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HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Map
 From Denmark to the United...
 Glimpses of four hundred years
 On beautiful St. Thomas
 Rambles about Charlotte-Amalia
 The island of beautiful views
 The romantic story of St. John
 Around St. John's indented coast...
 The Cinderella of the Virgin...
 The checkered history of St....
 The story of labor on St....
 The character and the possibilities...
 On "The garden of the Antilles...
 A visit to the British Virgin...
 Hints for the tourist
 Detailed agricultural, commercial,...
 Bibliography
 Index


DLOC



Virgin Islands, our new possessions, and the British islands
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/CA01300013/00001
 Material Information
Title: Virgin Islands, our new possessions, and the British islands
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Booy, Theodoor Hendrik Nikolaas de
Publisher: J. B. Lippincott and Company
Publication Date: 1918
 Subjects
Spatial Coverage: United States of America -- United States Virgin Islands -- Caribbean
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of the Virgin Islands
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB1704
Classification:
System ID: CA01300013:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    List of Illustrations
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Map
        Page 14a
    From Denmark to the United States
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24a
        Page 24b
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 30b
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Glimpses of four hundred years
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 40a
        Page 40b
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    On beautiful St. Thomas
        Page 46
        Page 46a
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 52a
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 56a
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 58a
        Page 58b
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 68a
        Page 68b
        Page 69
    Rambles about Charlotte-Amalia
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 72a
        Page 72b
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 78a
        Page 78b
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 82a
        Page 82b
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    The island of beautiful views
        Page 98
        Page 98a
        Page 98b
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 102a
        Page 102b
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 106a
        Page 106b
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 110a
        Page 110b
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 116a
        Page 116b
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    The romantic story of St. John
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 124a
        Page 124b
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Around St. John's indented coast line
        Page 134
        Page 134a
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 136a
        Page 136b
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    The Cinderella of the Virgin Islands
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 148a
        Page 148b
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 156a
        Page 156b
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 164a
        Page 164b
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 170a
        Page 171
    The checkered history of St. Croix
        Page 172
        Page 172a
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 188a
        Page 188b
        Page 189
    The story of labor on St. Croix
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
    The character and the possibilities of St. Croix
        Page 200
        Page 200a
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
    On "The garden of the Antilles"
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 212a
        Page 212b
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 218a
        Page 218b
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 226a
        Page 226b
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
    A visit to the British Virgin Islands
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 232a
        Page 232b
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 242a
        Page 242b
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
    Hints for the tourist
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 248a
        Page 248b
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 252a
        Page 252b
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
    Detailed agricultural, commercial, shipping and banking information
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 260a
        Page 260b
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 266a
        Page 266b
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 272a
        Page 272b
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 276a
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
    Bibliography
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
    Index
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
Full Text





OURNEWPOSSESSIONS

AND ITHE BTISH ISLANDS


,



















THEODOOR DE BOOY

JOHN T. iARIS
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OOR BOO
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THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
OUR NEW POSSESSIONS
AND THE BRITISH ISLANDS

















By JOHN T. FARIS


OLD ROADS
OUT OF PHILADELPHIA
117 ILLUSTRATIONS AND A MAP
DECORATED CLOTH, OCTAVO, $4.00 NET
The roads out of Philadelphia are the most historic
in America. Such names as The Battle of Brandy-
wine, Valley Forge and Militia Hill suggest the
fascination of the roads leading from Philadelphia.
The author presents the past and the present of
ten of these highways: The King's Highway, The
Baltimore Turnpike, The West Chester Road, The
Lancaster Turnpike, The Gulph Road, The Ridge
Road, The Germantown Turnpike, The Bethlehem
Road, The Old York Road, and The Bristol Turn-
pike. Profuse illustrations and a stimulating text
make the book a prize for the walker, the auto-
mobilist and the local historian.

THE ROMANCE
OF OLD PHILADELPHIA
IN PREPARATION
UNIFORM WITH THE ABOVE


--
































































VIEW OF CHARLOTTE-AMALIA FROM LUCHETTI'S HILL, ST. THOMAS


L









THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


OUR NEW


POSSESSIONS


AND THE BRITISH ISLANDS


BY
THEODOOR DE BOOY
AND
JOHN T. FARIS
AUTHOR OF "OLD BOADS OUT OF PHILADELPHIA," "REAL STORIES FROM OUR
HISTORY," "MAKERS OF OUR HISTORY," ETC.

WITH 97 ILLUSTRATIONS AND 5 MAPS
ESPECIALLY PREPARED FOR THIS VOLUME


PHILADELPHIA & LONDON
J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY
1918


ded






















LATIN
AgepRICA

















COPYRIGHT, 1918, BY 3. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY





PUBLISHED MAY, 1918






































PRINTED BY J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY
AT THE WASHINGTON SQUARE PRESS
PHILADELPHIA, U. S. A.


I


'L











PREFACE


T HE authors of this volume have tried to
put into concise form the facts concern-
ing the story, the present conditions and
the possibilities of the Virgin Islands of the United
States for the tourist and the business man as
well as for those who must be content, for the
time being, at least, to make their journeys to
the West Indies in imagination. At the same time,
the attempt has been made to weave into the
fascinating story something of the romance that
cannot be separated from the thought of the islands
in the mind of one who has had the pleasing experi-
ence of spending in these newest possessions of the
United States a winter that was the culmination
of a number of seasons on other islands of the
dreamy Caribbean.
The absorbing history of the Virgin Islands is
told in sufficient detail to enable the reader to
understand by what a devious road they came at
length into the possession of the country to which
they logically belong. Without this historical
setting it would be impossible to tell also of the







PREFACE


rise and decline of the commerce of the islands
and of the reasons for the conviction that there
is a great commercial future before them.
The book would be incomplete without a
chapter on the islands of the Virgin group which
are under the flag of Great Britain. Then a
chapter of definite suggestions to those who are
planning a trip to St. Thomas, St. John and St.
Croix is a needed supplement to the portions of
the book which tell in detail of the attractions of
the islands and of their great value as a resort for
visitors from the United States, while a chapter of
condensed agricultural, shipping and banking in-
formation, quoted from the government documents,
completes the volume.
A careful study has been made of such litera-
ture as has appeared on the islands. These publi-
cations are described in the Bibliography. Facts
gained from these sources supplemented the careful
observations made by Mr. de Booy, who spent
the winter of 1916-1917 on the islands while com-
pelling them to yield the secrets of a vanished
race which for centuries have been buried deep
in the earth. The archeological work, of which
glimpses are given in the volume, was conducted
for the Museum of the American Indian, Heye







PREFACE


Foundation, in which may be seen many specimens
secured from the kitchen-middens of the Virgin
Islands.
Kitchen-middens are responsible for the prepa-
ration of this volume. Having become interested
some years ago in the waste heaps built up at
pre-historic back doors which the archeologist
calls kitchen-middens, I welcomed the opportunity
to talk of these absorbing relics of the past pre-
sented when I made the acquaintance of Mr.
de Booy in the West Indies, where he has spent a
number of winters in scientific exploration. His
fascinating stories of experiences in the islands of
the Caribbean led me to urge him to write this
volume. He consented only on the condition that
the book should be prepared jointly.
The acknowledgments of the authors are due
to the writers and publishers of the books and
papers named in the Bibliography, as well as to the
"Geographical Review," the "Scientific American
Supplement" and "Forward," for permission to use
illustrations which appeared first in these periodi-
cals, as well as for portions of the material which
accompanied the illustrations.
The courtesy of E. M. Newman in granting
the use, for the volume, of photographs taken by


Emmolow







PREFACE


himself is acknowledged. Mr. Newman, at the
time of the transfer of the islands from Denmark to
the United States, was in Charlotte-Amalia, gath-
ering material for one of his famous travelogues.
WilliamT. Demarest also has supplied a num-
ber of photographs which he took in October, 1917.
The authors thank him for his help.
With the exception of photographs otherwise
credited, all illustrations are from originals made
in the islands by Mr. de Booy.
Especial thanks are due to the American Geo-
graphical Society of New York for the interest
shown in the authors' undertaking. The splendid
library of this institution was freely placed at
their disposal and the maps used in the volume
were made and compiled under its careful super-
vision. And grateful homage is paid to the kindly
inhabitants of the former Danish West Indies, who
know so well how to make a visitor in their midst
feel at home, and to the Danish officials who ruled
the islands when the Dannebrog still waved over
them.
JOHN T. FARIS
PHILADELPHIA, January, 1918


L











CONTENTS
CHAPTER PAGE
I. FROM DENMARK TO THE UNITED STATES 15
Nine nations in the West Indies-The story of the
elimination of Denmark-Why the treaty of 1867
failed-The Dannebrog gives way to the Stars and
Stripes-The value of the American purchase-
Provision for the government of the islands-Future
possible purchases and what they would mean to
the United States and the Panama Canal.
II. GLIMPSES OF FOUR HUNDRED YEARS .. 34
The story told by old pottery-The naming of the
islands-Natives attack the soldiers of Columbus
-Extermination of the natives and the coming of
Europeans-The emancipation of the slaves.
HI. ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS ..... 46
Ups and downs of the first colonists-Governor
Iversen's stringent regulations-When sugar dis-
placed tobacco-"On the way to every other place"
-Bombarding a cliff instead of a ship-The color
scheme of Charlotte-Amalia-The signalman's di-
lemma-A healthy island's most fatal disease-The
night of the hurricane.
IV. RAMBLES ABOUT CHARLOTTE-AMALIA 70
Picturesque coal carriers-Why English is the popu-
lar language-How the. "reconciling-court" dis-
courages litigation-Churches and schools-Streets,
gutters and hills-The fables of four hill tops-
Buccaneers, Blackbeard and Bluebeard-Why the
guns were fired-Hospitality and flowers-Water
front activity.








CONTENTS


V. THE ISLAND OF BEAUTIFUL VIEWS 98
To "Ma Folie" on ponyback-Finding hidden
treasures on the shores of Magens Bay-What the
kitchen-middens revealed-An abandoned sugar
estate and a ruined mission station-A hunters'
paradise-More abandoned estates and a haunted
ruin--Curious cemetery ornaments-The "grave-
yard of ships" and a ghostly array of figure-heads
-Escaping slaves and picturesque "cha-chas."

VI. THE ROMANTIC STORY OF ST. JOHN 123
In the days of Company rule-Adventures of the
first settlers-Encouragements to growers of sugar-
cane-The harsh measures that incited a slave
insurrection-A captured fort, a siege relieved, and
guerilla warfare-The aftermath of the rebellion
-Increasing population.

VII. AROUND ST. JOHN'S INDENTED COAST
LINE ................. 134
The physical features of St. John-Marketing by
sailboat-The naming of K. C. Bay-The mistake
of the Coral Bay boomers-An attractive climate
-An island whose prosperous days are in the future.

VIII. THE CINDERELLA OF THE VIRGIN
ISLANDS ................. 144
Reminders of former riches-Commercial and agri-
cultural possibilities-The making of bay rum-
Cattle raising and fishing-The story of the petro-
glyphs-Scenery and ruins to delight the visitor-
The cross at Reef Bay-Legends of slavery days
-Treasures of old furniture-The possibilities of
St. John.


-Mml








CONTENTS


IX. THE CHECKERED HISTORY OF ST. CROIX 172
Why the tongues of Sir Walter Raleigh's men
became "bigge"-A subtle method of poisoning-
A joint occupation that led to murder-A startling
succession of owners, plots, and counterplots-A
bluff that succeeded-A visitor who died of morti-
fication-A conflagration that promoted health-
An abandoned island rescued by Denmark-A
symbolic transfer of titles-Out of the clutches of
an exploiting company.
X. THE STORY OF LABOR ON ST. CROIX ... 190
Slave insurrections-Freeing the slaves-The fight
for unconditional freedom-Teaching the negroes
to work-Quieting the rioters of 1878-Dealing
with disgruntled laborers-Improving industrial
conditions-Prosperity and increased wages-Giv-
ing the natives their due-Physical features of the
island-Remarkable fertility of the soil.
XI. THE CHARACTER AND THE POSSIBILITIES
OF ST. CROIX ........... .200
The hurricane of 1772-Alexander Hamilton's
famous description-Sugar cultivation and sea-
island cotton possibilities-Suggestions for increased
production-Cattle raising and fine horses.
XII. ON "THE GARDEN OF THE ANTILLES" 211
Frederiksted and Christiansted-The bustle of
steamer day-Island communication, steamers and
sailing vessels-The romantic story of the Vigilant
-Alexander Hamilton, the Christiansted clerk-
Roads and motor cars-The ruins on the sugar
plantations-Why deer are plenty-Columbus' tree-
growing oysters-What the excavator learns from
Skitchen-middens.








CONTENTS

XIII. A VISIT TO THE BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS 231
Buccaneers and rebels-A ruler who is jack-of-all-
trades-Tortola and the surrounding cays-Why
the sailors of Jost Van Dyke drown-Victims of the
proprietors-The attractions of Tortola-The di-
verting story of Audain-Virgin Gorda and its
peninsulas-Anegada," the Drowned Island"-Men
who live on shipwrecks.
XIV. HINTS FOR THE TOURIST . .247
The clothing a man should carry with him-What
the woman visitor needs-Why silks are useless-
Routes and rates of fare-Hotels and boarding
houses-Other advantages-The land where sou-
venirs are unknown.
XV. DETAILED AGRICULTURAL, COM-
MERCIAL, SHIPPING AND BANKING
INFORMATION ........ ... 256
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............... 284
INDEX .................... 289














ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE
VIEW OF CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ............Frontispiece
UNITED STATES SAILORS LANDING AT CHARLOTTE-
AMALIA ....................................... 24
LANDING DOCK, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ................. 25
COWELL'S BATTERY................................ 80
CHRISTIAN'S FORT, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA .............. 80
CHRISTIAN'S FORT, FROM THE HARBOR ............... 31
DANISH CRUISER "VALKYRIEN" ........... .......... 31
MOSQUITO BAY, ST. THOMAS....................... 40
WATER BAY AND NATIVE .......................... 40
ABORIGINAL POTTERY ............................... 41
NORTH COAST OF ST. THOMAS. ..................... 41
ST. THOMAS HARBOR AND CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ........52
ENTRANCE TO ST. THOMAS HARBOR. ................. 53
FRONT ENTRANCE OF CHRISTIAN'S FORT. ............. 58
SIGNAL STATION, TOP OF COWELL'S BATTERY ........ 58
BATTLEMENTS OF CHRISTIAN'S FORT.................. 59
COALING WHARF OF THE WEST INDIA COMPANY, LTD. 59
CANiAN ESTATE HOUSE, AFTER THE HURRICANE ..... 68
HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE OFFICES AND DREDGE, ST.
H ILDA". ......... ........... .................. 68
FIRING TIME-GuN BATTERY, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ..... 69
LUTHERAN CHURCH, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ............. 69
BLACKBOARD'S CASTLE (WOOD-CUT IN TEXT).......... 69
A HILLY STREET, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA............... 72
TYPICAL COAL CARRIERS, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ........ 73
CUSTOM HOUSE AND POST OFFICE, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA 73
REFORMED DUTCH CHURCH, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ...... 78
11









ILLUSTRATIONS

CHRIST CHURCH, WESLEYAN, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ..... 78
MEMORIAL CHURCH, MORAVIAN, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA .. 79
ALL SAINTS' ANGLICAN CHURCH, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA 79
BALLROOM, GOVERNOR'S RESIDENCE, CHARLOTTE-
AMALA........................................ 82
RESIDENCE OF GOVERNOR AND ADMINISTRATION BUILD-
ING, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ........................ 83
OLD RESIDENCE AND GATEWAY, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA.. 98
PANORAMIC VIEW OF ST. THOMAS HARBOR........... 99
MOUNTAIN PATH LEADING TO MA FOLIE, ST. THOMAS.. 102
PANORAMIC VIEW OF MAGENS BAY, ST. THOMAS...... 103
CROSS SECTION OF ABORIGINAL MOUND, MAGENS BAY,
ST. THOMAS................................. 106
KING ROAD, NEAR MAGENS BAY .................... 106
CLEARING LAND BY FIRE, MAGENS BAY............. 107
LABORERS EXCAVATING, MAGENS BAY............... 107
RUINS OF STAIRWAY, NEW HERNHUT, ST. THOMAS... 110
RUINS OF NEW HERNHUT..................... ....... 110
RUINS OF MANDAL ESTATE, ST. THOMAS ............ 111
NEGRO FISHING WITH CASTING NET ................. 111
A "GUT" AND STREET MADE LIKE A STAIRWAY, ST.
THOMAS.................................... 116
NATIVE GRAVE ORNAMENTED WITH CONCH SHELLS,
ST. THOMAS...................... ........... 116
FIGURE-HEADS IN KRUM BAY SHIPYARD ............. 117
KRUM BAY WITH SHIPYARD AND COCONUT TREES DE-
STROYED BY HURRICANE ........................ 117
CRUZ BAY SETTLEMENT AND GOVERNMENT STATION. 124
MORAVIAN SETTLEMENT OF EIMAUS, ST. JOHN ....... 125
RUIN OF K. C. BAY SUGAR ESTATE, ST. JOHN ....... 136
FORT FREDERIKSTED, ST. CROIX .................... .136
CORAL BAY, TORTOLA (BRITISH) IN DISTANCE ........ 137
RAM'S HEAD, SOUTH COAST, ST. JOHN .............. 148
EAST END, ST. JOHN ............................... 149
12








ILLUSTRATIONS
BAY-OIL STILL, ST. JOHN ...................... 149
HOSPITABLE CONGO CAY, ST. JOHN. ................ 156
THE ONLY LANDING PLACE ON CONGO CAY.......... 156
PRIVATEER BAY, ST. JOHN......................... 157
BUILDINGS ON CAROLINE ESTATE AND BAY-OIL STILL,
ST. JOHN ................. ............ ......... 157
PETROGLYPHS ON CONGO CAY ....................... 164
THE CAROLINE ESTATE, HOUSE AND PASTURE, ST. JOHN 164
THE CROSS THAT IS NOT A CROSS, REEF BAY, ST. JOHN 165
INDIAN PETROGLYPHS, REEF BAY ................... 165
WHARF AND OLD FORT, CORAL BAY, ST. JOHN....... 170
HERMITAGE ESTATE, ST. JOHN.................... 170
A NATIVE FAMILY ................................. 188
DANISH SUGAR MILL, ST. CROIX .................... 189
A SCHOOL IN ST. CROIX ........................... 189
STREET SCENE IN FREDERIKSTED .................... .01
WHARF, CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX ................. .21
WHARF WITH CARGO FROM COALING STEAMER, ST.
CROIX .................................. ....... 213
STREET IN FREDERIKSTED, ST. CROIX................ 218
LUTHERAN CHURCH AND ADJOINING HOUSES,
CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX ..................... 219
SCHOONER "VIGILANT" AT WHARF, CHRISTIANSTED,
ST. CROIX ...... .... ............... .......... 19
REEF AT MOUTH OF SALT RIVER, ST. CROIX ........ 226
ROOTS OF MANGROVE TREE, WITH OYSTERS, SALT
RIVER ........................................ 26
ABORIGINAL POTTERY VESSEL AS FOUND IN THE EARTH 227
TYPICAL OLD WATCH HOUSE ON SUGAR ESTATE, ST.
CROIX........................................ 227
PANORAMIC VIEW FROM ST. JOHN OF JOST VAN DYKE
AND TORTOLA ISLANDS (BRITISH) ................ 232
BAYS ON NORTH COAST OF ST. JOHN, WITH THATCH
ISLAND AND JOST VAN DYKE (BRITISH) IN DISTANCE 233
13









ILLUSTRATIONS

THE BRITISH ISLAND OF TORTOLA, FROM ST. JOHN... 242
TURN-OUT WITH NATIVE DRIVER..................... 243
NORTH COAST OF ST. THOMAS, WITH THATCH ISLAND
AND BRITISH ISLANDS OF TOBAGO AND LITTLE
TOBAGO IN DISTANCE...................... 43
BLUEBEARD'S CASTLE AT TOP OF LUCHETTI'S HILL,
CHARLOTTE-AMALIA, ST. THOMAS....... ....... 48
THE BARRACKS, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ................. 248
IN THE MARKET PLACE, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ......... 249
GOVERNOR'S RESIDENCE ON GOVERNMENT HILL,
CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ........................... 252
GRAND HOTEL, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA................... 53
THE MAIN STREET, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ............. 60
A BUSINESS STREET IN CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ..........261
ON THE SHORE, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ................. 266
U. S. S. "ITASCA," ON THE FLOATING DOCK, ST. THOMAS 267
STREET IN FRONT OF GOVERNMENT HOUSE, CHARLOTTE-
AMALIA ...................................... 267
WATER FRONT ENTRANCE TO CHRISTIAN'S FORT, AND
BALCONY OF RESIDENCE IN THE FORT, CHARLOTTE-
AMALIA ............................. .......... 272
ROAD IN FRONT OF CHRISTIAN'S FORT AND TYPICAL
ST. THOMAS CAB, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA ........... 273
COLONIAL BANK AND MAIN STREET, CHARLOTTE-
AMALIA....................................... 273
THE MARKET PLACE, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA........... 276

MAPS
FACING PAGE
THE WEST INDIES..................... ........... 15
THE VIRGIN ISLANDS.............................. 35
ST. THOMAS........................................ 47
ST. JOHN......................................... 135
ST. CROIX ........................................ 173


L




























































THE WEST INDIES












THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

CHAPTER I
FROM DENMARK TO THE UNITED STATES
NINE NATIONS IN THE WEST INDIES-THE STORY OF THE
ELIMINATION OF DENMARK-WHY THE TREATY OF 1867
FAILED-THE DANNEBROG GIVES WAY TO THE STARS AND
STRIPES-THE VALUE OF THE AMERICAN PURCHASE-PRO-
VISION FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE ISLANDS-FUTURE
POSSIBLE PURCHASES AND WHAT THEY WOULD MEAN TO
THE UNITED STATES AND THE PANAMA CANAL
U NTIL 1898 nine nations were represented
in the West Indies. Of these, Spain,
Great Britain, France, the Netherlands
and Denmark were European nations; Hayti,
Santo Domingo, Venezuela and the United States,
were American nations. The latter two are in-
cluded in this list, as the peninsula of Florida may
rightly be said to belong to the Antillean area,
whereas Venezuela can claim to belong to the
West Indies by the fact that it owns the islands
of Margarita, Coche, Cubagua, and a few other
unimportant cays, all of which lie in the Caribbean
Sea.
On the conclusion of the Spanish-American
war, the United States took the place of Spain in
15


I _







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


Porto Rico, and a new nation, the Republic of
Cuba, was created. By the ceding of its American
colonial possessions, Spain was eliminated as a
European nation holding colonies in the American
hemisphere.
On March 31, 1917, the United States took
formal possession of the Danish West Indies, by
far the larger portion of the Virgin Islands. The
history of the sale and the transfer of these islands
is somewhat involved.
During the Civil War in the United States the
lack of a naval station in the West Indies was a
serious hindrance to those who sought to prevent
the blockade-running of the Southern States.
Consequently, on the conclusion of the war,
American diplomats sought to secure a stronghold
in the Caribbean. The Danish West Indies were
chosen as a likely spot, partly because it was felt
that Denmark-owing to the reverses which this
small nation had undergone, and the losses which
she had suffered in her war with Prussia-might
be induced to welcome the sale with open arms.
Mr. Seward, who was then Secretary of State of
the United States, secured a preliminary survey
of the islands in 1866. After a personal visit he
16







FROM DENMARK TO UNITED STATES
seemed more determined than ever to obtain
St. Thomas and St. John for the United States,
and he was prepared to pay for these islands
$5,000,000. St. Croix was regarded as a separate
venture, and was offered for a like amount, on
condition that the government of France, which
might object to the sale owing to the conditions
of a treaty made in 1733, should allow the
transfer to take place.
At last, in October 1867, a treaty was concluded
for the purchase of St. Thomas and St. John for
$7,500,000, subject to the consent of both the
Danish Landsthing (Senate) and the Senate of the
United States. A popular vote was taken on the
islands to see if the inhabitants were desirous of
transferring their allegiance to a new flag. When
the returns were counted the inhabitants, by the
practically unanimous vote of 1244 to 22, showed
their approval of the proposed transfer. The
Danish Parliament then consented to the treaty,
and nothing was required to complete the sale
but a ratification by the United States Senate.
In fact, the proposed sale seemed so certain
that on November 27, 1867, the following royal
proclamation appeared in the St. Thomas "Tid-
2 17


I








THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


ende," the paper which published the official
government notices:
WE, CHRISTIAN THE NINTH,
By the Grace of God, King of Denmark, the Van-
dals and the Goths, Duke of Sleswig, Holstein, Storn-
marn, Ditmarsh, Lauenborg and Oldenborg. Send to
Our beloved and faithful Subjects in the Islands of
St. Thomas and St. John Our Royal Greeting.
We have resolved to cede Our Islands of St. Thomas
and St. John to the United States of America, and We
have to that end, with the reservation of the consti-
tutional consent of Our Rigsdag, concluded a conven-
tion with the President of the United States. We have,
by embodying in that convention explicit and precise
provisions, done Our utmost to secure to You protec-
tion in Your liberty, Your religion, Your property and
private rights, and You shall be free to remain where
you now reside, or to remain, retaining the property
which You possess in the said Islands or disposing
thereof and removing the proceeds wherever You
please, without Your being subjected on this account
to any contribution, charge, or tax whatever.
Those who shall prefer to remain in the Islands,
may either retain the title and the rights of their natural
allegiance or acquire those of Citizens of the United
States, but they shall make their choice within two
18


II -


mmma








FROM DENMARK TO UNITED STATES

years from the date of the exchange of ratifications of
said convention, and those who shall remain on the
Islands after the expiration of that term without having
declared their intention to retain their natural allegi-
ance, shall be considered to have chosen to become
citizens of the United States.
As We, however, will not exercise any constraint over
Our faithful subjects, We will give You the opportunity
of freely and extensively expressing your wishes in regard
to this cession, and We have to that effect given the nec-
essary instructions to Our Commissioners Extraordinary.
With sincere sorrow do we look forward to the
severing of those ties which for many years have united
You to Us, and never forgetting those many demon-
strations of loyalty and affection We have received
from You, We trust that nothing has been neglected
on Our side to secure the future welfare of Our beloved
and faithful Subjects, and that a mighty impulse, both
moral and material, will be given to the happy develop-
ment of the Islands, under the new Sovereignty.
Commending you to God!
Given at Our Palace of Amalienborg, the 25th
October 1867.
Under Our Royal Hand and Seal.
CHRISTIAN R.
L.S.
Royal Proclamation to the Inhabitants of
St. Thomas and St. John.
19


I _


h








THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


But the treaty was deliberately pigeon-holed
in the Senate, owing to internal dissent for which
Senator Charles Sumner was principally respon-
sible, probably at least in part, because of his
personal enmity towards President Johnson. Den-
mark granted an extension of time for the ratifi-
cation of the sale, but the matter was not again
taken up, despite the efforts of Secretary Seward
and of his successor, Secretary Fish. Finally, on
April 14, 1870, the proposed treaty lapsed
automatically.
The Danish king made a dignified proclamation
announcing that the sale of the islands had fallen
through:

WE, CHRISTIAN THE NINTH,
By the grace of God, King of Denmark, the Van-
dals and the Goths, Duke of Sleswig, Holstein, Storn-
marn, Ditmarsh, Lauenborg and Oldenborg, send to
Our beloved and faithful subjects in the Islands of St.
Thomas and St. John, Our Royal Greeting.
You are aware of the motives that actuated Us
at the time to give ear to the repeated and urgent
requests of the North American Government for the
cession of St. Thomas and St. John to the United States.
We expected that We, in that manner, should have
20


I ~-








FROM DENMARK TO UNITED STATES
been able to lighten Our realm of the heavy burdens
incurred by the then recently terminated war, and We
hoped that the annexation to the United States would
have afforded the islands advantages so important that
they could have contributed to soothe the pain which
a separation necessarily must cause in the Colonies,
no less than in the Mother Country. You, for your
part, and the Danish Diet, on the part of the King-
dom, have concurred in these views, and We all met
in the mutual readiness to accommodate ourselves
to what appeared to Us to be recommended by the
circumstances.
Unexpected obstacles have arisen to the realization
of this idea, and released Us from Our pledged word.
The American Senate has not shown itself willing to
maintain the treaty made, although the initiative for
it proceeded from the United States themselves. Ready
as We were to subdue the feelings of Our heart, when
We thought that duty bade Us so to do, yet We cannot
otherwise than feel a satisfaction that circumstances
have relieved Us from making a sacrifice which, not-
withstanding the advantages held out, would always
have been painful to Us. We are convinced that You
share these sentiments and, that it is with a lightened
heart You are relieved from the consent, which only
at Our request you gave to a separation of the islands
from the Danish crown.
21








THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


In, therefore, making known to you that the Con-
vention made on the 24th of October, 1867, for the
cession of the Islands of St. Thomas and St. John to
the United States of America, has become void, We
entertain the firm belief that Our Government, sup-
ported by your own active endeavors will succeed in
promoting the interest of the islands and by degrees
efface all remembrances of the misfortunes which, of
late years, have so sadly befallen the islands. To this
end We pray Almighty God to give Us strength and
wisdom.
Commending You to God!
Done at Our Palace at Amalienborg, the 7th May,
1870.
CHRISTIAN R.
L. S.

A writer in the "Review of Reviews," refer-
ring to the disappointing failure of 1867, said:
"If we had purchased the islands at that time,
our influence in the West Indies would have grown
in such a way that it is reasonable to believe that
we could subsequently have purchased Cuba from
Spain, and thus averted two or three wars, and
much misery."
Not until after the Spanish-American war was
the purchase of these islands again seriously con-
22


L I







FROM DENMARK TO UNITED STATES
sidered. Once more the United States had felt
the need of a naval station in the Caribbean.
Consequently, another treaty was negotiated, in
January, 1902. Owing to the efforts of President
Roosevelt and Secretary of State John Hay, this
treaty was promptly ratified by the United States
Senate. The Folkething (Lower House) of Den-
mark readily gave its consent to the proposed sale
of the islands for $5,000,000, but the Upper House
of the Danish Parliament failed to vote in favor of
confirmation. It has generally been thought that
German influence was responsible for the failure
to sanction this treaty. Possibly the German
government itself hoped, at some time or other, to
obtain a foothold in the West Indies.
While there were in 1911 and 1912 attempts
to renew interest in the purchase, nothing came
of these. Not until the latter part of 1916 was
another determined effort made to induce the
Danes to cede the islands. For the three principal
islands and their outlying cays $25,000,000 was
offered. A popular vote of the Danish people
was taken in December, to see if it was their wish
to give up Denmark's only tropical colony. As
the cost of governing these islands had become
23







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


far greater than the revenues derived from them,
and as the Danes were forced to admit that the
inhabitants of the Dutch West Indies were them-
selves greatly in favor of the transfer, 283,000
voted for the ratification of the treaty while
157,000 were opposed to the sale. This favorable
vote was hailed with great joy in St. Thomas and
St. Croix.
The islands finally came into the possession
of the United States on January 17, 1917, when
Secretary of State Lansing and Minister Brun of
Denmark signed the ratification of the treaty of
cession.
In this ratification it was stipulated that the
islands would be taken over within ninety days.
The final act was staged on March 31, 1917, when
the Dannebrog (the official name of the Danish
flag) was replaced by the Stars and Stripes. It
was the original intention that this change of flags
should take place with great ceremony, but the
exigencies of the international situation, and the
fact that the break of the United States with
Germany had just taken place, made a popular
demonstration inadvisable, and the plans made
by the Assistant Secretary of the Navy to assist
24


_


































































t notograpn Dy n llnam 1. uDelarest


.,l ".,, .






UNITED STATES SAILORS LANDING AT CHARLOTTE-AMALIA

Fort Christian in the Background


I


I __ __ ~_ __ --r 1


m9r
MMPW8kfdF~


























































Photograph by William T. Demarest
DOCK FOR THE LANDING OF INTER-ISLAND SLOOPS, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA







FROM DENMARK TO UNITED STATES
in the celebration with part of the United States
Atlantic Squadron were cancelled. But, in spite
of the comparative lack of ceremony, the lowering
of the Dannebrog and the hoisting in its stead of
the Stars and Stripes was an impressive event, an
event which every thinking American should
regard with pride. Once again the adherents of
the Monroe Doctrine rejoiced in the acquisition
of additional territory, needed to promote the peace
of the world, and one more European nationality
ceased to be represented in the complex political
scheme of the Antilles.
While the transfer of the islands was not viewed
with universal joy by their inhabitants, it can be
said safely that fully ninety per cent. of the natives
were only too glad to be adopted by the American
government. They were not dissatisfied by the
treatment that had been accorded them under
Danish rule, for the government by the Danish
officials had been benevolent and paternal; but
Denmark was far away, and-especially in the
last three years when regular communication with
Europe was hard to maintain-a long time was
required to consult the home government on
matters of importance, and to bring about neces-
25







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


sary improvements in local affairs. They felt that
under the rule of the United States any public
business could be attended to speedily. Further-
more, practically all the commerce of St. Thomas
was with the United States, and the imports from
the mother country were but a negligible item.
The St. Thomians were more used to American
customs and manners than they were to those of
Denmark, owing to the frequent visits of American
ships to the shores of the island. In St. Croix,
also, it was felt that adoption by the United States
would give a new impetus to the sugar industry,
that there would be a new development of all her
latent resources, and that there would be an outlet
to Porto Rico for her surplus population.
It was of course a sad thing for the Danish
government to view the lowering of the Dannebrog
which, with but two short intervals in the nine-
teenth century, had proudly waved for two and
one-half centuries over the little group of islands.
Yet it was the wish of Denmark not to stand in
the way of the prosperity of its colonial dependents.
While there will undoubtedly be a few who will
regard with disfavor the innovations that will
be introduced by the United States, the majority
26


4_ L







FROM DENMARK TO UNITED STATES
will be grateful that the uncertainty which began
in 1866 and lasted until 1917, is now ended for
all time.
It was left to the present inhabitants of the
islands to decide whether or not they wished to
become citizens of the United States. Those who,
within one year of the date of transfer, should
signify their desire to do so, would remain subjects
of the Danish King. All others would automatic-
ally become citizens of the United States, having
all the rights and privileges of this status.
According to the National Geographic Society
of Washington, the total area of the three principal
islands acquired by the United States is 132.47
square miles. With the cays and rocks that form
part of the group, the area might possibly be as
much as 150 square miles. The population has
been variously stated as being from 30,000 to
33,000, of whom about ten per cent. are white.
A study of earlier statistics shows that the popu-
lation has decreased greatly during the century.
In 1828 there were 46,000 inhabitants, but by
1841 this total had dropped to 41,000.
Because of their situation, the islands are the
logical distributing center for goods destined for
27







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


the Lesser Antilles and they have long been a
shipping point of some importance. In the days
before the European war, a number of Inter-
Colonial steamers called at the ports of St. Thomas
and St. Croix and connected the towns of these
islands not only with the Leeward Islands but
also with Porto Rico, Santo Domingo, Hayti, Cuba
and Jamaica.
That this value of the islands as a shipping
center was well realized when their purchase was
considered, is shown by the report of Secretary
of State Lansing, transmitted to Congress on
January 22, 1917. In this report he said:
"The commercial value of the islands cannot
be doubted. Lying in close proximity to many of
the passages into the Caribbean Sea, the use of
St. Thomas harbor as a stopping station for
merchant ships plying between the United States
and South America, and for vessels in other trades,
is of great importance."
Though the United States took over the islands
at a cost of about three hundred dollars per acre,
there is no doubt that, from all points of view
their value is incalculable. It is more than prob-
able that the revenues derived from them will
28







FROM DENMARK TO UNITED STATES
suffice to pay the cost of their government, and
none of these revenues are to be expended upon
matters not directly related to the local govern-
ment. The act providing for the temporary gov-
ernment specifically states that debts and taxes
collected on the Virgin Islands of the United States
shall not be placed in the treasury of the United
States, but shall be used and expended for the
government and benefit of the islands.
The government of the islands will not be
expensive. The form has already been fixed. In
the language of "an act to provide temporary
government for the West Indian Islands acquired
by the United States from Denmark," "all mili-
tary, civil and judicial powers .shall be vested
in a governor and in such person or persons as
the President may appoint and shall be exercised
in such manner as the President shall direct until
Congress shall provide for the government of said
islands." The governor, who may be an officer
of the army or navy, is appointed by the Presi-
dent, subject to senatorial confirmation. The
first governor appointed was an officer of the navy,
Rear Admiral James H. Oliver.
Election laws and local laws are to remain in
29







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


effect and are to be administered by the local
tribunals. Judicial tribunals have their jurisdic-
tion extended to cases in which the United States
or a citizen is a party.
Under the new customs regulations, no duty
is charged on articles coming into the United States
from the islands, providing they are native prod-
ucts or do not contain more than twenty per cent.
of foreign materials. All other articles pay the
same duty as imports from foreign countries.
Sugar pays an export duty of eight dollars per
ton, regardless of its ultimate destination.
The elimination of the Danish nation as a
power in the Antilles left the flags of but three
European nations in the Caribbean: those of
Great Britain, of France and of the Netherlands.
It is not inconceivable that Great Britain, at
some future time, may be induced to cede to the
United States some of her islands in the Caribbean.
The Bahamas, for instance, are to-day in very
much the same position as were the Danish islands
during the twenty years before the transfer. They
depend upon the United States for the majority
of their imports and for a market for their exports.
The tourist resort of Nassau, on the Island of New
30


A-w-Yr-Lli-g.~ ~.yr~3LLIII~ YSC Y1i.Yii-l I~~~-LC~-Y ~~-- ilL ILiy ~ 12 ~ ~T~ U -P~1 T- C-























































COWELL'S BATTERY AND ENTRANCE OF ST. THOMAS HARBOR


CHRISTIAN'S FORT AND THE HARBOR FROM GOVERNMENT HILL
CHARLOTTE- AMALIA


iFk .,.,
nu~l,-:; -~ L
.~~ ~; ; ~k~3 *~

Cr rrl ~F~~.~ii~~-?L ~.t ~rb~~fll~dllbr


k











































CHRISTIAN'S FORT FROM THE HARBOR, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA, ST. THOMAS


DANISH CRUISER "VALKYRIEN" IN ST. THOMAS HARBOR







FROM DENMARK TO UNITED STATES
Providence, is visited almost exclusively by Ameri-
cans and would lose its only claim to importance
if the revenue from this source were cut off. This
condition is well appreciated by the Bahamians
themselves; they would, in all probability, welcome
adoption by the United States, for their fruits
would find a duty-free market and thus the one
agricultural possibility of the islands would be
given an encouraging impetus. Jamaica, while
having more intercourse with Great Britain, prac-
tically depends upon the United States for the
sale of her entire banana crop; where one steamer
communicates with England, ten seek the nearer
ports of the North American continent. It must
be understood, however, that the sale of any of
the British West Indies is but a remote possibility,
although within the bounds of probability.
A far more probable purchase would be that
of the Dutch islands of the West Indies. The pos-
sessions of the Netherlands in the Caribbean are a
loss to the government and a menace to the mother
country. In the event of war between the United
States and one of the larger European nations, the
first hostile act on the part of the latter might
well prove to be the violation of Dutch neutrality
31


___ __~_ ______ ~ _U___ _^~_~~L-g_~_y___ _~__







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


by the seizure of the island of Curagao, which
possesses an excellent naval station and a well
protected harbor. Such seizure would be a serious
menace to the safety of the Panama Canal, and
there might be far-reaching consequences. If, on
the other hand, the United States had Curagao
in its possession, the approach to the Panama
Canal, by way of the southern channels of the
Lesser Antilles, would be safeguarded. This also
applies to the Dutch islands of St. Martin, Saba,
and St. Eustatius in the northern group of the
Leeward Islands; should these come under the
United States flag, the entire range of islands from
the Florida coast to the mainland of South America
would be dominated by the American navy.
A glance at the map of the Caribbean will
reveal the truth of this statement. The Guan-
tanamo naval base on the southern coast of the
eastern part of Cuba can control not only the
Florida Straits, between Florida and Cuba, but
also the Windward Passage between Cuba and
Hayti. A fleet stationed at Culebra Island and
at St. Thomas could give battle to any squadron
that should try to force its way through the Mona
Passage, between Santo Domingo and Porto Rico,
32







FROM DENMARK TO UNITED STATES


or through the Virgin Passage, separating Porto
Rico from the Virgin Islands. This same fleet
would also be in a position to protect the passages
due east from the Island of St. John.
From the Island of Barbuda to the Island of
Trinidad, however, can be found some twelve deep
water channels, which, in the event of war with
a maritime nation, would require a patrol fleet of
almost prohibitive size to give warning of the
approach of a hostile fleet.
If, therefore, the United States can prevail
upon the Dutch government to sell her West Indian
possessions, not only would the sale be to the
advantage of Holland, since it would relieve her
of her unproductive colonies in the Caribbean,
and would remove the menace of having these
colonies seized by a European nation, but also the
strategic importance of the naval station to be
established by the United States on the former
Danish West Indies would be materially increased.
A chain of defenses could thus be thrown around
the Panama Canal that would afford complete
protection from all the Atlantic approaches.


3 33






_~ ____ __A-Af t











CHAPTER II

GLIMPSES OF FOUR HUNDRED YEARS
THE STORY TOLD BY OLD POTTERY-THE NAMING OF THE
ISLANDS-NATIVES ATTACK THE SOLDIERS OF COLUMBUS
-EXTERMINATION OF THE NATIVES AND THE COMING OF
EUROPEANS-THE EMANCIPATION OF THE SLAVES
T HE story of the Virgin Islands of the
United States may be told in three
parts. First comes their record until
their settlement by European natives in the seven-
teenth century. Next is the period of European
settlement, until 1733, when, on the purchase of
St. Croix from France, the three islands were
joined under one government. From that date
the history of the islands can be described as a
whole.
Before the discovery of the Virgin Island group
by Columbus, these islands were inhabited by
a warrior nation of aborigines. The Museum of
the American Indian, Heye Foundation, of New
York City, was the first institution to devote itself
to an archeological survey of the three islands
under discussion. This museum has devoted a
large amount of its energy to furthering archeo-
logical work in the West Indies.
34


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w


THE VIRGIN ISLANDS, AMERICAN AND BRITISH


-- -.L--~.. --II-~I- -I ---1---- --- 1Cl I- -L-..- L _. L -- ~'T- li I-- I~ ---







GLIMPSES OF FOUR HUNDRED YEARS
It was found necessary to gather some data
and pre-Columbian specimens from St. Thomas,
St. John and St. Croix, in order to enable students
of the pre-Columbian occupation of the Antilles
to make a comparative study of the remains of
the primitive races that at one time inhabited this
region. The researches proved that they had been
inhabited by tribes that made long voyages for
purposes of trading, or for purposes of warfare,
practically throughout the West Indies.
In the excavations conducted by the museum
expedition, the finding of some of the so-called
"collarstones" proved that voyages to Porto Rico
were undertaken, for these highly ornamented stone
objects up to the present time have been found only
on Porto Rico and Santo Domingo, and assuredly
could not have belonged to the low cultural devel-
opment that must have existed on both St. Thomas
and St. Croix. The presence of a grotesquely
carved "swallowing-stick" in the aboriginal de-
posits suggested a communication with Santo
Domingo, where the native priests used sticks of
this character in their ceremonies.
That voyages were possibly undertaken even to
Jamaica, was suggested by the finding in an aborig-
35







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


inal deposit on St. Croix of a cylindrical stone
ornament, specimens of this kind being more
typical of Jamaican culture than of the culture of
the other Antillean islands. Again, some painted
postsherds typical of the South American cultural
area proved that pre-Columbian communication
had been held between St. Croix and either Trini-
dad or the northern coast of Venezuela.
It is hardly likely that the tribes inhabiting
St. Thomas and St. Croix made these voyages for
purposes of barter or of peaceful intercourse.
Probably they undertook extensive voyages in
order to wage war upon the more peaceful Arawak
tribes who inhabited the other Antillean islands,
and the specimens found must have been secured
by force of arms rather than by trading.
If the intercourse with the islands to the west
had been of a peaceful nature, it is probable that
the Indians would have adopted some of the
technique of the potter's art from their neighbors.
As it is, the pottery from St. Thomas and St.
Croix-and the Museum of the American Indian,
Heye Foundation, has some six thousand specimens
in all from these islands-bears not the slightest
resemblance to the pottery of Jamaica, Porto Rico,
36


6-m-AMOM vl I --- .-- --- ----ILLYIIL~-Y ~ -iY u~~ '- vrY ,.-ry, ,..~--. ~ --~L- C--Y- s~ I-~








GLIMPSES OF FOUR HUNDRED YEARS
Santo Domingo or Cuba. It is, in fact, the crudest
pottery from the West Indies and of a kind typical
of a nation of pirates and warriors, who found no
leisure to devote themselves to an attempt at
ornamentation of their household utensils.
There is another way of deciding that the
Indians who originally inhabited St. Thomas must
have been not only warriors but of the same race
as those on St. Croix, for the St. Thomas pottery
shows an absolute resemblance to the specimens
from St. Croix, and history says that the St. Croix
Indians were warriors. Columbus found them so,
to his sorrow, for when he sent soldiers ashore for
purposes of exploration the Indians attempted to
repel the visitors by force.
When Columbus was on his second voyage of
discovery, in 1493, he came to the island of St.
Croix, after first touching at a number of the
Leeward Islands. The story of the visit, as told
by Washington Irving, after an examination of
the letters and diaries of Columbus, is full of
interest:
"The weather proving boisterous, he anchored
on the 14th [of November] at an island called
Ayay by the Indians, but to which he gave the
37


C







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


name of Santa Cruz. A boat well manned was
sent on shore to get water and procure informa-
tion. They found a village, deserted by the men;
but secured a few women and boys, most of them
captives from other islands. They soon had an
instance of Carib courage and ferocity. While at
the village they beheld a canoe from a distant part
of the island come around a point of land, and
arrive in view of the ships. The Indians in the
canoe, two of whom were females, remained gazing
in mute amazement at the ships, and were so
entranced that the boat stole close upon them
before they perceived it. Seizing their paddles
they attempted to escape, but the boat being
between them and the land, cut off their retreat.
They now caught up their bows and arrows, and
plied them with amazing vigor and rapidity. The
Spaniards covered themselves with their bucklers,
but two of them were quickly wounded. The
women fought as fiercely as the men, and one of
them sent an arrow with such force that it passed
through and through a buckler.
"The Spaniards now ran their boat against the
canoe, and overturned it; some of the savages got
upon sunken rocks, others discharged their arrows
88







GLIMPSES OF FOUR HUNDRED YEARS


while swimming, as dexterously as though they
had been upon firm land. It was with the utmost
difficulty they could be overcome and taken: one
of them who had been transfixed with a lance,
died soon after being brought aboard the ships.
One of the women, from the obedience and defer-
ence paid to her, appeared to be their queen.
She was accompanied by her son, a young man
strongly made, with a frowning brow and lion's
face. He had been wounded in the conflict. The
hair of these savages was long and coarse, their
eyes were encircled with paint, so as to give them
a hideous expression; and bands of cotton were
bound firmly above and below the muscular parts
of the arms and legs, so as to cause them to swell
to a disproportioned size; a custom prevalent
among various tribes of the New World. Though
captives in chains, and in the power of their
enemies, they still retained a frowning brow and
an air of defiance. Peter Martyr, who often went
to see them in Spain, declares, from his own
experience, and that of others who accompanied
him, that it was impossible to look at them without
a sensation of horror; so menacing and terrible
was their aspect. The sensation was doubtless
39







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


caused in a great measure by the idea of their
being cannibals. In this skirmish, according to
the same writer, the Indians used poisoned arrows;
and one of the Spaniards died within a few days,
of a wound received from one of the females.
"Pursuing his voyage, Columbus soon came in
sight of a great cluster of islands, some verdant
and covered with forests, but the greater part
naked and sterile, rising into craggy mountains;
with rocks of a bright azure color, and some of a
glistering white. These, with his usual vivacity
of imagination, he supposed to contain mines of
rich metals and precious stones. The islands
lying close together, with the sea beating roughly
in the narrow channels which divided them,
rendered it dangerous to enter among them with
the large ships. Columbus sent in a small caravel
with lateen sails, to reconnoitre, which returned
with the report that there were upwards of fifty
islands, apparently inhabited. To the largest of
this group he gave the name of Santa Ursula, and
called the others the Eleven Thousand Virgins."
It has frequently been suggested that the Island
of Virgin Gorda is the one originally named St.
Ursula, but it is more likely that either St. Thomas
40


_L_ _~__ I ~_~__ ____ ___ _













































MOSQUITO BAY, ST. THOMAS
Saba Island, and Dove Cay in Distance


WATER BAY AND NATIVE BRINGING IN FODDER FROM THATCH CAY, ST. THOMAS





































































ABORIGINAL POTTERY DRYING IN THE SUN


NORTH COAST OF ST. THOMAS, OUTER BRASS AND INNER BRASS ISLANDS


_ __. ___ __~ 1~








GLIMPSES OF FOUR HUNDRED YEARS
or St. John was the one named after St. Ursula.
In voyaging from St. Croix either of the latter
islands would be first sighted by a navigator and,
as Columbus was on a voyage of discovery, he would
probably investigate and name the first island seen.
It should be noted that, geographically, St.
Croix does not belong to the Virgin Islands, but
that from common usage it has been included under
this name.
It has frequently been stated that the encounter
between the soldiers of Columbus and the Indians
on St. Croix led to the first blood-shed in the New
World between the conquistadors and the aborig-
ines. But an encounter took place during the
first voyage of Columbus in 1492, when he dis-
covered Samana Bay, on the Island of Hispaniola.
This bay, in fact, was named by the Admiral the
Bay of Arrows, in commemoration of the event.
St. Croix, therefore, cannot lay claim to the
doubtful honor of having been the first battlefield
in the New World.
No trustworthy records have been discovered
of the ultimate fate of the aboriginal inhabitants
of St. Thomas, St. Croix and St. John. Possibly
a statement made by the German historian, Olden-
41


I _


L m








THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


dorp, may afford a clue. He says that, about 1555,
the Indians were driven away from the Virgin
Islands by Charles V of Spain, the Emperor having
ordered that they be treated as enemies and
exterminated. But was not Oldendorp speaking
of the Island of St. Croix, and not of the true
Virgin Islands group, when he made this state-
ment? It is much more likely that such inhabi-
tants as may have lived upon the Virgin Islands
after their discovery were taken as slaves, and
made to work the mines on Hispaniola after the
labor supply of this latter island had become
exhausted. But even if Oldendorp's statement is
founded on fact, it does not necessarily imply that
the extermination of the Indians was completely
carried out. Nevertheless, when the Danish,
Dutch and French settlers arrived on these islands,
at different times in the seventeenth century, no
Indians were found on them.
It was due to the efforts of the Museum of the
American Indian, Heye Foundation, that a few
of the problems regarding the pre-Columbian
inhabitants of this little group of islands have
been solved, and short mention will be made of
the archeological work done under the auspices of
42


mmmmmd








GLIMPSES OF FOUR HUNDRED YEARS
this institution when the history of each island
is discussed.
After the visit of the Spanish squadron under
Columbus, history takes but little note of the
islands. This silence continued through most of
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Probably
the dread in which they were held by the early
navigators had a great deal to do with the silence.
A sailing vessel caught in the strong currents which
eddy between the rocks and shoals of the islands,
might find great difficulty in extricating itself,
especially in days when there were no charts of
these waters.
An indication of the fear with which the seas
surrounding the Virgin Islands were regarded was
given by the Earl of Cumberland, who, in 1596,
while on his way to take Porto Rico, said that
"he would rather be the first to take Porto Rico,
than the second to pass through the Virgines."
The first to pass this way was Sir Francis Drake,
who, in 1580, sailed through what was later known
as the Drake Channel between the islands. The
Earl of Cumberland mentioned at the same time
that the islands were "wholly uninhabited, sandy,
barren, and craggy."
43


.. -I ----,- ----- I I I- C-. -- ---







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


The first mention of settlers on any of the
Virgin Islands was made in 1625, when St. Croix
was colonized. St. Thomas remained uninhabited
for even a longer time, there being no record of
Europeans on this island until 1666. St. John was
not colonized until 1684.
Each of these islands has its individual history
until 1733, when the Island of St. Croix was pur-
chased from France for the sum of seventy-five
thousand pounds by the Danish West India
and Guinea Company. Holdings of this company
were sold to the Danish Crown in 1754, and a
commercial policy was instituted which was re-
sponsible for the new prosperity.
St. Thomas was thrown open as a free port in
1764 with certain restrictions to ships from Euro-
pean ports, though these restrictions were partially
removed in 1767. In 1815 the trade of St. Thomas
and St. John became free from all restrictions,
and European ships were allowed to enter on
equal terms with those from America. St. Croix,
on the other hand, was not opened to international
commerce until 1833.
Little occurred to interest the student of inter-
national affairs until the British fleet under Admiral
44


I I I ---







GLIMPSES OF FOUR HUNDRED YEARS
Duckworth and General Trigg captured the islands
on April 1, 1801. A little before this time Den-
mark and Norway had allied themselves with
France, and England was not slow in seizing the
Danish colonial possessions in retaliation. The
islands were held until February 22, 1802, and
were restored to Denmark by the Treaty of Amiens.
In 1807 affairs between Great Britain and
France once more came to a crisis, and on Decem-
ber 22 the islands were captured by the British
underAdmiral Cochrane and GeneralBowyer. They
continued under British rule until April 15, 1815.
They were then restored by Great Britain, which
took the Danish island of Heligoland in exchange.
Since 1815 the islands have not been involved
in international affairs, and their history is but a
record of fires, hurricanes and slave rebellions. The
chief events of this period came in 1847, when
King Christian VIII passed certain laws for the
future emancipation of slaves, and in 1848, when
slavery was abolished throughout the Danish West
Indies after an uprising of the slaves of St. Croix.
Thus freedom came to the islands fifteen years
before the Emancipation Proclamation put an end
to slavery in the United States.
45


*LeLL~ ~~C. -~~ C~CI P~L~~ ~~C _-L.Y~~~-~I/BIPQ~--L ----1Z~C -rt--S~Y~~~;r_ ------- C_~ -4-~~1-I---_y- ----Cli~i--~l) L1~~~~












CHAPTER III


ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS
UPS AND DOWNS OF THE FIRST COLONISTS-GOVERNOR
IVERSEN'S STRINGENT REGULATIONS-WHEN SUGAR DIS-
PLACED TOBACCO-"ON THE WAY TO EVERY OTHER
PLACE."-BOMBARDING A CLIFF INSTEAD OF A SHIP-THE
COLOR SCHEME OF CHARLOTTE-AMALIA-THE SIGNAL-
MAN'S DILEMMA-A HEALTHY ISLAND'S MOST FATAL
DISEASE-THE NIGHT OF THE HURRICANE
WHILE there are no trustworthy records
that tell of the first settlement of St.
Thomas, it is generally believed that
there was a colony on the island at some time
before 1647. In 1647 a small company of French
settlers from the nearby Crab Island made their
way to St. Thomas, after the destruction of their
plantations and the burning of their ships by
Spanish soldiers. The perilous voyage was made
in frail canoes. Upon their arrival on St. Thomas
these refugees found abandoned groves of lemons,
oranges and bananas, which helped to keep them
from starvation. It is reasonable to suppose that
these groves were planted during the short occupa-
tion of St. Thomas by Dutch buccaneers, who
afterward settled on St. Martin and St. Eustatius.
46


_ _~-IL~Y






























































ST. THOMAS







ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS
St. Thomas next appears on the records as
having been the burial place of one Erik Schmidt,
who arrived on the ship Eendracht, in 1666. This
vessel probably brought supplies to Dutch settlers
who had taken up their abode there at some time
between 1657 and 1666. Soon a number of these
people, learning of the great prosperity of the new
colony of New Amsterdam, now New York, took
their departure for the village on the Hudson. In
1667 the remainder were forced to leave St.
Thomas. At that time St. Thomas, St. Martin
and St. Eustatius were captured by the British,
and the captors insisted upon the removal of the
St. Thomas colonists to the latter two islands,
owing to their greater fertility.
The island once abandoned, it was an easy
matter for the newly-formed Danish West India
and Guinea Company to claim St. Thomas, in
1667, as a trading-post, in spite of protests from
Great Britain, which claimed the island by right
of conquest. This objection was not followed up
by any serious measures, and preparations were
made in Denmark to found a colony on St. Thomas.
On August 31, 1671, the first ship, the Golden
Crown, was dispatched from Copenhagen, while
47


I _







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


less than three months later the Pharaoh followed.
On this vessel came Jorgen Iversen, the new gov-
ernor, to whom had been given full power to repre-
sent Danish authority. When the Pharaoh arrived,
on May 23, 1672, a few colonists were already
established. These were principally Dutch planters
who had returned from the islands of St. Martin
and St. Eustatius to reclaim their former holdings
on St. Thomas. With them were a few negro
slaves.
It cannot be said that the early Danish colonists
were of high character. In fact, they resembled
the criminal type of sailors, who, upon being
granted pardon for former offenses, were induced
to accompany Columbus on his first voyage of
discovery. There were also among the first set-
tlers a number of Danes who, in order to settle
pressing debts and to escape imprisonment by their
creditors, had sold themselves for service in the
colony. Men of this class were hardly promis-
ing material for the founding of a prosperous
settlement.
When Governor Iversen reached the scene of
his labors he was compelled to adopt stern meas-
ures to force his subjects to fulfil their contracts
48


I -~







ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS
and attend to their duties. His first official act
was the building of a fort, which was probably
commenced in 1672. It became the residence not
only of the governor, but also of the Lutheran
pastor who accompanied the expedition. Part of
this fort is included in the present Christian's Fort
at Charlotte-Amalia.
That Governor Iversen ruled the new colony
with an iron hand is revealed by some of his proc-
lamations. He commanded everybody to attend
service in the fort every Sunday, the penalty for
failure to attend being twenty-five pounds of
tobacco. There was also provision for a fine of
fifty pounds of tobacco for the performance by
the servants of the settlers of unnecessary Sunday
work. All householders were obliged to keep in
their homes arms for defense and a sufficient sup-
ply of powder and ball, there being a penalty of
one hundred pounds of tobacco for failure to do so.
Specific warnings were to be given in case of attack
from an enemy. Drills were held every Saturday
afternoon in favorable weather, and there were
fines for non-attendance. Departure from the
island without permission of the governor was also
punished with a fine, although the proclamation
4 49


LVp~_-_ L .-ry~-y -I..- L--~--~ IDi ~I_ L-L- ~~--~-CIL~ 1 -~..jYIL---Y --r-C --C -~~- -- Q I-p4~YYLCII~LIIIYYIYLIL~--








THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


did not state how this fine could be collected, once
the transgressor had departed. Servants must not
leave their masters, and if they made a practice
of running away, they were to be held in irons until
they were broken of the habit.
The growing of tobacco was the chief occupa-
tion of these early colonists, and it is likely that
this commodity was the principal article of export.
The raising of cattle was an industry of such im-
portance that the colonists lived in a constant
state of alarm because of the raids made upon
their pastures by the Spaniards from Porto Rico
and the buccaneers of Tortola. It is therefore not
strange that Governor Iversen provided for the
arming of his followers; the Danes had every reason
to guard themselves from molestation by inhabi-
tants of other islands. Even the Spaniards from
Porto Rico took part in the campaign against these
early Danes, and they succeeded in capturing Crab
Island, over which Governor Iversen first claimed
sovereignty in 1682. Two years later, the place of
Crab Island was taken by St. John, which was
then added to the island realm of which Iversen
was governor. St. Croix did not become a part of
the Danish possessions until 1733.
50


-LLYUIL~rrlU~sll~YIPlu~llYlyllC-*l -








ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS


Difficulties of another sort were not lacking.
A labor shortage was soon felt. The Danish ser-
vants proved unsatisfactory, and the slaves who
belonged to Dutch landowners did not supply the
demand for workmen. Word of this condition of
affairs was sent to the home government in Copen-
hagen, and prompt measures were taken to meet
the colony's needs. The Danish West India and
Guinea Company purchased land on the Gold
Coast of Africa and erected two forts. With these
forts as a base, the servants of the company con-
ducted operations which insured a constant supply
of slaves for the Antillean colony.
In 1685 the Danish West India Company found
its means too limited to furnish a sufficient number
of ships for the transportation of the necessary
slaves to St. Thomas to supply the agricultural
needs of the landowners, and for the carrying of
the exports from this island back to the native
country. An arrangement was therefore made with
the Duchy of Brandenburg to operate a factory
on St. Thomas.
The result is what might have been expected,
for soon after the erection of the Brandenburg
Company's trading station, the Danish West India
51


__


Cl'li"S~~L~ICsLI- '~~L~,C_ -~i~' e. '~~-1L--`~.~Y-'L14~~, ~LC~PSL~Cr.. -~u...-^3x~;t~.r-rlyb~,~L-~~e,__c~ i ~_ LL.- _~ ~~_ __ __-L--~~g








THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


Company found that it was losing a large amount
of its trade to the new enterprise. As a conse-
quence there was much jealousy between the com-
panies, and the older organization longed to cancel
the rights given to the Brandenburg Company.
This could not be done, however, for the term of the
contract ran until 1716. It was fortunate that a
period could not be put earlier to the new com-
pany's privileges, for it was due to the efforts of
this company that sugar cane supplanted tobacco
plantations. In those days the price of sugar was
extremely high. Thus, while the Danish West
India Company was the loser by the transaction,
the island of St. Thomas was materially benefited.
At one time the affairs of the Danish West
India Company were at such a low ebb that in
1690 the Danish king was compelled to rent the
entire colony of St. Thomas, with the exception
of the holdings of the Brandenburg Company, to a
man named Thormohlen, probably in order to
secure to him the liens which he held upon the
property. The lease was for a period of ten years,
and Thormohlen was obliged by the terms of his
contract to maintain during this time a garrison.
The soldiers of this garrison arrived in 1692, and
52


_I _














































































Photograph by Clarence Taylor, St. Thomas

VIEW OF ST. THOMAS HARBOR AND CHARLOTTE-AMALIA FROM HAVENSICHT HILL


__ __








ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS


these were the first regular troops to be stationed
in Christian's Fort.
St. Thomas lies in latitude 18 degrees 20
minutes N. and longitude 64 degrees 55 minutes
W., and is but forty miles from Porto Rico and
twenty-five miles from the island of Culebra. A
vessel going from St. Thomas to Porto Rico is
always sheltered by the cays lying between the
islands. Even small craft are generally safe in
making the passage. Owing to the prevailing
easterly trade winds, it is easier to go from St.
Thomas to Porto Rico in a sailing vessel than it is
to return by the same means; while it not infre-
quently takes but five hours to go from Charlotte-
Amalia to the port of Fajardo on the east coast of
Porto Rico, the return voyage has been known to
take from two to three days. This difference is
partly due to the strong currents running between
the islands which offer a serious impediment when
the wind is light.
The island is admirably situated for communi-
cation with other ports. It is on a direct line be-
tween Europe and the entrance to the Panama
Canal. Furthermore, vessels plying between the
Atlantic ports of North America and the Atlantic
53


- I


-- ------r~-- ---- ------- IY_~- -C- -- ----- Q -- -~Y- -;- _-r--~ ---_--_ -- C ---








THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


ports of South America must pass directly by the
island, which is situated fourteen hundred miles
from New York, one thousand miles from Colon
and five hundred miles from La Guaira, the chief
port of the Republic of Venezuela. Thus the enthu-
siastic traveler was not far wrong who said that St.
Thomas is "the place which is on the way to every
other place." He justified this description by adding:
"When the sailor lays his course for any part
of the Caribbean Sea, the tip of his horny finger
points to St. Thomas. To call the little island the
gateway of the Caribbean is not poetic fancy. The
shortest and best course from England to any
Central American port, for steamer or sail, is by
St. Thomas. For the liner from the United States
to Brazil, the most convenient port of call is St.
Thomas. To go from the Greater to the Lesser
Antilles, one goes by way of St. Thomas. Nature
has given this half-way house of the sea a prestige
that even the commercial supremacy of Barbadoes
has not overshadowed."
St. Thomas is surrounded by seventeen islands
and cays and by an innumerable number of rocks.
The islands and cays are mostly very small, the
largest being Water Island, which is two and one-
54


---.- -- -- ~--- -r-l --- -- U- ~'-Y-----








ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS


half miles long and three-fourths of a mile wide,
and Hans Lollik, one and one-half miles long and
one mile wide. Most of these cays are rocky and
elevated, and all are uninhabited, with the excep-
tion of Water Island and Thatch Cay.
Perhaps the most remarkable of the cays is a
small island called Sail Rock, so called because
this mountainous rock when viewed from the east-
ward has the exact appearance of a vessel under
sail. There is a tradition that there was once an
engagement between a French frigate and this
little island. In the night the commanding officer
of the frigate ran close to Sail Rock, which he took
for a privateersman. He hailed the supposed ship,
and the echoes from the rock returned the hail.
Receiving no satisfactory answer from the "pri-
vateersman," the commander gave orders to fire.
The echoes returned the noise of the cannonade.
As the frigate was very close to Sail Rock, some of
the cannon balls ricochetted and gave the impres-
sion that the adversary was giving battle. It is
said that the engagement continued for some hours.
Not until dawn did the commander of the frigate
realize his mistake and retire from the scene in
mortification.
55


~I








THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


The length of St. Thomas is thirteen miles,
while its average width is about two miles. The
area is 28.25 square miles, or about eighteen thou-
sand acres, of which only about five hundred acres
are under cultivation, while possibly two thousand
acres are used for pasturage. The island is really
nothing more than a range of hills running east
and west, with branching spurs. There is prac-
tically no level land. The highest elevation toward
the western part of the island, is 1515 feet. This
hill is called West Mountain. The next highest
peak, Signal Hill, in the center of the island, has
an elevation of 1500 feet.
While the island is not as well watered as St.
John-which has the largest water supply of the
three islands, probably owing to the presence of
forests, which are absent on both St. Thomas and
St. Croix-there are a number of springs on the
northern side. An absolute water shortage, such
as is occasionally experienced on some of the smaller
Antillean islands, has not been known to occur
here. There is but one small stream, and this
loses itself in the hills; probably it finds an outlet
to the sea through a fissure in the rocks.
According to geologists, the island is composed
56


__ ___





















































. . ODOM.










"ol air

STATIO ON MHLENFE. ly POIN


- -- ---~ I~ C- -~ -- ----







ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS


for the most part of a mass of Trappean rocks of
various colors, and these rocks contain many veins
of quartz which can be observed wherever a cut
has been made in the rocks along the road. Much
of the rock has decomposed, and is still decompos-
ing into yellow or reddish clay. The aborigines
made their pottery from this clay. In places the
rock also decomposes into a whitish marl.
With the exception of red ochre, there are no
known minerals on St. Thomas. In a few places
can be seen the white coraline limestone so typical
of the western Antilles.
While the agriculturist can obtain remarkable
results because of the wonderful climate and a
fairly equable rainfall, the soil in most places is
thin and it is liable to be washed from the hill
slopes on which it is found.
It is more than likely that St. Thomas at one
time was covered with dense forests, but none of
these remain today. The trees were probably
felled by the earlier settlers and the valuable woods
found in them were sold or used for the local manu-
facture of furniture.
St. Thomas harbor is located on the southern
side of the island, and its entrance faces almost
57


m







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


due south. The mouth is fairly narrow, although
its width of nine hundred feet is ample for large
vessels. After passing through the narrow en-
trance, the harbor gradually expands into a large,
circular bowl some two miles in diameter. A
somewhat fanciful geological theory claims that
the harbor is formed by the crater of a submerged,
extinct volcano. This theory has been suggested
more because of the shape of the harbor basin than
because of the evidence of geological formation.
For many years, navigators found it difficult
to locate the southern shore of St. Thomas during
the night, and they were compelled to wait for
daybreak before entering the harbor. Since the
erection of a lighthouse on Buck Island, passage
in the night has become possible, but even now the
services of the pilot who meets ships outside the
harbor entrance are needed.
A traveler once gave the following true and
picturesque description of the first sight of Char-
lotte-Amalia by the tourist who enters the harbor:
"The view from deck, as the ship creeps into
the anchorage, is the most charming in the West
Indies. The bay lacks the great sweep of Algiers,
but it has the same mountain background, the
58


L


























FRONT ENTRANCE OF CHRISTIAN'S FORT FROM
COURTYARD INSIDE




4I


SIGNAL STATION, TOP OF COWELL'S BATTERY


-I
plCJ1:~i3-- log
C-" -~bPiF
59P"""""""~"""""""








# I


BATTLEMENTS OF CHRISTIAN'S FORT AND BLACKBOARD'S
CASTLE ON TOP OF GOVERNMENT HILL, CHARLOTTE-
AMALIA, ST. THOMAS


COALING WHARF OF THE WEST INIUA C'OMPANX, L'TD., C'tAltU'I"IT-AMALLA
Destroyed October 9, 1916







ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS


same glorious blue of sea and sky. The village,
blue and orange and yellow and red, recalls
some of the coast towns of Italy. The garden
walls of the hillside villas shine out dazzlingly
white against the luxurious green of the tropical
foliage. The ruins of Bluebeard's castle above
the town-a landmark of the old days of the
buccaneer-present the only touch of gray. The
rest is a riot of color. Most striking of all is the
gaudy red Danish fortress down by the water
front. I have never seen so red a building. At
first it is glaring and unpleasant, but after a time
one's eyes become accustomed to the new scale of
color values which the intense sun of the tropics
requires. And the bizarre glory of the fort-which
would be unspeakably offensive in a gray mantle
-seems to be not out of place in the color scheme
of St. Thomas. The town of Charlotte-Amalia
has taken the atmosphere of Algiers and the gor-
geous coloring of Venice, rolled them into one, and
reduced it to miniature."
On passing the harbor's mouth, one is imme-
diately reminded by Cowell's Battery of the British
occupation of 1801 and 1802. This battery was
erected by Colonel Cowell during this period. It
59







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


was constructed upon the highest elevation of
Hassel Island. Nearby lie buried the soldiers who
died during the occupation. On the shore, below
the hill, are the remains of an early Danish strong-
hold, which antedates the British fortifications.
Near the old Danish fort is the gaily painted pow-
der magazine, which was used as a storehouse for
explosives during the latter days of the Danish
occupation.
To-day, Cowell's Battery is used as a signal
station, and it is from here that the inhabitants of
Charlotte-Amalia learn of the coming of vessels
to St. Thomas Harbor. A mast with a yard-arm
serves to support the semaphore and a number of
wicker balls. The positions of the balls and of the
semaphore arms indicate whether an incoming ship
is a sailing vessel, a steamer or a man-of-war, its
nationality and the direction from which it is
coming. Without this signal station, a number of
the inhabitants of Charlotte-Amalia would be de-
prived of their chief interest, and their greatest
source of gossip.
The citizens say that at one time a Siamese
man-of-war called at St. Thomas in order to obtain
a supply of coal for its bunkers. On seeing the
60








ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS


ship approach, the watchman on the signal hill did
not find in his signal book any instructions inform-
ing him what position to give the balls and the
semaphore for a man-of-war of this nationality.
In desperation, he rigged up his signal mast with
all the wicker spheres he happened to have on hand.
Naturally the people became greatly excited and
made all sorts of hurried preparations for inter-
national festivities, for they thought that the com-
bined navies of the world were coming to visit
their little island.
One of the most interesting excursions on St.
Thomas may be taken by rowboat to Cowell's
Point, and thence up the hill upon which the
battery is located. The existence on the rocks
below the signal station of a large sign which adver-
tises the bay rum of a local manufacturer, does
much to spoil an otherwise perfect view. During
the hurricane of October, 1916, the sign was blown
down, but this offensive eyesore to all visitors
approaching St. Thomas Harbor has unfortunately
been restored.
Directly opposite Hassel Island, on Muhlenfel's
Point, is the quarantine station. This, happily, is
seldom needed for its intended purpose. When no
61


~qc~r_-'~*c --`c-~1C- ~~(I '-I- -- .lLCICL -~, -~Y-CII -i -- -~ .-C-- -Z- __ --- -_-- c---l-L- -1- -L-







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


patients are residing there, it is occasionally rented
out to picnic parties from Charlotte-Amalia. This
is a delightful spot for a temporary sojourn, for
the sea bathing here is the best on the island.
The harbor of St. Thomas presents little diffi-
culty to navigation. The few obstructions beneath
the surface have been marked by buoys, while the
rocks which extend above sea level have been care-
fully whitewashed. A number of range-lights also
protect the harbor and serve to keep the incoming
ship in its proper channel. The harbor is land-
locked, and the safety of ships in the harbor is
jeopardized only when the dreaded West Indian
hurricanes strike St. Thomas from a southerly
direction.
But for the hurricanes St. Thomas would be an
earthly paradise. The climate is healthy for new-
comers, even for those who are unaccustomed to
the tropics, and it is especially enjoyable during
the winter months. The greatest heat is felt in
August, September and October, but even then
the thermometer seldom goes above 91 degrees
Fahrenheit, while the average temperature is 84
degrees Fahrenheit. In winter the temperature
occasionally drops as low as 67 degrees, and the
62


r~UCYI~~~ Llli ~-Y----- C IY~IIYI)~~~Y~L~s -I_/l~~_~)l~-L-LI ~~-Y ~~i~i~Q~LII L~Y~e~l~~y ~Y~yJ-Y 2. ----i-k~ _I~-~~ ~LLL1~-~~-~td- -g. ~i ~ ~-I CI(







ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS


nights are so chilly that it is necessary to sleep
under a blanket.
The rainfall is not excessive; it averages about
forty-seven inches per year. May, August, Sep-
tember, October and November are the rainy
months, but it is not unusual for a drought to
prevail for six or even nine months. Such a pro-
longed drought is generally followed by severe rains.
Though this is not true of the majority of West
Indian islands, the air of St. Thomas is bracing.
Probably this is due to the fact that the island is
directly exposed to the Atlantic Ocean on the
north, so that it feels the cooling effects of this
large body of water rather than the tropical heat
radiated by the Caribbean Sea. For invalids and
for people of delicate constitution, the equable
climate is especially suitable, and many wonderful
cures have been credited to the island. All that
is necessary in many cases is simply to live long
enough in the bracing climate.
Aside from scorpions and centipedes, there are
no poisonous animals, and no intending visitor
need fear the presence of the usual venomous in-
sects of the tropics. There are no snakes of any
variety. Land crabs are the chief annoyance.
63


~,~ z ------*ii, ~a~~L,. "i~ir-~. 4t~yihl i~4q_~3LE r~i--- Y -LP~L~-Cy~iii--%el~QI~.~I~Y~i.;C ~4~L;IV~LUP~L~iL~~plyL~t-~1C~ I LIC~~~yII~;__S~QII~_yi_ ~L1- L1 -1








THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


Thanks to the efforts of the government, there are
few mosquitos in the town itself, although occa-
sionally sand-flies and mosquitos make life a burden
in other parts of the island, especially in the rainy
season.
Once the general sanitary conditions of Char-
lotte-Amalia were not entirely satisfactory, but
these have been greatly improved by the blasting
of a channel through the "Haul-over" peninsula
which connects Hassel Island with the mainland
of St. Thomas. This channel permits a current of
water to circulate through the harbor. Formerly
the waters which washed the shores of the town
became stagnant at times and the imperceptible
flow of the ebb and flood tide was not-sufficient to
carry off the refuse which was emptied in the bay.
In consequence, there were a number of typhoid
fever epidemics. Since the opening of the new
channel, there has been no more difficulty.
Nowadays there are no epidemics in Charlotte-
Amalia, owing to the efficient medical inspection
and the stringent quarantine laws and regulations
made for vessels which enter from infected ports
and the efficient medical inspection. The death
rate of the island is remarkably low, and its inhab-
64


I


LL Ue~uii~UI*WP~~~ l~X.~U4L1L~~MI~r -~~ll~ -*rr~~i~i~ L-Y -.Yt~L~Lf;'~eY~I/I~rrP~Cfr IL~iqL- )X- YC .~----~ Vli~ iLt_ Z~ M & f -mom~~







ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS


itants generally seem to die from one disease only,
a disease for which no cure has been found-old age.
Hurricanes will always be the principal draw-
back to residence in the West Indies, and St.
Thomas does not escape them. Many times the
island has been visited by these destructive storms.
In 1713, in 1738, in 1742, in 1772, in 1793, in 1819,
in 1837, in 1867 and again in 1916, tropical storms
passed over the little island and caused an incred-
ible amount of destruction. These storms are
regarded with such dread that it is the custom of
the people, at the commencement of the hurricane
season, to offer prayers that their island may
escape from the horrors of the tempests. At the
end of the season, they betake themselves to their
churches and give thanks that the period of danger
has been safely passed.
The last hurricane, on the night of October 9,
1916, was perhaps one of the most destructive ever
experienced. The smaller negro cabins were bodily
blown from their foundations and smashed to
pieces against other buildings or trees. Few houses
escaped without the loss of their roofs or damage
of some kind. That little loss of life accompanied
the hurricanes was a miracle, for the galvanized
5 65


'M


- IN .I~sC;~-- *~- -4~Db--as m-br-,-~s--s~ )CL -C- -~ iL~ YL ~ L~-~--







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


iron sheets which formed the roof coverings of the
houses were hurled through the air like projectiles.
The rain which accompanied the hurricane in many
instances did more damage than the wind itself,
and the stocks of a number of merchants were
totally ruined. Trees which for many decades had
been the pride of the town were uprooted. Elec-
tric light poles, branches of trees, pieces of gutter-
ing, spouts and tiles from the roofs, filled the
public thoroughfares with a tangled mass of debris.
In the harbor the Danish bark Thor was wrecked
on the rocks near Cowell's Battery. The St. Hilda
dredge was taken up bodily and placed alongside
the landing wharf in three feet of water. The
Hamburg-American liner Calabria, which had been
anchored in the harbor since the beginning of the
European War, was thrown on the rocks east of
the wharf with practically her entire bottom
ripped out. The Wasgenwald, owned by the same
company, was torn from her moorings and driven
ashore, but the vessel managed to pull herself off
with but slight injuries. The motor ship Anholt
was thrown high and dry on the beach. A number
of sailing vessels foundered in the harbor. Two large
electric conveyers of the Danish West India Com-
66


6 - -- Y -am&' -- -Li" JrL--d MW* ~1 ~ C -- --;~-- iyy ~ IPI --.&-,A, -- -- Af -








ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS


pany were reduced to a tangled mass of scrap iron.
On the morning of October 10, when the extent
of the damage caused during the night could be
perceived, the Danish officials took prompt and
active steps, not only to give relief to the sufferers
but also to restore the town as far as possible to
its usual immaculate condition. In many instances
money was given to the poor to enable them to
build new houses. In other cases money was
loaned without interest.
In addition to these means of bringing relief,
the government placed gangs at work on the moun-
tain roads, which in many instances had been
completely effaced, and restored them to their
proper condition. A little park on the water front
which, until the night of the hurricane, had been
one of the principal attractions of Charlotte-
Amalia, and which was almost completely demol-
ished, was cleaned up and the uprooted trees were
replanted when this was possible. Even after the
officials of the island were informed that the sale
of the Danish West Indies was a certainty they
did not in any way diminish their efforts towards
effacing the damage caused by the storm; they
seemed to think it a sacred duty to hand over the
67


~ ------- --r~n '-'ir -I--~j---r~l~~'YL-- Llj--IIYI -C--I~~----LJ~ Yt-~-~CL-~Yi~X








THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
islands to the United States in as good condition
as possible.
While, of course, the damage caused by one of
these hurricanes is enormous, one must take into
consideration the fact that tropical houses as a
general rule are but lightly built and easily blown
down. No true West Indian will learn from the
last hurricane that he should prepare his new abode
in conformity with the demands that may be made
upon its strength by any subsequent storm. For
this reason the inhabitants of the Antilles are fre-
quently a great deal to blame for the fact that their
homes have suffered the effects of a hurricane.
The damage done in the agricultural areas, while
large, is not noticeable three months after the
passing of a storm, as in the luxuriant climate of
St. Thomas practically all destroyed vegetation is
quickly replaced.
Earthquakes also sometimes occur, and these
are most frequent in the months of January, Feb-
ruary and March. No intending visitor to St.
Thomas need, however, feel any alarm on this
score. While, occasionally, plaster and loose stones
or bricks from old walls have been known to fall,
no instance has yet been recorded of so much as a
68


L---YI-~ .~riu-IIP~-L~~4. pl-~l-rF ~--_.--UW-`-L-.~r~-ylL~-r-L C--I~-Y~ll---~L Lwhom C--l




































































CANAAN ESTATE HOUSE, AFTER HURRICANE


HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE OFFICES, AND DREDGE "ST. HILDA"

Driven Ashore by Hurricane


~b*

L*l
I

r-&

i


--






























FIRING TIME-GUN BATTERY ON WATERFRONT, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA


J J


LUTHERAN CHURCH, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA


kbamww-
mmmmwt Amon&







ON BEAUTIFUL ST. THOMAS
wall being thrown down. Usually the shocks seem
to come from the south and pass off toward the
north. Rarely are there more than two shocks.
The earthquakes have but once been accompanied
by marine disturbances, such as tidal waves; they
appear to be nothing but survivals of stronger
shocks that may have taken place in South America
and been thence transmitted to St. Thomas.


An old wood cut of Blackbeard's Castle,
Charlotte-Amalia, St. Thomas, made by Dr.
Charles Taylor. The pirate's flag is a con-
cession to popular sentiment.


1












CHAPTER IV


RAMBLES ABOUT CHARLOTTE-AMALIA
PICTURESQUE COAL CARRIERS-WHY ENGLISH IS THE POPU-
LAR LANGUAGE-HOW THE "RECONCILING-COURT" DIS-
COURAGES LITIGATION-CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS-
STREETS, GUTTERS AND HILLS-THE FABLES OF FOUR
HILL-TOPS-BUCCANEERS, BLACKBOARD AND BLUEBEARD
-WHY THE GUNS WERE FIRED-HOSPITALITY AND
FLOWERS-WATER-FRONT ACTIVITY

HE smiling little town of Charlotte-
Amalia nestles among four hills, which
branch southward from the main range
of the island. No stranger can fail to be im-
pressed by the beauty of the situation of the
picturesque town and no native of St. Thomas can
return here after an absence, be it ever so short,
without being thoroughly content with his original
choice of residence.
Charlotte-Amalia was the seat of government
when Denmark ruled, and the governor of the
three islands spent six months out of the year here
and the other six months on the island of St. Croix.
The town was named after the consort of Christian
V, in whose time it was founded. On the earliest
records the name of the town was Tappus, but why
70








RAMBLES ABOUT CHARLOTTE-AMALIA
this name was used is not known. The population
is about eight thousand, though there are only
about ten thousand people on the entire island.
That there are many more women than men is
due to the fact that so many of the men have been
forced to leave the island to gain a living.
Fully ninety per cent. of the total population
is negro, but, despite this fact, the St. Thomian
negroes are far more polite than any other negroes
in the West Indies; they do not seem to wish to
be on a footing of equality with their white fellow-
citizens. This is undoubtedly due to the excellent
and kind training given them during the Danish
rule, the results of which will show for many years.
If in the future the same treatment is accorded the
natives, there will be no troubles between the
whites and the negroes.
Because of hard times the negroes of St. Thomas
have been too frequently forced to leave their
beloved little island and seek a living elsewhere.
These absentees from home make splendid servants.
Happy indeed does a housewife in the West Indies
count herself who possesses a St. Thomian for a
house-servant. Her less fortunate sisters who have
to content themselves with an inefficient and at
71


__







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


times insolent servant from Barbadoes, or some
other British island, look upon her with envy.
The stay-at-home St. Thomian depends for a
living chiefly upon the ships that come to Charlotte-
Amalia, either to load or to discharge their cargoes.
He or she, as the case may be,-for the women work
as hard as the men,-easily finds work as a steve-
dore upon one of these vessels, or else as a coal-
carrier on the wharves which supply ships calling
at this port in order to fill their bunkers.
The stevedore's wages are one dollar per day.
The coal-carrier is paid according to the amount
of work done. Until January, 1917, the rate for
coal-carriers was a cent for every basket brought
on board. By dint of hard work some of the
stronger laborers were enabled to make as much
as two dollars a day, but this was possible, of
course, for only a few days each week. To earn
two dollars it was necessary to fill two hundred
baskets, each of which contained from eighty-five
to ninety-five pounds of coal, and to toil with these
from the coal heap up a steeply-inclined gangway to
the bunkers of the ship. A labor union formed in
Charlotte-Amalia, in imitation of a similar organi-
zation founded two years earlier in St. Croix, has
72


I _


















:-- r-`T~'I;. 111
1\ FU:~~. ~I*%~ 9
'Zs ?~'f~:
.~ -;r
..i i~~-b t -. a~ -.r


A HILLY STREET, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA


_ _~_ _F -- -I


"(`
"~
r ir.
Ii' ~' :
IF,
-t


~lri
















































TYPICAL COAL CARRIERS, CHARLOTTE-
AMALIA


CUSTOM HOUSE AND POST OFFICE, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA, ST. THOMAS







RAMBLES ABOUT CHARLOTTE-AMALIA
succeeded in raising the rate per basket from one
cent to two cents. A few strikes occurred before
the coal companies agreed to this increase, but in
the end matters were settled amicably. The
workers took advantage of the fact that the large
electric cranes, which had been erected by the
West India Company not long before, and which
were capable of handling one hundred and fifty
tons of coal per hour, had been completely wrecked
by the hurricane of October, 1916. Yet it is true
that the increased cost of living, and the fact that
few ships have called at St. Thomas since the
outbreak of the European War, made higher wages
imperative.
At best, the lot of the faithful coal-carriers is
not enviable. The work is hard and the workers
are exposed to weather of all kinds, from the in-
tense tropical heat of the waterfront to the drench-
ing downpour of the rainy season. In spite of
these hardships, the laborers are a cheerful lot.
They reside in a part of the town known as the
"Back-of-All."
The port of San Juan on Porto Rico has of late
years become a serious rival of St. Thomas for the
coaling of ships. A number of steamship lines
73


I ___ __







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


which for years called at Charlotte-Amalia are
now going to San Juan, where coal is cheaper,
owing to the greater proximity to the ports of the
United States and the better facilities which have
been provided for the supplying of ships with
bunker coal. It is thought that when the United
States establishes a naval base on the island, the
increased demand for laborers and the better pay
which they undoubtedly will receive will go far
toward bettering their lot and the conditions under
which they live.
As a race the St. Thomians are far from indo-
lent. They are hard-working and willing, but not
very efficient, judged by northern standards.
Their employers find it advisable to cajole them,
instead of using harsh words to them. If the
laborers are treated in a kind manner, they are
willing to go to all sorts of extremes to repay the
treatment.
Though, of course, Danish was the official
language under the rule of Denmark, it is rare
indeed to find a native of St. Thomas who is
acquainted with it. All government notices were
printed in both Danish and English, while the two
local newspapers appeared in the English language.
74


_ I







RAMBLES ABOUT CHARLOTTE-AMALIA
But for the fact that the streets bear Danish names,
the visitor would not realize that he is in a former
colony of Denmark. The Danish language was
never forced upon the inhabitants by the govern-
ment, and, as a matter of fact, they would have
had but little use for it, since their principal com-
mercial relations have been with the English-
speaking races.
Offenses of a criminal nature are almost un-
known on the island. A few instances of theft
were so severely punished that grand larceny was
completely stamped out. While a St. Thomian is
not above appropriating to himself or to his family
food from his master's table or any small trifle
that happens to strike his fancy, it cannot be said
that predetermined stealing is part of his nature.
Little happens to disturb the quiet of the tropi-
cal dolce-far-niente of Charlotte-Amalia. A quarrel
between two jealous female coal-carriers, or the
bibulous noise made by a convivial laborer on
pay day, are about the only disturbances that call
for the interference of the few policemen neces-
sary on the island. The law courts are most de-
serted, and only one professional lawyer resides in
Charlotte-Amalia.
75







THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


During the Danish rule, St. Thomas boasted
of a system which the other West Indian islands,
where litigation at times proves costly, might do
well to adopt. This is the "reconciling-court."
If an employer, for instance, became involved in
a dispute with his clerk as to the wages due the
latter, the clerk was not obliged either to accept
his employer's decision or to hire an expensive
lawyer to defend his interests. Either the clerk
or his employer could call on the two reconciling
judges of the court, who were appointed from the
people by the governor. The plaintiff could then
state his case and request the judges to take the
matter up. Both parties would then be summoned
and each would be allowed to tell his side of the
question at issue. The judges would give their
opinion off-hand and attempt to effect a settle-
ment between the disputants. Generally this
would succeed, and the matter would be fished.
By this simple means many a costly lawsuit was
prevented and thus the long delays of northern
law courts were unknown. If those who appeared
before the "reconciling-court" professed them-
selves as being content with the decision of the
judges and did not carry out the stipulations of
76








RAMBLES ABOUT CHARLOTTE-AMALIA
this decision afterwards, they were severely and
summarily dealt with. If, on the other hand, the
decision of the judges was not satisfactory to them,
and they stated that they wished to carry the
matter to the regular law courts, they were at
liberty to do so.
Since the days of its foundation, Charlotte-
Amalia has always welcomed religious bodies of
all denominations. The official religion of the
Danish government was Lutheran, and ministers
of this creed were sent out by the Crown; but no
restrictions were placed upon the followers of
other beliefs, and as a result the little town has a
diversity of houses of worship. Perhaps the hand-
somest of these buildings is the Memorial Church
of the Moravian Brethren. To-day the Mora-
vians are one of the strongest sects on the island,
and their missionaries take the most active meas-
ures to better the conditions of the St. Thomas
laboring classes.
At first the Lutheran congregation worshipped
in Christian's Fort. In 1793 the new church
building was consecrated and was used until 1826,
when it was destroyed by fire. The church was
soon rebuilt, and it has been used since 1827.
77


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THE VIRGIN ISLANDS


Until the hurricane of 1916, it was chiefly notice-
able because of the beautiful, symmetrical avenue
of royal palms which led from the gate to the
steps of the building. These were totally destroyed.
It will be many years before this attractive feature
of the surroundings of the old building can be
restored.
Like the Lutheran Church, the Dutch Re-
formed Church was founded in Charlotte-Amalia
on the first settlement of the town. It is possible
even that it antedated the Lutheran congregation,
for it is more than likely that the first Dutch
settlers in 1666 had their own pastor with them.
The present building used by the congregation of
the Reformed Dutch Church was erected in 1846,
the two previous buildings having been destroyed
by fire.
There is also a large and imposing Roman
Catholic church in Charlotte-Amalia. This was
built about 1844. Either Spanish or French
supplements Latin in the services, owing to the
fact that the majority of the Catholics are natives
of the French or Spanish-speaking islands of the
Antilles. Occasionally there are services in English.
The Episcopal Church has many adherents,
78


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Photograph supplied by William T. Demarest
REFORMED DUTCH CHURCH, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA
Organized 1688


Photograph by Clarence Taylor
CHRIST CHURCH, WESLEYAN, CHARLOTTE-AMALIA




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