will be working with other
institutions, such as The Nature Conservancy and Island Resources Foundation.
In addition to the technical work to be carried out, personnel involved in the project will be
contacting stakeholder groups, and the wider community in general, in an effort solicit
information and guidance concerning marine habitats and resources that require protection,
or alternatively, possess special features that can support agreed levels of use by locals and
IF YOU ARE MEMBER OF A GROUP THAT HAS AN INTEREST IN THIS PROJECT,
CONTACT DPNR AT: Tel: 774-3320; Email:
THE NEED FOR ACTION
The lands, water, and other natural resources provide much of what the people of the USVI
need for their well being. However, those resources are being degraded through the
pressures of development activities. Most people agree that some effort must be made to
take care of those resources on which we depend. We must develop a plan to manage critical
resources in a coordinated and successful manner. Here are some of the reasons for taking
Food Supply: The marine environment in the USVI provides a range of foods and drinks.
Fishermen relate tales of times past when there were large numbers of fish, lobsters, and
conch. Yet within the span of only two generations the amount of fish caught is so small that
fishermen have serious concerns about their abilities to support their families.
Money and Jobs: The environment is the base of the VI economy. It attracts visitors in
increasing numbers, which provides necessary jobs and income.
Rare Plants and Animals: Coral reefs and seagrass beds are some of the most productive
ecosystems on the planet, providing resources that are found nowhere else. In addition to
being necessary to fisheries and supporting tourism, the marine resources are important for
medicine, and therefore human health.
Coastal Protection: Coral reefs protect our coastal areas by reducing the damage caused by
wave action during storms.
Other Services: We use the marine environment for many other purposes that we take
for granted. Swimming, picnics on the beach, teaching our children to fish, education, and a
range of other activities contribute to our quality of life. That quality of life would be much
diminished if those natural resources were absent. Therefore we must take measures to
THE ROLE OF MARINE PROTECTED AREAS
A marine protected area (MPA) can simply be defined as any area delineated by legislation
to protect a given set of resources or values. Those values can be conservation, commercial,
recreational, traditional/cultural, educational, scientific/research, or unique natural features.
In many cases, a mixture of the above values is protected in each MPA. The many benefits
provided by MPAs have been clearly demonstrated all over the world (see associated
document on the benefits of MPAs).
Marine protected areas currently existing in the USVI are:
* Buck Island National Monument;
* Cas Cay/Mangrove Lagoon;
* Compass Point Pond;
* Inner Mangrove Lagoon;
* Sandy Point;
* St. James;
* The marine components of the Virgin Islands National Park (St. John) and Salt River
Natural historical Park and Ecological Preserve (St. Croix).
This marine park project proposes to establish a marine protected area along the east end of
Do you know of other marine resources in the USVI that require improved management? Are
marine protected areas necessary to protect those resources? If so, where should they be
BUILDING A PROGRAM OF ACTION
Building a system of protected areas in the USVI is a long-term process involving many
steps and the active participation of the many interest groups and individuals in our
The system plan is a statement of intent, providing the policies and legislative and
institutional framework within which an action plan for system development can be
developed and implemented. While it is a statement of commitment by public sector
agencies, it also provides a framework that allows all community interests to participate in
the process of deciding on the priorities to be addressed, and then becoming engaged in
implementing the agreed solutions.
As individuals and groups, you can participate in this project, as well as the long-term
process of establishing a system of protected areas in the USVI by:
1. Staying informed. Watch for announcements on the project and get additional
information on marine protected areas.
2. Participate in meetings.
3. Take the time to provide the project team and DPNR with specific information on the
marine resources, as well as your ideas on marine protected areas.
4. Discuss the issue of marine protected areas with your friends or within your groups,
and become actively involved in protecting environmental resources that support the
Protected Area Categories and Management Objectives
A protected area is defined as: 'An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the
protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated
cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means" (IUCN 1994').
The above definition does not mean that no use will be permitted within protected areas. In
fact, the most wide spread use of protected areas is for recreation.
The current IUCN WCPA categories (IUCN 1994) are as follows:
1. Strict protection
a. Strict Nature Reserve
b. Wilderness Area
11. Ecosystem conservation and recreation (National Park)
111. Conservation of natural features (Natural Monument)
IV. Conservation through active management (Habitat/Species Management Area)
V. Landscape/seascape conservation and recreation (Protected Landscape/ seascape)
V1. Sustainable use of natural ecosystems (Managed Resource Protected Area)
The mix of management objectives relevant to each of the categories is summarised in the
following table (IUCN 1994, p.8):
Management Objective la Ib II HI IV V VI
Scientific research 1 3 2 2 2 2 3
Wilderness protection 2 1 2 3 3 2
Preservation of species and genetic diversity 1 2 1 1 1 2 1
Maintenance of environmental services 2 1 1 1 2 1
Protection of specific natural/cultural features 2 1 3 1 3
Tourism and recreation 2 1 1 3 1 3
Education 2 2 2 2 3
Sustainable use of resources from natural 3 3 2 2 1
Maintenance of cultural/traditional attributes 1 2
Key: I: Primary objective; 2: Secondary objective; 3: Potentially applicable objective;
The definitions, objectives, and selection criteria for the categories and sub-categories are
summarised as follows (IUCN 1994, p. 17):
Category I Strict Nature Reserve/Wilderness Area: protected area managed mainly
for science or wilderness protection
Category la Strict Nature Reserve: protected area managed mainly for science
Definition: Area of land and/or sea possessing some outstanding or representative
ecosystems, geological or physiological features and/or species, available primarily for
scientific research and/or environmental monitoring
Objectives of management:
* To preserve habitats, ecosystems and species in as undisturbed a state as possible;
* To maintain genetic resources in a dynamic and evolutionary state;
+ to maintain established ecological processes;
* To safeguard structural landscape features or rock exposures;
+ To secure examples of the natural environment for scientific studies, environmental
monitoring and education, including baseline areas from which all avoidable access is
+ To minimise disturbance by careful planning and execution of research and other
+ To limit public access.
Guidance for selection:
+ The area should be large enough to ensure the integrity of its ecosystems and to
accomplish the management objectives for which it is protected.
+ The area should be significantly free of direct human intervention and capable of
+ The conservation of the area's biodiversity should be achievable through protection and
not require substantial active management or habitat manipulation (c.f Category IV).
Equivalent category in IUCN (1978): Scientific Reserve/Strict Nature Reserve.
Category Ib Wilderness Area: protected area managed mainly for wilderness
Definition: Large area of unmodified or slightly modified land, and/or sea, retaining its
natural character and influence, without permanent or significant habitation, which is
protected and managed so as to preserve its natural condition.
Objectives of management:
+ To ensure that future generations have the opportunity to experience understanding and
enjoyment of areas that have been largely undisturbed by human action over a long
period of time;
+ To maintain the essential natural attributes and qualities of the environment over the long
* To provide for public access at levels and of a type which will serve best the physical and
spiritual well-being of visitors and maintain the wildemess qualities of the area for
present and future generations;
+ To enable indigenous human communities living at low density and in balance with the
available resources to maintain their lifestyle.
Guidance for selection:
+ The area should possess high natural quality, be governed primarily by the forces of
nature, with human disturbance substantially absent, and be likely to continue to display
those attributes if managed as proposed.
+ The area should contain significant ecological, geological, physiogeographic, or other
features of scientific, educational, scenic or historic value.
+ The area should offer outstanding opportunities for solitude, enjoyed once the area has
been reached, by simple, quiet, non-polluting and non-intrusive means of travel (i.e.
* The area should be of sufficient size to make practical such preservation and use.
Equivalent category in IUCN (1978): no direct equivalent.
Category 11 National Park: protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection
Definition: Natural area of land and/or sea, designated to (a) protect the ecological integrity
of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations, (b) exclude exploitation or
occupation inimical to the purposes of designation of the area, and (c) provide a foundation
for spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities, all of which must
be environmentally and culturally compatible.
Objectives of management:
+ To protect natural and scenic areas of national and international significance for spiritual,
scientific, educational, recreational or tourist purposes;
+ To perpetuate, in as natural a state as possible, representative examples of physiographic
regions, biotic communities, genetic resources, and species, to provide ecological
stability and diversity;
+ To manage visitor use for inspirational, educational, cultural and recreational purposes at
a level which will maintain the area in a natural or near natural state;
+ To eliminate and thereafter prevent exploitation or occupation inimical to the purposes of
+ To maintain respect for the ecological, geomorphologic, sacred or aesthetic attributes
which warranted designation;
+ To take into account the needs of indigenous people, including subsistence resource use,
in so far as these will not adversely affect the other objectives of management.
Guidance for selection:
+ The area should contain a representative sample of major natural regions, features or
scenery, where plant and animal species, habitats and geomorphological sites are of
special spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and tourist significance.
+ The area should be large enough to contain one or more entire ecosystems not materially
altered by current human occupation or exploitation.
Equivalent category in IUCN (1978): National Park
Category III Natural Monument: protected area managed mainly for conservation of
specific natural features
Definition: Area containing one, or more, specific natural or natural/cultural feature which is
of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative or aesthetic
qualities or cultural significance.
Objectives of management:
+ To protect or preserve in perpetuity specific outstanding natural features because of their
natural significance, unique or representational quality, and/or spiritual connotations;
+ To an extent consistent with the foregoing objective, to provide opportunities for
research, education, interpretation and public appreciation;
+ To eliminate and thereafter prevent exploitation or occupation inimical to the p purpose
+ To deliver to any resident population such benefits as are consistent with the other
objectives of management
Guidance for selection:
+ The area should contain one or more features of outstanding significance (appropriate
natural features include spectacular waterfalls, caves, craters, fossil beds, sand dunes and
marine features, along with unique or representative fauna and flora; associated cultural
features might include cave dwellings, cliff-top forts, archaeological sites, or natural sites
which have heritage significance to indigenous peoples).
+ The area should be large enough to protect the integrity of the feature and its immediately
Equivalent category in IUCN (1978): Natural Monument / Natural Landmark
Category IV Habitat/Species Management Area: protected area managed mainly for
conservation through management intervention
Definition: Area of land and/or sea subject to active intervention for management purposes
so as to ensure the maintenance of habitats and/or to meet the requirements of specific
Objectives of management:
+ To secure and maintain the habitat conditions necessary to protect significant species,
groups of species, biotic communities or physical features of the environment where
these require specific human manipulation for optimum management;
* To facilitate scientific research and environmental monitoring as primary activities
associated with sustainable resource management;
+ To develop limited areas for public education and appreciation of the characteristics of
the habitats concerned and of the work of wildlife management;
+ To eliminate and thereafter prevent exploitation or occupation inimical to the purpose of
+ To deliver such benefits to people living within the designated area as are consistent with
the other objectives of management.
Guidance for selection:
+ The area should play an important role in the protection of nature and the survival of
species ('incorporating, as appropriate, breeding areas, wetlands, coral reefs, estuaries,
grasslands, forests or spawning areas, including marine feeding beds).
+ The area should be one where the protection of the habitat is essential to the well-being of
nationally or locally-important flora, or to resident or migratory fauna.
+ Conservation of these habitats and species should depend upon active intervention by the
management authority, if necessary through habitat manipulation (c.f Category Ia).
+ The size of the area should depend on the habitat requirements of the species to be
protected and may range from relatively small to very extensive.
Equivalent category in IUCN (1978): Nature Conservation Reserve/Managed Nature
Category V Protected Landscape/Seascape: protected area managed mainly for
landscape/seascape conservation and recreation
Definition: Area of land, with coast and sea as appropriate, where the interaction of people
and nature over time has produced an area of distinctive character with significant aesthetic.
ecological and/or cultural value, and often with high biological diversity. Safeguarding the
integrity of this traditional interaction is vital to the protection, maintenance and evolution of
such an area.
Objectives of management:
+ To maintain the harmonious interaction of nature and culture through the protection of
landscape and/or seascape and the continuation of traditional land uses, building practices
and social and cultural manifestations;
+ To support lifestyles and economic activities which are in harmony with nature and the
preservation of the social and cultural fabric of the communities concerned;
+ To maintain the diversity of landscape and habitat, and of associated species and
+ To eliminate where necessary, and thereafter prevent, land uses and activities which are
inappropriate in scale and/or character;
+ To provide opportunities for public enjoyment through recreation and tourism appropriate
in type and scale to the essential qualities of the areas;
+ To encourage scientific and educational activities which will contribute to the long term
well-being of resident populations and to the development of public support for the
environmental protection of such areas;
+ To bring benefits to, and to contribute to the welfare of, the local community through the
provision of natural products (such as forest and fisheries products) and services (such as
clean water or income derived from sustainable forms of tourism).
Guidance for selection:
+ The area should possess a landscape and/or coastal and island seascape of high scenic
quality, with diverse associated habitats, flora and fauna along with manifestations of
unique or traditional land-use patterns and social organizations as evidenced in human
settlements and local customs, livelihoods, and beliefs.
+ The area should provide opportunities for public enjoyment through recreation and
tourism within its normal lifestyle and economic activities.
Equivalent category in IUCN (1978): Protected Landscape.
Category VI Managed Resource Protected Area: protected area managed mainly for
the sustainable use of natural ecosystems
Definition: Area containing predominantly unmodified natural systems, managed to ensure
long term protection and maintenance of biological diversity, while providing at the same
time a sustainable flow of natural products and services to meet community needs. The area
must also fit the overall definition of a protected area.
+ To protect and maintain the biological diversity and other natural values of the area in the
* To promote sound management practices for sustainable production purposes;
+ To protect the natural resource base from being alienated for other land use purposes that
would be detrimental to the area's biological diversity;
+ To contribute to regional and national development.
Guidance for selection:
+ At least two-thirds of the area should be in, and is planned to remain in, a natural
condition, although it may also contain limited areas of modified ecosystems; large
commercial plantations are not to be included.
+ The area should be large enough to absorb sustainable resource uses without detriment to
its overall long-term natural values.
+ A management authority must be in place.
Equivalent category in IUCN (1978): no direct equivalent.
1 IUCN: 1994. Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories. IUCN- The World Conservation Union,
VI MARINE PARK PROJECT
Potential Benefits of Marine Reserves
Marine Reserves offer many potential benefits, which include; protecting ecosystem functions, improving
recreational and educational opportunities, improving fishery yields, and increasing knowledge and
understanding of marine systems.
I. Protects Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Integrity
* Protects physical structure of habitat;
* Protects ecological processes;
* Restores population structure of fisheries(size and age);
* Restores community composition (presence and abundance of plant and animal species);
* Protects biodiversity at all levels;
* Protects important species;
* Protects vulnerable species;
* Protects threshold effects;
* Protects food web and trophic structure;
* Reduces incidental damage; and
* Facilitates ecosystem recovery after major human or natural disturbances.
II. Improves Support to Human/Economic Systems
* Reduces fishing gear impacts;
* Maintains high quality feeding areas for fish and wildlife;
* Improves non-consumptive opportunities, especially recreation;
* Enhances and diversifies economic activities;
* Enhances and diversifies social activities;
* Enhances aesthetic and spiritual experiences;
* Improves wildlife opportunities;
* Provides opportunities for education;
* Increases sustainable employment opportunities;
* Creates public awareness about environment;
* Reduces the impacts from irresponsible development activities;
* Encourages holistic approach to natural resources management; and
* Stabilizes the local economy.
III. Improves Fishery Yields
* Protects spawning fish stocks;
* Increases spawning stock biomass;
* Provides undisturbed spawning conditions, habitats, sites;
* Increase egg and larval production;
* Enhances recruitment;
* Provides spill over of adults and juveniles to areas outside reserve;
* Reduces chances of recruitment overfishing;
* Reduces overfishing of vulnerable species;
* Protects diversity of fishing opportunities;
* Enhances recovery from stock collapses and management failures;
* Reduces bycatch fishing mortality
* Simplifies enforcement and compliance;
* Reduces conflicts among users;
* Maintains sport trophy fisheries;
* Reduces variance of yield;
* Allows increased fish outside reserves;
* Facilitates stakeholder involvement in management;
* Provides fishery management data to improve fisheries;
* Increases understanding and acceptance of fishery management;
* Reduces impacts of environmental variability; and
* Provides some protection with limited resources and without data or information.
IV. Increases Knowledge and Understanding of Marine Systems
* Provides long-term monitoring sites;
* Provides focus for study;
* Provides continuity of knowledge;
* Provides opportunity to restore or maintain natural behaviors;
* Reduces risks to long-term experiments;
* Provides experimental sites needing natural areas;
* Provides controlled natural areas for assessing anthropogenic impacts, including fishing and other
* Provides sites for enhanced primary and adult education; and
* Provides sites for high-level graduate education.
For more information on the benefits of marine reserves read Sobel 1996.
Sobel, J. 1996. "Marine Reserves: Necessary Tools for Biodiversity Conservation?", in Global
Biodiversity. 1996: 8-18.
Examples of Effects of Marine Reserves on Fisheries (Roberts & Hawkins, 2000)
Reserve Name Years of Habitat Effects Reported
and Location Protection Type
Leigh Marine 21 Warm- The most common predatory fish, Pagrus auratus,
Reserve, New temperate was 6 times more common in the reserve than outside,
Zealand rocky reef while the spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, was 1.6
times more abundant, and had a bigger carapace (a
part of their horny outer skeleton: average size= 10mm
in reserve, 94mm outside).
In 18 years, sea urchin densities declined from 4.9m2
to 1.4m2 in the reserve, while urchin cover rose from
14% to 40% in unprotected areas (Babcock 1999).
Tawharanui 14 Temperate The most common predatory fish, Pagrus auratus,
Marine Park, rocky reef was 9 times more common in the reserve than outside,
New Zealand while the spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, was 3.7
times more abundant, with a carapace about 16mm
bigger (Babcock 1999).
Mayotte Island, 3 Coral reef Total numbers of species present did not differ
Indian Ocean between protected and unprotected areas. However,
most large carnivores were more diverse and abundant
in the reserve. The mean biomass of commercial
species was 202g/m2 in the reserve, compared to
79g/m2 outside (Letourneur 1996).
Looe Key, 2 Coral reef 15 species that were targets of spear fishers increased
Florida, USA in abundance after spearfishing was banned: snappers
by 93%, grunts by 439% (Clark et al. 1989).
Cousin Island, 15+ Coral reef Groupers, emperors, and snappers were more
Seychelles abundant and diverse within the reserve than in fished
sites (Jennings 1998).
Sainte Anne, 11 Coral reef Despite the fact that a few families retain fishing rights
Seychelles and poaching is fairly common in this reserve, the
diversity of target species and total fish biomass was
higher than in heavily fished areas. The biomass of
prey did not increase when predators were removed
by fishing (Jennings et al. 1995, Jennings et al. 1996).
Merritt Island 28 Sub-tropical Experimental catch per unit effort (the amount caught
Wildlife Refuge, estuary for every unit of fishing effort) was 2.6 times greater
Florida, USA in the reserve for all game fish combined, 2.4 times for
spotted sea trout (Cynoscion nebulosus), 6.3 times
for red drum (Sciaenops ocellata), 12.8 for black
drum (Pogonius cromis), 5.3 for snook
(Centropomus undecimalis), and 2.6 for striped
mullet (Mugil cephalus). Fish in the refuge were
larger and more abundant, and anglers were
preferentially targeting the reserve boundary (Johnson
et al. 1999).
Reserve Name Years of Habitat Effects Reported
and Location Protection Type
Kisite Marine 5 Coral reef Snappers, emperors, and groupers were more
National Park, abundant in the park and appear to be spilling over into
Kenya fishing grounds. Protection did not affect species
number of diversity (Watson et al. 1996).
Punta El Lacho, 2 Temperate The commercially important marine snail, the Loco
Chile rocky (Concholepas concholepas), increased in density
intertidal from 5 to 14 times, and doubled in body size following
protection (Castilla & Duran 1985).
Barbados Marine 11 Coral reef Large, trapable fish were approximately twice as
Reserve abundant in the protected area, and 18 of 24 species
were bigger (Rakitin & Kramer 1996, Chapman &
Exuma Cays 36 Tropical The average density of adult queen conch (Strombus
Land and Sea seagrass gigas) was 15 times higher in the reserve, and late
Park, Bahamas meadow stage larval densities were 4-17 times higher (Stoner &
Exuma Cays 10 Coral reef The reproductive output of Nassau grouper
Land and Sea (Epinephelus striatus) was 6 times greater in the
Park, Bahamas reserve (Sluka et al. 1997).
Hawaii Marine Not Coral reef Fishes were 63% more abundant in areas protected
Life Conservation reported from fishing (Grigg 1994).
De Hoop Marine 2 Warm- Experimental catch per unit effort increased by up to
Reserve, South temperate five-fold for 6 out of 10 of the most commercially
Africa rocky reef important species (Bennett & Attwood 1991).
Saba Marine 4 Coral reef In the no-take zone the biomass of target species was
Park, Saba, over twice that in fishing grounds (Polunin & Roberts
Hol Chan Marine 4 Coral reef Biomass of target species in the reserve was on
Reserve, Belize average almost double that in fishing grounds, while in
certain parts of the reserve it was 10 times greater
(Polunin & Roberts 1993, Roberts & Polunin 1994).
Anse Chastanet 2 Coral reef Total biomass of commercially important species was
Reserve, St. more than double that in fishing grounds, and the
Lucia reserve contained 3 easily caught species found
nowhere else (Roberts & Hawkins 1997).
Ras Mohammed 15 Coral reef Mean biomass of fish was 1.2 times greater on
Marine Park, protected reefs, while differences for 7 target species
Egypt were much greater. Individuals of the lunartail grouper
(Variola louti) were 3 times larger in the reserve
(Roberts & Polunin 1993).
Kisite Marine Kisite 20, Coral reef Abundances of key commercial species grouperss,
Reserve Name Years of Habitat Effects Reported
and Location Protection Type
National Park Mpunguti 0 snappers, and emperors) were up 10 times higher in
and Mpunguti (open to the fully-protected Kisite Marine National Park
Marine National fishing using compared to the fished Mpunguti reserve.
Reserve, Kenya traditional Furthermore, keystone species such as triggerfish (a
methods predator of urchins) were also more abundant in the
Kisite Park, while their urchin prey were much more
abundant in the fished Mpunguti reserve (Watson &
Three Kenyan Malindi 24 Coral reef Reserves helped to support regional diversity by
Marine Parks: Watamu 20 protecting species that were unable to persist in fished
Malindi, Kisite 19 areas. Of the 110 species recorded on protected
Watamu, Kisite reefs, 52 were not found in fished areas (McClanahan
South Lagoon 5 Coral reef Within protected areas the species richness of fish
Marine Park, populations increased by 67%, density by 160%, and
New Caledonia biomass by 246%, but the average size of most species
did not increase (Wantiez et al. 1997).
Banyuls-Cerbere 6 Warm- 18 target species were bigger in reserves (Bell 1983).
Marine Reserve, temperate
France rocky reef
Shady Cove, San 7 Temperate Lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) were nearly 3 times
Juan Islands, rocky reef more abundant in the reserve (Palsson & Pacunski
Edmonds 27 Temperate The number of rockfish eggs and larvae originating
Underwater rocky reef from within the park is 55 times greater than outside.
Park, For lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus), the figure is 20
Washington, times as many (Palsson & Pacunski 1995).
Anacapa Island, 20 Warm- Densities of the commercially exploited red sea urchin
Channel Islands, temperate (., ',.*I,..L '< I.n- franciscanus) were 9 times
California, USA rocky reef higher in the reserve than in nearby fished areas (Gary
Davis, quoted in Fujita 1998).
Tsitsikamma 22 Rocky reef Of the 3 species studied, 1 was 4 times more abundant
National Park, in the reserve and another 13 times more. Bream
South Africa (Petrus rupestris) were on average twice as large
when protected. The biggest individuals for all species
were found in the reserve, and maximum sizes in
fished areas were depressed (Buxton & Smale 1989).
Sumilon Island 10 Coral reef 18 months after fshing was resumed in the reserve,
Reserve, The catch per unit effort fell by a half, and the total yield of
Philippines fish was 54% less, despite a greater area available for
fishing (Alcala & Russ 1990).
Reserve Name Years of Habitat Effects Reported
and Location Protection Type
Apo Island 6 Coral reef The biomass of large predators increased 8-fold in the
Reserve, The reserve. In fishing grounds, mean density and species
Philippines richness of large predators also increased (Russ &
Kyoto Preture 4 Temperate The proportion of large male snow crabs
Closure, Japan sand and (Chionoecetes opilio) rose by 32% in the closed area
mud bottom (Yamasaki & Kuwahara 1990).
Maria Island 6 Termperate The densities of rock lobster (Jasus rubra) and
Reserve, rocky reef bastard trumpeter fish (latridopsis forsteri) increased
Tasmania by 1 and 2 orders of magnitude respectively within the
reserve. The numbers of species also increased for
fish, invertebrates, and algae, as did the densities of
fish larger than 33cm (Edgar & Barrett 1999).
For more on the design, size, location, and benefits of marine reserves, read:
Roberts, C.M. and J.P. Hawkins. 2000. Fully-protected Marine Reserves: A Guide. WWF
Endangered Seas Campaign and University of York.
MARINE PROTECTED AREA OBJECTIVES
+ To protect and manage substantial examples of marine and estuarine systems to ensure
their long-term viability and to maintain genetic diversity.
+ To protect depleted, threatened, rare or endangered species and populations and, in
particular to preserve habitats considered critical to the survival of such species.
+ To protect and manage areas of significance to the life cycles of economically important
* To prevent outside activities from detrimentally affecting the marine protected area.
+ To provide for the continued welfare of people affected by the creation of marine
+ To preserve, protect and manage historical and cultural sites and natural aesthetic values
of marine and estuarine areas, for the present and future generations.
+ To facilitate the interpretation of marine and estuarine systems for the purpose of
conservation, education and tourism.
+ To accommodate within appropriate management regimes a broad spectrum of human
activities compatible with the primary goal in marine and estuarine settings.
+ To provide for research and training, and for monitoring the environmental effects of
human activities, including the direct and indirect effects of development and adjacent
Source: IV World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas. Workshop III.2.
CONSERVATION OBJECTIVES FOR PROTECTED AREAS
Sample ecosystems. To maintain large areas as representative samples of each major
biological region of the nation in its natural unaltered state for ensuring the continuity of
evolutionary and ecological processes, including animal migration and gene flow.
Ecological diversity. To maintain examples of the different characteristics of each type of
natural community, landscape and land form for protecting the representative as well unique
diversity of the nation, particularly for ensuring the role of natural diversity in the regulation
of the environment.
Genetic resources. To maintain all genetic materials as elements of natural communities,
and avoid the loss of plant and animal species.
Education and research. To provide facilities and opportunities in natural areas for
purposes of formal and informal education and research., and the study and monitoring of the
Water and soil conservation. To maintain and manage watersheds to ensure an adequate
quality and flow of fresh water, and to control and avoid erosion and sedimentation,
especially where these processes are directly related to downstream investments which
depend on water for transport, irrigation, agriculture, fisheries, and recreation, and for the
protection of natural areas.
Wildlife management. To maintain and manage fishery and wildlife resources for their vital
role in environmental regulation, for the production of protein, and as the base for industrial,
sport, and recreational resources.
Recreation and tourism. To provide opportunities for healthy and constructive outdoor
recreation for local residents and foreign visitors, and to serve as poles for tourism
development based on the outstanding natural and cultural characteristics of the nation.
Timber. To manage and improve timber resources for their role in environmental regulation
and to provide a sustainable production of wood products for the construction of housing and
other uses of high national priority.
Cultural heritage. To protect and make available all cultural, historic and archaeological
objects, structures and sites for public visitation and research purposes as elements of the
cultural heritage of the nation.
Scenic beauty. To protect and manage scenic resources which ensure the quality of the
environment near towns and cities, highways and rivers, and surrounding recreation and
Options for the future. To maintain and manage large areas of land under flexible land-use
methods which conserve natural processes and ensure open options for future changes in land
use, incorporate new technologies, meet new human requirements, and initiate new
conservation practices as research makes them available.
Integrated development. To focus and organize conservation activities to support the
integrated development of rural lands, giving particular attention to the conservation and
utilization of "marginal areas" and to the provision of stable rural employment opportunities.
Source: Miller 1980, McNeely et al. 1994
SELECTION CRITERIA cf. Salm and Clark
The following examples of criteria for protected areas in general have been compiled from
IUCN (1981) and Salm (1982). The major headings represent programme goals, the
numbered headings are the criteria.
Social Criteria. Social benefits are measured in the following terms:
1. Social acceptance, the degree to which the support of local people is ensured. When
an area is already protected by local tradition or practice, it should be encouraged, and
the area should receive a higher rating. An "official" protected area designation may
not be necessary if local support is high.
2. Public health, the degree to which the creation of a protected area may serve to
diminish pollution or other disease agents that contribute to public health problems.
Granting protected status to contaminated areas, such as shellfish beds or bathing
beaches, may result in reduced pollution as the polluting source is recognized and
3. Recreation, the degree to which the area is, or could be, used for recreation by
country residents. Areas that provide the local community opportunity to use, enjoy,
and learn about their local natural environment should receive a high rating for this
4. Culture, the religious, historic, artistic, or other cultural value of the site. Natural
areas that also contain important cultural features should be given high ratings as their
protection may help to maintain the integrity of the adjacent ecosystems.
5. Aesthetics, a seascape, landscape, or other area of exceptional scenic beauty. Natural
areas that also contain features of natural beauty should be given higher ratings since
such features depend on maintaining the integrity of the adjacent coastal and marine
systems. However, when species diversity and the biological conservation value are
low, and the site is picturesque, it retains a high value for recreation.
6. Conflicts of interest, the degree to which area protection would affect the activities of
local residents. If the area is to be used for recreational purposes, for example, the site
should not be a major fishing area and should have few dependent fishermen. In some
instances, careful zoning can minimise such conflicts.
7. Safety, the degree of danger to people from strong currents, surf, submerged
obstacles, waves, etc. The principal users will often be swimmers, snorkelers, divers,
and boaters. It is important that they are able to pursue their activities safely.
8. Accessibility, the ease of access across both land and sea. Areas to be used by visitors,
students, researchers, and fishermen must be accessible to them. The more accessible,
the greater the value, but the greater the likelihood of conflicting interests (such as
between coral mining and fisheries or fisheries and diving) and the greater the impact
of users. Accessibility weighs high for goal one (social), fairly high for goal two
economic), and low for goal three (ecological).
9. Benchmark, the degree to which the area may serve as a "control group" in the
scientific sense, an un-manipulated area used to measure changes elsewhere.
Benchmark areas are essential to an ecological monitoring programme and should
receive a higher rating.
10. Education, the degree to which the area represents various ecological characteristics
and can serve for research and demonstration of scientific methods. Areas that clearly
demonstrate different habitat types and ecological relationships and are sufficiently
large both to serve conservation and to accommodate teaching (i.e., field trips or on-
site learning centres) should receive a higher rating.
Economic Criteria. Economic benefits are measured in the following terms:
1. Importance to species, the degree to which certain commercially important species
depend on the area. Reefs or wetlands, for example, may be critical habitats for
certain species that breed, rest, shelter, or feed there and that form the basis of local
fisheries in adjacent areas. Such habitats need management to support these stocks.
2. Importance to fisheries, the number of de-pendent fishermen and the size of the
fishery yield. The greater the dependence of fishermen on an area, and the greater its
yield of fishes, the more important it becomes to manage the area correctly and to
ensure sustainable harvest.
3. Nature of threats, the extent to which changes in *use patterns threaten the overall
value to people. Habitats may be threatened directly by destructive practices, such as
fishing with explosives and certain bottom trawls, or by overexploitation of resources.
Areas traditionally harvested by local fishermen be-come important to manage. The
numbers of fishermen on these grounds may increase, bringing extra pressure to bear
on stocks and habitats. Even if the numbers do not change, the traditional capture
methods may be re-placed by others that yield more per unit effort (an extreme
example is the use of explosives). The stocks of some species may not be capable of
withstanding such in-creased drains on their breeding populations. In this way whole
species have disappeared from fishing grounds or have become exceedingly rare.
4. Economic benefits, the degree to which protection will affect the local economy in the
long term. Initially, some protected areas may have a short-lived, disruptive economic
effect. Those that have obvious positive effects should have higher ratings (for
example, for protecting feeding areas of commercial fishes or areas of recreational
5. Tourism, the existing or potential value of the area to tourism development. Areas
that lend themselves to forms of tourism compatible with the aims of conservation
should receive a higher rating.
Ecological Criteria. The values of ecosystems and their species are measured in the
1. Diversity, the variety or richness of ecosystems, habitats, communities, and species.
Areas having the greatest variety should receive higher ratings. However, this
criterion may not apply to simplified ecosystems, such as some pioneer or climax
communities, or areas subject to disruptive forces, such as shores exposed to high
energy wave action.
2. Naturalness, the lack of disturbance or degradation. Degraded systems will have
little value to fisheries or tourism, and make little biological contribution. A high
degree of naturalness scores highly. If restoring de-graded habitats is a priority, a high
degree of degradation may score highly.
3. Dependency, the degree to which a species depends on an area, or the degree to which
an ecosystem depends on ecological processes occurring in the area. If an area is
critical to more than one species or process, or to a valuable species or ecosystem, it
should have a higher rating.
4. Representativeness, the degree to which an area represents a habitat type, ecological
process, biological community, physiographic feature or other natural characteristic.
If a habitat of a particular type has not been protected, it should have a high rating. (A
classification scheme for coastal and marine areas is desirable in applying this
5. Uniqueness, whether an area is "one of a kind. Habitats of endangered species
occurring only in one area are an example. The interest in uniqueness may extend
beyond country boarders, assuming regional or international significance. To keep
visitor impact low, tourism may be prohibited but limited research and education
permitted. Unique sites should always have a high rating.
6. Integrity, the degree to which the area is a functional unit-an effective, self-sustaining
ecological entity. The more ecologically self-contained the area is, the more likely its
values can be effectively protected, and so a higher rating should be given to such
7. Productivity, the degree to which productive processes within the area contribute
benefits to species or to humans. Productive areas that contribute most to ecosystem
sustainment should receive a high rating. Exceptions are eutrophic areas where high
productivity may have a deleterious effect.
8. Vulnerability, the area's susceptibility to degradation by natural events or the
activities of people. Biotic communities associated with coastal habitats may have a
low tolerance to changes in environmental conditions, or they may exist close to the
limits of their tolerance (defined by water temperature, salinity, turbidity, or depth).
They may suffer such natural stresses as storms or prolonged immersion that
determine the extent of their development. Additional stress (such as domestic or
industrial pollution, excessive reductions in salinity, and increases in turbidity from
watershed mismanagement) may determine whether there is total, partial, or no
recovery from natural stress, or the area is totally destroyed.
Regional Criteria. The contribution of an area to a regional network of protected areas
can be assessed in the following terms:
1. Regional significance, the degree to which the area represents a characteristic of the
region, whether a natural feature, an ecological process, or a cultural site. The role the
area plays in contributing nutrients, materials, or support for species (especially
migratory ones) to the region as a whole should be evaluated. Both ecological processes
and natural resources are often shared among nations, so areas contributing to the
maintenance of species or ecosystems beyond national boundaries should have higher
2. Subregional significance, the degree to which an area fills a gap in the network of
protected areas from the sub-regional perspective. This contribution may be assessed by
comparing the distribution of protected areas with sub-regional characteristics. If a type
of area is preserved in one sub-region, that type should also be protected in another sub-
3. Awareness, the degree to which monitoring, research, education, or training within the
area can contribute knowledge and appreciation of regional values. Areas that can
combine such activities as pollution monitoring and education should receive a higher
4. Conflict and compatibility, the degree to which the area may help to resolve conflicts
between natural resource values and human activities, or the degree to which
compatibilities between them may be enhanced. If an area can be used to exemplify the
resolution of conflicts in the region, it should receive a higher rating. Protected areas that
demonstrate he benefits, values, or methods of protection or restoration should also have
Pragmatic criteria. The feasibility and appropriate timing of protection can be measured in
terms of the following:
1. Urgency, the degree to which immediate action must be taken, lest values within the
area be transformed or lost. Lack of urgency should not necessarily be given a lower
rating since it is often best, and least costly, to protect well in advance of the threat.
2. Size, which and how much of various habitats need to be included in the protected
area. Size is an important factor in designing protected areas. It has often been
overlooked in the design process, resulting in severe degradation, even total
destruction, of protected areas. The protected area must be large enough to function
as an ecological unit to receive a high rating.
3. Degree of threat, present and potential threats from direct exploitation and
development projects. The farther the protected area is from potential sources of
accidental poisoning (such as large ports, petroleum deposits, or river mouths) the
better are the survival prospects of species and communities. However, if an
important habitat is severely threatened, it may be important to implement a
management plan to reduce the threats to tolerable levels.
4. Effectiveness, the feasibility of implementing a management programme. A site that
satisfies many criteria, but cannot be adequately managed (i.e., monitored, patrolled,
and defended) is not of much use. Higher ratings should go to sites that are
5. Opportunism, the degree to which existing conditions or actions already under way
may justify further action. An extension of an established protected area should have
a higher rating.
6. Availability, the degree to which the area is available for acquisition or can be
managed satisfactorily by agreement with the owners. The problem of tenure rarely
applies to the sea. Beaches also often belong to the central or provincial government.
Thus, acquisition of aquatic areas, wetlands, and seashores may not be necessary.
However, adjacent lands and islands may be privately owned or leased. Generally, to
secure long-term control over these areas, the title or lease will need to be bought
from current owners. Higher ratings should go to areas owned by state or national
7. Restorability, the degree to which the area may be returned to its former natural state.
Areas that can increase in productivity or value to important species and processes
should receive higher ratings.
SELECTION CRITERIA cf. Kelleher and Kenchington 1992
The following list identifies factors or criteria that can be used in deciding whether an area
should be included in an MPA or in determining boundaries for an MPA.
Naturalness the extent to which the area has been protected from, or has not been
subject to human-induced change.
Biogeographic importance -
Ecological importance -
Economic importance -
Scientific importance -
International or National
either contains rare biogeographic qualities or is
representative of a biogeographic "type" or types.
contains unique or unusual geological features.
contributes to maintenance of essential ecological processes
or life-support systems .e.g. source for larvae for downstream
the degree to which the area either by itself or in association
with other protected areas, encompasses a complete ecosystem.
contains a variety of habitats.
contains habitat for rare or endangered species
contains nursery or juvenile areas.
contains feeding, breeding or rest areas.
contains rare or unique habitat for any species.
preserves genetic diversity i.e. is diverse or abundant in species
existing or potential contribution to economic value by
virtue of its protection e.g. protection of an area for recreation,
subsistence, use by traditional inhabitants, appreciation by
tourists and others or as a refuge nursery area or source of
supply for economically important species.
existing or potential value to the local, national or
international communities because of its heritage, historical,
cultural, traditional aesthetic, educational or recreational
value for research and monitoring
is or has the potential to be listed on the World or a
national Heritage List or declared as a Biosphere
Re-serve or included on a list of areas of international
or national importance or is the subject of an
international or national conservation agreement.
Degree of insulation from external destructive influences.
social and political acceptability, degree of community support.
accessibility for education, tourism, recreation.
compatibility with existing uses, particularly by locals.
ease of management, compatibility with existing management
SELECTION CRITERIA cf. Kelleher et al 1995
Criteria for Selection of Priority Areas
+ Presence of rare biogeographic qualities or representative of a biogeographic "type" or
+ Unique or unusual geological features.
+ An essential part of ecological processes or life-support systems (for example, is a source
for larvae for downstream areas);
+ Area's integrity, or the degree to which the area either by itself or in association with
other protected areas, encompasses a complete ecosystem;
+ The variety of habitats;
+ Presence of habitat for rare or endangered species;
+ Nursery or juvenile areas;
+ Feeding, breeding or rest areas;
+ Rare or unique habitat for any species; and
+ Genetic diversity (is diverse or abundant in species terms).
* Extent to which the area has been protected from, or has not been subject to, human-
* Existing or potential contribution to economic value by virtue of its protection (for
example, protection of an area for recreation, subsistence, use by traditional inhabitants,
appreciation by tourists and others or as a refuge nursery area or source of economically
* Existing or potential value to the local, national or international communities because of
its heritage, historical, cultural, traditional aesthetic, educational or recreational qualities.
+ Value for research and monitoring.
International or national significance
* Potential to be listed on the World (or national) Heritage List, declared a Biosphere
Reserve, or included on a list of areas of international or national importance, or is the
subject of an international or national conservation agreement.
+ Degree of insulation from external destructive influences;
* Social and political acceptability, degree of community support;
+ Accessibility for education, tourism, recreation;
+ Compatibility with existing uses, particularly by locals; and
* Ease of management or compatibility with existing management regimes.
MODEL OF MANAGEMENT PLAN cf. Kelleher and Kenchington
This example of the content of an MPA Management Plan is provided to assist those
involved in the preparation of plans and submissions in government agencies and non-
government organizations. It should be viewed as an ideal since it implies a planning
situation where there is a high level of description and understanding of the area under
investigation. The precise format adopted will depend upon the provisions of the legislation
establishing the MPA and the government 'processes required for putting a management plan
The relationship between a management plan and a zoning plan is optional. In large, multiple
use MPAs, the zoning plan may be the primary document that defines the strategic
framework for management. In such cases it will be supplemented by various subordinate
tactical documents such as guidelines arid day-to-day management plans.
The example that follows refers to the case where the management plan is the primary
policy-setting document and the zoning plan is subordinate to it. In many cases, the items 1-
4.1 may form a preliminary document which establishes the initial case for protection of the
area in question.
All the information listed in the following example should be provided in one document or
+ The name of the area subject to the plan and its status;
+ The words MANAGEMENT PLAN;
* The name of the agency/agencies responsible for implementing the plan; and
* The date when the plan was prepared and the expected date for review.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY PAGE
On this page are summarised:
+ The reason why the plan was prepared;
+ The period of time for which it applies;
+ Any special conditions which controlled its preparation, including the legislative basis
and authority for plan development;
+ The principal provisions of the plan;
+ The estimated budget; and
The headings of the body of the plan are listed here against the appropriate page numbers. It
may be preferable to list only the main headings, but sub-headings are usually included.
BODY OF THE PLAN
1. Obj ectives for Management
The goal and objectives for management are stated in this section. They will reflect
the purposes) for which the area is protected and the use(s) that will be permitted.
2. Resource Description
This section provides information on the following categories for the areas to be
protected. Maps will be an important feature of this section.
2.1 Name of Area and Location
To include the geographic location (State district, etc.); latitudes and
longitudes (preferably on a map); surface area (square kilometres, hectares or
other units of area).
2.2 Geographic and Habitat Classification
The area should be categorised according to a habitat classification scheme to
identify its geographic zone, substrate type(s) and major biological featuress.
2.3 Conservation Status
This should indicate the area's degree of naturalness, aesthetic values, degree
and nature of threats (if any), jurisdictions) and present ownership. The
degree of habitat representativeness should also be indicated.
2.4 Access and Regional Context
The regional land and sea surroundings and access routes to the area are
described, in addition to the character and use of contiguous areas,
emphasising their effectiveness as buffer zones.
2.5 History and Development
This section contains a summary account of direct and peripheral human
involvement in the area. This section may be divided into several sub-sections
A summary description of the people who used the area before
historical times, including any known areas of religious significance,
species taken and if closed seasons or closed areas were ever used as
management techniques. Archaeological information could also
provide clues to species that were found in the area.
2.5.2 Historical relics
This sub-section should identify submerged wrecks and any
2.5.3 Written and oral history
2.5.4 Recent developments
Give a brief history of fishing and other human use of the area and
developments on the land that may have had a major influence on the
2.5.5 Current human use and development
In this section the current use of the area by subsistence, artisanal,
commercial and recreational fishermen, tourists and others is
discussed. It is most important to establish who the users are, where
they conduct their activities, at what times of the year, and for how
long, and the social and economic importance of their use. A user
survey may be helpful. This information is just as important as
2.6 Physical features
In this section the non-living features of the area are described. Maps in
addition to descriptions should be included.
2.6.1 Coastal landforms
Nearby landforms should be described together with islands and
A map showing isobaths is needed. The depth of water can provide an
important insight into the dynamics of the system. Major trenches,
canyons and shallows should be described in as much detail as is
A description of the tidal regime and resultant currents and water
movements associated with phases of the tidal cycle.
2.6.4 Salinity and turbidity
Measurements of salinity and turbidity in all seasons are desirable.
A description in geological terms about how the area was formed and
how that process is continuing with the deposition of present day
substrates and by erosion processes observable in the area.
2.6.6 Dominant currents
A description of physical oceanographic features of the area, wind-
driven, tidal and residual currents, on a seasonal basis.
2.6.7 Freshwater inputs
Major river and estuarine areas should be noted.
Annual precipitation figures and a chart to indicate average
precipitation on s a monthly basis should be included.
Monthly charts for both air and average sea temperatures (surface and
at given depth). If possible include a monthly chart of solar radiation
Monthly charts of rose diagrams plus a description of any unusual
feature of the local winds.
2.8 Plant life
This section should contain at least a description of dominant marine plant
life, and wherever possible a comprehensive summary of the plant community
and related environmental factors such as the depth of occurrence, together
with any botanical features that may have special scientific, recreational or
other interest. Phytoplankton could be included if information is available.
Plant species identified in the area should be listed in an appendix.
2.9 Marine fauna
As a minimum, a description of the dominant marine or estuarine fauna is
required, with an account of their ecological relationships if known. Include
sections on Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish, Birds, Invertebrates and
Zooplankton as appropriate. A separate appendix should list the species.
Note: Sections 2.8 and 2.9 could be amalgamated to one section entitled "Marine Wildlife".
Wildlife would be defined as animals and plants that are indigenous to the nation, to its
coastal sea, to its continental shelf, or its overlying waters; migratory animals that
periodically or occasionally visit its territory; and such other animals and plants, not being
domesticated animals or cultivated plants, as are prescribed by legislation.
This can be a varied section that includes those matters which do not fit under
any of the other descriptions of the plan. Each plan will be site specific and
could therefore have features or problems which are not encountered in other
3. Description of Management Issues
A summary of past, present and possible future threats and management conflicts should
3.1 Historic and current conflicts
A brief statement of any historic or current conflicts between uses or user
Include point and non-point sources of external pollution within the area and
in nearby areas, especially those up-current, e.g. runoff, sewage inputs, fish
processing, industrial pollution and pollution from tourism and shipping.
3.3 Future demand
Estimate future demand for recreational and other uses, and if applicable,
future pollution loading and proposed developments.
3.4 Potential conflicts
Potential conflicts specific to the area within and close to the boundary of the
MPA should be described. Any potential conflicts due to more distant regional
influences should also be identified. This should include review of sectoral
development plans and propose projects for, or likely to influence, the area in
4. Management policies
In this section, the management plan comes to grips with the threats and conflicts and
The goal of protecting the area is briefly reiterated. The objectives of
management are stated clearly. If the area is to be subdivided, sub-objectives
should be stated for each zone or subdivision of the managed area.
4.2 Resource units
It could be useful to divide the area into resource units.
Each MPA will have unique characteristics and the resource units will
be site specific. An area could be divided into resource units such as
beaches, islands, deep-water trenches, turtle or seal rookeries etc.
4.2.2 Development areas
Another category could be areas that are either developed or proposed
to be developed.
4.2.3 Areas of impact
Areas showing marked impact from human activity could be
The resource units defined above may provide a basis for zoning, which
should be kept as simple as practicable, consistent with avoiding unnecessary
restriction on human activities. Zoning must be easy to understand both from
the point of view of the manager and the managed. This section should
explain why a particular area has been given a zone classification and what
activities are permitted and prohibited within each zone.
Special habitats or wildlife areas such as a seagrass bed or a turtle rookery,
may require additional management provisions such as seasonal closures or
permanent restrictions to human access. Unusual prescriptions may be needed
in the short term and these should be described in this section.
4.4 Management policies for resource units
In the draft management plan a list of management options can be presented
in this section and a choice made between them in the final version of the
This section should describe any programmes proposed to assess movement of
people, vessels and aircraft within and through the area and the use made of the area.
This section should describe any biological, environmental and usage-monitoring
programmes proposed for the area, when these programmes will be completed and
how they are to be used in reviewing the management plan. It may also identify other
monitoring programmes to be initiated during the first stage of the plan and who
could carry them out. Some of the results from monitoring may eventually be
included in the appendices.
7. Education and Interpretation
This section should describe programmes and co-operative arrangements with
educational institutions, public associations and community groups to promote
protection, wise use, public understanding and enjoyment of the MPA.
This section should outline the arrangements which will need to be made to detect
apparent offences and to apprehend and prosecute offenders in order to achieve an
acceptable level of adherence to.MPA regulations. No nation could afford to manage
primarily on the basis of enforcement in the face of general public hostility or to
apprehend every breach of regulation. Education is therefore the primary
9. Maintenance and Administration
A section will be required to address the subjects of budget, staffing, etc.
Anticipated costs should be identified so that adequate funding may be
The management plan should indicate staffing needs and identify major
functions. Volunteers, consultants and head office staff involved in the
planning process should also be identified, as this will provide a more
accurate indication of staffing levels. Staffing deficiencies can be predicted
and recommendations suggested. Section 9 should be updated and released as
part of an annual report.
10. Information Sources
Information regarding the area will come from sources outside the manager's regular
information base. These should be identified and listed wherever possible, and
include those other government agencies, non-government organizations, individuals,
consultants, overseas sources etc that were consulted. A bibliography should be
Boundary and Area Description
This should provide the legal description of the area including any
outstanding legal tenure or matters of existing interest that might have
become clear during the development of the management plan. In most
federal systems of government, there are complex and sometimes
unresolved questions of jurisdiction between levels of government
especially in the intertidal environment. These problems should be
highlighted and, if appropriate, solutions suggested. One solution is to
have complementary legislative, planning and management provisions
on each side of that jurisdictional boundary. Examples of this include
adjacent Federal and State Marine Protected Areas at Florida Keys and
the Californian Channel Islands in the United States of America and
the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and adjacent Queensland Marine
Parks in Australia.
All legislation and regulations relating to the area and their
interactions, should be noted and explained. Where feasible, the
legislation that prevails in the event of conflict between the provisions
of different enactments should be identified. Implications for the
protective status of the area should be identified.
A comprehensive list of plant species should be attempted for the first
management plan. As the process continues over the years, it is very
likely that new plant species will be discovered in the area. Plant
names should be listed in broad taxonomic groups, with botanical and
common names where possible.
Animal species should be listed in broad taxonomic groups: e.g.
Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish, Birds and Invertebrates and
common names provided where possible.
This section could describe unusual or outstanding features of the area
and could range from whale strandings, waterspouts, oil slicks to
spiritual revelations and cultural beliefs.
Past, Present and Proposed use
This section should attempt to provide 'more detail on uses, identify
key user groups and assess the social and economic significance of
The following are suggested as a minimum number of maps required.
Map 1 Location
Map 2 Land/water tenure and jurisdiction
Map 3 Land topography and seabed bathymetry
Map 4 Geology
Map 5/6 Dominant plant and animal communities
Map 7/8 Major uses
Map 9 Major use conflicts and threatened resources
Map 10 Zoning
Where practicable the use of overlay presentation is recommended in order to illustrate the
associations between such factors as topography, biological communities, and uses.
MODEL OF MANAGEMENT PLAN cf Salm and Clark
I. Executive Summary
A. Purpose and scope of plan
B. Legislative authority for the action
III. Management Content
A. Regional setting: location and access
B. Resources (only facts pertinent to management, with other data in an appendix
or separate document)
C. Existing uses (economics, description, facilities, etc.)
3. Research and education
D. Existing legal and management framework
E. Existing and potential threats and implications for management (i.e., analysis
of compatible or incompatible uses, solutions)
F. The plan
1. Goals and objectives
2. Management tactics
a. Advisory committees
b. interagency agreements (or agreements with private
c. institutions or individuals)
d. Boundary and zoning
e. New regulations
f Resource studies plan
g. Resource management plan
h. Interpretive plan
3. Administration (phased over 3- to 5-year plan)
c. Facilities and equipment
4. Surveillance and enforcement
5. Evaluation of plan effectiveness (monitoring uses, impacts, etc.) and
(Bali Barat National Park)
This is a rather old management plan (1980) prepared under the WWF Indonesia Programme
and the UNDP/FAO National Parks Development Project. Follow-up and implementation of
the plan is unknown. The original park did not have a marine component and the
management plan was prepared in response to the Government's decision to extend the park
with 6,220 ha of marine area in the early eighties.
Organization of the plan:
+ The status of planning
+ Management objectives
+ Marine tourism potential in Bali Barat
MARINE RESOURCES AND PROBLEMS
+ Marine resources
+ Human impacts on the marine habitats
MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS
+ Conservation values and options
* Regulations, boundaries and zoning (also including permits and enforcement)
* Staffing, administration, resource management and guarding.
+ Visitor use and facilities
* Summary of facilities, equipment, costs and scheduling
Description of the major marine ecosystems of proposed marine extension.
Comments: This is a fairly traditional model of a management plan. The management and
development section is quite detailed, although the management plan would gain in clarity by a more
elaborate division into sections and subsections of the different chapters.
Netherlands Antilles Model
(Curacao Underwater Park)
This plan is called a management guide, perhaps to reflect its primary purpose to serve as a
guide for management of an already established park. The park was de facto established in
983, but was never formally enacted by government. This has hampered the implementation
of management, which has been solely based on an existing but inadequate reef management
ordinance. For these reasons the plan has had little, if any, effect on actual management
Organization of the plan:
PART I: DESCRIPTION
Includes location, tenure and map coverage
+ Ecological relationships
PART II: PRESENT SITUATION
REASONS FOR ESTABLISHMENT
EVALUATION OF FEATURES AND SITE POTENTIAL
RESOURCE USERS AND AVAILABLE FACILITIES
IMPACT OF RESOURCE USERS
PART III: MANAGEMENT ISSUES/MANAGEMENT ACTIONS
LEGAL AND MANAGERIAL CONSTRAINTS
MAN INDUCED TRENDS
Includes impacts of uses, artificial beaches and mariculture
Includes impact of coral diseases, bleaching, sea urchin die off, and storms
Includes both on-site and off-site management programs
PART IV: BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESEARCH REGISTER
Comments: The plan is well organized and very detailed, but is heavy on the descriptive/background
information and light on management actions. As such it will not constitute a good model for a
management planning exercise. The management plan has since been replaced by a management plan
for the entire nearshore marine environment.
Turks and Caicos Marine Parks Model
The management plan relates to two almost adjacent MPAs, which were to be managed from
a single operational base. The parks have been in existence for quite some time, but were not
under active management. The management plan was intended to change this. The
management activities for both areas are very similar in nature.
Organization of the plan:
SECTION I: BACKGROUND
+ Objectives of the plan
+ Review of existing legislation
+ Resource description
+ Uses and impacts
SECTION II: MANAGEMENT
+ Objectives for management
+ Legal framework for management
+ Institutional framework for management
+ Park equipment, infrastructure and facilities
+ Public outreach, education and interpretation
+ Research and monitoring
+ Carrying capacity and visitor management
+ Licensing procedures
* Staffing and training
+ Revenue generation and budget
+ Timetable for implementation
SECTION III: ANNEXES
I. Information sources/bibliography
II. Legal texts
III. Job descriptions park staff
IV Visitor survey
CONCLUSIONS OF EVALUATION
EXISTING MANAGEMENT PLANS
(Tom van't Hof, 1999)
* Management plans are being prepared by scientists, managers, consultants, or teams of
experts from several agencies.
* Each author or team appears to have its own preferred model for a management plan.
* All management plans follow a general pattern, including a descriptive part and a
management issues/activities part.
* Some management plans follow a strict pattern of policy, goals and objectives, strategy
* Management plans that have been prepared on the basis of extensive public consultation
and review seem to be the most valuable and may have the best chances of
* Some management plans were prepared prior to implementation of management, others
after IUCN has prepared a generic management plan outline which constitutes a useful
basis for any organization involved in management planning.
* There is no single model that MPAs can adopt for its management planning without
* MPAs should develop its own model, based on the comprehensive outline proposed by
IUCN, and using formulas and approaches of existing management plans as appropriate.
VI MARINE PARK PROJECT
SYSTEM PLANNING FOR PROTECTED AREAS
Individual protected areas, by themselves, cannot address the range and scope of
environmental management issues in a country or territory. In many instances, protected
areas stand out as gems in an otherwise degraded environment. As such, unless the links
between protected areas, national conservation strategies, and national development
strategies are identified and addressed, it becomes difficult to resolve basic conservation
issues. In many cases, economic pressures and threats external to the protected area result in
areas being taken out of protected area status, and used for development. In other words,
system planning is one form of approach to integrated planning, linking environment and
A national protected area system helps to address conservation issues at a macro level.
Davey (1998) explains protected areas system planning as:
+ Defining the priority of protected areas as a worthwhile national concern; defining the
relationships between (a) different units and categories of protected areas; and (b)
protected areas and other relevant categories of land;
+ Taking a more strategic view of protected areas;
+ Defining roles of key players in relation to protected areas and the relationships between
these players; this may include building support and a constituency for protected areas
(i.e. as a means to that end, not as an end in itself);
+ Identifying gaps in protected area coverage (including opportunities and needs for
connectivity) and deficiencies in management; and
+ Identifying current and potential impacts both those affecting protected areas from
surrounding lands and those emanating from the protected areas which affect surrounding
Reasons for Adopting a System Approach to Protected Area Planning
Adrian Davey, 1998
+ To relate protected areas to national priorities, and to prioritise different aspects of
protected area development;
+ To facilitate access to international and national funding, by defining priorities for
investment in protected areas and increasing the level of confidence in the efficient use of
funds and resources.
* To get away from a case by case, ad hoc, approach to resource management decision
* To target proposed additions to the protected area estate in a more rational and persuasive
manner than ad hoc planning;
* To facilitate integration with other relevant planning strategies, such as those for national
tourism, national biodiversity conservation, or sustainable development;
* To help resolve conflicts, assist in making decisions relating to trade-offs, clarify roles
and responsibilities of different stakeholders, and facilitate diverse stakeholder
* To provide a broader perspective for addressing site-specific issues, such as tourism
* To enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the way in which budgets are developed
* To assist in meeting obligations under international treaties;
* To assist countries to be more proactive in conservation management, and in developing
effective protected area systems;
* To encourage consideration of a "system" which incorporates formal protected areas and
areas outside of protected areas;
* To provide a structured framework for a system of protected areas, ranging from areas
managed for strict conservation to areas managed for a range of conservation and
appropriate ecologically-sound activities;
* To assist protected area agencies to build political support for protected areas as a
* To define a better process of decentralisation and regionalisation of protected area
activities, resources and responsibilities, including the involvement of NGOs and the
private sector; and
* To foster transboundary collaboration.
SYSTEM PLAN FOR THE BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS
The BVI system plan is in its third iteration, building on a system plan that was first
developed in 1980. The BVI has a number of marine and terrestrial sites currently under
TABLE OF CONTENTS (modified)
Table of Contents
A Parks and Protected Area System Plan for the BVI
Overview of the Present Situation
+ Legislative Environment
+ Government Policy
+ Designated Areas and Applicable Legislation
+ Physical Plant
* Staff Restructuring
* Species Restoration (terrestrial and marine programmes)
+ Education and Awareness
Institutional Development and Financial Management
Infrastructure: Park Development and Renovation
+ Recreational Use Management
+ User Fee System
+ Law Enforcement
Expenditure, Revenue and Budget
Collaborative Management Agreement
Contribution from Government Ministries
Development of the System
Goals and Objectives
Site Selection Process of the Proposed and Existing System
Proposed and Existing System
Management Strategy and Requirements
Integration of Existing Terrestrial Parks with Marine Parks and Protected Areas
Future Development of the BVI Parks and Protected Areas System
+ Management Categories
Development Policies and Trends
Legislative Environment and Additional Requirements
Resource Use Within and Around the Parks and Protected Areas of the BVI
+ Fisheries and fisheries management
Mangrove Management Initiatives 1990-1999
Sea Grass, Lobster, Conch, Turtles, Welk, Birds, Anegada Rock Iguana, and Beaches
Critical Areas and Endangered Species
Socio-economic Features and Issues in the BVI
Profiles of Existing National Parks and Protected Areas Systems
Profiles of Proposed National Parks and Protected Areas Systems
Summary and Conclusions
Appendix 1: Background Information
Appendix 2: Total Consolidated Budget, National Parks Trust, 1999
VI MARINE PARK PROJECT
Protected Areas Policy, Planning, and Management
Bunce, L., P. Townsley, R. Pomeroy, & R. Pollnac. 2000. Socioeconomic Manual for Coral
Reef Management. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Australian Institute of Marine
This publication is intended to provide guidance to persons working with coral reef
management in conducting socioeconomic assessments in the adjacent communities.
Ceballos-Lascurain, H. 1996. Tourism, Ecotourism and Protected Areas: The State of
Nature-based Tourism Around the World and Guidelines for its Development. IUCN,
As its name suggests, this publication deals with the topic of tourism and the protected
areas, reviewing issues such as: the economic value of ecotourism, tourism impacts, and
ecotourism policy and planning. It's appendices contain case studies of ecotourism in
protected areas, one on a coral reef ecosystem.
Davey, A.G. 1998. National System Planningfor ProtectedAreas. IUCN, Gland.
This publication deals with the issues of national level planning for protected areas. It
provides a rationale for system planning, linking protected areas to wider conservation
strategies and economic development. Additionally, it provides information on the
essential elements of a national system plan.
Kelleher, G. 1999. Guidelinesfor Marine Protected Areas. IUCN, Gland.
This publication is one in the "Best Practices" series published by IUCN. This book
places marine protected areas in a wider social and legal context, dealing with issues
such as stakeholders and communities. It provides detailed guidelines on the
preparation of Management Plans and Zoning Plans for marine protected areas.
National Research Council. 2001. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean
Ecosystems. National Academy Press, Washington.
This book is the result of a two-year examination of marine resources management in
the USA. In addition to dealing with issues of fisheries management and marine
protected areas, the book includes a chapter on the "Historical background and
evaluation of marine protected areas in the United States".
Roberts, C.M. and J.P. Hawkins. 2000. Fully-protected Marine Reserves: A Guide. WWF
Endangered Seas Campaign and University of York.
This book focuses primarily with marine reserves and fisheries. In addition to the
general fisheries issues, it deals with relevant issues related to the design of marine
reserves, including; size, location, degree of permanence, etc. It also includes thirteen
case studies from around the world, including four from the Caribbean and two from the
Salm, R.V., John Clark, and Erkki Siirila. 2000. Marine and Coastal Protected Areas: A Guide
for Planners and Managers. 3rd Edition. IUCN, Washington.
This book covers a wide range of topics on marine protected areas, some in great
detail. Main topics include; the role of marine protected areas, site planning and
management, community involvement, selection criteria, support tools and strategies,
and institutional and legal frameworks. The book also deals with marine protected
areas in the context of specific ecosystems, such as coral reefs and lagoons.
Additionally, it provides highlights of twenty-five case studies, six from the Caribbean
and one from the USA.
Sobel, J. 1996. "Marine Reserves: Necessary Tools for Biodiversity Conservation?", in Global
Biodiversity. 1996: 8-18.
This article provides a listing of the benefits of marine reserves.
Bibliography on Marine Fishery Reserves
M. Chiappone and R. Sluka
The Nature Conservancy
Florida & Caribbean Marine Conservation Science Center
University of Miami
PO Box 249118
Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA
1. Adams, P.B. 1979. Life history patterns in marine fishes and their consequences for fisheries
management. Fishery Bulletin 78: 1-12.
Natural selection operates at the life history level to maximize the number of surviving offspring. Life history
characteristics will vary in consistent patterns to meet this constraint. When theoretical patterns in life histories
are investigated in terms ofr and K selection and compared with actual trends in life history characteristics of
fishes the agreement between observed and predicted trends was significant. The effects of harvesting on stocks
with these life history trends were investigated and it was found the K selected type species would be highly
sensitive to over-fishing and, once depleted, recovery would require a long time.
2. Alcala, A. C. 1988. Effects of marine reserves on coral fish abundances and yields of Philippine coral
reefs. Ambio 17:194-199.
This paper reviews the effects of long-term protective management on fish abundances at coral-reef reserves and
non-reserves and on fish yields at non-reserves at four small islands in the central Philippines. One of the studied
reefs lost its protection status after ten years, becoming a natural experiment on the effects of protection. Factors
influencing fish yields and management problems affecting Philippine marine reserves are briefly discussed.
Fish abundances were censused visually; data showed that fish abundances and standing stock of highly fished
species were significantly higher in reserves than in non-reserves and control sites. Annual fish yields were
estimated with daily records of fish catches from various types of gear1 and with monthly samples of catches.
The data revealed that protection at the ten-year site was responsible for maintaining high fish yields; it was also
shown that the reserve exported biomass to the fished area. The effects of less than five years of protection at
two other reek were not evident, although some species increased in abundance. A fish -monitoring program at
the protected reek is intended to test the generality of the conclusions drawn from data on one reef.
3. Alder, J. 1992. Have six years of marine public education changed community attitudes and awareness?
Proceedings of the 7th International Coral Reef Symposium 2: 1043-1051.
The day -to-day management of the Cairns Section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park commenced in May of
1985. A survey to determine community attitudes towards and awareness of the marine park was conducted in
August of that year. Over the next six years various public and user education programs were implemented. To
gauge the effectiveness of these programs, the marine parks awareness survey was repeated in October of 1991.
Preliminary results indicate changes in community awareness and attitudes.
4. Andersson, J. 1995. Marine resource use in the proposed Mafia Island Marine Park. Studies in
Environmental Economics and Development, Unit for Environmental Economics, Department of Economics,
Gothenburg University. 34pp.
The marine resource users in the proposed Mafia Island Marine Park include the local men, women, and
children and an increasing number of outsiders, mainly from Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Lindi, and Zanzibar.
Finfish were the main marine resource, but the individual income earnings were larger for the collection of
corals. Octopus fishing was the activity that involved the largest number of people; this is mainly because it can
be performed by women and children. Octopus is the product that had the largest difference in buying price on
Mafia and selling price in Dar es Salaam. Other identified marine resource activities of significance to the locals
were shell and sea cucumber collection. These had very small or no relevance for local consumption and were
sold to external markets. Identified environmentally harmful activities were coral collection, dynamite fishing,
the use of destructive fishing gears, and the illegal cutting of coastal and mangrove forests. The economic
incentives to bum corals for the production of lime were large. Dynamite fishing was generally considered as
'-ad 19, but there was a discrepancy in the perception of the activity between the smaller islands included in the
proposed park area. The perception among the locals towards the implementation of the park was very positive.
The largest expectations among the local resource users were for the park to secure and eventually improve the
productivity of their fishing grounds.
5. Attwood, C.G. and Bennett, B.A. 1994. Variation in dispersal of galjoen(Coracinus capensis)
Coracinidae) from a marine reserve. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic sciences 51:12474257.
The dispersal of the surf-zone galjoen(Coracinus capensis) from the De Hoop Marine Reserve, South Africa,
was investigated. Over a period of 5.5 years, 11,022 galjoen were tagged in the center of the reserve. Most of the
1,008 recoveries were at the site of release, while the remainder covered a distance of up to 1,040 km. There was
no difference with respect to age, sex, or season between those that dispersed and those that did not. Six models
were developed to test the hypotheses that 1) galjoen are polymorphic with respect to dispersal behavior, 2)
nonreporting of tags masks a random dispersal process, and 3) the recovery distribution is the result of unequal
movement rates in different areas. It is inferred from the likelihood of the various models that the tagged
population was polymorphic, with fish displaying either resident or nomadic behavior. This conclusion is
unaffected by a large uncertainty in the extent of nonreporting of recoveries, or by spatial variability of
movement rates. The estimate of emigration from the reserve implies that the unharvested reserve population is
restocking adjacent exploited areas with adult fish.
6. Ballantine, WJ. and Gordon, D.P. 1979. New Zealand's first marine reserve, Cape Rodney to Okakari
Point, Leigh. Biological Conservation 15:273-280.
New Zealand's first marine reserve, Cape Rodney to Okakari Point, with an area of 500 hectares, occupies a
portion of the northeastern coastline centered on a small island. The physical and biological characteristics of the
reserve are outlined. The park was opened in 1977, twelve years after it was first proposed. The problems
encountered and lessons learned from trying to establish the nation's first marine
reserve are discussed.
7. Bayle-Sempere, J.T. and Ramos-Espla, A.A. 1993. Some population parameters as bioindicators to
assess the "reserve effect" on the fish assemblage. Pages 189-214 In: Qialite du Milieu Marin-Indicateurs
Biologiques et Physico-Chimiques. C.F. Boudouresque, M. Avon and C. Pergent-Martmi (Eds.), GIS Posidonie,
Marine fisheries reserves have been proposed as a useful tool to manage littoral fisheries. In this study, four
population parameters were evaluated as to their utility as bioindicators to assess the effect of the protection on
the fish assemblage. Abundance and diversity were poorly correlated with protection. Richness and size were
more correlated with protection, thus were considered more suitable to assess the "reserve effect" on the fish
8. Beets, J. and Friedlander, A. 1992. Stock analysis and management strategies for red hind, Epinephelus
guttatus, in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 42: 66-79.
Analysis of landings data from 1984 to 1988 demonstrated significant decline in average size and the apparent
loss of large size classes of red hind, Epinephelus guttatus in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. The two large
islands in the U.S. Virgin Islands, St. Thomas and St. Croix, are on separate geological platforms with different
species abundances; therefore. Data were analyzed separately. Fisheries parameters analyzed differed between -
the two platforms. Information obtained from fisherman suggested a classic case of over-fishing spawning
aggregations. The decline of red hind mirrors the demise of Nassau grouper, E: striatus off St. Thomas during
the mid4970's. Landings information from a known spawning aggregation during 1988 and 1989 demonstrated a
trend for smaller average size for red hind and a skewed sex ratio toward an abundance of gravid females. This
suggests a shortage of males in the population and an increased potential for spawning failure. Strict
management strategies have been recommended to reverse the present trend. Protection of spawning sites has
been proposed as the first critical action for maintaining adequate spawning success. Additional management
strategies, such as gear restrictions and establishment of permanent refuges, are also needed to insure adequate
9. Bennett, B.A. and Attwood, C.G. 1991. Evidence for recovery of a surf-zone fish assemblage following
establishment of a marine reserve on the southern coast of South Africa. Marine Ecology Progress Series 75:
This study was designed to establish whether populations of fish species important in the catches of rock and
surf anglers increased following the proclamation of the De Hoop Marine Reserve on the southern coast of
South Africa. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) and size frequency distributions of angling species were
monitored approximately monthly by angling from the shore at 2 sites in the reserve. At one site sampling
commenced 2 years before the reserve was established and continued 4.5 years thereafter, allowing comparisons
of periods of exploitation and protection. The other site had a long history of minimal exploitation and data
collected there Z54.5 years after compete protection was considered to represent an unexploited condition. Ten
species accounted for 99 percent of the catch. Following establishment of the reserve, CPUE increased for 6 of
these species. The catch rates of 2 species improved -5 fold within 2 years of protection and remained at these
high levels. Recoveries were slower amongst the other 4 species, their catch rates reaching 3060 percent of the
unexploited level after 2.54.5 years of protection. This study provides evidence of general stock recoveries of
exploited fish species in a shallow marine habitat following protection within a marine reserve.
Indonesia: components for effective marineconservation. Proceedings of the 7th International
The Indonesian Archipelago has a coastline of about 80,000 km, which includes some of the most productive
and diverse coastal ecosystems on earth. The Indonesian coastal ecosystems are also among the most heavily
exploited, especially where human population densities are high. Three main steps need to be taken in order to
execute effective management programs: 1) research the ecological aspects of the reef systems; 2) produce an
inventory of adverse human influences; and 3) raise public awareness through participation of communities and
politicians. The most effective way to take these steps is by bilateral or multilateral cooperation and a
multidisciplinary approach. The components are considered here, using examples from current and proposed
activities representing some of the most long4erm on-going marine conservation programs in Indonesia.
This study evaluated a method used by the Republic of France to protect discrete marine areas of shoreline and
adjacent coastal waters through designation of sites as marine nature reserves. Although much smaller in size
than many national marine sanctuaries in the United States, the reserves in France represent successful efforts to
protect and manage coastal marine areas. This is due in part to a high amount of local involvement during the
designation process; the use of advisory committees at the reserves, as well as scientific committees that develop
and conduct research projects within the sites; and the use of core areas, in which almost all human activities are
prohibited or restricted, to promote re-populating of fish communities and to increase species diversity. The
initiative for creating the reserves begins at the local level and is coordinated among local officials, user groups,
environmental organizations, and the national government. This study describes the legal framework in which
the reserves are created and examines aspects of management, scientific research, and law enforcement of a
It has been hypothesized that nature reserves should be as circular as possible to maximize the total number of
species conserved. Using multiple regression, this study examined the relationship between species richness on
oceanic islands and island shape for 33 data sets. After accounting for the effect of island area, island shape does
not explain a significant amount of the residual variation in species number in more data sets than expected due
to chance alone. It is concluded that if the mechanisms controlling species richness on oceanic islands and
isolated patches of terrestrial habitat are the same, then shape is not of major concern in the design of nature
Increased human activities in the coastal zone has brought about an increase in user conflicts and marine
resource exploitation. This article discusses the advantages of marine reserves, specifically for the enhancement
of fisheries populations. The author discusses life history strategies of coral reef organisms and the susceptibility
of fishery target species to over-fishing. An overview of problems associated with creating marine reserves is
Reef species are vulnerable to over-fishing because of their life history characteristics. Various fisheries for reef
species have declined worldwide, including the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and U.S. South Atlantic. Traditional
fishery management techniques may not be practical or effectively deal with certain problems, such as by-catch
and release mortality. Marine fishery reserves, areas with no consumptive usage, provide an alternative
management approach with attractive attributes from a fishery prospective. Marine fishery reserves ~ -n
improve reef fish fisheries by protecting species composition, population age structure, spawning potential, and
genetic variability within species. Reproductive output from reserves would help re-supply fished areas by
natural egg and larval dispersal. Properly located reserves of adequate size could protect the quantity and quality
of reproductive output, reduce recruitment uncertainty due to environmental variation, and ensure against
management failure. Substantial empirical evidence shows that protection from fishing has increased fish
abundance and availability inside and outside protected areas. A model of the red snapper fishery in the Gulf of
Mexico with 20 percent of the habitat protected by reserves, show that total egg production was potentially
1,200 percent greater than under the status quo. Uncertainties remain concerning the ideal number, location, and
size of reserves necessary to achieve management objectives.
Marine Sanctuary, U.S.A. Protected Areas in Resource-Based Economies: Sustaining Biodiversity & Ecological
Integrity. Canadian Council on Ecological Areas National Conference and 14th Annual General Meeting.
Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
The US. Congress created the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary in recognition of the area's unique and
rich natural resources, its economic importance, and its increased anthropogenic stress. A management plan was
developed based on principles of integrated coastal management as a cooperative effort by local, state, and
federal agencies using a bottom-up, consensus- building approach with extensive public involvement. Unique
accomplishments of the plan were the use of no-take zones in approximately 6 percent of the sanctuary,
increased public involvement resulting in action concerning important problems, and the establishment of
ongoing management that provides a balance between managers, government, and users. Success of the effort
was based on shared common goals, dear legislative mandates, continued commitment by stakeholder and
agency participants, intensive public involvement, and consensus and compromise by various users. Major
drawbacks of this approach are the time and costs needed to develop a plan and the need for professional support
to guide the process. Future success will require sufficient program funding, continued cooperation between
participants, and the failure of those opposed to the Sanctuary to preempt the process through legislative action.
Marine biodiversity is increasingly threatened by habitat destruction, environmental changes, and
overexploitation. Preventing reductions in biodiversity and promoting sustainable resource use requires new
management strategies, more effective education, and strong research. There is a need to switch to less
destructive and wasteful fishing methods to protect critical and sensitive habitats from development and
overexploitation. Marine reserves, areas permanently protected from all extractive uses, are gaining widespread
attention as an innovative tool for conserving biodiversity while maintaining healthy sustainable fisheries. This
article provides a summary of the issues surrounding the use of marine reserves as a management tool Specific
details of the proposal for marine fisheries reserves in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary is presented.
The Sanctuary presents a unique opportunity to elucidate the relative impacts of fisheries exploitation and
oceanographic processes in determining the biodiversity and abundance of reef organisms. Cooperative
academic and governmental research will test critical hypotheses in order to improve marine resource
This article provides a comprehensive summary of commercial, recreational, and marine life fisheries in Monroe
County. Results are presented for commercial landings, recreational headboat fishery, and other recreational
fishery landings. Landings for some species varied greatly over time. The most conspicuous declines were for
pink shrimp, combined grouper, and king mackerel while the most conspicuous increases were for amberjack,
stony crab, blue crab, and yellowtail snapper. Landings of spiny lobster have generally remained constant. The
article provides a summary of management efforts in the region and problems in data interpretation and
18. Bolsssack, J.A., Kumpf, H., Hobson, E., Huntsman, C., Able, K.W. and Ralston, S.V. 1989. Report on the
concept of marine wilderness. Fisheries 14:22-24.
The Marine Wilderness Committee of the AFS Marine Fisheries Section recommends that the American
Fisheries Society endorse the concept and work toward the establishment of marine wilderness areas. A
suggested definition of a marine wilderness is the following: A unique or representative ecosystem or subset
with geographically defined boundaries that is set aside, or protected for nonconsumptive usage. The major
distinction between marine wilderness areas and other managed areas is that significant consumptive usage
would not be permitted. The primary use for marine wilderness will be for research, education, and fisheries
management. Marine wilderness areas offer several practical benefits for marine resource management that are
not being realized under present conditions. Marine wilderness areas could 1) complement traditional fisheries
management by allowing undisturbed population reservoirs to act as sources of recruitment and re-population
for exploited areas; 2) help maintain natural age structure of populations, ecosystem balance, and the genetic
diversity of exploited populations; and 3) act as environmental insurance in case of resource management
failures by providing unexploited populations.
19. Bradstock, M. and Gordon, D.P. 1983. Coral-like bryozoans growths in Tasman Bay, and their protection to
conserve commercial fish stocks. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 17:159-163.
Mounds of coral off Separation Point, Tasman Bay, which have recently been protected to conserve ecologically
associated commercial fish species, are predominantly growths of bryozoans. Two species make up the bulk of
these structures. Trawling through the coral grounds has affected the fish populations to the extent that an area
has been closed to trawling to conserve stocks.
2(). Buechner, M. 1987. Conservation in insular parks: simulation models of factors affecting the movement of
animals across park boundaries. Biological Conservation 41:57-76.
Many parks represent insular areas of habitat and he movement of animals across park boundaries can be
critical to park wildlife populations. This study used computer simulation models to analyze factors
affecting the movement and density of animals in patches of habitat. The results suggested that the perimeter to
area ratios and edge permeability of parks, the appearance and stopping patterns and habitat preferences of
moving animals, and the relative size of dispersal sinks and source pools can all potentially influence the
direction and magnitude of the movement of animals across the park boundaries. The results suggest that
scientists interested in park and reserve design need to consider other factors than just the size of potential sites,
particularly park perimeter to area ratios. The simulations also suggest a strategy for solving some types of
conservation and control problems by manipulating sinks or pools: 1) identity which factors can be practically
altered in a given situation, 2) evaluate those factors to estimate their current levels, and 3) focus on the factor
that is nearest to the lower end of its range of values.
21. Buxton, C.D. 1992. The application of yield-per-recruit models to two South African sparid reef
species, with special consideration to sex change. Fisheries Research 15:146.
Yield-per-recruit models were applied to Chiysoblephus laticeps and C. cristiceps both of which are important
to the line-fishery industry in South Africa. Sex change and slow growth were investigated, particularly with
respect to the ratio of males to the total number of mature fish in the population. Predictions based on the yield -
per-recruit and spawner-biomass-per-recruit models were viewed with caution owing to the rapid decline in the
number of survivors past the age of recruitment, and their failure to take into account the effects of sex change
on the reproductive potential of the population. Model predictions correlated well with observations that
indicated a relationship between population structure and the level of exploitation. Considering the options for
the management of these and similar reef fishes, the tactic of protection through marine reserves is supported.
22. Buxton, C.D. 1993. Life-history changes in exploited reef fishes on the east coast of South Africa.
Environmental Biology of Fishes 36: 47-3.
The impact of exploitation on various life-history characteristics of two sex changing, reef-dwelling sparid
species was examined by comparing populations protected in a large marine reserve with those adjacent to the
reserve in Suth Africa. Like other sparids, Chrysoblephus laticeps and C cristiceps grow slowly and are long
lived, reaching ages of 17 and 21 years, respectively. No significant differences in the growth rate of C laticeps
were measured, but growth in C cristiceps was significantly slower in the exploited population. Observed data
showed that sex ratios outside the marine reserve were skewed towards females, a result of size selective
exploitation. Size at sex change was also significantly smaller for C cristiceps in the exploited area, but not for C
laticeps. This differences between the species was explained as a function of the size at recruitment into the
fishery and the degree of protection afforded both large females and male fish. Considering the possibility that
reproduction could be impaired as a result of changes in population structure, the tactic of protection through
marine reserves is supported as a hedge against recruitment failure.
23. Buxton, C.D. and Smale, MJ. 1989. Abundance and distribution patterns of three temperate marine reef
fish (Teleostei: Sparidae) in exploited and unexploited areas off the southern Cape coast. Journal of Applied
Visual underwater census was used to determine the abundance and size structure of three conspicuous marine
reef fish species on the southeast Cape coast, South Africa, during 1984-86. Sites inside the Tsitsikamma
Coastal National Park and outside the reserve at Cape Recife were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the
reserve as a management option for the fish. Three sparids were studied: Chrysoblephus laticeps, C cristiceps,
and Petrus rupestris Transect techniques suggested that point counts were best suited for mobile species, while
line counts were best suited for more sedentary species. Distribution of the target species within an area was
correlated with depth and substratum relief, both factors reflecting feeding and habitat preferences. Fewer fish
were found in shallow water and on flat reefs. During cold upwelling, fish moved away from the study area,
presumably following warmer water. Seasonal differences were observed in the abundance of C laticeps
abundance was greatest in summer. Sampling showed that the abundance and size of fishes was greater within
the reserve. The data suggested that the reserve is providing effective protection for species vulnerable to line-
24. Cabanban, A.S. and White, A.T. 1981. Marine conservation program using non-formal education at
Apo Island, Negros Oriental, Philippines. Proceedings of the 4th International Coral Reef Symposium 1:317-
The Apo Island Marine Conservation Program was conducted from July 1979 to March 1980. The objectives of
the program were to develop environmental awareness among the residents and to begin the establishment of a
marine park in the island. Operational generalizations of non4ormal education, relevant to this program, were
applied. These include the 1) help of local leaders, 2) the winning of villager support and commitment, and 3)
the adoption of effective communication systems and methods. In particular, techniques such as lecture-slide
presentations; forums, or group distribution of printed materials were used. Non-formal education was a useful
tool to these objectives as shown by the considerable success achieved in cultivating environmental awareness,
understanding, and approval of the establishment of a marine park by some. The trade-off between the relative
difficulty of instituting non-formal educational methods and the relative effectiveness of these methods are
discussed. This paper attempts to thresh out the problems encountered in the program and propose
recommendations from which biologist and others who conduct efforts along this line may glean some insights.
25. Caribbean Fisheries Management Council. 1993. Amendment 2 to the fishery management plan for the
shallow-water reef fish fishery of Puerto Rico and the US. Virgin Islands. U.S. Department of Commerce,
Washington, D.C. 29pp.
Amendment 2 would 1) expand the management unit to incorporate the most important species of the deepwater
reef fish fishery and fin fish species taken in the marine aquarium trade; 2) add measures to reverse the decline
of certain reef fish species; 3) restrict harvest and gear for various species in need of protection; 4) close
spawning aggregation areas to conserve red hind and muttons snapper.
26. Castaneda, P. and Miclat, R.I. 1981. The municipal coral reef park in the Philippines. Proceedings of the 4th
International Coral Reef Symposium 1:287-291.
The importance of coral reefs to an archipelagic country like the Philippines cannot be overemphasized. Coral
reefs provide shelter, spawning, nursery and feeding grounds for various edible and commercially important
marine organisms, thus providing an important source of protein. Presently, Philippine coral reefs are subjected
to various stresses and perturbation and over-exploitation. Marine parks are now being established to give
protection to significant portions of our coral reef areas. Because of the geographical and socioeconomic
situation of the country, management of marine parks on conventional modes is rendered difficult if not
impossible. It is in this context that a municipal coral reef park was conceptualized. The system calls for the
establishment of small protected areas managed and protected by the local government which will complement
the national marine park system being envisioned for the country.
27. Castilla, J.C. and Bustamente, R.H. 1989. Human exclusion from rocky intertidal of Las Cruces, central
Chile: Effects on D urvillaea antartica (Phaeophyta, Durvilleales). Marine Ecology Progress Series 50:
On the exposed rocky shores of central Chile there exists a continuous small-scale harvesting of bull-kelp,
Durvillaea antarctica, by mariscadores (shellfish and algae gatherers). These harvest both fronds and stipes for
human consumption. To assess the effects of human activity on D. antartica, the density, standing crop, and size
structure of the kelp were compared in non- harvested and regularly harvested areas. Both coastal mainland and
small islands were included in the fenced and unfenced areas. Unfenced areas were expected to receive less
human disturbance than unfenced mainland areas, because the islands were less accessible to harvesters.
Populations of kelp underwent great fluctuations in abundance throughout the study period. Comparisons
between harvested and unharvested areas revealed significant differences in density, biomass, and size structure.
In contrast, no significant differences were found between nearshore islands inside and outside the fenced area.
Sources of variation in abundance of populations corresponded to recruitment, natural mortality, and harvesting.
Interaction between time and extent of exploitation is significant when biomass is considered. The existence of
protected areas and of areas of difficult access to mariscadores allows the preservation of populations and
facilitates re-population of harvested zones.
28. Clark, J.R., Causey, B. and Bohnsack, J.A. 1989. Benefits from coral reef protection: Looe Key Reef,
Florida. Coastal Zone '89: Proceedings of the 6th Symposium of Coastal and Ocean Management 4: 307-3086.
By 1988, there were approximately 135 protected coral reef areas in the Caribbean and 123 in Southeast Asia.
Major reasons for reef protection are enhancement of tourism, conservation of fish stocks, and prevention of
shore erosion. This paper addresses conservation of fish stock in the United States (Florida Keys) and the
Philippines (Central Visayas). Changes in fish abundance on study reef in both regions were determined by
quantitative1 before-and-after, studies of fish abundance at protected coral reef areas. Four Philippine projects to
increase fish yields by creating inviolate replenishment zones, or reserves, are compared with one project in the
United States to protect an intensively used coral reef for ecological, tourist, and fishery purposes. In all cases, a
marked increase in desirable species was observed after strict protection was applied. For example, snappers
(Lutjanidae) increased by an average of 47, 213, and 2850 percent in the Apo, Pamilacan, and Balicasag island
projects in the Philippines, respectively. Snappers increased by 93 percent and grunts by 439 percent in the Looe
Key National Marine Sanctuary. The success of these management experiments is most welcome now when the
world's coral reefs are suffering increasing exploitation and diminishing faunal resources.
29. Cocks, K.K. .984. A systematic method of public use zoning of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park,
Australia. Coastal Zone Management Journal 12:359-383.
This paper is an abridged version of a report on the application of a land-use planing method developed by the
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization to the task of providing a zoning scheme for a
portion of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. The approach involves the development of guidelines for making
zoning decisions, the development of methods for measuring whether a scheme satisfies these guidelines, and
the use of a computer-aided technique to create successive schemes for evolution against these guidelines.
3(). Cole, R.G. 1994. Abundance, size structure, and diver-orientated behavior of three large benthic.
carnivorous fishes in a marine reserve in northeastern New Zealand. Biological Conservation 70: -99.
Spatial patterns in densities and population size structures of three large benthic carnivorous fishes, and behavior
of one of these species, were compared in different parts of the Cape Rodney to Okakari Point Marine Reserve,
northeastern New Zealand. As human activity is focused in the central area of the marine reserve, perceptions
of the effects of marine reserve protection may be biased if this area is not representative of the entire marine
reserve. Abundances of cheilodactylus spectabilis and Pagrus auratus showed great variation among sites, while
those of Parapercis colias were lower and less variable. During summer and winter, large P auratus were more
abundant in the mid section of the marine reserve. P auratus of all sizes were attracted to divers and allowed
them to approach more closely in the mid section of the marine reserve. Consequences or protection from
harvesting are confounded with human-orientated behavior of P. auratus. Feeding of fish by divers may have
altered the behavior of this species.
31. Cole, R.G., Ayling, A.M. and Creese, R.G. 1990. Effects of marine reserve protection at Goat Island,
northern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 24:197-210.
The possible effects that marine reserve protection has had on densities of some reef fish and large invertebrates
were investigated near Leigh, New Zealand, by a series of sampling programs from 197-88. Fish counts at
intervals during the 6 years after the initial establishment of the Cape Rodney to Okakari Point Marine Reserve
in 1975 suggested that red moki (Cheilodactylus spectabilis) had increased in abundance, whereas five others
had remained at approximately constant densities. A comparison of data between 1978 and 1988 also revealed
few consistent differences in fish abundances. A detailed survey in 1988 between sites inside and outside the
marine reserve showed no dear patterns for sea urchins and several fishes. Most of the trends, however, were not
statistically significant, owing largely to the low power of the tests used. Although it is now generally accepted
that the creation of marine reserves such as the one at Leigh result in increased abundances of certain organisms,
this study highlights the difficulty of rigorously demonstrating this, especially for patchily distributed and
mobile fish species.
32. Colin, P.L. 1992. Reproduction of the Nassau grouper, Epinephelus striatus (Pisces: Serranidac), and
its relationship to environmental conditions. Environmental Biology of Fishes 34:357-377.
Spawning aggregations of the Nassau grouper, Epinephelus striatus, occurring at the southern end of Long
Island were investigated during the winters of 19874988 and 19884989. Fish aggregate at two specific sites
around the time of the fill' moon in December and January, possibly not during November and almost certainly
not during February. At one site the fish aggregate well inside the shelf edge while at the other they are on the
drop-off into deep water. Fish migrate, probably as distinct groups of about 500 individuals, to the sites on or
before the fill' moon and remain for several days. There was no significant difference in the size of males and
females caught from the aggregations between years or months. The female/male sex ratio was between 5:1 and
3:1. Courtship occurred in late afternoon with spawning commencing shortly before sunset. Most spawning
occurred with 10 minutes of sunset. Water temperatures were 25.025.5 degrees Celsius during a period of
gradual decrease towards the annual minimum in February and March. Two color patterns were important in
courtship and spawning. The Bicolor' pattern is a submissive coloration indicating a non-aggressive state
acquired by both males and females near the time of spawning. The 'dark' phase is acquired by females who are
followed by numerous bicolor fish during courtship and they lead spawning events in this pattern. Spawning
occurred among subgroups of the aggregation numbering -25 fish; gamete release was well above the bottom.
Drogues deployed with the gametes either moved inshore or did not move far away from the shelf edge over the
course of several days. Nassau groupers may not strictly be protogynous hermaphrodites and other groupers that
form spawning aggregations may not be so either. Latitudinal shifts in spawning time may be related to water
temperatures. Currents at aggregation sites do not appear to favor offshore transport of eggs. Questions of
whether spawning aggregations should be protected
need to be answered.
33. DeMarini, E.L'. 1993. Modeling the potential of fishery reserves for managing Pacific coral reef fishes.
Fishery Bulletin 91:414427.
The potential use of marine fishery reserves (MFRs) for managing fisheries on tropical Pacific coral reefs was
assessed using the Beverton-Holt model The effects of year-round fishery closures on harvests in adjacent1
exploited areas were evaluated. Potential changes in spawning stock biomass per recruit (SSB/R) and yield per
recruit -/R) were estimated from published data, approximated natural and fishery mortality rates, size- and
maturity-at-age distributions, and transfer (emigration and immigration) rates. For select cases, fundamental
transfer rates were adjusted for possible density dependent emigration from closed areas as relative densities
decreased in surrounding nonclosed areas because of continued fishing. Three hypothetical "fish types" Were
constructed, bracketing the lik ely extremes in fundamental transfer rates and related life-history parameters of
Pacific coral reef fishes: a small-bodied, fast-growing and short -lived, strongly philopatric species of damselfish
was contrasted with a large-bodied, relatively slow-growhg, long-lived, vagile species ofjack. A
surgeonfishh" type was used to represent intermediate parameter values. Simulations corroborate previous
observations that MFRs contribute little, if,'i ii,.- towards increasing Y/R. Results for highly vagile jack
confirm that rapid transfer rates will negate potential gains in SSB/R resulting from closures. At the opposite
extreme, small reef philopatriots like damselfishes would almost never be harvested, because of negligible
transfer rates, unless the MFR was periodically opened to fishing. The simulations suggest that the SSB/R of
surgeonfish type is the most likely to benefit from MFRs, because moderate vagility allows biomass to
accumulate within the closure despite harvesting in the nonclosed area. Results further suggest that growth rate,
fishing effort in the nonclosed (open) area, natural mortality, maturity, and harvesting schedules influence the
potential of MFRs to augment SSB when transfer rates are low to moderate.
34. Diamond, J.M. 1975. The island dilemma: lessons of modem biogeographic studies for the design of
natural reserves. Biological Conservation 7:129446.
A system of natural reserves, each surrounded by altered habitat, resembles a system of islands from the point of
view of species restricted to natural habitats. Recent advances in island biogeography may provide a detailed
basis for understanding what to expect of such a system of reserves. The main conclusions are as follows: The
number of species that a reserve can hold at equilibrium is a function of its area and its isolation. Larger
reserves, and reserves located close to other reserves, can hold more species. if most of the area of habitat is
destroyed, and a fraction of the area is saved as a reserve, the reserve will initially contain more species than it
can hold at equilibrium. The excess will gradually go extinct. The smaller the reserve, the higher will be the
extinction rates. Estimates of these extinction rates for bird and mammal species have recently become available
in a few cases. Different species require different minimum areas to have a reasonable' chance of survival. Some
geometric design principles are suggested in order to optimize the function of reserves in saving species.
35. Dugan, J.E. and Davis, G.E. 1 993. Applications of marine refugia to coastal fisheries management.
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50:2029-2042.
Marine fisheries refugia, unaltered areas that serve as sources of replenishment, can potentially compensate for
recruitment and ecosystem over-fishing and enhance fishery yields for some coastal stocks. The efficacy of
refugia in fisheries management is virtually untested, despite the existence of many marine parks and reserves.
Evidence from existing marine reserves indicates that increased abundance, individual size, reproductive output,
and species diversity occurred in a variety of marine species in refuges of various sizes, shapes, and histories in
communities ranging from coral reefs to temperate kelp forests. Fishery yield enhancement in areas surrounding
refuges occurred in the few studies where yields were examined. The export of propagules required to enhance
fisheries in areas surrounding refugia adds a level of complexity to the design of fishery refugia beyond that of
terrestrial reserves. Fishery refugia design should consider species life histories, oceanographic regimes, habitat
quality, and socioeconomic factors. Further evaluation of existing marine refuges and the investigation of
experimental refugia over appropriate time spans will help resolve questions of optimal sizes, shapes, and
distribution of fishery refugia.
36. Eldridge, M. 1994. The last wild place: Marine reserves and reef fish. Center for Marine Conservation,
Washington, D.C. 19 pp.
This summary article presents information on the status of fishery resources and the importance of marine
fishery reserves in protecting the long- term viability of commercial species in the Florida Keys. The article
provides an overview of the decline in many commercial stocks, such as grouper, and the possible benefits to
areas in the Florida Keys closed to fishing.
37. Francour, P.1994. Pluriannual analysis of the reserve effect on ichthyofauna in the Scandola natural
reserve (Corsica, Northwestern Mediterr anean). Oceanologica Acta 17:309-317.
From July 1988 to September 1992, SCUBA divers used a non-destructive sampling method to study the fish
communities of rocks and seagrass beds in Scandola Marine Reserve. Sites were established in the integral
reserve (protection of the marine environment), in the non-integral reserve (partial protection), and outside the
reserve. Average density and biomass of the sampled population in seagrass beds showed no significant
difference between the sties in the integral reserve and the others. Only the integrally -protected shallow- and
deep -water zones shoed considerably reduced seasonal variations. For rocky substrata, the integral reserve site
demonstrated higher density and biomass than the other sites. The impact of seasonal variations on the sampled
population was not reduced in this biotope, as in the seagrass beds. Whatever the biotope, the demographic
structures of the fish population sampled in the integral reserve and in the other sites were different. Species
diversity was slightly greater in the seagrass bed sites of the integral reserve, but
site variations were not significant This was also true for rock substrata; in contrast, lesser seasonal differences
were recorded in the integral reserve than outside. Three conclusions can be drawn from these pluriannual
observations: 1) the reserve effect is real, not just theoretical, and affects the fish population in both rocks and
seagrass beds; 2) the two habitats studied react very differently to protection which reduces anthropogenic
disturbances; and 3) the reserve effect comprises both a refuge and a buffer effect. The refuge effect is the most
traditionally highlighted and is characterized by larger fishes and a greater variety of species and noble fishes.
The buffer effect, never shown in previous studies, is characterized by the fact that the impact of seasonal
variations on parameters such as density, biomass, and diversity is considerably lessened.
38. Game, M. 1980. Best shape for nature reserves. Nature 287: 63(-32.
The idea of classical island biogeography have been used to derive rules for the optimal design strategy for
nature reserves. For example, some scientists have stated that, given limited financial resources, it is better to
purchase a few large reserves rather than many small ones of equal total areas; and that reserves should be as
dose to one another as possible. The validity of some of these rules has, however, been questioned. For example,
it has recently been shown that several small reserves may contain more species than a single one of equivalent
area. These rules have nevertheless been accepted uncritically by others, including the IUCN. This study
examined the hypothesis that reserves should be as round as possible and conclude that in certain circumstances
the optimal shape may be other than circular. There is no a priori reason for believing that these circumstances
are unrealistic. The author reasoned that the rule that reserves should be as close to each other as possible is
inconsistent with the statement that they should be circular.
39. Goeden, G.B. 1982. Intensive fishing and a 'keystone' predator species: ingredients for community
instability. Biological Conservation 22:273281.
A series of surveys of demersal fish stocks were carried out along the Great Barrier Reef in order to assess their
condition and to investigate the effects of fishing on the large-predator community. Results from the surveys
indicate that a significant relationship exists between the abundance of a keystone predator species and the
distance from major human population centers. Removal of this predator through fishing has the effect of
bringing about changes in the relative abundance of other large predatory species including several that do not
comprise part of the usual catch. Although the changes in community structure are apparently unpredictable, it is
possible to calculate a measure of community flux which reflects the rate of this change relative t variations in
the abundance of the keystone spies.
4(). Greene, LE. and Shenker, J.M. 1993. The effects of human activity on the temporal variability of coral reef
fish assemblages in the Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater
Ecosystems 3: 18-2(5.
A visual assessment method, called Discrete Group Censusing, was used to assess and monitor five coral reef
fish assemblages in the Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary, Florida. Samples were obtained quarterly from
Winter 1988 to Autumn 1990 to investigate a possible relation between the variability of reef fish assemblages
and human disturbance. Two types of disturbance were studied: a ship grounding that occurred 4 years previous
to the study, and intensive, recreational snorkel and SCUBA diving. These disturbances appeared to have no
short term effect on the temporal variability of the reef fish assemblages during the study period. Furthermore,
the assemblages at all five study sites appeared to be extremely stable over the 2 year period of the study. These
results support the theory that coral reef fish assemblages are highly ordered and stable over relatively large
spatial scales. The Discrete Group Censusing visual assessment method was found to be a valuable and easily
applied tool for the nondestructive insitu monitoring of reef fish assemblages on coral reefs.
41. Grigg, R.W. 1994. Effects of sewage discharge, fishing pressure and habitat complexity on coral
ecosystems and reef fishes in Hawaii. Marine Ecology Progress Series 103:25-34.
The major factor controlling the abundance of reef fishes in Hawaii appears to be habitat complexity. Fishes
aggregate in areas of high habitat complexity at biomass levels which, in areas protected from fishing, may
significantly exceed levels supported by primary production within the ecosystem. High relief natural areas act
like artificial reefs in terms of aggregating fishes. Reef fish abundance is also affected by fishing pressure in the
main Hawaiian Islands. Areas protected from fishing support standing crops of reef fishes that average about 43
grams per square meter higher than areas open to fishing. in areas unprotected from fishing, reef fish abundance
has significantly declined in recent years. Conservation and management of reef fishes would be improved f
more high relief areas were protected from fishing. Thus far, 11 no-fishing zones have established in such
areas as Hawaii. The discharge of primary or secondary sewage effluent into the ocean m Hawaii through deep
ocean outfalls causes no apparent negative environmental impact to coral reef ecosystems. Increases in
abundance around the outfalls appears to result from increased habitat complexity brought about by the
construction of the pipelines and surrounding caprock and concrete. A small amount of the variability in reef
fish abundance around the outfalls may also be due to food subsidies. No species of fish, coral, invertebrate, or
algae at the outfalls exhibited any pathological symptoms. Hence, statewide declines in reef fish abundance in
areas unprotected from fishing are not related to the discharge of sewage effluent via deep ocean outfalls.
Rather, these declines appear to have been caused by over-fishing.
42. Harmelin, J.-., Bachet, F. and Garcia, F. 1995. Mediterranean marine Reserves: Fish indices as tests of
protection efficiency. Marine Ecology 16:233-250.
The fish assemblages of a strictly protected area and of a neighboring fished area, located off a Mediterranean
urbanized coast (Carty-le-Rouet, France), were compared in order to select the most evident, constant, and easily
recorded indices of the reserve effect. Visual censusing was repeated simultaneously at
both sites eight times a year during 3 years along four permanent transects laid on shallow rocky bottoms (9-14
m). Overall species richness was 16 percent higher in the reserve, but differences in average instantaneous
richness were only marginally significant. The most contrasting results were shown by the occurrence
frequency, abundance, and demographic structure of two types of target species. The type A target species group
comprised 16 large meso-and macro -carnivores particularly threatened by spear-fishing. Type B target species
were represented by two small territorial fishes particularly impacted by angling Fishing pressure is assumed to
modify the social conditions of the local populations of certain target species and to induce earlier sex change.
43. Holland, K.N., Lowe, C.G. and Wetherbee, B.M. 1996. Movements and dispersal patterns of blue trevally
(Caranx melampygus) in a fisheries conservation zone. Fisheries Research 25:279-292.
The short- and long-term movement patterns of blue trevally (Caranx melampygus) were monitored using a
combination of sonic tracking and tag-and-release techniques. All fish were captured and released on the patch
reef surrounding Coconut Island in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, which has been a no-fishing conservation zone
for over 30 years. Sonic tracking produced fine-scale movement data from five fish for periods spanning tp to
18 days. All fish displayed diel movement patterns within consistent home ranges, which encompassed different
parts of the reef during the night than during the day. Movements were predominantly along the walls of the
patch reef, with occasional foray s to nearby sections of adjacent reef Four-hundred and ten fish were tagged and
released on the Coconut Island reef, and the recapture of 85 fish indicated that most did not move far from their
point of release; 75.5 percent were recaptured within 0.5 km of their release point. Time at liberty ranged from 4
to 454 days, and distance between release and recapture sites was not related to time at liberty. Some fish were
observed many times in the same areas over periods of several months. Both the tracking and recapture data
indicate strong site fidelity in this species and low occurrence of long distance emigration. These behavioral
traits suggest that successful husbandry of this species may be accomplished through the use of management
practices such as establishing no-fishing zones.
44. Holland, K.N., Peteson, J.D., Lowe, C.G. and Wetherbee, B.M. 1993. Movements, distribution and growth
rates of the white goatfish Mulloidesflavolineatus in a fisheries conservation zone. Bulletin of Marine science
The movements, growth rates, and distribution of a population of white goatfish, Mulloidesfiavolineatus, were
investigated using a combination of tag-and-release and sonic tracking techniques. The study site was a 137
square km patch reef that has been a no-fishing conservation zone for over 30 years. The population showed
high site fidelity; 93 percent of recaptures occurred at the release site, with times at liberty of up to 531 days.
Tracking revealed crepuscular movements away from daytime schooling sites to consistent nighttime foraging
grounds up to 600 m away. The route taken between daytime and nighttime habitats was the same each night.
Surround-net quadrats were used to measure goatfish densities on the nighttime feeding
grounds. The high site fidelity and limited range of diel movements of these fish indicates that quite small
harvest refugia can serve to effectively protect populations of mature adults, and that for most of the year,
emigration of adults into adjacent fisheries was minimal.
45. Jennings, S., Grandcourt, E.M. and Polunin, N.V.C. 1995. The effects of fishing on the diversity, biomass,
and trophic structure of Seychelles' reef fish communities. Coral Reefs 14:225-235.
A fishery independent underwater visual census technique was used to assess the effects of fishing on the
diversity, biomass, and trophic structure of the diurnally active non-cryptic reef-associated fish communities of
the Seychelles. One-hundred and thirty4our species associated with three significantly different types of reef
habitat were censused at one protected ground and in six fishing grounds subject to different fishing intensities.
There was an inverse relationship between fishing intensity and the biomass of several species targeted by the
fishery. The diversity of families containing target species (Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae) was significantly higher at
protected and lightly fished sites as was the total biomass of the fish community and the biomass of piscivorous,
piscivorous/invertebrate feeding, and herbivorous trophic groups. However, there was no indication that the
biomass of non-target species increased in response to the removal of their predators by fishing. The findings of
this study are significant for fishery managers because they suggest that intensive differential cropping of top
predators will not necessarily lead to increases in the biomass and productivity of prey.
46. Jennings, S., Marshall, 5.5. and Polunin, N.V.C. 1996. Seychelles' marine protected areas: Comparative
structure and status of reef fish communities. Biological Conservation 75: 2()1 -209.
Effective management of Seychelles' reef resources is essential because the conflicting demands of fishing,
tourism conservation must be reconciled if sustainable development and the protection of natural resources is
to be assured. Marine protected areas play a key role in the existing management strategy and yet there is little
quantitative understanding of the benefits they may provide. This study compared the biomass and sp ecies
richness of fish assemblages on coral and granitic reef habitats in four areas which receive different levels of
protection from fishing and other human activities. Species richness and biomass were higher on both coralline
and granitic reefs in two marine protected areas where protective regulations were effectively enforced.
However, the biomass of the three principal families of fishes targeted by the fishery was significantly lower in
one of these areas. This was attributed to illegal fishing and the fishing concessions offered to local people. The
authors conclude that poaching and minor fishing concessions did not affect the aspects of the fish community
which are important to most tourist visitors, but that they have a statistically significant effect on the structure of
the fish community. Furthermore, whilst a small well-patrolled area will provide an effective refuge from
fishing, it will often be stocked by larval fishes which are the progeny of adults living many kilometers away. As
such, the protected area cannot operate in isolation to maintain biomass and diversity. A valid long4erm aim of
reserve management may be to assure the protection of a greater proportion of Seychelles' fishes throughout
their life history. This may be achieved if current plans for
the management of marine protected areas can be instituted.
47. Johannes, R.E. 1981. Working with fishermen to improve coastal tropical fisheries and resource
management. Bulletin of Marine Science. 31: 673-80.
Marine resource development and management schemes in developing countries have often been designed
without significant consultation with, or understanding of the users of these resources. They often fail in
consequence. Tackling resource management problems at the village level is thus increasingly encouraged.
Collaborating with villagers provides opportunities and difficulties quite unlike those encountered in more
conventional environmental studies. Specific examples are given of how working with artisanal fishermen can
y ield otherwise inaccessible insights into such matters as: unappreciated resource areas and their vulnerability to
damage through coastal development important aspects of the biology of target species, relevant local
oceanographic phenomena, the local cultural palatability of proposed management schemes, and local traditional
conservation practices of continuing value. Appropriate research methods are also briefly discussed.
48. Kelly, G.C. 1992. Public participation and perceived relevance as critical factors in marine park
management. Proceedings of the 7th International Coral Reef Symposium 2:1033-1037.
The success of management for the conservation of marine resources in a democratic country is directly related
to public understanding, sympathy and support. Support for attempted management may d('.rive from a
perception of its' relevance to supporting individuals and organizations, he perceived relevance of management
arrangements to certain users of marine reserves in five countries was examined. Public communication
programs conducted to encourage public support were examined, and common successful components
identified. Compliance with regulationsas an indicator of public support for management constraints, was
compared. Cultural differences in acceptance of the need for a particular style of management should be
incorporated into public communication programs.
49. Lomolino, M.V. 1994. An evaluation of alternative strategies for building networks of nature reserves.
Biological Conservation 69: 24-249.
The challenge to maintaining bio-diversity with limited funding and personnel puts a premium on building
reserve networks that maximize species number per area. This study compared two alternative strategies
suggested by the SLOSS debate (accumulating nature reserves from small-to-large (STL) or large4o-small
(LTS) to the best possible network of reserves. The best network was determined by a computer program that
considered all possible combinations of reserves and then selected the subset that satis fled a specified selection
criterion. Here, the selection criterion was that the subset included all target species in the smallest total area. In
addition, the author compared alternative strategies to a null model of randomly
accumulated reserves. For ten data sets including a diversity of biotas (non -volant mammals, bats, birds, reptiles,
amphibians, ants, isopods, and plants), the author found the STL and LTS strategies to be equivalent in
maximizing species number per area. To include all target species, however, both strategies required much more
area than the best possible network and, in most cases, more area than random accumulation of reserves. These
results argue strongly against generic prescriptions for conserving bio-diversity. Given empirical studies on the
biota in question, analytical solutions such as presented here will serves as valuable tools for preserving bio-
50. Man, A., Law, R. and Polunin, N.V.C. 1995. Role of marine reserves in recruitment to reef fisheries: a
metapopulation model Biological Conservation 71: 197-2(4.
While marine reserves can replenish local populations of reef fishes through enhanced survivorship of post-
recruitment fishes, the manner in which reserves enhance larger-scale recruitment is poorlyunderstood. This
study investigated a metapopulation model to evaluate how marine reserves might conserve such populations
and benefit fisheries. The model defines two kinds of patches: 1) those open to fishing and 2) those maintained
as reserves free from exploitation. Each patch may occur in one of two states according to whether or not it
contains fishes recruited to the fishery. It is shown that reserves become highly beneficial as the local extinction
rate caused by fishing becomes large because the reserves provide a source of recruitment. In such
circumstances, the introduction of reserves meets the needs both of conservation and of sustainable exploitation
of the fishery. The abundance of the exploitable population is maximized when half of all patches are occupied
by the stock. The sustainable yield is also maximized when half of all patches are occupied, assuming that yield
is proportional to the local extinction rate. This result could provide a rule of thumb for fishery managers
addressing the specific question of enhancing recruitment ill heavily depleted stocks of certain reef fisheries.
However, like other metapopulation models, the one here makes some important simplifying assumptions which
would need to be addressed in the application of these results to specific fisheries.
51. MClanahan, T.R. and Muthiga, N.A. 1988. Changes in Kenyan coral reef community structure and function
due to exploitation. Hydrobiologia 166:269-276.
A comparison of Kenyan reefs of different historical and observed levels of fishing exploitation showed that
more exploited reef lagoons had greater sea urchin densities and sizes, fewer and smaller fish, and less coral
cover. In the most exploited lagoon the biomass of the burrowing sea urchin, Echinometra mathaei increased
five-fold during the previous 15 years. An ecological study of the three most common omnivorous sea urchin
species inhabiting hard substrate within these reef lagoons suggests that they are ecologically separated by
predation and avoid predators and co mpetitors by occupying different size burrows or crevices within the
lagoon. Predator removal through fishing activities may result in ecological release of the sea urchins and result
in competitive exclusion of weaker competitors. The most exploited reef had a
nearly mono-specific barren ofF. mathaei living outside burrows; this result suggests that this species may be
the top competitor. Its ecological release appears to lead to a decrease in live coral cover, increased substrate
bioerosion, and eventually a loss of topographic complexity, species diversity, fish biomass and utilizable
52. McClanahan, T.R. and Shafir, S.H. 1990. Causes and consequences of sea urchin abundance and diversity in
Kenyan coral reef lagoons. Oecologia 83:362-370.
Large differences in community structure of sea urchins and finfish have been observed in Kenyan reef lagoons.
Differences have been attributed to removal of finfish predators through human fishing activities. This study
attempted to determine 1) the major sea urchin finfish predators, 2) the effect of predation on sea urchin
community structure, and 3) the possible effect of sea urchin increases and finfish decreases on the lagoonal
substrate. Six reefs, two protected and four unprotected, were compared for differences in finfish abundance, sea
urchin abundance and diversity, and substrate cover, diversity, and complexity. Comparisons between protected
and unprotected reef indicated that finfish populations were approximately 4 times more abundant in protected
reef. Sea urchin populations were more than 100 times more abundant in the unprotected reef while predation on
urchins was 4 times lower. Triggerfish (Balistidae) were the single sea urchin finfish predator family which had
a higher population density at protected reef. Balistid density was positively correlated with predation rates and
negatively correlated with total sea urchin density. The sea urchin assemblage had its greatest diversity and
species richness at intermediate predation rates and low to intermediate sea urchin densities. Protected reef had
greater cover of hard coral, calcareous algae, and greater substrate diversity and topographic complexity than
unprotected reefs. Coral cover and topographic complexity were negatively correlated with total sea urchin
density. Although experimentation is lacking, these substrate changes may be due to the switch from finfish to
sea urchin consumers which results from over-fishing of finfish. Removal of top invertebrate-eating carnivores
appears to have cascading effects on the entire coral reef ecosystem.
53. McNeill, S.E. and Fairweather, P.G. 1993. Single large or several small marine reserves? An experimental
approach with seagrass fauna. Journal of Biogeography 20:429440.
One of the most frequently debated theories in conservation biology is whether a single' large area will
preserve more species than several small areas of the same total area. This study tested this theory in the marine
environment by comparing the diversity and abundance of fish and macro-invertebrates associated with small
and large seagrass beds. In natural beds, several small beds had significantly more species than a single large
bed; this occurred because a large proportion of species were not shared among beds. However, results of
experiments using artificial seagrass beds to manipulate size of beds were equivocal. More species and more
individuals were found in several small beds on only a few occasions in experimental treatments. These results
contradicted the patterns found in comparisons among natural beds. The results of this study stress the need to
experimentally validate theories for reserve design and also indicate the danger of directly
applying land-based principles to marine communities without critically examining them for each habitat
54. Moran, D. 1994. Contingent valuation and biodiversity: measuring the user surplus of Kenyan
protected areas. Biodiversity and Conservation 3:663-684.
The financial returns to Kenyan tourism demonstrates the importance of the country's tourist potential to its
economic development Protected areas and their inhabitants are the principal focus of the tourist industry, the
nation's main foreign exchange earner, and a source of wonder and value for a global population of non-users. It
might be expected that such assets would be accorded some degree of security with sufficient funding to
safeguard current and potential economic benefits. Yet park use is haphazard, and there is frequently little
coincidence between those that benefit and those that pay for the continued existence of such areas. Growing
economic and demographic pressures that threaten to swamp protected areas only emphasize the implicit
subsidy currently paid by Kenyans to support conservation fo r the benefit of the world at large. In this climate
the case for conservation depends on the measurement and capture of economic benefits. Using a contingent
valuation survey of expressed preference, this study estimated the consumer surplus attached to acrrent non-
consumptive use of protected areas by foreign visitors at some -50 million per annum. This sum alone is more
than double the best available estimate of opportunity cost and appears to justify current resource use. The
estimate is additional to arrent financial returns from tourism and makes no allowance for other direct and
indirect benefits and potential returns from consumptive uses. Measured consumer surplus contains some
margin of willingness to pay that could be captured through the current fee structure. Moreover, park fees
represent the most accessible market mechanism to finance revenue sharing and additional park investment
before potential recourse to emerging global market institutions.
55. Moreno, C.A., Sutherland, J.P. and Jara, HJ. 1984. Man as a predator in the intertidal zone of southern
Chile. Oikos 42:155-160.
From 1978 to 1982, man was excluded from a 0.6 hectare reserve near Mehuin, Chile. During this time there
was an increase in the abundance of species of Fissurella, coupled with a dramatic decline in the abundance of
mid-intertidal macroalgae. Macroalgal abundance increased to near 100 percent cover from 1978-79 on a rock in
the reserve where herbivores were removed. Outside the reserve, areas closest to large fishing villages had a
higher cover of algae and a lower abundance of F. picta. Mid-intertidal macroalgae are abundant only where
human predation on herbivores is severe.
56. Moreno, C.A., Lunecke, K.M. and Lepe4 M.I. 1986. The response of an intertidal Concholepas
concholepas (Gastropoda) population to protection from man in southern Chile and the effects on benthic sessile
assemblages. Oikos 46:359-365.
This study documented the changes experienced by the population of the carnivorous snail
Concholepas concholepas after the establishment of a marine reserve in southern Chile in May 1978. The data
indicate that the release from human predation resulted in a striking change of the population structure, due to
the increment of individuals larger than 40-50 mm peristomal length. This evidence strongly indicates that the
usual absen-2e of larger size classes from the intertidal is not a consequence of physiological limitations, as was
previously thought. Significant density differences were detected only in 1984, but they were due to substantial
reduction of the snail in the harvested control area. The reduction experienced by prey species, such as
barnacles, in the marine reserve area during the same period, indicated that the carnivore has an important role
in the organization of the intertidal benthic sessile assemblage. Altogether, the results support the idea that in the
absence of human intervention the intertidal community structure differs from the usual, previously considered
57. Oakley, S.G. 1984. The effects of spearfishing pressure on grouper (Serranidac) populations in the
Red Sea. Pages 341-359 In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Coral Reef Environment of the Red Sea. M.A.H.
Saad (Ed.), January 1-18, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Grouper populations were observed using SCUBA on the fringing reefs in the Jeddah area of the Red Sea. A
series of transects at sites with different human usage showed dearly the effects of sport fishing on grouper
populations. Large and medium sized fish were much less frequent in areas where spear and line fishing were
common. Small fish, however, showed an increase in frequency at sites with high human usage. Small fish were
also more frequent in shallow transects, while medium and large were found predominantly on the deeper
transects. Attempts were made to quantify the timidity of the groupers and to assess the relative effects of
spearfishing or hook and line fishing.
58. Ogden, J.C. 1997. Marine managers look upstream for connections. Science 278: 1414-1415.
The Florida Keys are a focus of a major national effort to manage a large land-sea area. In response to drastic
declines in coral reefs and fisheries resources and to create a buffer zone from shipping, the U.S. Congress
created a 9,500 square km National Marine Sanctuary in 1990, the second largest in the nation. Over the 6 years
of management plan development, by far the most controversial was the no-take marine reserves, in which all
fishing and collecting is banned. The initial drafts proposed 3 sites encompassing roughly 10 percent of the
sanctuary area; however, the final version, due to commercial fishing interests, resulted in only one reserve
comprising less than 0.5 percent of the area. The remaining reserve (Sambos Ecological Reserve) can clearly not
be self-sustaining, thus the geographic scale for management and research must be expanded to include physical
processing. The Florida Keys are dependent upon upstream sources of larvae, however, seasonal gyres may
retain locally produced larvae.
59. Pauly, D., F. Arreguin-Sanchez, J.L Munro and M.C. Balgos. 1996. Biology, fisheries and culture of
snappers and groupers: Workshop conclusions and updates to 1996. Pages 1-10 In: Biology, fisheries and
culture of tropical groupers and snappers. F. Arreguin-Sanche4 J.L. Munro, M.C. Balgos and D. Pauly (Eds.),
ICLARM Conference Proceedings 48, Manila, Philippines.
A summary of the findings of the three working groups (population dynamics and ecology, fisheries
management, biology and aquaculture) of the International Workshop on Tropical Snappers and Groupers
organized by EPOMEX and ICLARM, and held 2-29 October 1993 in Campeche, Mexico, is presented. Recent
references are included to update coverage to 19%, particularly concerning issues of growth and integration of
groupers and snappers in ecosystems and models thereof.
60. Plan Development Team. 1990. The potential of marine fishery reserves for reef fish management in
the U.S. Southern AL antic. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMF-SEFC261, National Marine Fisheries
Service, Southeast Fisheries Science Center. 40pp.
Marine fishery reserves (MFRs), areas with no consumptive usage, are recommended as a viable option for
management of reef fisheries in the U.S. southern Atlantic region. MFRs are designed to protect reef fish stocks
and habitat from all consumptive exploitation within the specified geographical areas for the primary purpose of
ensuring the persistence of reef fish stocks and fisheries. This technical document reviews the life histories of
reef fishes, patterns of exploitation, and the advantages and disadvantages of reserves corn pared to traditional
fisheries management techniques.
61. Polacheck, T. 1990. Year around dosed areas as a management tool. Natural Resource Modeling 4:327-3 5 3.
Year-round closed areas or refuges as management mechanisms for controlling fishing mortality are explored
using a two-component, spatial model with movement between areas. The model assesses the fate of a cohort
when only a portion of it is vulnerable to fishing. The yield per recruit and spawning stock biomass per recruit
are compared for equivalent amounts of fishing effort with and without a refuge. The results indicate that the
institution of a dosed area can lead to substantial increases in spawning stock biomass realized from a cohort
and, as such, could be a viable short-term management option to reduce overall fishing mortality rates on an
overexploited stock. Yield per recruit with a refuge is a complex function of the size of the refuge, fishing
mortality rates and movement rates. The results suggest that the proportional loss in yield per recruit will be less
than the initial proportion of the cohort contained within the refuge. In some instances, the yield per recruit with
a refuge can exceed the yield per recruit without one, but the net increases are usually small. The size of the
refuge needed to achieve a specified gain in spawning biomass depends upon the mobility of the fish. Higher
movement rates require a larger efuge to achieve the same increase, but any loss in yield per recruit will be less
even though the refuge is larger.
62. Polunin, N.V.C. 1990. Marine regulated areas: an expanded approach for the tropics. Resource
Management and Optimization 7: 28-299.
Protected areas such as national parks and nature reserves combat environmental problems only in so far as they
preserve designated sites from further damage. They scarcely solve such underlying problems as mangrove
destruction, the dynamiting of coral reef or over-fishing. In a broader view regulations related to areas should
nevertheless be a major mode of conservation. Various types of regulation other than strict protection may in
any case be more appropriate to the coastal zones of many tropical countries. A realistically designed regulated
area should be planned with particular objectives in mind, and deal most of all with problems such as those of
over-fishing, population replenishment, and conflicts between fisheries and various users of single ecosystems.
However, there exist limitations to implementing this approach. Poor knowledge of larval recruitment patterns
as yet precludes satisfactory design of replenishment areas. The multi species complexity of tropical fisheries
makes simple management measures inadequate in many ways. There is limited knowledge of how certain
beneficial ecosystem functions are maintained naturally. Such knowledge gaps will not be filled quickly,
however, interim measures may nevertheless be feasible. Existing regulated areas may offer a focus for
exploring the design of potential replenishment zones. There is little evidence yet that traditional marine
reserves can contribute to modem management to any great extent.
63. Polunin, N.V.C. and Roberts, C.M. 1993,. Greater biomass and value of target coral-reef fishes in two small
Caribbean marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series 100:167476.
This article discusses a study of coral-reef fish communities of Saba Marine Park Netherlands Antilles) and Hol
Chan Marine Reserve (Ambergris Cay, Belize) in the Caribbean to assess differences between them and
adjacent ecologically similar sites after four years of protection from fishing. Forty- five percent of target
species commonly recorded in visual censuses in Belize (23% of all recorded target species), and 59 percent at
Saba (22%), showed greater abundance, size, or biomass in shallow protected sites. These differences are
considered primarily to reflect increased survivorship with the cessation of fishing mortality. The greatest
estimated biomass were observed in locally protected snapper (Lutjanidae) in Belize and Saba. In both protected
areas the local stock of visible demersal target fishes was 1.9 to 2.0 times greater in biomass and 2.2 to 3.5 times
greater in commercial value than fished sites. Larger local stock of many target species is likely to support
higher egg output from the protected areas, while larger predators biomass will mean more intense predation at
the protected sites.
64. Polunin, N.V.C., M.K. and Kvalvagnaes, K. 1983. Bali Barat: an Indonesian marine protected area and its
resources. Biological Conservation 25:171491.
Since the early 1970's the Indonesian Government has tried to establish marine nature reserves. The initial
marine protected areas, however, have not been successful, due to lack of enforcement, and the present account
is of a sits on the western tip of Bali, where it is hoped that the idea will come to fruition. The marine resources
of this reserve, Bali Barat, are described, together with the various ways in which they are at present being
exploited. The plan developed for the reserve aims to prohibit destructive uses, while allowing those
which are not as yet considered damaging to the area. The needs for strict protection of certain sites for tourism
and for subsistence uses have been reconciled through a system of zones. The experience gained from Bali Barat
should enable effective marine reserve conservation to be extended to other parts of the country, and the reserve
could also contribute ~ to education of the public, and to research and management expertise.
65. Pressey, R.L, Humphries, C.J., Margules, C.R., Vane-Wright, R.I. and Williams, P.H. 1993. Beyond
opportunism: Key principles for systematic reserve selection. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8: 124-128.
The intention and practice of conservation reserve selection are different. A major reason for systems of reserves
is to sustain biological diversity. This involves protecting examples of as many natural features, such as species,
communities or environments, as possible. In reality, however, new reserves have rarely been dedicated for their
representation of features. Furthermore, the opportunism that has characterized the development of reserve
systems can actually jeopardize the representation of all features in reserves through the inefficient allocation of
limited resources. More systematic approaches are essential if reserves are to play their role in protecting bio-
diversity. Some basic principles for conservation planning are emerging from recent systematic procedures for
reserve selection. These principles will help link intention and practice.
66. Rakitin, A. and Kramer, D.L 1996. Effect of a marine reserve on the distribution of coral reef fishes in
Barbados. Marine Ecology Progress Series 131:97413.
High population densities of larger fishes within reserves could result in emigration of fish to surrounding non-
reserve areas, producing a gradient of abundance and mean size across the reserve boundaries. The difference in
fish abundance and size between reserves and non-reserves should be higher for sedentary than for mobile
species and for highly catchable than for less catchable species. To test these hypotheses this study estimated the
abundance and size of fishes by trapping and visual census on fringing reefs in Barbados: 5 reef within the 22
km of the Barbados Marine Reserve (BMR) and 8 reefs in the non-reserve (NR) area within 4 km of the reserve
boundaries. The abundance of large, trappable fish of all species combined was higher in the BMR than NR.
Trap catches decreased gradually with distance from the BMR center, but this gradient of abundance was less
evident in visual census counts of trappable size fishes of all species combined, and not apparent in trap or
visual census estimates of abundance for individual species. Mean size was larger in the BMR than NR for 18
out of 24 species. The relative difference in both abundance and size between BMR and NR did not differ
between mobile and sedentary fishes. However, for sedentary taxa, the relative differences in abundance and
size increased with trappability. These patterns suggest that the BMR does protect the fish community from
fishing mortality and that emigration rates are generally low. Trappability and mobility depend on complex
behavioral characteristics of fishes and are potentially important for the functioning of marine reserves.
67. Ray, M., Stoner, A.W. and Jones, 1994. Adult queen conch distribution in the Exuma Cays Land and Sea
Park near Warderick Wells. Technical Report to the Bahamas National Trust, Caribbean Marine Research
Center, Vero Beach, Florida. 15 pp.
This report summarizes efforts by the Caribbean Marine Research Center to understand the factors affecting the
distribution and abundance of queen conch, 5tmmbus~ga~ in the central Bahamas. The present report focuses on
the distribution and abundance of adult conch near Warderick Wells, Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park. Transects
were surveyed for the number and size of conch in bank and shelf edge Exuma Sound) habitats. Comparisons
were made between these data and similarly collected information at Lee Stocking Island, southern Exumas. In
the park, densities peaked a- 250 conch/ha in water 1-15 m deep. Adult densities were relatively low shallower
than 5 m depth. All offshore conch measured were greater than 15 cm in total shell length. Relative to Lee
Stocking Island, conch densities were four times greater in the park in both bank and shelf habitats.
68. Roberts, C., WJ. Ballantine, C.D. Buxton, P. Dayton LB. Crowder, W. Milon, M.K. Orbach, D. Pauly, J.
Trexler and CJ. Walters. 1995. Review of the use of marine fishery reserves in the U.S. southeastern Atlantic.
NOAA Technical Memorandum NMF-SEFSC -376, National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Fisheries
Science Center. 31 pp.
At the request of the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC), a panel of scientists was
assembled at a special symposium at the 1995 annual American Fisheries Society meeting in Tampa, Florida.
The specific objectives of the symposium were to provide the SAFMC and the National Marine Fisheries
Service with recommendations and guidance on the possible use of permanently protected areas for fisheries
management in the southeastern US. This report summaries the historical background of marine reserves in the
southeastern U.S. It is concluded that marine reserves can be an effective management tool used in conjunction
with other fishery management measures subject to the following constraints: 1) biological, ecological, social
and economic objectives of the reserves are clearly specified, 2) the relative biological, ecological, social and
economic impacts of reserves in the context of other fishery management measure have been estimated for
various constituents, and 3) the development of marine reserve proposals proceed with the involvement of all
constituencies and stakeholders.
69. Roberts, C.M. 1994. Marine reserves: A brief guide for decision makers and users. Presented at Workshop
on Coastal and Ocean Resource Management, April 25-May 6. NGO Islands Forum, UN Global Conference on
the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, Barbados.
Marine reserves are becoming widely used in efforts to protect and manage coastal resources. In recent years
they have attracted much interest for their possible role in sustaining reef fisheries. Protection of fish stocks
within marine replenishment reserves should lead to increased abundance and size of target
species, thereby translating into increased egg production, which should benefit fisheries by planktonic dispersal
and subsequent recruitment to fishing grounds. Ongoing studies of fish stocks around the island of Saba,
Netherlands Antilles, where a section of the marine park has been closed to fishing since 1987, have shown a
rapid response to protection. There is now a significantly higher standing stock of commercially important
species in the protected area compared to the fished area. Moreover, between 1991 and 1993 there has been a
rapid increase in standing stock of fish within the reserve, with some families tripling over a two-year period,
and an overall increase of 63 percent. These findings show that even very small reserves can protect significant
fishery stocks. Benefits from protected stocks are likely to be felt locally through emigration of fishery species
to fishing grounds, and by export of planktonic larvae. Although some of these larvae may drift away from the
place where the reserve is located, recent studies of current patterns around small islands suggest that a
substantial proportion of larvae will be retained, thus benefiting the host nation. Marine reserves also seem to be
a promising means of protecting and enhancing biodiversity, and in doing so may yield further economic
benefits. In Belize for example, the large and abundant fishes within the Hol Chan Marine Reserve provides a
powerful attraction to tourists and so comprises a key to economic development of Ambergris Cay.
70. Roberts, C.M. 1995. Rapid build-up of fish biomass in a Caribbean Marine Reserve. Conservation Biology
Marine reserves have been argued to be an effective means of managing complex reef fisheries and of protecting
populations of species vulnerable to over-fishing. The argument rests on predictions of increases in abundance
and size of fishes after the elimination of fishing mortality, which in turn leads to greater eggs production per
unit of reef and greater export via pelagic dispersal to fishing grounds. This study reports responses of fish
populations to area closure in a small Caribbean marine reserve surrounding the island of Saba in the
Netherlands Antilles. Part of the reserve has been closed to fishing since 1987, and the remainder is subject only
to light fishing. Fish populations were visually censused and sizes of individuals present estimated from counts
in fished and protected areas of the marine park in 1991 and 1993. For four of five commercially fished families,
biomass was greater in the protected area. Predictions of greater abundance and size in the protected area were
upheld for many of the species observed. Between 1991 and 1993 overall biomass of commercially important
families increased 60 percent based largely on increases in abundances between years. The predatory snappers
increased 220 percent. Fishing pressure in Saba was reduced between censuses due to changing employment
opportunities. It was notable that populations increased in both fished and protected areas of the park, and the
latter is probably an effect of this reduced fishing intensity. Despite protection from fishing, the Saba Marine
Park has low population densities of groupers, perhaps due to a lack of supply of larvae from unprotected source
areas. Protection of vulnerable species is only likely to be successful if networks of reserves are established
throughout species ranges to link larval supply and settlement areas.
71. Roberts, C.M. 1997. Connectivity and management of Caribbean coral reefs. Science 278:1454-1457.
Surface current patterns were used to map dispersal routes of pelagic larvae from 18 coral reef sites in the
Caribbean. The sites varied, both as sources and recipients of larvae, by an order of magnitude. It is likely that
sites supplied copiously from upstream reef areas will be more resilient to recruitment over-fishing, less
susceptible to species loss, and less reliant on local management than places with little upstream reef. The
mapping of connectivity patterns will enable the identificat ion of beneficial management partnerships among
nations and the design of networks of interdependent reserves.
72. Roberts, C.M. and Polunin, N.V.C. 1991. Are marine reserves effective in management of reef fisheries?
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 1: 65-91.
Fisheries for demersal reef fishes in tropical and warm4emperahire regions are typically multi-specific and the
fish are harvested using a wide variety of methods. They are of particular importance to many developing
countries, where large numbers of coastal people are dependent on them both for income and as their main
protein source. However, owing to their complexity they pose particularly serious management problems.
Classical fishery management can take two forms: management of catch or of effect. Management of catch is
usually achieved through the imposition of quotas or gear restrictions, whereas management of effort can
include limitation of numbers of fisherman or vessels, closed seasons, or temporary area closure. These
approaches have been successful in many cases but have not always prevented overexploitation of stocks, or
sometimes even collapse of the fishery. Marine fishery reserves represent a promising approach to fisheries
management but, at present, many of their perceived benefits remain untested. Further study should concentrate
on production and export of recruits, and patterns of movement by post-settlement fishes, 4- refine their use to
achieve the intended aims.
73. Roberts, C.M. and Polunin, N.V.C. 1992. Effects of marine reserve protection on northern Red Sea fish
populations. Proceedings of the 7th International Coral Reef Symposium 2: %-977.
This study investigated the effects of establishment of the Ras Mohammed Marine Park on fish population
structure. The park has been protected from most forms of fishing for 15 years. Cessation of fishing is expected
to result in increases in abundance and average size of target species and may also lead to shifts in species
composition. To determine if such effects were evident, populations of nine commercially fished families and
pelagic piscivores were censused using point counts at 15 m depth. Effects of protection were determined by
comparison of similar sites from three fishing levels: 1) none (Ras Mohammed), 2) little-fished, and 3) fished.
Abundance of- of 45 species differed significantly among fishing levels. At the family level, surgeonfishes
were more common on fished reef. Seven species increased in size with decreasing fishing intensity. Biomass of
14 species differed significantly among fishing levels, with higher biomass at protected sites for five species. At
the family level, there were significant differences for parrotfishes and surgeonfishes, with the former greatest
on little-fished reef and the latter on fished. Total biomass of all species combined
did not differ significantly among fishing levels, although mean biomass was 1.2 times greater on protected
reefs. These results provide some support for the view that marine reserve establishment has been effective in
protecting stocks. However, fishing levels in the northern Red Sea are low and use of marine reserves to manage
fisheries may prove most effective in regions where fishing intensities are high or use of damaging fishing
74. Roberts, C.M. and Polunin, NN.C. 1993. Hol Chan: demonstrating that marine reserves can be remarkably
effective. Coral Reefs 13:90.
The Hol Chan Marine Reserve lies off Ambergris Cay 1 Belize. Covering 2.6 square km, the reserve has been
protected from all forms of fishing since 1987. Although small, Hol Chan contains a higher biomass of fishes
per unit area of reef than we have seen anywhere else in the world. Enormous schools of grunts and snappers, so
dense they almost obscure the reef, mingle with huge roving black groupers and gray snappers. The standing
stock of commercially important species reaches 340 grams per square meter in the center of the reserve, while
at the periphery it averages 77 grams per square meter, about double that in adjacent fished areas. The reserve
also contains seven more species of commercial fishes than areas subject to fishing. The presence of large fishes
in the reserve is particularly important to replenishment because of their disproportionately large reproductive
output, the reserve may also play an important role in protection of species which are vulnerable to fishing.
75. Roberts, C.M. and Polunin, N.V.C. 1993. Marine reserves: Simple solutions to managing complex fisheries?
Fisheries on coral reefs ae highly complex, can be very productive, but typically have little or no management.
Widespread over-fishing and declining yields reveal an acute need for proper management. Unfortunately,
conventional management methods are inappropriate for two mean reasons: 1) they require much information on
the biology of stocks and 2) are expensive to enforce. Use of marine reserves, or areas closed to consumptive
use, have been proposed as an alternative. Although there are a number of advantages to this approach, the
effectiveness of existing marine reserves in the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific has not been adequately addressed.
This article provides a summary of information on the existing marine reserves and the status of reef fish stocks
relative to unprotected areas.
76. Rowley, RJ. 1994. Marine reserves in fisheries management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater
This paper summarizes research on the uses of marine reserves for fisheries management. Examples emphasize
temperate marine reserves. Marine reserves commonly support higher densities and larger sizes of heavily fished
species than are found outside reserves. Spillover of individuals across reserve borders is likely
to augment local catches. There are good reasons to expect such spillover, and there is limited direct evidence
for it. However, the magnitude of any resulting increase in local catches will be difficult to predict. Larval
export from reserves has potential to augment recruitment over large regions, but its success will depend upon
many factors that are difficult to predict. No studies have clearly tested the effects of larval transport. To design
more effective marine reserves, studies are needed of the movement patterns and habitat requirements of all life
stages of targeted species. To determine clearly the effects of marine reserves on fisheries requires replicated
77. Russ, G. 1985. Effects of protective management on coral reef fishes in the central Philippines. Proceedings
of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress 4: 21-224.
This study collected information on the species richness and abundance of coral reef fishes at three study sites in
the central Visayas, Philippines. The locations were Sumilon Island near Cebu, Apo Island near Negros, and
Balicasag Island near Bohol. A modified combination of two techniques of visual census were used to make
assessments of both the overall community structure of the assemblage of fishes and the abundance of fishes
considered as favored targets of fishermen. Only one of the study sites had effective, long4erm protective
management in the form of a total absence of fishing. This site, the steep slope reserve on the western side of
Sumilon Island, had a significantly greater abundance of fishes, higher species richness, and the highest
abundance of many species considered to be highly favored targets of fishermen, particularly groupers, than
fished sites. It cannot be claimed that protective management is the cause of the high abundance and spies
richness of fishes at this site. In fact, the area was chosen as the site for a marine reserve because it possessed
such characteristics. However, considering the very high fishing pressure on most Philippine coral reefs it could
be argued that protective management has been very important in maintaining the high abundance of many of
the species of fishes.
78. Russ, G.R. and Alcala, A.C. 1989. Effects of intense fishing pressure on an assemblage of coral reef fishes.
Marine Ecology Progress Series 56:13-27.
This study documented a natural experiment in the central Philippines: a dramatic increase in fishing pressure
within a 750 m long marine reserve, previously protected from fishing for 10 years (1974-1984). In 1983, the
site had a significantly greater abundance of fishes, particularly those considered to be favored targets of
fishermen, such as groupers and snappers, than similar sites which were fished. Abundances were estimated by
visual counts within the reserve and at 3 control sites. In early 1984, protective management broke down and
fishing by up to 100 municipal fishermen began, using traps, hand-lines, gill-nets, spears and occasionally more
destructive, non-selective fishing methods, such as explosives and drive nets. The reserve and control sites were
recensused after 18 months of fishing in the Sumilon Island Reserve. There were decreases in abundance of
favored targets of fishermen and a significant change in community structure of the coral ref fish assemblage
inside the reserve, but not at the 3 control sites. Species which contributed most to the change in community
structure were not favored targets and had not constituted a large proportion of
yield in previous years. Significant decreases in the abundances of small, schooling planktivores and benthic
feeding chaetodontids, and significant increases in the abundances of small labrids and large scarids, were
related largely to the effectiveness of explosives and drive nets against planktivores and herbivores and
degradation of hallow benthic habitats. Thus, the intense fishing pressure had both direct and indirect effects
and a far wider impact on the fish assemblage thin predicted.
79. Russ, G.R., Alcala, A.C. and Cabanban, A.S. 1992. Marine reserves and fisheries management on coral reefs
with preliminary modeling of the effects on yield per recruit. Proceedings of the 7th International Coral Reef
Symposium 2: 978-985.
The potential advantages and disadvantages of the use of long-term spatial closures to fishing in the
management of coral reef fisheries are reviewed briefly. The effects of marine reserves on fisheries yield will
depend upon the nature and extent of interchange of fish between fished and protected areas. Preliminary
modeling of the effects of fluxes of post-settlement fishes across the boundaries of a reserve at Sumilon Island,
central Philippines, on yield per recruit of the caesonid Pterocaesio pisang suggests that reserves may enhance
yield per recruit by this mechanism only at high levels of fishing mortality. Under high fishing mortality
reserves act as growth refuges. Detailed research on patterns of reef fish growth, mortality, and adult movement
will have to be carried out before any marine reserve can be designed which will allow an explicit prediction of
its effect on local reef fishery yield. The more substantial and longer term benefits of marine reserves are likely
to be their potential for maintenance or enhancement of fisheries yield to broad regional areas by larval
dispersal. Given the critical tvels of over exploitation of many coral reefs, marine reserves may be the only
viable option available to maintain levels of spawning stock biomass necessary to sustain reef fisheries.
80. Sadovy, Y. and Figuerola, M. 1989. The status of the red hind fishery in Puerto Rico and St. Thomas as
determined by yield-per-recruit analysis. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 42: -38.
The red hind (Epinephelus guttatus) is an important component of the shallow-water fishery resources of Puerto
Rico and St. Thomas. Declining landings and the possible loss of larger individuals from commercial catches
have led to concern over the condition of stocks in both areas. A preliminary yield-per-recruit analysis indicated
that in Puerto Rico and SL Thomas, the current fishing levels approximately 50 percent and 20 percent greater
than theoretically optimum levels of fishing. Fishing pressure should be reduced considerably in Puerto Rico,
and to a lesser extent in St. Thomas. Yield-per-recruit would not increase significantly by increasing size at
entry to the fishery at current levels of fishing pressure. A short-term management option is the protection of the
annual spawning aggregations from all fishing activity. A more long-term option for the reduction of fishing
pressure on all components of the fishery unit would be the creation of marine reserves.
81. Salm, RN. 1984. Ecological boundaries for coral-reef reserves: principles and guidelines. Environmental
Conservation Ii: 2()~215.
As marine conservation activities intensity, planners and managers of protected areas are finding themselves
with few guidelines or tools that are specific to the marine realm. Consequently, the principles, criteria, and
practices of terrestrial protected areas tend to be transferred to the marine environment, where they are often
inappropriate. In contrast to the situations with all comparable sites on land, there is a paucity of published
material on the application of ecological principles to the design and management of marine protected areas.
sing examples of coral reels, guidelines are presented in this article in the hope that they will elicit comment and
stimulate the publication of similar guidelines for different marine environments. Coral reef protected area
boundaries must fulfill two requirements: they must include appropriate coral reef, confluent and neighboring
habitats, and a sufficient area of each. The first requirement defines the type, and the second the quantity of
habitats to be included in a protected area. Studies in the Chagos Archipelago, Indian Ocean, indicate that the
core zone of a protected coral reef area should encompass 300 hectares of diverse reef habitats if preservation of
biotic diversity is the principle objective. The buffer-zone size needed will vary according to activities planned
within the area, the extent of neighboring coastal habitats, and the proximity of up-current sources of potential
82. Samoilys, M.A. 1988. Abundance and species richness of coral reef fish on the Kenyan coast: the effects of
protective management and fishing. Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium 2:261-266.
Underwater censuses were used to measure species richness and abundance of coral reef fish at nineteen study
sites on the Kenyan coast. While species richness was highest in marine parks where no fishing or collecting
was allowed, the same was not true for fish abundance or biomass of commercially important species. Some of
the highest densities and weights of fish were found in the marine reserves where traditional fishing, was
allowed. Areas with higher fishing intensity had smaller standing crops of fish, but not comparably smaller
abundances. This suggests that the average fish size is lowered by more intense fishing. Two factors, siltation
from rivers and dynamite fishing, have a major impact on the fish assemblages. Reels badly damaged from
dynamiting, including Mako Kakwe in Kisite marine park were characterized by low species richness and a low
biomass of commercially important species. At Malindi, densities and biomass of fish were of a similar
magnitude to dynamited reels, despite the prohibition of all fishing and collecting for the last 20 years. The reef
has been subjected to a heavy influx of sediment from the Sabaki River since the early 1970's. Thus, the effects
of protection and fishing on reef fish assemblages were confounded by other major impacts on Kenya's reels,
namely siltation and dynamiting.
83. Savina, G.C. and White, A.T. 1986. A tale of two islands: Some lessons for marine resource management.
Environmental Conservation 13:107413.
A comparison of two island fishing communities in the Visayas, Philippines, showed significant differences in
coral reef habitat and in the diversity of selected reef fishes, as well as important differences in fishing customs
and catch composition. During the sampling months of April-May, 1985, fishermen on the 72-hectare Apo
Island, Negros, caught more than two thirds of their total fish 'catch on the reef, whereas fishermen on the 200
hectare Pamilacan Island, Bohol, caught less than 20 percent of their total catch on the reef during the same
period. This discrepancy may be attributable to reef quality or fishing customs, or to both these factors. Past
efforts to manage Apo and Pamilacan through local marine reserve systems have not been effective. Different
biophysical features at the two sites, and differences in fishing customs, means that the management needs of the
islands are not alike. Effective management should weigh many factors. Four lessons which apply to Apo and
Pamilacan are given, namely 1) management plans should consider habitat differences, 2) fishing pressures vary
from island to island, 3) traditional fishing practices influence the kind and amount of fishing pressure on a reef
and must be reckoned with in choosing management guidelines, and 4) the fishermen themselves must be
committed to the concept of marine management and should help to formulate the guidelines governing a
84. Schwartz, M.W. 1994. Conflicting goals for conserving biodiversity: Issues of scale and value. Natural
Areas Journal 14: 21-216.
Differing conservation values create a multiplicity of goals toward which conservation activities are directed.
Multiple and differing goals also are inherent in conservation at differing spatial and temporal scales. In many
cases these different goals result in management actions that are complementary and that simultaneously benefit
many species and habitats. In contrast, there are instances in which conservation for one set of values, or at one
spatial scale, suggests a management action that would violate other conservation goals. The author defined the
goals and value systems used to support biological conservation and presented three cases where differing
conservation objectives conflict. Specifically, this study addressed how 1) a proposed translocation of an
endangered species outside its historic range, to prevent its extinction, would violate the historic integrity of the
recipient community; 2) the use of fire, to maintain plant community composition in grasslands, may threaten
native insect biodiversity; and 3) assisting the process of long-distance seed dispersal to aid plant-range shifts
disrupted by anthropogenic dimatic warming, would violate the integrity of recipient plant communities. While
examples of conflicting goals are not hard to describe, they are hard to resolve and pose challenges to
conservation biology that are not adequately addressed at the present time. Increased use of goal-setting would
improve our ability to explicitly measure the success of conservation projects. Failure to set priorities and goals
in conservation management implies a misplaced faith in the balance of nature.
85. Shepherd, S.A. and Brown, LD. 1993. What is an abalone stock: implications for the role of refugia in
conservation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50:2001-2009.
This paper concerns the conservation of abalone stocks in a genetic and fisheries sense. The article reviews
genetic and ecological information relating to the differentiation of abalone stocks in South Australia and
proposes that metapopulation theory provides an apt framework in which to develop the concept of an abalone
stock. The study considered the minimum viable population for abalone which is illustrated with a case study of
an abalone population that declined through a combination of fishing, recruitment failure, and inadequate
protection by a refugium. Refugia can play an imp ortant role in abalone conservation by maintaining egg
production and genetic diversity and by preserving populations for scientific study.
86. Sheridan, A.K. 1995. The genetic impacts of human activities on wild fish populations. Reviews in Fisheries
A review of the literature confirms that human activities have caused genetic changes in some wild fish
populations, with most of these changes being adverse. These genetic effects include a reduction in growth rate
and/or possibly in age/size at sexual maturity in some heavily fished populations. There was also considerable
evidence of hybridization between wild and released populations and the extinction of some wild populations
due to habitat changes and to competition and/or predation from introduced species. There is a need to monitor
wild fish populations for genetic changes, with particular emphasis on exploited populations of prominent
economic or recreational value. This is best done by directly examining either the genome or gene products. In
order to detect genetic change, it is necessary to have access to at least two chronologically distinct samples of
the same population. As DNA is also relatively inexpensive to store, DNA depositories could be established in
order to provide a historical record of the genetic composition of populations of either commercial or scientific
87. Simberloff, D. and Cox, J. 1987. Consequences and costs of conservation corridors. Conservation Biology 1:
There are few controlled data wit h which to assess the conservation role of corridors connecting refuges. If
corridors are used sufficiently, they could alleviate threats from inbreeding depression and demographic
stochasticity. For species that require more resources than are available in single refuges, a network of refuges
connected by corridors may allow persistence. Finally, a corridor, such as a riparian forest, may constitute an
important habitat in its own right. A dearth of information on the degree to which different species use corridors
makes it difficult to tell which of these potential advantages will be realized in any particular case. Corridors
may have costs as well as potential benefits; they may transmit contagious diseases, fires, and other
catastrophes, and they may increase exposure of animals to predators, domestic animals, and poachers.
Corridors also bear economic costs. It may be cheaper to manage some species by moving individuals between
refuges rather than by buying and maintaining corridors. Each case must be judged on its own merits because
species -environment interactions differ.
88. Simberloff, D.3. and Abele, LG. 1976. Island biogeography theory and conservation practice. science 191:
The application of island biogeography theory to conservation practice is premature. Theoretically and
empirically, a major conclusion of such applications that refuges should always consist of the largest possible
single area can be incorrect under a variety of biologically feasible conditions. The cost and irreversibility of
large-scale conservation programs demand a prudent approach to the application of an insufficiently validated
89. Sluka, R. 1995. Influence of habitat on density, species richness, and size distribution of groupers in the
upper Florida Keys, USA and central Bahamas. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.
The influence of habitat on the density, species richness, and size distribution of groupers (Serranidae) was
studied in the upper Florida Keys and central Bahamas from 1992-94. Four major reef types were selected for
study: patch reefs, high-relief spur and groove, relict reef flat, and low-relief spur and groove. The size
distribution of groupers differed among reef types; the majority of groupers ill deeper, low profile habitats were
less than 15 cm TL Protection from fishing influenced the frequency and size distributions of species. A
discussion of marine fisheries reserves as a potential management tool for conserving grouper assemblages is
90. Sluka, R., Chiappone, M. and Sullivan, K.M. 1994. Comparison of juvenile grouper populations in southern
Florida and the central Bahamas. Bulletin of Marine science 54:871-880
Visual surveys conducted in shallow-water (< 10 m) reef habitats were used to compare grouper abundance, size
distribution, and species richness in the central Bahamas and northern Florida Keys. The mean density of
groupers was three times greater in a marine park in the central Bahamas closed to fishing. Although a higher
percentage of larger groupers were observed in the Bahamas, differences in the size distribution between the two
areas were not significant. Species composition differed between the two areas and were attributable to different
habitat requirements. For example, graysby, red grouper, red hind, and black grouper dominated the species
assemblage in the Florida Keys, while Nassau grouper and coney constituted the majority of individuals in the
91. Sluka, R., Chiappone, M. and Sullivan, KM. 1996. Habitat preferences of groupers in the Exuma Cays,
Bahamas. Bahamas Journal of science 4:844.
Habitat has been shown to affect the abundance of groupers at many spatial scales. This study examined the
potential relationship between quantified benthic features of coral reef and the abundance and biomass of
groupers in the Exuma Cays, central Bahamas. Data were collected at 21 sites north of and 19 sites within the
park during October to November 1995. Haphazard quadrats were used to quantify percent coverage of bottom
types in three habitat types: channel reefs, flinging reefs, and windward hard-bottom. Vertical relief and depth
were also measured. Data on the species composition, abundance, and size of groupers were collected using strip
transects measuring 2(-m x 5 -m. Results indicated no significant correlation between grouper size or biomass
and benthic habitat features within the park. However, graysby (Epinephelus cruentatus) biomass and size
outside of the park were correlated to coral cover, whereas coney (E. fulvus) biomass and size were negatively
correlated with coral cover, but positively correlated with algal cover. In particular habitats, some species were
prevalent. Rock hind (F adscensionis) and tiger grouper (Mytceroperca tigris) were most abundant in fringing
reef while graysby was most abundant in channel -4s. Coney were most prevalent in windward hard -bottom
habitats. Outside of the park, fishing pressure was considered to be a more significant influence on abundance
and distribution of targeted grouper species.
92. Sluka, R., Chiappone, M., Sullivan, K.M. and Wright, R. 1996. Habitat and Life in the Exuma Cays,
Bahamas: Status of groupers and coral reefs in the northern cays. Supplemental Volume: Appendices. The
Nature Conservancy, Florida and Caribbean Marine Conservation Science Center, Coral Gables, Florida. 216
This supplemental volume to the document, Habitat and Life in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas: Status of groupers
and coral reefs in the northern cays, presents site-specific data on groupers and benthic community structure.
Field surveys of groupers and coral reef habitats were made during October and November of 1995 to evaluate
the species composition, abundance, size, and biomass of commercially important groupers in relation to the
Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park. Surveys were also made to quantify depth, vertical relief, and percent coverage
of bottom types in quadrats. The supplemental volume includes figures illustrating the spatial extent of the study
area and location of reef habitats surveyed over 90 km of the Exuma Cays archipelago. Figures are also included
to illustrate the coverage distribution of algae, sponges, corals, and octocorals using visual estimates in quadrats.
Tables provide species presence-absence and percent coverage data. Data on grouper density, size, and biomass
are also included.
93. Sluka, R., Chiappone, M., Sullivan, K.M. and Wright, R. 1996. Habitat and Life in the Exuma Cays, the
Bahamas: The status of groupers and coral reef in the northern cays. Media Publishing, Nassau, Bahamas. 83 pp.
The role of the Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park, central Bahamas, in protecting groupers within the Exuma Cays
was investigated from October-November 1995. Four hard-bottom habitats were surveyed for
benthic community structure and grouper species composition, abundance, and size. Habitats included patch
reefs, channel reef windward hard -bottom, and fringing reef. Surveys were conducted at 74 sites from Sail
Rocks to Staniel Cay, a distance of roughly 90 km. In each site, 10 20m x 5m strip transects were surveyed for
groupers, while 25 1-m x 1-m quadrats were used to visually estimate bottom coverage using cover classes as
well as point-intercept measurements of coverage. Results indicated that the park is protecting the size,
abundance, and reproductive output of the most targeted grouper species, Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus).
However, the entire park is not effectively protected; the area of effective protection is limited to what the park
ranger can patrol There was evidence that groupers were moving across park boundaries to potentially become
available to legal catch by the fishery. There were also second-order effects in which non-targeted species, such
as graysby and coney, were more abundant outside the park.
94. Sluka, R., Chiappone, M., Sullivan, K.M. and Wright, R. 1997. The benefits of a marine fishery reserve for
Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus in the central Bahamas. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef
Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) are an important coral reef fish, both economically and ecologically.
Intense fishing pressure has been shown to decrease the abundance and average size of this species. Marine
reserves have been suggested as areas which can ameliorate the effects of intense fishing pressure while
protecting the size, abundance, and reproductive output of targeted species. The benefits of marine fishery
reserve in the central Bahamas, the Exuma Cays land and Sea Park, were evaluated with regard to these factors.
Seventy-four sites among four coral reef and hard-bottom habitat types were sampled along 90 km of the Exuma
Cays during the fall of 1995. Survey sites were selected north, inside, and south of the reserve. Underwater strip
transects (20- m x 5-m) were carried out to inventory grouper species, density, and size. The average biomass
and size of Nassau grouper was statistically greater inside reserve. Size and biomass of Nassau grouper did not
differ significantly among habitat types. Estimated reproductive output of adult, female Nassau grouper was
over 6 times greater inside the reserve. It is concluded that: 1) the reserve is protecting Nassau grouper resources
and 2) the reserve is likely exporting grouper biomass across park boundaries.
95. Smith, PJ. 1994. Genetic diversity of marine fisheries resources: possible impacts of fishing. FAO Fisheries
Technical Paper Number 344, FAO, Rome. 53 pp.
This report reviews the evidence for the genetic impact of fishing on marine fisheries resources. The most
widely used method for measuring genetic diversity in natural populations has been protein electrophoresis;
marine teleosts have levels of genetic diversity ranging from 0.-18 percent and marine invertebrates from OA-
32 percent. Genetic studies have shown that populations of marine species are less differentiated than freshwater
species, experience temporal changes, can be changed locally by pollution, and contain cryptic species. In
natural populations fishing is a major source of mortality and is non random with
respect to age and size of individuals. A common observation in heavily exploited teleost fisheries has been a
decline in the age and/or size at sexual maturity. Size selective fishing would favor early maturity. However,
growth rate in some fishes is density dependent and increases when the stock is reduced'. Thus it is not possible
to determine if the observed changes are genetic or compensatory in response to reduced stock density. Genetic
drift is unlikely to be a major factor influencing levels of genetic diversity in many marine fisheries, except for
some populations which have been reduced to near extinction levels. There is no evidence for loss of genetic
diversity in collapsed stocks of pelagic species. The use of hatcheries to produce seed for aquaculture and
enhancement could lead to loss of genetic diversity in natural populations through escape of farm stock or
inappropriate choice of broodstock. Experimental studies are required to determine the heritability and the
response to selection of life history characters of exploited species, and to determine if relaxation of fishing
pressure allows the recovery of fast growing and late maturing genes or gene complexes in populations. A
combination of exp erimental and field studies would permit a more rigorous testing of genetic changes in
exploited populations. If genetic changes are demonstrated in exploited species then changes to management
would be needed to conserve natural levels of diversity.
96. Soegiarto, A. 1981. The development of a marine park system in Indonesia. Proceedings of the 4th
International Coral Reef Symposium 1: 288-291.
For centuries the Indonesian people have used the marine environment for many purposes:
transportation, trade aid communication, recreation, sources of food and minerals. Unfortunately, however, the
Indonesian marine environment is under heavy stress due to pollution and other destructive forces. In order to
ensure the quality of the marine environment as a whole, a master plan for a marine park system is being
developed in Indonesia. This master plan is an integrated part of the Nature Conservation Program in Indonesia.
Basic criteria to develop marine parks and conservation areas have been established. Currently, more than 4()
potential sites are under study to evaluate the feasibility of establishing them as marine parks and conservation
areas. A national commission on Marine Park Systems has been formed for this purpose. International
organizations and UN specialized agencies, such as World Wildlife Fund, Food and Agriculture Organization,
UNESCO, and UNDP, cooperate and assist with this program. This paper briefly reviews the plan, the
implementation and constraints of the marine park development in Indonesia.
97. Somerton, D.A. and June, J. 1984. A cost-benefit method for determining optimum dosed fishing areas to
reduce trawl catch of prohibited species. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41: 93-98.
Red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica), a prohibited species, are incidentally caught by United States trawl
fisheries for yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera) and other groundfish in the eastern Bering Sea. To reduce this
incidental catch, the authors propose a method for determining a king crab conservation zone where trawling
would be prohibited. This method considers the gross revenue potentially gained by the yellowfin sole fishery
and lost by the king crab fishery by allowing trawling in each of a number of equal-size
areas. Utilizing exvessel prices and research survey estimates of species densities, areas are assigned relative
values equal to the value of groundfish minus the value of king crab. By including all areas with negative
relative values in the conservation zone, the potential gross revenue that could be obtained from the groundfish
and king crab resource is maximized.
98. Soule, M.E. and Simberloff, D. 1986. What do genetics and ecology tell us about the design of nature
reserves? Biological Conservation 35:1940.
The SLOSS (single large or several small) debate is no longer an issue in the discussion about the optimal size
of nature reserves. The best way to estimate the minimum sizes of reserves may be a three step process: 1)
identify target or keystone species whose disappearance would significantly decrease the value or species
diversity of the reserve; 2) determine the minimum number of individuals in a population needed to guarantee a
high probability of survival for these species; 3) using known densities, estimate the aea needed to sustain a
minimum number. The forces that affect population viability and determine MVP (minimum viable populations)
are extremely complex. Thoughtful estimates of MVPs for many animals are rarely lower than an effective size
of a few hundred. Attempts to save only common or smaller species in a community will usually be ill4ated
because of the web of ecological relationships between species, including the importance of predation and
herbivory in the maintenance of species diversity. Other topics discoed include the complementarily of
conservation goals, the problematic function of corridors, and the value of buffer-zones.
99. Stoner, A.W. and Ray, M. 1996. Queen conch, Strombus gigas, in fished and unfished locations of the
Bahamas: effects of a marine fishery reserve on adults, juveniles, and larval production. Fishery Bulletin 94:
Marine fishery reserves have been set aside in coastal areas throughout the world with the hope of reversing
population declines commonly observed h many marine resources. In this study, a comparison of population
structure of the commercially important queen conch (Strombus gigas) was made between a fished area and a
marine fishery reserve Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park) in the central Bahamas. There were 31 times more adult
conch on the shallow (<5 m) Great Bahama Bank in the park, and in a survey at 7 depth intervals (to 30 m) on
the island shelf in the Exuma Sound, mean adult density was always higher in the park, by as much as 15 times.
Shell length and lip-thickness measurements indicated that adults in the park migrate with age from bank
nursery sites into deeper water, whereas those on the bank in the fished area were harvested before reaching
water sufficiently deep to protect them from free-diving fishermen. Total larval densities in the park were
frequently an order of magnitude higher than those in the fished area, and densities of late-stage larvae were -17
times higher. Based on current patterns in the Exumas, larvae found in the park must have been spawned outside
of the park; thus the high densities of juveniles and adults are the result of natural accumulation of larvae and
protection from fishing.
100. Stoner, A.W. and O'Connell, S.M. 1994. Concentrations of queen conch larvae in the Exuma Cays Land
and Sea Park. Preliminary Study -1993. Technical Report to the Bahamas National Trust. Caribbean Marine
Research Center, Vero Beach, Florida. 9pp.
This report discusses efforts to quantity the abundance of queen conch (Strombus gigas) larvae in the Exuma
Cays Land and Sea Park, central Bahamas. Plankton tows were conducted during 5 cruises between June and
August 1993 to determine larval abundance and size distribution off of Waderick Wells, the park headquarters.
Results indicated greater larval densities in the park compared to stations at Cat Island, Lee Stocking Island, and
Eleuthera. Concentrations of larvae near Waderick Wells were over 5 conch per cubic meter. Densities in the
park are the highest ever recorded for the wider Caribbean. The great larval supply to the park is likely related to
the high density of juvenile conch. Late-stage larvae (2-3 weeks old) likely have their source in the southern
Exumas, while early stage larvae may be derived from egg masses produced in the p ark.
1()1. Thorpe, J.E., Koonce, J.F., Borgeson, D., Henderson, B., Lamsa, A., Maitland, P.S., Ross M.A., Simon,
R.C. and Walters, C. 1981. Assessing and managing man's impact on fish genetic resources. Canadian Journal of
Fisheries andAquatic Sciences 38:18994907.
Historically, human activities have adversely affected the genetic resources of many fish species. The authors
suggest that a continuum of vulnerability to loss of genetic resources exists for fishes. Primary determinants of
vulnerability are extent of stock structure in populations and fundamental life history features, such as length of
Juvenile period, sex ratio, and fecundity. The genetic basis for this trend is the relationship between the
subdivided state of a population (its stock structure) and important processes of genetic change, which include
selection, gene flow, and genetic drift. This study related various human activities to their effects on genetic
resources through these genetic processes. In general, the authors found that those species whose populations are
subdivided into nearly isolated stocks (e.g., Pacific and Atlantic salmon) are more vulnerable to directional
changes in genetic composition as well as reduction in overall genetic diversity through loss of some stocks. It
was also found that similar changes will be difficult to detect, if they occur at all, in less stock-structured species
102. Tisdell, C. and Broadus, J.M. 1989. Policy issues related to the establishment and management of marine
reserves. Coastal Management 17:37-53.
Several hundred marine reserves now exist and their number is growing. The demand for additional marine
reserves can also be expected to grow, especially since they seem to be relatively undersupplied compared to
terrestrial biosphere reserves. Basic socioeconomic reasons are given as to why governments should establish
marine reserves. Management problems are illustrated by reference to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) governing of Title III of
the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. The nature, clarity, and precision of objectives as set out
in legislation are discussed, and the importance for management of public and political support is considered.
Using economic analysis, an approach different to that used by some ecologists for determining the optimal size
of reserves is outlined. The natural difficulties involving managing marine reserves are highlighted by
comparison with land-based parks. Zoning and multiple-use are common features of marine reserves and require
important management and policy decisions to be made about optimal zoning and multiple-use arrangements.
Issues that ought to be taken into account and techniques for making such decisions are discussed, and it is
suggested that there should be greater input from the social sciences in the management of marine reserves.
103. Towns, D.R. and Ballantine, WJ. 1993. Conservation and restoration of New Zealand island ecosystems.
Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8: 452A57.
An ecological collapse has precipitated pioneering conservation initiatives in New Zealand. Many terrestrial
communities in the New Zealand archipelago have been devastated by overexploitation, introduced mammals,
and habitat destruction. More recently, marine ecosystems have been depleted by over-harvesting. To mitigate
against these losses, conservation in terrestrial environments has focused on protection of species and habitats. A
similar approach is now under way in marine environments with the establishment of marine reserves. On land,
conservation is now reaching beyond protection to the eradication of pests from island and restoration of their
terrestrial ecosystems. Restoration on islands not only reduces threats to rare species; it also raises opportunities
to investigate how species interact. In the marine environment, reserves not only enhance the diversity of
depleted marine communities, they may also augment stocks of commercially harvested species. These
initiatives provide many lessons that could be applied to degraded habitats elsewhere.
104. Tundi-Agardy, M. 1994. Advances in marine conservation: the role of marine protected areas. Trends in
Ecology and Evolution 9:267-270.
The world's oceans are now attracting the serious attention of conservationists. Paradoxically, as the value of
marine biological diversity is recognized, the ecosystems that harbor this diversity are fast becoming degraded.
New thinking about how to conserve coastal areas has resulted in protected-area models that incorporate
principles of landscape ecology, adaptive and ecosystem management, and zoning in protected-area plans.
1()5. Van't Hof, T. 1983. The economic benefits of marine parks and protected areas in the Caribbean region.
Proceedings of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress 1:351-556.
Most of the marine parks in the Caribbean are associated with coral reef and found in developing countries. As.
exploitation of marine resources for short4erm profits has often prevailed over careful management ensuring
lasting returns, it is important that marine biologists and conservationists use all available arguments to convince
administrators and politicians of the need to establish marine parks as a means of marine resource management.
Although the benefits of resource management in connection with fishing and other collecting at sustainable
levels are fairly well known, the economic benefits of marine parks in relation with marine tourism have been
less well documented. The economic benefits of marine parks are a dirt result of management actions. Firstly,
marine parks aim at protection of the resource base and hence, guarantee a certain quality of the environment to
park users. Secondly, marine parks regulate use so as t ensure sustainability of uses and to avoid conflicts
between users groupers with different interests. Finally, marine parks provide services and facilities to users.
These factors are believed to cause an increase in tourism compared with the situation where no management is
existing. From the survey of marine parks in the Caribbean and adjacent regions, it appears that marine parks are
generally considered economically beneficial, but hardly any d4ta exist to substantiate this assumption Two
studies have focused on the economic benefits of marine parks with a substantial marine component: Virgin
Islands National Park at St. John and Cahuita National Park in Costa Rica. Analysis of the costs and benefits of
the existence of the parks demonstrates a high benefit to cost ratio for both parks. In order to make marine parks
economically beneficial or to increase their benefits, it is recommended that active, ongoing management is
ensured, that adequate user facilities and services are provided1 and that the promotional value of the existence
of a park be fully exploited.
1()6. Watson, M. and Ormond, R.F.G. 1994'. Effect of an artisanal fishery on the fish and urchin populations of
a Kenyan coral reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series 109: 11-129.
An investigation of the effects of artisanal fishing on coral reef fish assemblage structure was undertaken
through a comparison of fish stocks on 2 apparently identical sets of reef one (within the Kisite Marine National
Park) on which all fishing is prohibited, and one (within the Mpunguti Marine National Reserve) on which
artisanal fishing is allowed. Replicate visual censuses of fish along 250 x 10 m band transects at 6 study sites
demonstrated that there were large differences in population density and biomass of the principal families of
commercial reef fish (Lethrinidae, Lutjanidae, and Serranidae) between the unfished marine park area and the
adjacent fished marine reserve area. Commercial species within the park were up to 10 or more times abundant
than those in the reserve. In addition, 6 species of butterflyfish (Chaetodontidae) and 2 species of triggerfish
(Balistidae) were significantly more abundant on shallow and/or deep transects within the park. For most species
of commercial fish, larger individuals were observed in the park than in the reserve. In contrast, smaller grouper
species, one species of butterflyfish, and sea urchins were significantly more abundant C n transects in the
reserve. It is suggested that these increased abundances may be second order effects (mediated by reduced
competition or predation) of increased fishing pressure. Overall results allow an assessment of the effect of the
artisanal fishery on the fish stocks, and provide a measure of the effectiveness of protection afforded by the
1()7. White, A.T. 1986. Marine reserves: How effective as a management strategy for Philippine, Indonesian
and Malaysian coral reef environments? Ocean Management 10:137-139.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of marine reserves as an approach to coral reef management in southeast
Asia and isolates the most effective management techniques. Seven reserve areas in the Philippines were
compared with two similar management areas in Indonesia and two in Malaysia. Two control areas in the
Philippines were also considered. Comparison of the areas included the following: 1) documentation of the
status of various reefs in the three countries, in terms of biology, management approaches, patterns of human
use, and the larger environmental setting; 2) examination of the effect of various factors, including formal
management schemes, human exploitation, and general setting, on the reef; and 3) a summary of those
generalities found among sites in terms of environmental conditions, management and use by humans. The
following coral reef parameters were used to evaluate reef condition: substrate cover, density of coral genera,
Acanthaster and Tridacna abundances, chaetodontid diversity, topographic relief, and noticeable damage. Sites
were ranked in terms of reef quality and compared to remoteness, human exploitation, destructive uses, and
management types. Municipal and national management approaches were contrasted and the effects of local
education, scientific and tourist interest were noted at each ite. Those sites with active local participation in
management showed the greatest potential for environmental maintenance and improvement At other sites
where some form of management exists, except one, the management showed a positive impact and a potential
for sustainable use. Control sites and those proposed for management without protection show some form of
108. Wolfenden, J., Cram, F. and Kirkwood, B. 1994. Marine reserves in New Zealand: A survey of community
reactions. Ocean and Coastal Management 25:31-51.
The social aspects in relation to the establishment of marine reserves have received little attention compared
with the study of bio-physical phenomena. Subsequent to the passing of the Marine Reserves Act (1971), New
Zealand led the world in protection of the marine environment with an area of non-extraction at Goat Island,
Leigh. During the intervening years, no additional mainland marine reserves were created until the designation
of Cathedral Cove marine reserve in 1993. The present study examined the nature of community reactions to