Agriculture 2000 and Beyond:
No Farming, No Food
29TH ANNUAL AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR OF THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
February 19-21, 2000
WE SALUTE FARMERS WHO CULTIVATE OUR LANDS.
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THE COMPLETE CHOICE.
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29th Annual Agriclture and Food Fair
of the U.S. Virgin Islands
"Agicultu 2U00 and beyond: No Fanring, No Food"
Layout & Design
Clarice C. Clarke
Public Information Specialist
University of the Virgin Islands
Cooperative Extension Service
Marvin E. Williams, Clarice C. Clarke,
Dr. Manuel Palada, Ruby R. Mason
Bronze Level Sponsors
Banco Popular Virgin Islands
The West Indian Company LTD.
LtJSRA ~ """"v"^ fl fi
OF THE ViRGIN ;,LANL)
Property Casualty Auto
Marine Marine Cargo Bonds
Marshall & Sterling St. Croix, Inc.
5021 Anchor Way, Gallows Bay
Christiansted, St. Croix 00820
Ph: 340.773.2170 Fax: 340.773.9550
Reprinting of articles is permitted as long as the Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin is credited; mention of product names in this book
in no way implies endorsement by the authors or the Agriculture and Food Fair Board of Directors.
The Agriculture & Food Fair Bulletin is desktop published by the UVI Cooperative Extension Service.
The Board of Directors
29th Annual Agriculture and Food Fair
U.S. Virgin Islands
Former Commissioner of Agriculture
His devotion to the Virgin Islands' rich
agricultural heritage will be truly missed.
"the strength of the tree
is determined by the roots"
At Vitelco, we believe that by giving our children a strong
foundation, we help ensure their future. That's why we
awarded over a quarter million dollars in scholarship
money to hard working Virgin Islands students to
taught over ISoo young people how to play tennis in the
Vitelco Junior Tennis Program
adopted more than iooo young people each year at our
adopted schools on St. Thomas, St. Croixand St. John
taught dozens of young people how to sail in the
% Vitelco Governors Cup Youth Regatta
awarded more than $35,000 in cash to talented classical
musicians who have competed in the Vitelco Classical
k Music Competition
made a commitment of $00oo,ooo to the Boys and Girls
Club that will ensure the Club will be there for the
|VITE LO more than 600 young people who depend on it each
WVN STANDS TELEPHONE COORATN year ... and much, much more
A PUBLICATION OF THE 29TH ANNUAL AGRICULTURE
AND FOOD FAIR OF THE U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
BULLETIN NUMBER 14
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2000 AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR BOARD OF DIRECTORS..............................................................7
MESSAGE FROM GOVERNOR CHARLES W. TURNBULL....................................... .................... 8
MESSAGE FROM Dr. ORVILLE KEAN............................. ............. ........... .............................9
M ESSAGE FROM COMMISSIONER HENRY P. SCHUSTER............................................. ....................... 10
FRITS E. LAWAETz: AN OUTSTANDING CATTLEMAN WORTH REMEMBERING ..........................................11
FRANCISCO "SICO"SANTOS: APRECIOAGRICULTURALRESOURCE.............................. ..................... 13
A C RUCIAN P OSTCARD.................................... ........................................................................... 15
Clarice C. Clarke
DESIGNER FOODS: THE "IN" THING FOR YOURBODY....................................................................... 17
Alice V. Henry
HURRICANEPREPAREDNESSANDAFTERCARE OFBANANA ANDPLANTAI TREES.......................................... 21
B ENEFITS OF TREES. ........................................... .......... ............ ...... ... ..................... .. 22
Errol A. Chichester
A BREED APART........... .......................... ............ .................... .. ..............32
HISTORICAL BUILDINGS.......................................................................... ...... ... .. .... .................. 35
WEATHER DATA AVAILABLE THROUGH WRRI .......................................................38
Hernry H. Smith, Ronald Olivacc6 and Deron Parott
ORGANIC MULCH IMPROVES YIELD AND ECONOMIC RETURNS FROM CHIVE PRODUCTION ..................................41
Manuel Palada, Stafford Crossman and Allison Davis
HOMESTEAD: A MEETING WITH MY GRANDMOTHER...................................................................48
CES AGRICULTURE & NATURAL RESOURCES PROGRAM.............................. ................................58
Chive field at UVI Agricultural Experiment Station. See page 41 for details.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Henry P. Schuster
Executive Vice President
Lawrence Lewis, Ph.D
Vice President of Operations
Clarice C. Clarke Pholconah Edwards
Executive Secretary/Director Treasurer
of Publicity & Publications
Pamela Richards Willard John
Director of Off-Island Director of Special Activities
Sarah Dalh-Smith Demaurice Mann
Director of Youth Activities Director of Food Exhibits
Director of Livestock Exhibits
Director of Fair Decorations
Director of Crop Exhibits
Director of Judging & Awards
Dale Mason Clinton George
Director of Exhibits Director of UVI Exhibits
MESSAGE FROM THE GOVERNOR
I am indeed pleased to extend greetings and sincere congratulations to the Board of
Directors and the Department of Agriculture for hosting the 29th Annual Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair, February 19 -21, 2000. I also want to welcome participants
and visitors to this landmark event.
The late Governor Melvin H. Evans, M.D. once said, "the soil of our native land is still a
precious possession and the farmers, who have remained close to the earth, must be
admired for their appreciation and understanding of the more basic values of life."
As we begin the 21st century, this year's theme "Agriculture 2000 and Beyond: No
Farming, No Food" is most appropriate. It signifies the hard work that has been done
thus far in agriculture and what can be done towards its enhancement and development
here in the Virgin Islands and the Caribbean. We have to learn and develop from our past
experiences. Let us continue to place greater emphasis on agriculture as we endeavor to
revitalize our economy.
As I emphasized at the 28th Annual Agriculture and Food Fair, there must be
improvements and an increase in our local food production so that we can reduce our
dependency on imported food. We must continue to market our local farmers, utilize the
abundance of local fruits that can be processed into drinks, pastries, specialty fruits and
wines, and educate the community on the different uses of local fruits.
The Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair, rich in history with its cultural
significance, enables us to enjoy a tradition that has united us as a people. Come out and
partake of the culinary arts, camaraderie and experience the tradition that will guide us
into the 21st century.
I wish you continued success!
harles W. Turnbull
Message from Dr. Orville Kean
President, University of the Virgin Islands
A Heartfelt welcome to the 29thAnnual Virgin Islands Agricul-
ture and Food Fair. This event is a traditional one where
residents of the Virgin Islands and visitors can come together to
share the enjoyment ofthe agricultural produce of our islands, the
culinary and handicraft skills of the local artisans and each
other's company. The University of the Virgin Islands takes
great pride in being a co-sponsor of this event that is a showcase ofthe tenacity, ingenuity, talents
and resourcefulness of the people of the Virgin Islands.
As we approach the new millennium, the theme of this year's Agriculture and Food Fair is
"Agriculture 2000 and Beyond: No Farming, No Food." This theme is especially appropriate
for it reminds us to not lose sight of the role that agriculture plays in our daily lives. While our
advancements in technology may at times obscure the importance ofthe role ofthose who work
our soil and produce food, we should remain cognizant of the fact that we all owe a great dealt
to these workers, regardless of the level of technology they use. At the University we are
expanding our utilization ofthe best available technology to assist us in thinking globally but at the
same time our commitment to acting with impact locally has not diminished. This global-local
approach is consistent with our obligation as a land-grant institution to invest through research,
instruction and public service in development ofthe Virgin Islands greatest resource-its people.
The staffofUVI Land Grant programs, the Department of Agriculture and the Agriculture and
Food Fair Board have once again done outstanding work in making this unique annual event a
success. The spirit of cooperation and collaboration that exists between these groups is worthy
of note and this fair is just one ofthe products. I extend my congratulations and commendations
to them. Also, without the many other persons who have contributed in many special ways, this
fair could not happen and they too are to be commended. Lastly, I extend the hope that this
historical Agriculture and Food fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands will be a pleasurable and
memorable event for all visitors and participants.
Orville Kean, Ph.D.
Message from Henry P. Schuster
Commissioner, Department of Agriculture
On behalf ofthe Board of Directors of the Agriculture and Food
Fair ofthe U.S. Virgin Islands, it gives me great pleasure to welcome
you to Agrifest 2000!
As we prepared for this year's Agrifest, the coming of the new
millennium filledus-- as it did everyone else-- withmuch excitement and trepidation. From our thoughts
about the new millennium, this year's theme "Agriculture 2000 & Beyond: No Farming, No Food" was
The theme truly embodies the true spirit ofthe Agriculture and Food Fair oftheU.S. Virgin Islands.
In many ways, the fair showcases agriculture in the Virgin Islands-from basic food products (fruits,
vegetables, or livestock) to the processed food (fruit preserves for cakes, stew goat, kallaloo, etc.).
Traditionally and culturally forus in the Virgin Islands, where there is food, there is music, fun and
festivities. Thus, the Agriculture and Food Fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands provides the perfect venue
for such revelry. To celebrateAgrifest in the new millennium, we, the Board of Directors, have put
together a showcase ofmusical, cultural, and culinary arts foryour enjoyment. We have included new
games and activities for the little ones, a fruit preserves section and recognition of farmers who have
been apart of agriculture for many years.
I also take this opportunity to thank our corporate sponsors for their generous support ofAgrifest
2000, without their support we would have been unable to incorporate many ofthe activities that we
have packed into this weekend.
On behalf of the Governor of the United States Virgin Islands, Charles W. Turnbull, Lieutenant
Governor Gerard Luz James, II, and the Board of Directors of the Agriculture and Food Fair of the
U.S. Virgin Islands, I would like to welcome each of you to Agrifest 2000!
Henry P. Schuster
Commissioner ofAgriculture &
President, Board of Directors, Agrifest 2000
FRITS E. LAWAETZ:
AN OUTSTANDING CATTLEMAN WORTH REMEMBERING
The Honorable Senator Frits Eduard Lawaetz, affectionately known
as "The Bull from Annaly," was born at Little La Grange, St. Croix,
Danish West Indies, on October 5,1907. He is the son ofCarl and Marie
Lawaetz, owners of Estates Little La Grange and Jolly Hill, a dairy farm
that provided fresh milk to the town ofFrederiksted.
Frits was educated in St. Croix and Denmark and received a diploma
from Stenhus Kostskole in Holbaek, Denmark in 1925. He speaks
English, Danish, Spanish and Crucian fluently. Frits studied Agriculture in
Denmark, working as an apprentice on Danish farms for $9.00 permonth -f
plus board from 1925 to 1927; he worked at La Grange Sugar Factory,
St. Croix in 1928. From 1929 to 1933, Frits worked first as a cowboy,
then as a time-keeper and manager of sugar and livestock plantations for
the United Puerto Rico Sugar Company at Pasto Viejo, Culebra and
Vieques; and he served as general manager at River Complex, which
consisted of 10 estates with sugar and livestock plantations in St. Croix
from 1934 to 1940.
Frits came to Estate Annaly as general manager for the owner, Mr. Ward M. Canaday, on April 1, 1940 and
developed the largest combined private sugar cane (400 acres) and ranch (1500 head of cattle) operation in the,
Virgin Islands. In 1947 Santa Gertrudis cattle from the King Ranch in Texas were imported by Mr. Canaday to
improve the cattle industry on St. Croix. In 1949, Frits convinced Mr. Canaday that a better solution would be the
"Nelthropp Breed" already on St. Croix, developed by Mr. Bromley Nelthropp in 1917. The nucleus of Mr.
Nelthropp's herd (150 head) was bought later that year. Frits began keeping very detailed records of these cattle
and in 1954 trademarked the name "Senepol" for this, now recognized, new breed of cattle. In the 50s and 60s he
exported Senepol bulls to many Caribbean islands to help improve their cattle industry.
In 1954, Frits was elected to the 1st Virgin Islands Legislature underthe new Organic Act. He served from 1954
to 1970 and then again from 1974 to 1979 when he retired at the age of 71. He served a total of 20 years in the
Virgin Islands Senate. While in the Legislature, he sponsored many farm related bills.
In 1964, Mr. Canaday, Frits and his eldest son, Hans, formed the partnership Annaly Farms. In 1974, his
youngest son Frits T., joined the partnership which has continued to maintain the largest herd of Senepol cattle in
the world for 50 years.
In 1977, The Virgin Islands Senepol Association was formed and Frits served on the five member Board of
Directors until he became an Honorary Member in 1992. Headquarters for the Senepol Breed Assoc. moved to
the U.S. in 1991 and is now called The Senepol Cattle Breeders Association (SCBA) with over 500 breeders
worldwide. Senepol breeders are now shipping Senepol Cattle to South America, Africa and the Far East. The
highest award ofthe SCBA is called the Frits E. Lawaetz Lifetime Achievement Award.
In the 1950s, he founded the Annaly Athletics, which sent seven athletes to play professional baseball, three to
the major leagues, including Joe Christopher (Mets), Julio Navarro (Tigers) and Elmo Plaskett (Pirates). He was
married in 1935 to Bodil, his childhood sweetheart, daughter of the banker Jacob Tomoe and Filen Hoim Tomoe.
Frits and Bodil celebrated their 60th wedding anniversary on December 18, 1995.
Frits and Bodil have three sons: Hans, President of Annaly Farms, Inc, Partner of Annaly Farms, President of
the Virgin Islands Olympic Committee, Chairman ofthe V.I. Conservation District and board member ofthe Senepol
Cattle Breeders Association. Hans and his wife Judy have two daughters, Amy and Jodie, and three grandsons,
Tyler, Bryson and Matthew. Bent, Former President of the V.I. Legislature, served as a V.I. Senator for 10 years.
He was a former Director of the Soil & Water Conservation and the V.I. Department of Agriculture. Bent and his
wife Sally have three children, Simone, Alice and Frans. Frits T, Partner and Manager ofAnnaly Farms and Annaly
Farms, Inc., Chairman ofthe Virgin Islands Board ofParole and member ofthe Democratic Territorial Committee.
His son Jens is the youngest ofFrits, Sr.'s six grandchildren.
SPECIAL HONORS: Frits's achievements and accomplishments were recognized by "Personalities Caribbean,"
The International Guide to Who's Who in the West Indies, Who's Who in American Politics, Who's Who in the
South and South West, and the Notable American Award. His biography was included in the book of"Profiles of
Outstanding Virgin Islanders." He served as Captain of the Homeguard in the early 1940s and also as Chairman
ofthe Virgin Islands Conservation District Board of Supervisors from 1945 to 1954 when he entered the Legislature.
During this time, the District began the work ofbuilding "Farm Ponds" in the Virgin Islands.
In May 1976, the Queen of Denmark bestowed the order of Commander ofDanneborg on Frits. In 1980, he
served as a delegate to the Democratic Presidential Convention. In 1982, the Lagoon Street Homes located in
Frederiksted were named the "Frits Eduard Lawaetz Homes" in recognition of his efforts in their establishment and
for his many years of dedication to the people of the Virgin Islands. In 1984, he received a statue of "an ideal
boyscout,""The Distinguished Service Award" from the Virgin Islands Boy Scouts ofAmerica and the Silver Beaver
Award. He was recognized in 1990 by the Holy Trinity Lutheran Church, Frederiksted for his outstanding service
to the church and the community. Frits was the American speaker at the Rebild Society 4th of July Celebration before
10,000 people in Aalborg, Denmark in 1992. And in 1996 he was appointed by Danish Council Blak of the Virgin
Islands as Honorable Trustee of Danish Cemeteries on St. Croix.
AFFILIATIONS: St. Croix Friends ofDenmark; Chamber of Commerce; honorary member of Senepol Cattle
Breeders Association; President Emeritus Boys' and Girls' Club, St. Croix; Boy Scouts Board member; honorary
member Camp Arawak, member ofDanish/American RebuildNational Park Societ, and a member of the St. Croix
League of Women Voters.
WATCHWORD: No gain without sacrifice; No substitute for hard work; Trust in God; If you want to live happy
and have Peace of Mind, you must be Honest.
ADVICE TO YOUTH: Hard work can overcome a humble beginning.
FRANCISCO "Sico" SANTOS: A PRECIOUS AGRICULTURAL RESOURCE
M r. Francisco "Sico" Santos was born in Culebra on March 10, 1913. In 1929, at the age of sixteen (16), he
came to St. Croix. This was during the period when there was a large migration ofpeople from Vieques
following the passage ofthe San Felipe Hurricane in 1928. He is married to the formerJanet Felecita Garcia, and
this union produced four children Victor, Francisco, Jr., Francisca andNereida. He is the proud grandfather of
twelve and great grandfather offifteen.
On Saturday, June 19,1999, "Sico," as he affectionately known, chronicledhis times with the United States and
local Departments ofAgriculture. Upon his arrival to St. Croix, Mr. Santos was employed at LongfordFarms. There
he worked in the field and performed a variety ofmiscellaneous tasks, all for 37 cents per day. In 1932, he began
working with the Armstrong Brothers, who raised (Brahma) cattle. The Armstrong brothers had a large farming
operation, with approximately 25,000 head of cattle. He was in charge ofWindsor, Glynn and Clairmont farms,
and worked there for approximately five years. One other large farming operation was the Nelthropp farm, which
was located in the areas now known as Tide Village and Estate Boetzberg. The Nelthropps raised what would
become the Senepol cattle.
Beefforboth local consumption and exportwas inhigh demand. Up to 60 animalsper daywere being slaughtered
and exported to Puerto Rico to accommodate the Naval base situated on that island. Bulls were also trained for
hard work and shipped to Puerto Rico as "working bulls." The others were slaughtered at one ofthe two abattoirs.
The local one, located in Gallows Bay and managed by Mr. Whitehead, was used to slaughter meat for local
consumption. TheFederal abattoirlocatedin Estate St. John andmanagedby Charles Schusterwas usedto slaughter
meat for export.
From 1937 to 1938, Mr. Santos worked with the United States Department ofAgriculture on the TB eradication
program. After the completion of the TB program he was transferred from the USDA to the US Department of
Interior andworked with Dr. JohnL. Cherry (Veterinarian in Charge forthe V.I. Government). During this time there
were a lot of diseases in the cattle, and he, along with Dr. Cherry, traveled throughout the territory to check the
animals. They worked togetheruntil Dr. Cherry's retirement in 1938. In 1952, the Agriculture Station in Anna's
Hope was closed and the animals andpersonnel were transferred to VICORP in Estate Lower Love. OnDecember
31, 1963, he began working for the local government. Dr. Crago was the veterinarian-in-charge at the time. He
credits his skill level to the teaching he received from Drs. Cherry, William and Kendall. These gentlemen, "Sico"
claims, "were skilled and extremely knowledgeable and took the time to share theirknowledge with others." Upon
his retirement in June of 1978, Francisco returned to Vieques where he lives with his family.
During his many years in the field ofagriculture, particularly livestock farming, Mr. Santos can truly paint a
historical picture of agriculture in the Virgin Islands from 1929 to 1978.
DEALS ON WHEELS
SON THE BACK!
A CRUCIAN POSTCARD
Clarice C. Clarke
Public Information Specialist
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
-R recently I was driving on the eastern side of St. Croix
and I saw this beautiful flamboyant tree, perfectly
shaped and in full bloom. Instinctively, I pulled off the
road, grabbed my camera and snapped a picture. In that
quick instance, vivid images ofmy childhood Sunday
drives along the north shore rushedthrough my mind. There was time when the roads ofthe north shore of St. Croix
were lined with red and yellow flamboyant trees-and OH what a sight to see.
As a child, Sunday afternoon drives were eventful and
exciting. We would take long drives along the north side
of the island--through La Valley, Cane Bay, and of
courseMahoganyRoad. I remembernot only the myriad
of flamboyant and other native trees, but the abundance
offruit trees. Trees such as hog plum, tamarind, mango,
mamey apple, mesple, locust, sugar apple, custard
apple, soursop, guava, coco plum and guavaberry were
commonly seen growing along the roadsides and in the
fields. I recall picking and eating those wonderful fruits.
Sadly, most of these trees, just like the flamboyant,
have disappeared or are disappearing from the
It seems to me that we do not appreciate our natural
surroundings as we used to. Local fruit and ornamental
trees are indiscriminately removed to make way for
homes, roads and shopping centers. We ignore our
local fruits while the mainland United States and Europe
are producing and selling the same fruits as "exotic or
speciality fruits." We watch as the plants used years ago
as medicinal herbs are cut down, uprooted and cast
aside, and, idlely standby and watch as other countries'
economies boom from an herbal medicinal market.
The question I would asked is how do the Virgin
Islands, particularly St. Croix, find a niche that will distinguished it economically, environmentally and culturally from
We are blessed with a beautiful island that can produce bountiful crops of ornamental and medicinal plants,
vegetables and fruits. Moreover, we have natural areas that can be used and developed to expand our island's
economic base. Where do we start?
Well, over the years I have developed a love for photography
and have started a collection ofrare Crucian snapshots, which I call
"Culturally Creative Photos." It is with these photos that I would
like to take you on a postcard tour of a hidden treasure.
Unlike the other U.S. Virgin Islands, St. Croix is unique in
several ways. Its topography includes flat lands with rolling hills,
historicalplantation ruins which are an indication ofa once thriving
agricultural community, a moist and dry forest, tradition, food and
culture. With these differences, St. Croix is poised to be marketed
as an "eco-agricultural-tourism" destination.
As an eco-agricultural-tourism destination, St. Croix is perfect.
Throughout the islandremnants of sugar mills andplantations dot the valleys and hillsides. Many ofthese ruins could
be rehabilitated and turned into museums where the
culture and traditions would be exhibited.
Areas such as the rainforest, Caledonia where fresh-
water fish, lobster (cribbishee) can be found in the
running guts ofCaledonia. During the rainy season a hike
through the Caledonia valley is a must. With its lush
vegetation and waterfall, the valley is one of St. Croix's
The other treasures are Anally and Will Bays. These
areas are a herbalist's and a historian's delight. The dirt
roads of Annaly and Will Bays were once traveled by
slaves and the caves served as hiding places for
Jack and Isaac Bays, simply put, are breath taking.
The bays are located on the east side of the island with
white sandy beaches and a backdrop of rolling hills
dotted with cactus and Ginger Thomas. With all of this
St. Croix is truly a hidden treasure-a hiker's dream, a
cyclist's challenge, a naturalist's paradise, a botanist's
laboratory and a photographer's playground.
DESIGNER FOODS: THE "IN" THING FOR YOUR BODY
Extension Specialist Foods and Nutrition
UVI Cooperative Extension Service
As we are all hopefully aware, the foods that we eat can positively or negatively affect our long-term health.
Certain foods are showing promise in reducing the risk of certain types ofcancers, reducing the risk ofheart
disease, preventing the "aging" of our cells, and a host of other positive health outcomes.
The new nutrition buzz word for the year 2000 very well may be "functional foods" (also known as
"nutraceuticals" or "designer foods"). One of the simplest definitions of a functional food, provided by the
International Food Information Council (IFIC), is: "foods thatprovide healthbenefits beyondbasic nutrition." By
this definition, food that are unmodified (e.g. broccoli, garlic, ginger) representthe simplest example ofa functional
food. Modified foods thathave been fortifiedwithnutrients (e.g. orangejuice with calcium added) orhavebotanicals
orphytochemicals added (e.g. teas with medicinal herbs added, snackbars with chromium) represent processed
With the latter group, there is little government regulation of what is marketed to the public. For this reason,
populariced teas that have herbs added to them are not required to indicate how much ofthe herb is present in the
tea. They are also not requiredto list the possible side effects that have been noted with use ofthese herbs. As you
can imagine, this group also represents the one with most potential for misuse and abuse since companies are so
cleverinmarketingtheirproductsto ahealth-hungrypublic. For example, chromiumhas been shownto help regulate
insulin levels in people with diabetes. However, if someone is taking oral supplements of chromium as well as
consuming snack bars that contain chromium, negative health effects may result. People must be careful not to
overdose on what theyperceive to be a "good thing." Let the buyer beware!
Since there are so many products outthere that fall into the latter category (that is, foods that have nutrients added
to them)itwouldbe impossible to provide a comprehensive analysis. Forthis reason, all that I canprovide youwith
in this forum are these words of caution regarding the more complex functional foods:
Be an informed consumer and be knowledgeable about what you are putting in your body. Obtain
information from reputablejoumals, studies and/orhealth professionals/organizations.
Be cautious about fancy claims andhealth benefits on packaging
provide balance in your daily intake offood. Do not fall into the trap of regarding one ood item as a"super
The following list provides an analysis of the simple functional foods (nothing added)
and their reputed positive health effects:
Green or Black Tea
Level of Intake
4-6 cups /day
Reduced stomach and
Esophageal cancer risk
Vegetables & Fruit (particularly
cruciferous vegs., tomatoes, grapes,
apples, strawberries, citrus fruits, and onions
Fish rich in omega -3 fatty acids
Grapejuice or red wine
(1 fresh clove/day)
180 g (6 oz)/week
Reduced low-density lipoprotein
Reduced menopausal symptoms
Reduced blood pressure
Reduced serum cholesterol
Reduced risk of cancer (colon,
gastric, and prostate)
Improved gastrointestinal health
Serum cholesterol reduction
Reduced risk ofheart disease
As we become more and more aware of the preventive and healing power of foods, this list will undoubtedly
change and/or expand. The bottom line is for all ofus to realize that our body truly is a temple. What we put into
it will most definitely affect how well it functions throughout our lifetime.
Here's to your health!
American Dietetic Association: 216 W. Jackson Blvd, Chicago, IL 60606-6995 312-899-0040
International Food Information Council: 1100 Connecticut Ave. N.W. Suite 430 Washington, D.C. 20036
Center for Science in the Public Interest (Publishes Nutrition Action Healthletter):
Suite 300 1875 Connecticut Ave. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009-5728
The Tool Box
-- Hardware Store
The Island's Best Selection
Nuts, Bolts, Screws and Tools
Located on North Shore Road
ANNALY FARMS INC.
"Get your beeffrom the source"
(Local andU.S. Choice)
Pork r Chicken a Fish a Vegetables
Quality at low prices
Estate Upper Love RT#72
Monday- Friday 8:00 5:30, Saturday 8:00 3:00
HURRICANE PREPAREDNESS AND AFTERCARE
OF BANANA AND PLANTAIN TREES
Research Associate Professor
Fruit & Ornamental Program
UVI Agricultural Experiment Station
O ver the last ten years, there have been four major hurricanes that hit the USVI with varying damages to
residential, commercial and agricultural areas. At the University of the Virgin Islands Agricultural
Experiment Station (AES), the most severe impact has naturally been on the fruit trees with non-woody species
such as banana, plantain and papaya receiving the worst damages.
Inthe case ofbananaandplantainhowever, because oftheirvegetativenature orreproductionby means of side
shoots or suckers, these crops can usually regenerate themselves within 5-6 months aftertoppling and/oruprooting
by strong winds. Removal of all leaves except for those that are unfolded within the pseudostem is a pre-storm
precautionthat can save the plants. The presence ofwind breaks in the form of wind tolerant species such as TanTan,
Gliricidia, Moringa, Genep, Manj ack or Casuarina can also limit wind damage to banana and plantains.
In the aftermath of severe storms at AES, the banana cultivars (variety) that have noticeablyreceived the least
damage were Saba, Bluggoe (Moko), with the most susceptible being Plantain, Bacuba (Silk/Apple banana) and
Lady Finger which are tall plants. The DwarfFrench and Maricongo plantains are less severely affected than their
tall counterparts. The newly introduced FHIA tetraploid cultivars such as Goldfinger have very large and sturdy
pseudostems and have withstood the strong winds with relatively less toppling than the traditional Cavendish
bananas. Because ofthe massive amount ofbiomass material generated after a storm, it is highly advisable to remove
and store away all irrigation lines and timers before an impending storm. These may become buriedwithtrash, thus
severely restricting theirrecovery for future use. Pre-stormpreparedness should also include good staking wherever
possible and the complete removal ofall fruit bunches. The incidence ofbanana cormborers has been observed to
markedly increase after a storm. The excess amount of stem and plant material on the orchard floor after a storm
presents added incentive and attraction for this pest. It is, therefore, advisable to pretreat the banana field with an
appropriate insecticide before, or as close as possible to, the storm's arrival.
Post-storm operations should include quickremoval fall broken anduprootedpseudostems with leafmaterial
cut and spread out as mulch. This is also a good time to remove all unwanted or excess suckers and water sprouts
andreplantwith sturdy sword suckermaterial(seeFarmers'Bulletin-Growing BananaandPlantaininthe VI). Extra
suckers can also be dug up and sold for quickincome generation. The sudden removal ofoverl d canopy by storm
damage can cause sunburn damage to the overexposedyoung plants, but these recover and acclimatize to the new
conditions. The exposed orchard floor also triggers quickregrowth ofweeds so it is critical to mulch heavily with
all the a'a ilablelea material. Ifirrigation lines canbe reconnected or ifthere are persistentpost-stormrains then an
application of fertilizeratthe recommendedrate (see Farmers' Bulletin- Growing Banana andPlantaininthe VI)
should be made prior to leafmulching.
BENEFITS OF TREES
Errol A. Chichester
V.I. Department of Agriculture
It always amazes me how we only seem to realize the importance of trees just after a hurricane. We speak
of loss of shade, erosion, how badly the trees are damaged, etc.
However, as soon as the trees begin to recover and provide us with shade, beauty, and other amenities, we
quickly forget about all these important things and go back to the same neglectful, don't- care attitude. I hope that
because of the importance of trees and the integral role they play in our existence that we would take them more
seriously and give them the needed attention. Maybe what is needed is continuous public education about trees and
their benefits. I hope that this article will serve as part ofthis education process.
Trees are important to us in many ways: they are valued aesthetically, socially, historically, monetarily, and environmentally.
This article will focus on the environmental importance oftrees. Trees provide environmental benefits in many ways: they
modify local climate, reduce noise and airpollution, and protect soil and water.
Climate modification is one ofthe important benefits that trees provide in our environment, especially in urban
areas. In urban areas, streets, parking lots, buildings, and sidewalks contribute to increased temperature due to
absorption ofsolarradiation creatingwhat is referredto as "heat islands." It is estimated thattemperatures in urban
areas are 5-9 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than in surrounding rural areas where trees are more abundant in the
Urban trees help moderate the temperature and the "heat island" effect. They also help to increase human
comfort indoors and outdoors. Most ofus, at some time or another, have had the experience, especially on a very
hot day, oflooking for a shady tree to stand under. We enjoy the comfort oftrees in parks, on beaches, along parade
routes, on school campuses, in yards, and in many other settings. Additionally, those ofus who live in homes shaded
bytrees have observed the lower temperature inside as compared to the homes that are not shadedby trees. Trees
also have the ability, on hot days, to release hundreds ofgallons ofwater through their leaves through process called
transpiration. This water evaporates, thus keeping the tree and its immediate surroundings cool.
While large stands of trees moderate air temperature, single trees help moderate temperature by shading soil,
pavement, buildings, and other surfaces that would absorb solar energy and bounce it back to the surrounding.
Without trees to perform these tasks, residents would be exposed to increasingly higher temperatures and
discomfort. Consequently, electric bills would increase with the use of fans and air conditioners as we try to find
ways to ease our discomfort.
Air pollution control is another benefit that trees provide in our environment. Trees remove both solid and
gaseous particles from the air. Thatbenefit is familiar to those ofus who have experienced the reduction of dust in
ourhomes because of trees planted around them. One study noted a of 27 to 42 percent less particles of dust
reaches the ground under a stand of trees as compared to an open area. Some of the gaseous pollutants that are
absorbed by trees and thus removed from the atmosphere include ozone, chlorine, fluorine, and sulphur dioxide.
Again, we are very familiar with some of the consequences of the presence of these gaseous pollutants in the
atmosphere. They are contributing factors to smog, acid rain, and respiratory conditions such as asthma.
Another gas, carbon dioxide, is increasingly being recognized as a "greenhouse gas"pollutant withpotentially
farreaching consequences. These include global warming, dramatic changes in rainfall pattern, andrising sea levels
that threaten flooding in coastal areas. Presently, many countries in the UnitedNations including Guyana and Trinidad
are very concerned about this situation because of increasing tidal levels and flooding oftheir relatively flat coastal
Since green plants consume carbon dioxide in the photosynthesis process, they help provide a benefit to the
environment by reducing this gas in the atmosphere while producing valuable oxygen for us to breathe. Reduction
ofnoise pollution from highways and roads is yet anotherway trees can benefit us. Planting trees, shrubs, andgrasses
in conjunction with walls and earthenberms (mounds) can significantly reduce traffic noise and provide comfort for
residents in affected areas.
Trees provide other benefits such as protection of soil and water quality. While we are grateful for the
precipitation that occurs in the Virgin Islands, heavy rainfall sometimes contributes negatively to the environment.
It causes erosion. This is more evident on steep slopes, and areas with poor land-managementpractices. We are
very aware of this condition as we observe the chocolate-brown colored water along our shorelines after heavy
rainfall. The consequences of these are many: sedimentation, which results in loss of sea grass beds, coral reefs,
and other aquatic species; loss of aquatic hatcheries, recreation areas, fertile topsoil, etc.
Additionally, in settings where large areas are covered with concrete, asphalt, and other impervious surfaces,
instead ofpercolating into the soil, rainwater concentrates and accumulates resulting in erosion and silt accumulation
in ponds, guts, and bays.
Tree foliage absorbs some ofthe force ofthe falling rain, and lessens the dislodging of soil particles- erosion.
The leaf litter that accumulates under trees also reduces the dislodging of soil particles, and creates an environment
for earthworms and other organisms that help to maintain soil porosity, allowing water to percolate and not runoff.
In addition, tree roots hold soil inplace thus preventing minimizing soil loss.
There are a number ofbasic ways in which trees significantly benefit our environment--man, water, air, climate,
and soil. Through natural processes andphysical characteristics, they positively affect temperature, air and noise
pollution, and water and soil quality. We all can contribute by planting, maintaining, and protecting trees. Please
consider the important benefits of trees at all times and not only after hurricanes.
RECIPES FOR A NON-TOXic
S any common household products used in the .
Virgin Islands can trigger allergies, cause nausea or other
adverse health effects, harm septic systems, and/or pollute our
coastal or ground water.
There are alternatives totheseproducts available locally, includingrecipes using commonhousehold items that
are relatively inexpensive and easy to obtain. Not only can changing our habits improve our health and the health
of our environment,we can also save money.
When buying household products, we need to ask ourselves:
Is toxic exposure possible when using the product?
(What are the effects on humans?)
What happens to the product once we finish using it?
(What are the effects on the environment?)
The best cleaning products are those that you can make at home. They are simple, inexpensive, effective, and
non-toxic. Natural substances that can be used for many cleaning purposes that you may want to keep at hand
Borax-a natural-occurring mineral that has no toxic fumes and is safe for the environment,
but can be harmful if swallowed and irritates eyes.
For more information on Recipes for a Non-Toxic Household, contact the UVI Cooperative Extension
Service, Agriculture and Natural Resources program for the Water Quality Bulletin#2.
Mr. Oscar E. Henry receiving the 1999 prestigious Farmer of the Year
Awardfrom Governor Charles W. TurnbullandMr. KofiBoateng, Agrifest
Mrs. Jewel Ross-Brathwaite, Assistant Principal, Eulalie
Rivera Elementary School, receiving the firstplace trophy
for the poster/essay completion from UVI President, Dr.
Orville E. Kean.
Mrs. Ruby Fleming, owner of Flemings' Transport Company, Inc.,
receiving the 1999 Recognition Award from Ms. llene Heyward,
General Manager of AT&T, for her outstanding contribution to the
Agriculture and Food Fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Mr. Charles Anthony, President of Anthony Plumbing
Inc., receiving the 1999 Recognition Award from Ms.
Ilene Heyward, General Manager of AT&T, for his
outstanding contribution to the Agriculture and Food
Fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
A TEA OFEPRS
A LICENSED PLUMBER &
CALL US AT: (340) 778-7073
FAX TO US AT : (340) 773-0991
WE WILL GET THE JOB DONE RIGHT
THE FIRST TIME AROUND
formerly National Bakery
21 KING STREET, FREDERIKSTEI
P.O. BOX 3117
ST. CROIX, USVI 00841-3117
VISIT US, YOU'LL BE GLAD YOU DID.
Ms. Eleanor Sealey accepting the 1999 Recognition
Award from Ms. Ilene Heyward,General Manager of
AT&T, for her outstanding contribution to the success of
the Agriculture and Food Fair of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Douglas & Joan Miner
109-113 Castle Coakley
St. Croix, VI 00820
Vinyl Letters "To Go"
Carved & Sandcarved Signs
The best in local cuisine
82C Estate Whim
F'sted, St. Croix VI
Personalized Gifts For That Spceial One
Gift Baskets, Gift Sets & Gift Boxes
PO. Box 3814
Kingshill, St. Croix 00851 7 Days A Week
(340) 778-0701 Order Today
SprCAJJLNG CvLTrvN t sALL r~A ParTOS
C0SoWWTE ST.e CTX
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21-E La Grande Princesse
Christiansted, St. Croix
U.S. Virgin Islands 00820
Your Answer to Keeping in Touch!
St.Thoas:777889 eSt.Crox: 73999 19-99
ISLAND DAIRIES 42ND ANNIVERSARY 1958 2000
For 42 years, Island Dairies has supplied Virgin Islanders and the Caribbean with the best dairy products available.
Island Dairies products are the best because they are the freshest.
ISLAND DAIRIES milk is produced by Holstein cows on four (4) state of the art dairy farms here on St. Croix.
The milk is trucked from the farms, processed at Island Dairies state of the art plant in Sion Farm and delivered to
the grocery stores in as little as six (6) hours. The milk is packaged inpaper cartons with apull date of 10 days from
packaging. This is required by the Virgin Islands Consumer Law. We are happy to have a 10 day pull date even
though Island Dairies milk can last up to 21 days under proper refrigeration. A 10 day pull date guarantees the
consumer a fresh product with full nutritional value.
Imported milk is usually 10 days old by the time it arri es in the Virgin Islands: is usually packaged in clearplastic
containers and usually has a pull date of 18 days from packaging.
1Milk is not wine, it does not impro\ e with age. The palatability and nutritional value ofmilk deteriorates overtime.
Clear plastic containers allow light to penetrate to the milk and deteriorate the vitaminss in the milk.
Becauseof its age and packaging, imported milk cannot compare to Island Dairies products.
ISLAND DAIRIES ICE CREAM is the best ice cream in Virgin Islands grocery stores.
Island Dairies ice cream is a few da ys to se evral weeks fresh when placed in grocery stores. Imported ice cream
is a few months to a year or more old by the time it is placed in '.I. grocery stores.
Island Dairies ice cream is produced from formulas developed over 40 years ago. Island Dairies tni r has that
old fashioned ice cream quality.
Island Dairies is so confident in its ice cream that we say: "Try it, you 'lllike it. Afteryou 're triedit, compare
our prices, then, you 'l really like it."
Island Dairies ice cream comes in 13 delicious flavors.
ISLAND DAIRIES produces a full line of juice drinks.
Island Dairies Orange Juices is 100 %ju ice.
Island Dairies Passion Fruit and Guava Pineapple drinks have become the standard tropical drinks for
Crucians. Island Dairies also produces Fruit Punch, Grape Punch and Ice Tea drinks.
Island Dairies imports and distributes LurpakDanish Butter, Kerrygold Irish Butter, Dove Bars, Milkyway
Bars, Snicker Bars and a host of other ice cream popsicles.
CELEBRATE OUR 42ND ANNIVERSARY WITH US! TRY OUR PRODUCTS AND YOU WON'T
HAVE TO WORRY. YOU'LL JUST BE HAPPY.
CORN HILL FARM ~ ---
MON BIJOU FARM ~
Estelle & Linda Skov
MOUNTAIN MINT FARM -
SIGHT FARM ~
WINDSOR FARM ~
St. Croix Dairy Products, Inc.
HOLSTEIN COWS PRODUCING ISLAND DIARIES FRSH MILK
VIRGIN ISLANDS DAIRYMEN'S ASSOC.
"The Best is Fresh
"From the farm to the store in hours"
"Milk is not wine; it does not improve with
age. Imported milk can be weeks old when
it reaches the Virgin Islands."