• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Abstract
 Table of Contents
 List of Figures
 List of Tables
 Introduction and overview
 Objectives - Scope - Approach and...
 Results and discussion
 Recommendations
 Acknowledgement
 Literature
 Tables
 Back Cover






Group Title: Water Resources Research Center Technical report
Title: Water economy of a low flush toilet in a water deficient region
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/CA01300595/00001
 Material Information
Title: Water economy of a low flush toilet in a water deficient region
Series Title: Water Resources Research Center Technical report
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Pratt, Albert E.
Virgin Islands of the United States. Water Resources Research Center ( Contributor )
Affiliation: University of the Virgin Islands -- Caribbean Research Institute -- Water Resources Research Center
Publication Date: 12/26/1979
 Subjects
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States Virgin Islands
Caribbean
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: CA01300595
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
    Abstract
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
    List of Figures
        Page vi
    List of Tables
        Page vii
    Introduction and overview
        Page 1
    Objectives - Scope - Approach and methods
        Page 2
    Results and discussion
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Recommendations
        Page 11
    Acknowledgement
        Page 12
    Literature
        Page 13
    Tables
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text






The Water Economy of a Low Flush Toilet in a
Water Deficient Region





Albert E. Pratt













Technical Report No. 3 July 1979
















WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER
Caribbean Research Institute
College of the Virgin Islands
St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands










The Water Economy of a Low Flush Toilet in a
Water Deficient Region.




By




Albert E. Pratt
Water Resources Research Center
Caribbean Research Institute
College of the Virgin Islands
St. Thomas, USVI 00801


Contract No. A-004-VI
Research Period 3/77 to 9/78
A project completion report.





July 1979






The work upon which this report is based was supported by
funds provided by the United States Department of the
Interior, Office of Water Research and Technology as
authorized under the Water Resources Act of 1964, P.L. 88-
379.


Technical Report No. 3
Water Resources Research Center
Caribbean Research Institute
College of the Virgin Islands
St. Thomas, USVI 00801










ABSTRACT

Water use at public restroom facility was substantially
reduced after installation of lo-flush toilets. later in
the region j scarce, demand is high, and water is
epensiye. The first year of operation of the low-flush
toilets saved 36,500 gallons and reduced the true cost of
water used at the facility predominately desal ted wafer,
frolT 757 to S210. The research dirnonstratect the
practical value of a conservation technique that, If widely
used in the Territory, could substantially reduce costs for
government water and energy production,










CONTENTS PAGE

LIST OF FIGURES Vi

LIST OF TABLES Vii

INTRODUCTION 1

OBJECTIVES 2

SCOPE 2

APPROACH AND METHODS 2

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3

Public School Use 7

Overnight Accommodations Use 8

Government Office IJse 8

Public Housing Use 8

Residential Use 8

RECOMENDAT1ONS 9

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 10

LITERATURE 11

TABLES 12

APPENDIX A 19










LIST OF FIGURES


Page


Record of Water Use at Red Hook










LIST OF TABLES


Page

1. Water Center Water Meter Records 12

2. Comparison of Water Use Records
for the Red Hook Facility 13

3. Installation of Low-Flush Toilets at Red Hook. 14

4. Public Works Department; Jan. 1976-Dec. 1976 15

5. Public Works Department; Jan. 1977-Dec. 1977 16

6. Public Works Department; Jan. 1978-Sept. 1978 17

7. Public Works Department; Oct. 1978-May 1979 18










INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW


The Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands is composed of
three main islands: St. Croix (84 sq. mi.), St. Thomas (28
sq. mi.), and St. John (20 sq. mi.), and more than 60
smaller islands and cays. The islands as a group receive an
average of 40 inches of rainfall annually; however, about
90 percent of that rainfall is lost to evapotranspiration
and the group of tropical, oceanic islands is classified as
being semi-arid. The water resources, therefore, are scarce
and generally of poor quality. Because of the limited scale
of each island, there is no hinterland from which to draw
additional resources.

Approximately 100,000 people live on the land area of 135
square miles. Most of the population relies directly on
roof catchment and cistern storage of the inconstant
rainfall for household water supplies.

The Territory experienced a period of phenomenal economic
growth and population expansion during the 1960's and
1970's. The government invested heavily lb sea water
desalting plants in an attempt to relieve the chronic short
supply of potable water created by the demands of a booming
tourism-based economy. Temporarily successful in fulfilling
the needs for potable water, by the mid-70's operational
failures of the desalting equipment in combination with a
continual reliance on inefficient and obsolete distribution
systems and the meteorically rising price of energy made it
impossible for the government to meet daily potable water
needs, and a six-hour per day rationing schedule was
imposed on public water supplies.

At peak production, the desalting plant are capable of
supplying approximately 75% of the estimated peak daily
demand of 5.5 million gallons of potable water for the
Territory. Present cost for desalting sea water is assumed
to be at least $15 per thousand gallons; the true cost of
production for the V.1. Water and Power Authority is not
known. The water is distributed to the public by the Virgin
Islands government (Public Works Department) and consumers
are charged a rate of $4 per thousand gallons, making it
necessary for the government to substantially subsidize
Territorial water supply programs.

Conservation of water has therefore been identified as one










of the ways the Virgin Islands government can reduce the
strain of the present fiscal squeeze.

The Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Center, through
a grant from the U.S. Department of Interior, Office of
Water Research and Technology, installed several low-flush
toilets in a heavily trafficked public restroom facility on
St. Thomas and monitored the performance of those units for
a period of seventeen (17) months. The project served a
practical use for the residents and visitors of the
Territory and demonstrated the conservation and cost-saving
potential of .such equipment to the public agencies that
operate and service the public restroom facility.


OBJECTIVES

The project was intended to measure a reduction in water
usage at a public restroom facility after installation of
law-flush toilets, monitor maintenance and operational
problems, and evaluate, the net effects that wide-scale use
of low-flush equipment could have on the present Ivel of
demand for government water production and distribution.


SCOPE

The installation of low-flush toilets in combination with a
monitoring program provided the opportunity to evaluate the
effects of reducing the amount of water required for
sanitary flushing on: a) the daily water needs for
operating specific restroom facility,, b) Territory-wide
water needs by projecting a reduction of demand, and c)
reducing the cost of water for an average household in the
U.S Virgin Islands.


APPROACH AND METHODS

Five (5) conventional toilets in a public restroom facility
at Red Kook Ferry Dock, St. Thomas were replaced with low-
flush toilets at a total cost of$3580. The facility is
operated by the V.1. Ports Authority and was selected as
the project site because it serves the needs of the many
residents of St. John and St. Thomas as well as tourists
who regularly use the St. Thomas-St John ferries.
Water for the facility is supplied without cost to the










Ports Authority by the Public Works Department. Water is
trucked as needed from the public standpipe in Sub-base,
about twelve miles away, and is stored at the, site in a
1,000 gallon steel tank. It is then pumped to the restroom
for use in the laboratories and for sanitary flushing.
The low-flush units that were installed were Microphor LF-
310 stainless steel toilets. The system requires 50 to 70
PSI of compressed air and a small amount of water from
gravity flow or, as in this project, at 1-60 PSI. A push
button mounted on the toilet activates a flow of water into
the bowl and opens a valve in the base of the toilet. The
valve is then closed automatically and a charge of
compressed air ejects waste materials into a discharge
line.
The Microphor unit is designed to operate on two (2) quarts
of water per flush. All parts of the unit are corrosion
resistant, a beneficial feature because of the high level
of chlorides present in most of the water delivered to the
facility.
A water meter was installed in the feed line between the
storage tank and the restroom.
The newly-completed installation was tested cm February 24,
1977. From 7:30 a.m. until 3:15 p.m. there was a total of
60 flushes of the units and 30 gallons of water was used. A
conventional toilet would have required more than 300
gallons for the identical use.
Operation of the facility was monitored for a period of
seventeen (17) months, from February 24, 1977 to June 22,
1978. Water delivery records were submitted for analysis by
the Public Works Department for the period January 1, 1976
to June 30, 1979.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The theoretical reduction of the water used for sanitary
flushing at the Red Hook facility is a factor of at least
10:1. The 10:1 reduction is the result of replacing the
conventional flush toilets which require five (5) gallons
(or more) per flush with units that require only two (2)
quarts (or, 0.5 gallons) of water per flush.
In order to test the performance of the retrofitted
facility, data was aggregated by reporting calendar
quarters. Four quarters of the research period were then
isolated for which good comparisons of the data could be
made. The analysis period selected was from April 1977
through March 1978.










During the analysis period, the Public Works Department
records show that a total of 14,000 gallons of water was
delivered to the Red Hook facility: a total of 50,500
gallons was delivered for the corresponding period one year
earlier.
No count was made of the number of people using the
facility and no records of previous levels of use exist.
For purposes of this study, it was assumed that traffic
patterns were similar for the years 1976- 1978. (Note:
Maintenance personnel noted that there appeared to be an
increase in traffic during the research period, and that it
was probably due to the improvement of the facility.)


Record of Water Use at Red Hook


FIG. 1









PROJECT NO. A-004-VI
Toilet


14000


12000


10000


8000


6000


4000


2000


The Water Economy of a Low-flush


4 i


Calendar Quarters
1977 1978 1979
1 3 1 i r i 14 2














Recorded Water Deliveries by


Research


F-


-- -j










The actual reduction of water use recorded by the
government for the analysis period was a ratio of 3.6:1--
representing a savings of 36,500 gallons of water. At $4
per thousand gallons, the cost of providing water to the
Red Hook facility was reduced from $202 to $56 a savings of
$156 in one year. If the water savings is computed at the
assumed true cost of water for the Virgin Islands
government-- $15 per thousand gallons--the reduction was
$757.50 to $210.00, or a true savings of $547.50.

The measurements of the performance of the low-flush
toilets by records from water meter readings also reflect
the significant savings during the research period.
Discrepancies between sets of data are assumed to be caused
by the paucity o-F reliable means for government to measure
and monitor deliveries of water in the Territory.

Analysis of the water meter records reveals that a total of
12,660 gallons of water was used at the facility for the
analysis period (April 1977 March 1978). The facility
used an average of 30.4 gallons per day for the analysis
period, and 32.7 gallons per day for the duration of the
project (2/24/77 6/22/78). This computes to an average use
of 60-65 flushes per day with the Microphor units. A
conventional flush toilet (5 gallons/flush, or more) would
require 300-325 gallons of water per day for that level of
use.

During the course of the project, electrical problems were
experienced with the compressor unit. It was found that it
was a deficiency in the facility wiring and was corrected
by the Ports Authority. One mechanical breakdown occurred
with a toilet unit. Replacements of a malfunctioning valve
cost $70, the total expenditure for maintenance and repair
during the research period.

A simple calculation to compute the rate of amortization of
the investment in the low-flush toilets would be:

Annual cost of operating conventional toilets -
Annual cost of operating low-flush toilets =
Annual Savings then, Total Investment Annual Savings
Rate of Amortization (in number of years)










A computation for the Red Kook facility based on a water
price of $4 per thousand gallons is:

Conventional Unit (5 gal/flush)

65 flushes/day x 5 gallons x 365 x $4/1000 = $475.50
Low-Flush Unit (0.5 gal/flush)
65 flushes/day x 0.5 gal x 365 x $4/1000 = 47.45
Gross Annul Savings: $427.05
Less adjustment for annual maintenance & repair 50.00*
Adjusted Gross Annual Savings: $377.05

*Note: It is assumed that the amount of electricity
required to operate the compressor balances the amount
normally required to operate the water pump--in fact,
the energy demand should be lessened because the low-
flush units require less water to be pumped for the
same level of use.

The total cost for the installation of low-flush-toilets at
the Red Hook facility was $3580. Based on the present level
of use, and at a price for water at $4 per thousand
gallons, it will take.9.5 years to amortize the investment.

A computation for the Red Hook facility based on the
assumed true cost of water ($1511000) in the Virgin Islands
is:

Conventional Unit
65 x 5 x 365 x $15/1000 = $1779.38
Low-Flush Unit
65 x 0.5 x 365 x $15/1000 = 177.94
Gross Annual Savings $1601.44
Less Adjustment 50.00
Adjusted Gross Annual Savings $1551.44


Based on the true cost of water to the government, it will
actually take only 2.3 years to amortize the Red Hook
investment.

The experience of the installation and use of low-flush
toilets in St. Thomas demonstrates the level of
conservation of water that can be attained by the practical
applications of such devices. It has also demonstrated that
low-flush toilets, though more expensive to purchase than
is a conventional toilet, can quickly pay for itself in the










savings that can be realized where water is scarce and
expensive.

Clearly, there are many immediate applications in the U.S.
Virgin Islands for conserving water and saving money by
installing low- flush toilets, particularly with the true
cost of water as high as $15 per thousand gallons. With
very few assumptions and several general calculations, some
of the more obvious applications for

low-flush toilets with maximum benefit to the government of
the Virgin Islands can easily be identified.


First, the assumptions:

a) The peak daily demand in the U.S. Virgin Islands is
5.5 million gallons of potable water; the true cost
(production, storage, debt service, distribution,
administration, etc.) to the government is $15 per
thousand gallons; therefore, water costs each resident
of the Territory 82.5 per day, or, a total of $30.1
million annually for the government.
b) Typically, 45% of all residential and commercial water
(not including industrial) is used for sanitary
flushing (Note: This is an accepted standard.); for
reasons peculiar to water-scarce areas such as the
Virgin Islands, this amount may be less; say, an
average of 35% for flushing.

c) The Microphor low-flush toilets theoretically save 90%
of the water which would be used by a conventional
toilet; there are various low-flush toilets available
commercially, and if in use, will save various amounts
of water; say, an average savings of 50%.

Therefore, if 35% of the peak daily demand for potable
water is used for sanitary flushing, it costs the residents
of the Territory $10.5 million per year to flush toilets.
However, if all toilets were water savers, it would cut the
cost in half: assuming the average price for a low-flush
toilet is $300, the money saved by the government would
purchase more than 17,000 toilets each year:

The fact is, no one is really sure how much water is used
or needed in the Territory. No one knows how much money,
public or private, is invested in water annually. What is










clear is that water saved is also energy and money saved.
Reducilg the amount of water used correspondingly reduces
the energy required to desalt sea water, operate pumps in
our homes as well as the public distribution system,
distribute water by trucks on congested streets and
highways, and to collect and treat waste water.

Where can low-flush toilets be installed most easily to
maximize the impact on water demands in the Territory?

Public School Use:

The present school population is estimated to be 26,000.
Assuming each student flushes a conventional toilet 1.5
times a day (5 gall flush), the water used is 195,000
gallons/day. At a true cost of $15/1000 gallons, the water
costs $2925.' Assuming the school year is 180 days, water
used simply for sanitary flushing in schools costs the
government $526,500 each year. Assuming low-flush toilets
were installed throughout the school system and 50% of the
flushing water was saved, 877 low-flush toilets could be
paid for with public funds that now go down the drain in
one year.

Overnight Accommodations Use: (Hotels, Guesthouses, etc.)

There are presently 4300 units in the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Assuming an occupancy rate of 2.5 people per unit and each
guest uses 100 gallons/day--45% of which is for sanitary
flushing--a total of 483,750 gallons of water is used each
day for flushing. Assuming an annual occupancy rate of 30%,
53 million gallons of water are required by overnight
visitors to the islands for sanitary flushing each year. If
half of the water is saved by using low-flush toilets,
approximately 1324 toilets could be purchased by money
saved the first year.

(Note: A recent installation of low-flush toilets at a
beach hotel on St. Thomas reduced overall consumption
of water from over 100 gpcd to 80 gpcd.)

Government Office Use:

It is estimated that there is a total employment of 40,000
and that 25% (or 10,000) of those jobs are part of the
local (Territorial) government sector. Assuming that each
employee flushes a conventional toilet twice a day, the










water used for flushing totals 100,000 gallons and costs
the government $1500/day.

In one year, assuming each employee works 200 days, water
for sanitary flushing costs the government $300,000. If
half of the water was saved by installing low-flush toilets
in all government offices, 500 toilets could be paid for in
the first year of operation.

Public Housing Use:

The V.I. Housing Authority owns about 15% of the housing
stock in the Territory and shelters approximately 18% (or
18000) of the population. Assuming that water use is 35
gallons per person per day and that 25% of that total is
used for sanitary flushing, approximately 57.5 million
gallons is required annually for flushing toilets (or,
157,500 gallons per day). The true cost of that water is
$862,500. If low-flush toilets were installed throughout
the public housing units, 1437 toilets could be paid for
with the first year's savings on water purchases.

Residential Use:

Most households in the Virgin Islands depend almost
exclusively on roof catchment and cistern storage of
rainfall for water supply. It has been estimated that the
true cost of cistern water (i.e. capital investment in
cistern, amortization, operation of pumps, maintenance,
etc.) is $20 per thousand gallons. It is assumed that water
use in households on cisterns averages 50 gallons'per
capital per day. A family of four would therefore use about
73,000 gallons per year.

Assuming each resident flushes a conventional toilet twice
a day, 14,600 gallons (or, 20%) of the cistern supply is
used for sanitary flushing purposes at a cost of
approximately $290/year. If a $400 low-flush toilet was
installed, it would take slightly less than three years to
amortize the investment.

Since most households in the Territory are not serviced by
central sewer service, and since most of the soils
throughout the Territory are poorly drained, an additional
benefit derived from decreasing the amount of water used
for sanitary flushing is that ground waters would be less
affected by contamination from poorly operating household










septic systems.


And finally, decreasing all sources of wastewater by
decreasing the amount of water used for sanitary flushing
will help protect the marine environments surrounding these
islands--a resource that is immeasurably important to the
well-being of the inhabitants of the Virgin Islands.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1) The Government of the Virgin Islands should pass
legislation prohibiting the importation and sale of toilets
which use more than 3.6 gallons of water per flush after
January 1, 1980.
2) The Government of the Virgin Islands should immediately
embark on an investment program to replace existing
conventional toilet fixtures in public housing, public
schools, and government offices with low-flush toilets.
3) The Government of the Virgin Islands should develop and
implement a public relations campaign which would stress
the cost effectiveness of conserving water for private
individuals and commercial enterprises in the Territory,
and should encourage the use of water saving devices such
as low-flush toilets.
4) The Government of the Virgin Islands should study the
cost effectiveness of offering tax incentives to private
individuals and commercial enterprises for retrofitting
existing plumbing fixtures with water saving equipment,
especially low-flush toilets.










ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The daily efforts of Margaret Blyden at
Red Hook are sincerely appreciated

The advice of Leonard Brown was invaluable

The assistance and concern of Frank Kay is
gratefully acknowledged.










Literature


Buros, O.K. 1976. A Water management plan for St. Croix,
USVI. Black, Crow, and Eidsness, Inc., Gainsville,
Florida.

Lackey, A.M. Economic inventory of the supply and use of
water for rural domestic purposes. USDA, Natural
Resource Economics Division, Washington, D.C.

Massachusetts EOEA. 1978. Massachusetts water supply policy
statement,. Executive Office of Environmental Affairs,
Boston, Massachusetts.

Milne, M. 1976. Residential water conservation. California
Water Resources Center, University of California,.
Davis, California.

V.1. Housing Authority. 1978. Report on the current water
crisis. V.1. Housing Authority, St. Thomas, United
States Virgin Islands.

V.1. Planning Office. 1977. Land USe and housing elements.
Virgin Islands Planning Office, St. Thomas, United
States Virgin Islands.











Table 1


Water Center Water Meter Records
PROJECT NO. A-004-VI The Water Economy of a Low-flush
Toilet

Quarterly
Date Meter Gallons No. Flushes Gal/Day For Analysis
2/24/77 250.8
/25 270.6 19.8 39 19.8
/26 329.9 59.3 118 59.3
/27 359.7 29.8 59 29.8
/28 419.2 59.5 119 59.5
3/1 443.3 24.1 48 24.1
/2 471.8 28.5 57 28.5
/3 526.7 54.9 109 54.9
/4 560.4 33.7 67 33.7
/5 601.3 40.9 81 40.9
/6 631.9 30.6 61 30.6
/7 673.0 41.1 82 41.1
/8 708.5 35.5 71 35.5
/9 734.9 26.4 52 26.4
/10 790.0 .55.1 110 55.1
/17 1052.7 262.7 535 375*
/22 1283.5 230.8 461 52.5*
/24 1390.2 106.7 213 534*


Analysis Incomplete
4/13 2123 733 1466 36.7*
5/9 2725 602 1204 23.2* First
5/16 2965 239 478 34.2* 2355
6/1 3461 496 992 31.0* gallons
6/13 3746 285 570 23.8*
7/13 4707 961 1922 32.0 *
8/15 5600 893 1786 27.1 29
8/25 5904 304 608 30.4 299
9/26 6742 838 1676 26.2 *gallons
16.6* Third
10/17 7258 516 1032 4 d
45.5 3202
12/15 9944 2686 5372
gallons
1/13/78 10856 912 1824 37.5* Fourth
3/1 12620 1764 3528 31.2* 4017
4/13 13961 1341 2682 gallons


6/22/78 16050 2089
15789.4


gal


4178 29.8*
32. 7*gal /day


Incomplete


- q .










* = Averag


Reporting Department of Water Center
Quarter Public Works Records

First 1976 15,000 gallons
Second 1976 15,000
Third 1976 18,000
Fourth 1976 7,500
First 1977 10,000 1,140* gallons
Second 1977 3,000 2,355
Third 1977 3,000 2,996
Fourth 1977 4,000 3,202
First 1978 4,000 4,017

Second 1978 7,000 2,089*
Third 1978 2,000
Fourth 1978 2,000
First 1979 2,000
Second 1979 2,000


= Incomplete Record


lRC/ap/79


Table 3

Installing Costs of Low Flush Toilets at Red Hook, St.Thomas
PROJECT NO A-004 VI The Water Econonmy of a Low-Fluh Toilet


5 Microphor toilets (LF-310) @ $385
1 Compressor (30gal)
1 water meter
Plumbng Materials
Sub-total equipmentt & materials)

Installation
Total Cost for Installation


$1925
485
70
100
2580

1000
$3580














IN R~VPL ADDRESS
coMMIUSlNPEi OF PUBLIC WOKS

GOVERNMENT OF
THE VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES
CHAnL TTA AALM ST. THOMAS, VA. ON
-
DEPARrTMNT OF PUBLIC WORKS


Table 4



Water Distributed From The Government Standpipe To Red Hook
From January 1976 To December 1976.



1976
January 5,750 gals 23 tons
February 3,500 14
March 5,750 23
April 5,000 20
May 5,000 20
June 5,000 20
July 6,000 24
August 5,000 20
September 7,000 28
October 4,000 16
November 500 2
December 3,000 12


55,500gals 222 Tons














N RIPL.Y ADDRESS
coMMIUSlNPEi OF PUBLIC WOKS

GOVERNMENT OF
THE VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES
CHAnL TTA AALM ST. THOMAS, VA. ON
-
DEPARrTMNT OF PUBLIC WORKS


Table 5
Water Distributed Prom The Government Standpipe To Red Hook
From January 3.977 To December 1977.



1977
January 4,500 gals 18 tons
February 3,000 12
March 2,500 10
April 1,000 4
May 1,000 4
June 1,000 4
July 1,000 4
August 1,000 4
September 1,000 4
October 1,000 4
November 1,000 4
December 2,000 8


20, 000gals


80 Tons
















$N pIft-. ADDRESS
coMMIUMIO1EI OF PUULUC WMOIK

GOVERNMENT OF
THE VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES
CHAURLOTT AMAL, ST. T"HOrmU V.tA
-9-
DEPOARTMNT OF PUBLIC WORKS

Table 6
Water Distributed From The Government Standpipe To Red Rook
From January 1978 To September 1978



1978

January 1,000 gals 23 tons
February 2,000 14
March 1,000 23
April 2,000 20
May 3,000 20
June 2,000 20
July None 24
August 1,000 20
September 1,000 28


13,500gals 52 Tons
















$N pIft-. ADDRESS
coMMIUMIO1EI OF PUULUC WMOIK

GOVERNMENT OF
THE VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES
CHAURLOTT AMAL, ST. T"HOrmU V.tA
-9-
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORK





Table 7
Water Distributed From The Government Standpipe To Red hook
From October 1978 To May 1979.



1978
October 1,000 16
November 1,000 2
December None None
1979
January 1,000 4
February 1,000 4
March None None
April 2,000 8
May None None


6,000gals 24 Tons

















PrTr'fllX A


Our LF-310 is constructed of r
parts are corrosion resistant. I
to opFrate.

The Bystern requires 50-70 PSI
mrnal arrourit at water Piorm -
push button actival e a flow o
opens a valve In the Iollil. Ttie
and a charge of air ejects was
discharge lirtn. All Low-Flush t
Lyjp 01 sawa-ge treatment syst
Microphor syslerms provide Tre
treSamngrl ana iflvrYr'OrrirInta


Fhlu5s Cycle
Water Usage:
Warranty!'
Air Ue ;r
Dlicharqg Litne:


ugged lstainess EtsoL All
t's easy to install and simple --
W ee'r0 G """*

ol ornmpessed air and a e jr( A
r. ..iv flow 6r 1It.lPSiR Thoe
if wIate into the bowl and *
wave erlomatically closes -
ste material into lihe Irw Li .I l urn nr ,r
cifela can be used with any "' *.r5 -e _,
tern *'.
hatile waste -r.-.n;.i.. I ... i


1241 seconds oT-5 B. re
2quanis (peru IIuSi n
One yar all partt
T ,ubit Ol Ire Oar 0a 60 poi
1' Inch pipe size


- P.O. Bx W Cln 45 6
PO. BIk Oil 1_1 WI1iWls, COlillarna 9549D I 70T} 45E-556U
_L-;. ,,




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs