THE V.I. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
Vigi Islands r II
ANNALY FARMS ST. CROIX
Box 1576, Frederiksted
"Breeders Of Purebred Senepol Catle"
Purebred Bulls for Sale
Heifers for Sale
Embryos and Semen
For more Information
Contact Hans or
"EAT FRESH ISLAND BEEF"
Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin Number 2
A Publication of the 17th Annual Agriculture and Food Fair
Table of Contents
1987 Agriculture and Food Fair Board of Directors ................... .....3
Governor Alexander A. Farrelly's Message ..............................5
Dr. Arthur A. Richards' Message ......................................7
Acting Commissioner Eric L. Bough's Message ........................... 9
Complexities of Agricultural Development in the Caribbean ..............11
Experiment Station Research and the Local Farm Operator................13
The U.S. Virgin Islands and American Samoa: Viewed by
An Agriculturist .............. ...... ................................15
Hillside Catchments Water Supply Alternative ........................ 19
The W hite Hair Sheep of St. Croix ..................... ............. 21
Small Animals For Small Farms in the Virgin Islands ......................23
Fertility Examination in Male Livestock ................... ...........25
The Miracle of Soil Organic Matter ................................. 27
Prevention Is Better Than Cure ................ ..... ...............31
New and Nutritious Crops For St. Croix ................. ............. 33
"Who Are You?" Identifying Your Livestock .............. .............. 35
Horses of the World The Arabian ................................. 41
The Crucians of Sandy Point ........................................... 43
Guinea Grass in the Virgin Islands ..................................... 47
The University of the Virgin Islands
Associate in Arts in Agriculture .............. ...... ............. 49
W hat Is VIERS? .............. ..................... ............... 51
Poetry .............. .. .......................... ..............53-54
From O ur Photo Album ............................................ 55-75
"BE VOCAL BUY LOCAL!"
"BE VOCAL BUY LOCAL!"
9 We urge our readers to support our local farmers
and crop growers, our businesses and purveyors
of goods and services who have advertised in this
Our cooperating staffs at
The University of the Virgin Islands
,.v \Land Grant Programs and _
*< The V.I. Agriculture Department -/
'L -) < -,.. ,
Mary C. Green (with Carla Vauthrin and Olivia Sanchez Catt)
Printing Photo Processing
Antilles Graphic Arts Custom Photo
About Our Cover Photos: Front Cover -1985-86 Crucian Fiesta Prince and Prin-
cess Chavoy Tyson and Acema Danette Rames greet audience after performing
"Old Time Rhymes and Games", agriculture teacher Diane Collingwood offers
tray of produce at fair. Back Cover Farmer of the Year Albert Edwards receiving
award from UVI vice president Darshan S. Padda and Congressman Ron de Lugo;
three young riders on their big "pony"; Juanita Gardine School art teacher Carol
Papke and her students with display; Arts and Crafts winners Gladys Garcia and
All photos by Liz Wilson except as noted: Diane Collingwood on cover by ).
Weeks; Gov. Farrelly and UVI Pres. Richards by VI Gov't; L. Bough by Picture
Place; D.S. Padda by Studio Five; p. 16 by by Frederik Koehler Sutter, Amerika
Samoa, An Anthropological Photo Essay; p. 20 by Bob Wands; p. 21 by S. Wildeus;
p. 22 & 24 by Sue Lakos; p. 25 from Beef Production and the Beef Industry by R.E.
Taylor; p. 29 by D. Morton, p. 35 & 36 by S. Lakos; p. 41 from Horse and Pony
Breeds, edited by E.H. Edwards; p. 43-45 by R. Brandner; p.51 (left) by Studio Five.
Reprinting of articles is permitted as long as the Agriculture and Food Fair bulletin is credited; mention of product
names in this book in no way implies endorsement by the authors or by the Agriculture and Food Fair Board of
1987 Agriculture and Food Fair
Board of Directors
Acting Commissioner Eric L. Bough
Henry P. Schuster
Director of Food Exhibits
Co-Directors of Farm Exhibits
Director of Livestock Exhibits
Dr. Duke Deller
Assistant Committee Member
Dr. Darshan S. Padda
Director of Publications and Promotions
Director of Youth Activities
Zoraida E. Jacobs
Director of Rules and Awards
Dr. Arthur Petersen
Assistant Committee Member
Otis F. Hicks, Sr.
Director of Special Activities
Director Of UVI Coordination
CASTLE NUGENT FARMS .... MARIO GASPERI
CORN HILL FARM ........ HENRY NELTHROPP
WINDSOR FARM ............ ST. CROIX DAIRY
MON BIJOU FARM ............. OLIVER SKOV
SIGHT FARM............ CHARLES SCHUSTER
VIRGIN ISLANDS DAIRYMEN'S ASSOC.
Fresh Grade "A"
For Your Table
Message from Honorable Alexander A. Farrelly
Governor of the Virgin Islands
It is that time of year again when the air is full of
excitement in anticipation of the traditional St. Croix
Agriculture and Food Fair.
This year the 17th Annual Agriculture and Food Fair
has a most fitting theme BE VOCAL, BUY LOCAL. It is
crucial that the agriculture industry begin to assume its
rightful place as a vital sector of our economy. Virgin
Islands' farmers are struggling to make a living, often
against great obstacles such as water shortages, insect
pests, lack of resources and unprotected markets.
For agriculture to survive, it must be technologically
based, with an emphasis on sound business procedures.
We are fortunate to have a Land-Grant institution, such
as the University of the Virgin Islands in the territory,
which has the mechanism of constantly developing new
technology and educational systems, like the Coopera-
tive Extension Service, which disseminates research
based information to our farmers.
Under my administration, various components of eco-
nomic development, including agriculture, will get a fair
chance to succeed. In order to revitalize the agriculture
industry in the Virgin Islands and provide this vital basic
industry its rightful place, critical institutional, personnel
and financial requirements must be met if technological
advancement is to be used in a socially desirable way.
The resources that are available to us are limited. To
maximize these limited resources, I have encouraged
programs which emphasize cooperation between various
agencies, to avoid duplication and multiple resources.
This Fair demonstrates a successful joint effort between
the V.I. Department of Agriculture and the University of
the Virgin Islands. The Fair also highlights the impor-
tance of agriculture and enhances an understanding of
the economic, technical and social factors relating to
food production and distribution problems in the Virgin
I heartily commend the Board of Directors of the 17th
Annual Agriculture and Food Fair, employees of the
Department of Agriculture and the University of the
Virgin Islands, the farmers and the exhibitors, who have
spent a tremendous amount of time in bringing these
educational opportunities to our community.
It is my sincere hope that our young people will
derive inspiration and encouragement in pursuing
various educational opportunities in this multi-faceted
Alexander A. Farrelly
THE VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR
Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands
Reflects the clean shore breezes that freshen our
pastures and blue sea that frames them.
Our healthy flocks of cattle give St. Croix the taste
treat and eye appeal to please islander and tourist alike.
SUPPORT ALL LOCAL AGRICULTURE
CASTLE NUGENT FARMS
.Honme otf thte i',.,'- ,
Purebred Senc, ,i
and the big
Message from Dr. Arthur A. Richards
President, University of the Virgin Islands
Welcome to the 17th Annual Agriculture and Food
Fair on St. Croix. This year's theme, "Be Vocal, Buy
Local," expresses a simple thought that encompasses a
complex issue which is intended to make us aware of
some alternatives which could actually benefit the Virgin
Islands community in general. Although this Fair is pri-
marily a forum for support of the enterprises and prod-
ucts of local agriculture, we should keep in mind the
fact that buying products of any kind that are produced
locally makes good sense.
One of the major components of our university is the
Land-Grant programs, which include the Cooperative
Extension Service and the Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion. Through these activities, ways and means to in-
crease and enhance local farm production are studied
and developed. In turn, the information pertaining to
improving farm production is dispensed to the public
through various forms, such as classroom instruction,
workshops, publications, media reports and field day
demonstrations. Professionals working in the offices of
the Cooperative Extension Service and the Agricultural
Experiment Station are routinely available to provide
individuals with direct technical assistance in a broad
range of specific matters regarding gardening, irrigation
and plant nutrition, pest management, animal health and
nutrition, natural resource management, home eco-
nomics and livestock husbandry, to cite a few.
The strategies that the Land-Grant staff created are
designed to reduce the imports of foods to the territoryE
by increasing production of crops and livestock and by
increasing the level of consumption of locally-produced
foods through the development of marketing systems
and consumer education.
The University of the Virgin Islands, through its agri- 0
cultural programs, will continue to strive for increased
self-sufficiency in food production. I wish to commend
the Board of Directors of the Agriculture and Food Fair
for working diligently to plan this successful function for
UNIVERSITY OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT
Charlotte Amalic. St. I homas. U.S. Virgin Islands
Arthur A. Richards
THE ONLY MILK FRESH PACKED IN PLASTIC
FOR YOUR CONVENIENCE
You can't get fresher milk. Both low-fat and regular
are produced fresh daily. Packaged in plastic and rushed
same day to your store in refrigerated trucks.
St. Thomas Dairies is the only on-island milk to use
the convenience of plastic containers where you can see
the quality and freshness right in the package. For
convenience, quality and freshness, drink
the milk produced for your health ...
St. Thomas Dairies milk!
In both gallon and
W.-T- C- AIm
A WAY OF
Message from Acting Commissioner Eric L. Bough
President of the Agriculture and Food Fair
Welcome to our 17th Annual Agriculture and Food
As in the past, this year's Fair will be a blend of Agri-
cultural Science, Food Production, Education, Handi-
crafts and an atmosphere of farm for the entire family.
Our theme this year "Be Vocal-Buy Local" is especially
significant as the outlook for agricultural expansion on
the island appears to be promising. The demand for
more fresh, locally grown produced commodities has
resulted in an increase in small farming activities.
It is our hope that we continue to recognize the im-
portance of agriculture. Under a new administration we
are optimistic that this attitude will be enhanced and
On behalf of the Board of Directors, I would like to
thank our staff and those individuals who worked so
tirelessly in making this year's Fair a reality.
Eric L. Bough
St. Croix's Newest
extends wishes for
A Grand and Successful Fair
ISLANDS FOOD FISH FARM, INC.
KINGSHILL, ST. CROIX
Fresh fish whole cleaned or fillet
Fresh vegetables hydroponic + natural farming
* Visitors Days will be announced *
Complexities Of Agricultural
Development In the Caribbean
Darshan S. Padda, Ph. D.
Vice President, Research and Land-Grant Programs
University of the Virgin Islands
Projections for Caribbean agriculture indicate that inter-
national competition in commodity markets, foreign ex-
change needs, demands for improved diets and population
growth make it advantageous for the region to develop the
capacity to considerably increase production. Capacity to
produce is not the same as actual production. This is true in
the case of the Caribbean region in general, and the U.S.
Virgin Islands in particular. Improved technology, resulting
from agricultural research, can increase production and
help better marketing techniques only when knowledge of
the technology is transferred to the farmers.
One basic concept, most misunderstood in the devel-
oping countries, is that agricultural development does not
comprise production alone. In order to develop agriculture
on a sustained basis, production and marketing must be
considered as equally important and interdependent func-
tions. We have seen agricultural development fail in the
U.S. Virgin Islands because production was emphasized
without any consideration given to marketing. The rela-
tionship of production and marketing, as equal contrib-
utors in agricultural development, is illustrated in Figure 1.
Once this important relationship between production
and marketing contributing equally to the successful agri-
cultural development is established, I wish to discuss three
forces that impact on the successful production and mar-
keting of agricultural products. These are research, edu-
cation and farm management.
In the U.S. Virgin Islands, as well as in the Caribbean
region, constraints on land, water and energy require an
ability to shift agricultural systems to rely more on science
and technology, better management and human skills and,
of course, well-defined and better taxation and credit
Agricultural development is no longersimple. Those days
are behind us when successful raising of crops and livestock
constituted viable agriculture. Agriculture has undergone
changes where it is no longer a rural way of life. Present-day
agriculture is an industry -an industry based on nine prime
factors, as illustrated in Figure II, which includes crops sys-
tems, farm finance, agricultural policy, human expertise,
marketing, information systems, water, soil and animal sys-
tems. These nine factors are self-explanatory and, for the
sake of space, will not be discussed in this article.
However, these nine factors are impacted for success or
failure by three main forces for agricultural development.
These three forces or impactors, as mentioned before, are:
Technology Development (Research), Technology Transfer
(Education) and Farm Management.
Technology development through agricultural research
is basic to keeping agricultural industry on a competitive
basis by continuously improving production and marketing
inputs like seeds, plants, animals, machines and chemicals.
Whereas most of the developing countries, including many
Caribbean islands, need to build their agricultural research
capacities, the U.S. Virgin Islands is in relatively good shape.
The Virgin Islands' Agricultural Experiment Station, during
a rather short span of time, has developed technologies
which, if utilized, can significantly improve agriculture in
the territory, as well as in the region.
But, unless these production technologies and marketing
techniques are transferred to and used by farmers and agri-
businesses, no real advance can occur. In this respect, there
are a wide range of different situations within the Carib-
bean. And some island countries have good agricultural
development policies, have land and water available, but
are handicapped due to the lack of agricultural education
Figure I: Production and Marketing as Equal Contributors
to the Agricultural Development.
systems (formal teaching and extension) to help agricul-
turists in using technology-imbedded practices. In the U.S.
Virgin Islands, again, we have a relative advantage. Having a
U.S. land-grant institution present in the territory provides
both formal degree education and extension education
available to the residents. The Virgin Islands' Cooperative
Extension Service has a successful record of conducting
highly visible and useful public education programs.
Entrepreneurship and rigorous use of management con-
cepts to agriculture is the need of the day. In the United
States, it is widely known that bad business decisions have
been responsible for the downfall of many farmers. Being a
U.S. territory, the U.S. Virgin Islands need to learn some
quick lessons from the recent U.S. phenomenon. For a
viable agricultural industry to be developed, the use of
business management concepts in farm management is the
In conclusion, I have tried to make the following points:
1) agricultural development effort must emphasize produc-
tion and marketing simultaneously; 2) agriculture is a
complex industry that depends on nine prime factors; and
3) research, education and application of management
concepts are three impactors on the contributions of nine
prime factors. These three points should then be con-
sidered in formulating a well-balanced agricultural devel-
opment policy, including-the provision of helpful taxation
and credit facilities. 0
Figure II: The many Facets of Agricultural Development
VIRGIN ISLAND SENEPOL ASSOCIATION oF sT.CROIX
BOX 969, CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS PHONE (809J 773-1508
A PERFORMANCE BREED FROM THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
The Senepol Breed is Noted for Being:
Polled Fertile Good Foragers
Maternal Heat Tolerant Good Meat Production
Adaptable Early Maturing Good Milk Production
All interested producers with Senepol Cattle are strongly encouraged to
become members and register their cattle with the Senepol Association.
Experiment Station Research
And The Local Farm Operator
Kenneth E. Green, Assistant Director
Agriculture Experiment Station
University of the Virgin Islands
Federal and state partnerships in agricultural research
have created a system of "experiment stations" which
operate at the grassroots level and have extensive commu-
nication linkages among themselves and local clientele
groups. At least one agriculture experiment station exists in
every state in the Union and in Puerto Rico, the Virgin
Islands, American Samoa, Guam, Micronesia, and the
District of Columbia (Figure 1). Locally specified research
activities are necessary if new knowledge and technologies
are to be successfully adapted to the thousands of different
conditions that characterize farming operations through-
out the nation. Consequently, the University of the Virgin
Islands Agricultural Experiment Station was established
with the fundamental intention of serving the agricultural
research needs within the unique farming environs of the
Formal education in agriculture provides the training and
basic tools of knowledge to individuals who become the
practitioner (e.g., farmers, agri-businessmen, agri-servicemen)
and the professionals (e.g., researchers, extension special-
ists, veterinarians). Once they receive their education,
these individuals directly interact with the overall sector of
our society that is involved and dependent upon farming as
a means or way of life. Formal education in agriculture is a
very important aspect of the land grant system; however, its
primary clientele and mission is directed toward the student
population. The Cooperative Extension Service and the
Agricultural Experiment Station, however, are intended to
actively serve the general farming and agricultural
Figure 1: National Map of Land
The concept of service between the experiment station
and the local farmer is one that is based on practical inter-
dependence and exchange among several entities. The
"land grant" program of the University consists of three
such entities which work together to provide both a service
to the local farmer and an internal system of supply/demand
activities deemed vital to the welfare of the community.
These three entities (depicted in Figure 2) include formal
agriculture education, Cooperative Extension Service, and
the Agricultural Experiment Station.
Figure II: Components of the University Land Grant
The basic relationship between the Agricultural Experi-
ment Station and the Cooperative Extension Service is quite
simple. Professionals within the Cooperative Extension
Service play two vital roles (with respect to the operations of
the Agricultural Experiment Station) in the development
and delivery systems to enhance local agriculture. First, they
provide inputs to the AES researchers with regard to exist-
ing and potential problems, needs, and issues involved in
the local practices of farming. Second, they extend actual or
potential solutions of problems, needs and issues derived
by the AES researchers to the farming community.
Two primary characteristics of research conducted at
agricultural experiment stations are maintained to ulti-
mately provide a high level of quality service to local farm
operators. The first characteristic is that "applied" research
(rather than basic research) dominates experimental activ-
ities at the station. "Applied" research simply means that
the studies and/or experiments are conducted with the in-
tention of contributing to the solution of actual existing
problems in the locality. (Note: the solution or "technol-
ogy" generated by the research may be applicable to other
geographic areas, but the originating problem was local in
The second characteristic which supports the mission of
Agricultural Experiment Station research to serve local agri-
culture involves the concept of "appropriate technology."
Technology, in general, is the product of the "applied"
research effort. The components of "appropriate technol-
ogy" provide the best and most compatible solutions for
specific problems within a locality by considering the
potential or probable negative and positive outcomes. The
ideal "appropriate technologies" versus "hard technol-
ogies" (those technologies that are derived to maximize
economic profits and minimize human factors) should con-
sider the following issues.*
a) The appropriate technology is affordable for everyone;
b) The appropriate technology is suited to the physical
and social conditions and/or characteristics of the
c) Small-scale economic organization of appropriate
technology is ecologically safe, simple, but sophis-
ticated enough to promote human and
d) The appropriate technology should be locally con-
trolled by the users of the technology;
e) Local innovation, development, and diffusion of tech-
nologies related to basic needs guarantees compat-
ibility with local cultures and will extend benefits to
f ) Labor-intensive technology should provide meaning-
ful jobs especially for low-skilled workers;
g) The appropriate technology should reduce segmen-
tation of work roles, allowing little stratification in the
h) The local production of appropriate technology sus-
tains local basic needs, emphasizing quality of life, not
i ) The appropriate technology promotes full employ-
ment, moderate levels of living, and minimal income
The University of the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experi-
ment Station has endeavored to pursue its mission to local
agriculture under the context of the described concepts of
"applied research" and "appropriate technologies." A few
examples are presented in Table 1.
The appropriate technologies developed for the four
examples given in Table 1 could very well be different if the
research work on the problems/issues were being done at
some other locale. In the domain of farming and agricul-
ture, there are often several solutions to any particular
problem, but when "appropriate technology" is taken
into account, the solution that should be recommended is
the one that will work under the conditions of the specific
social and economic situation.
The researchers and staff at the University of the Virgin
Islands Agricultural Experiment Station have a strong sense
of community and a desire to see agriculture develop in the
territory. The land grant system's agricultural research com-
ponent (the UVI-AES) exists because local farmers' prob-
lems need solutions. The conduct of research is a time-
consuming and often agonizing process. However, it is a
process that time and time again has produced solutions of
immense benefit to mankind.
* Source: Lodwich, D.G. and D.E. Morrison, 1982. "Appropriate
Technology." In D.A. Dillman and D.J. Hobbs (editors). Rural
Society in the U.S.: Issues for the 1980's. Boulder, Colorado: est-
view Press. Pages 48-49.
Appropriate Technology (s)
A) Supplying a source of food Culturing of Tilapia systems Low cost-high production in ponds
fish for local consumption and easily-maintained cages
B) Vegetable production with Research with irrigation systems, Drip irrigation, mulching systems,
minimum water availability new varieties of heat/drought multi-cropping systems, season
resistant vegetable trials adjustments for crops
C) Development of a viable papaya Comparative assessment of papaya Pending possible development
plant for the Virgin Islands varieties and resistances to existing of a disease resistant plant which
diseases could be perpetuated with cloning
D) Improvement of pasturelands Evaluation trials of new legume and Increase management of existing
for increased livestock carrying grass varieties; assess native pastures native grasslands and control for
capacities and grasses pest plants
Table 1: "Examples of Researchable Problems and Resultant Technologies in Agriculture in the U.S. Virgin Islands"
The U.S. Virgin Islands
And American Samoa:
Viewed By An Agriculturist
By Adriano Navarro*
Irrigation Specialist Agricultural Experiment Station
American Samoa, just like the U.S. Virgin Islands, is a terri-
tory of the United States. It is located about 2,000 miles
Southeast of Hawaii. While the U.S. Virgin Islands are made
up of three islands, American Samoa is composed of 5 vol-
canic islands, and two atolls. Its capital, Pago Pago (pro-
nounced pang-uh pang-uh), is in the island of Tutuila, the
largest of the islands. The aggregate land area of American
Samoa, less than half the size of the U.S. Virgin Islands, is
estimated to be approximately 76 sq. miles. In 1985, the
population was 34,000.
The volcanic islands are mostly mountainous. Only the
western part of Tutuila has considerable amount of lands
with gentle slopes. All the other places are rugged with
slopes usually greater than 70%.
Samoans are Polynesians (people from many islands) -
the same group of people as the native Hawaiians. Although
Samoa is a part of the United States and Western influence
permeates every aspect of their lives, Samoans still manage
to cling to their ancient customs and traditions. The English
language is spoken but their native Samoan language is
more predominantly used. Even legislative sessions are con-
ducted in the Samoan language. Most Samoans still dress in
their native colorful lava-lavas (a wrap-around skirt).
Every Samoan family is a member of an extended family
group headed by a chief known in their native language as a
Matai. As the head of many families, sometimes numbering
a hundred or more, a Matai holds supreme authority over
family activities and welds political power in the commu-
nity. All family problems are referred to the Matai. Heis the
feudal lord of the family. Very often he directs the resources
of the whole family to help a member who runs into some
The extended family system has advantages and dis-
advantages. Providing a sense of security to the members is
one important advantage. Among the more enterprising
members of the family, the extended and close-knit family
system discourages the initiative for them to work harder
and earn more. Those who earn more contribute more to
the family. In addition, relatives who live close by, and there
are many of them, always find good reasons to help the
more enterprising member spend his money.
* Editor's Note:
The author is an agriculturist who had an opportunity to work in the
Virgin Islands and American Samoa as an agricultural researcher.
He worked as a Vegetable Specialist at the CVI Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, St. Croix from 1980 until 1983 when he accepted a
similar position in American Samoa. He worked there for almost
four years. In October, 1986 he rejoined the research staff of the
UVI Agricultural Experiment Station.
Some of the biggest feasts and celebrations in the villages
have something to do with family gatherings on Sundays
after church (Samoans are very religious. Everybody is on
his or her best behavior on Sundays for church), and for
funerals and weddings. But the biggest of all celebrations is
the selection of a new Matai.
While the U.S. Virgin Islands have a low yearly rainfall of
approximately 40-44 inches which comes within a period of
2-3 months, American Samoa is one of the most humid areas
in the world, with rainfall distributed throughout the year.
Average annual rainfall is estimated to be more than 120
inches with large variations from year to year. In 1983
rainfall was over 200 inches. Due to the high rainfall and
relatively fertile soil, there is a lush green vegetation all over
Samoan agriculture is largely of the subsistence type.
There is very little commercial agriculture. Crop production
is basically limited to the cultivation of staple food. In their
order of importance these are Dasheen (Calocasia escu-
lenta Samoans refer to it as taro or talo); Bananas, (Caven-
dish being most popular, it is cooked at the mature green
stage); Breadfruits (Artocarpus altilis) and coconuts. Most if
not all families in the village have a little patch where these
staples are grown. Very little attention is given to the grow-
ing of the crops. Chemical or commercial fertilizer is
seldom used. Insect pests on bananas and taro are the big-
gest problems, with Army worms and Horned-tailed cater-
pillars being the two most common problems on taro. Scab
moth is most troublesome on bananas. The pest problems
can easily be controlled as long as they are given the proper
attention, but in most cases the problems are dealt with
after they have reached epidemic proportions. In some
cases they are not controlled at all because the farmers do
not have the equipment or the materials are not available in
the market. Keeping th weeds down, usually by hand
weeding and occasionally with herbicide, is usually the only
care given to the crops until they are ready for harvest.
Breadfruit, a crop that is well-suited to the humid tropical
climate, abound in American Samoa. Although the plant
long ago stirred the imagination of the Western civilization
and to a great extent helped draw the attention of the
ancient western powers to the South Pacific because of the
"bread that grows on trees", it is not as important as bana-
nas or taro in Samoan economic life. In most cases Samoans
use breadfruits for food only when taro or bananas are in
Breadfruits are hardy plants and are left by the Samoans
entirely on their own. They are not fertilized nor sprayed for
insects or disease, yet surprisingly, they still manage to
L A ,
Taro, an edible tuber, is a staple of Samoa. It can be baked or boiled.
When the stem is cut it can be replanted and will produce another
plant in a few months time.
produce abundantly. Breadfruits are used mainly when
they are mature green. After peeling the fruit by scraping,
they are made ready for the table by either boiling or baking,
with the latter the common method of cooking.
Coconuts are cared for in almost the same way as bread-
fruits. Seldom are they given any attention except when
they are needed for food or when they are in danger of
being completely destroyed. In 1984, two insect pests
caused considerable damage to the coconuts of American
Samoa and prompted government action to control the
pests. Due apparently to some seasonal changes, Brontispa
(Brontispa longissima) a type of beetle, became very active.
At the same time a scale insect (Aspidiotus destructor)
found its way into American Samoa for the first time and
caused substantial damage to the coconuts.
With Government assistance and through the help of the
South Pacific commission, bio-control measures were IIw-
plemented to control the pests. Metarhizium spores, a type
of fungus, were introduced to combat Brontispa. Lady bird
beetles were brought in from Guam to control the scale
insects. Both measures proved successful.
There are about six full-time commercial farmers in
American Samoa dealing mostly with the production of
vegetables. Five of these farmers are Korean immigrants
and one Samoan. Most of their produce is sold to the fishing
boats that deliver fish to the two fish canneries in Tutuila
(one cannery is operated by Purina-Van Camp and the
other by Starkist).
Farmers in American Samoa struggle constantly against a
number of problems. Supplies and equipment are not
readily available in the local market. The local Department
of Agriculture is charged with the responsibility of helping
farmers in the procurement of supplies and materials. In
most cases, it is not able to handle this responsibility.
Farmers usually order the supplies off islands or do without
them. Pests and diseases on crops are so prevalent owing to
the humid environment. Without proper equipment and
supplies this problem becomes more difficult to overcome.
Marketing of their products is another big problem that
Samoan commercial farmers have to face. They have to
compete constantly with imported products. As a result of
the higher costs of production inputs such as fertilizers,
pesticides, seeds, and the small farm production units, local
production costs are always higher so that local products
have to be sold at a higher price than imported products to
make a profit or break even. Uncertainty of the supply of
local produce forces local merchants to stock their shelves
with imported products. As a consequence, local farmers
find limited market for their products.
Similar to their counterparts in the Virgin Islands,farmers
in American Samoa depend on two agencies for technical
information and assistance. These are the local department of
agriculture and the extension service of American Samoa
Community College. Both agencies are doing a fine job.
Yet, the production and marketing problems that have
been mentioned still remained unsolved.
There are plans to remedy the supply procurement and
marketing problems. The Department of Agriculture of
American Samoa hopes to establish an agricultural store to
make seeds, agricultural chemicals and equipment readily
available to the farmers. Also, a bill is expected to be drafted
for submission to the local legislature to give the Depart-
ment of Agriculture authority to supervise importation of
fresh agricultural products. This bill hopes to alleviate
marketing problems. There is also a plan for the local agri-
cultural extension service to look into the creation of
Unlike the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa does not
produce any dairy or beef. Pork and chicken production is
not important in the commercial market since pigs and
chickens are produced mainly for family parties. There are
three poultry farms producing about 10%of the egg market.
To accommodate meat market demands, American Samoa
imports dairy products from Australia and New Zealand;
pork, chicken and eggs come from the mainland United
The high cost of imported concentrate animal feeds, as in
the U.S. Virgin Islands, is a big problem for poultry and hog
farmers in American Samoa. The small amount of available
agricultural lands does not offer any possibility of pro-
ducing concentrate feeds profitably and economically in
American Samoa. A couple of possible solutions are being
considered relative to the feed concentrate problem. One
is to develop processing techniques in order to utilize
breadfruits, portions of taro plants and coconuts as sources
of carbohydrate and protein for animal feeds. Another
solution being talked about to help livestock producers isto
introduce a bill in the U.S. Congress to provide that Amer-
ican Samoa and other interested U.S. territories be eligible
to purchase surplus grains from the U.S. Government. At
the present time U.S. surplus grain can be used only outside
the United States.
As a whole, agriculture in American Samoa plays a very
insignificant role in the community's commercial economy.
This is also comparatively true in the U.S. Virgin Islands. It
would not be fair, however, to entertain the idea that agri-
culture does not have a chance to become a viable industry
in American Samoa or the U.S. Virgin Islands. The situation
is that in both places the agricultural potentials have not
been fully harnessed and directed. But the agricultural
potentials are there. The infra-structures for agricultural
developments are in place. What is often overlooked is an
assessment and definition of goals for agricultural devel-
opment, one of which is whether or not to gear production
mainly for the local market or the export market. The idea
that the export market grows when surplus develops in the
local market has not worked and will not work in these
places. There must be separate plans for both markets.
Farmers serving the local markets for example, have dif-
ferent policy requirements than those farmers for the
export markets. In the local market, farmers will need strict
monitoring of imports and in some cases, price supports. In
the case of the export markets, there is a need to make a
thorough assessment and selection of crops. Only those
crops that can take advantage of the unique climate and
geography of these places in such a way that their produc-
tion could have a natural economic advantage should be
considered for the export markets. These must of course be
inherently tropical, value-weight ratio should be high and
their production and processing should not require com-
plicated technology or pose danger to the environment.
Once these crops are chosen, all government agencies
charged with the responsibility of promoting agriculture
should concentrate their efforts on producing, processing,
and marketing of the products. U
photo reproduced from
AMER IKA SAMOA by Frederick K. Sutter
ICE COMPANY, INC.
BLOCK ICE AND CUBES
ICE BOX RENTALS
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Telephone: 773-4140 or 773-1268
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PAUL W. HESS, D.V.M.
CRAGO ANIMAL CLINIC, PC.
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Hillside Catchments -
Water Supply Alternative
Henry H. Smith
Caribbean Research Institute
Water Resources Research Center
With a population of just over 100,000 and an annual rain-
fall averaging about 45 inches, it is tempting to conclude
that rain water harvesting would be a principal source of
water for domestic use in the Virgin Islands. In fact, rain
water harvesting is required by law for all structures in-
tended for use as residences as well as for most other build-
ing. Still a water supply problem exists.
Particularly in the highly developed urban areas, rain
water harvesting is not meeting demands and water is being
supplied to the public distribution systems from ground-
water aquifers and desalination. Initially, water in the St.
Thomas distribution system originated at large cisterns
which were provided with water from purpose-built
hillside catchments. Questions of why these systems are no
longer in use and if these systems should again be intro-
duced into the supply system are often raised. This paper
will present a brief summary of a few of the facts that should
be considered when these questions are being raised.
In many of the Caribbean islands hillsides have been
treated with asphalt, concrete, compacted limestone or
covered with 'galvanize' or other metal to make them imper-
vious and form surfaces suitable for the harvesting of rain-
fall. Cisterns for water storage invariably are a necessary
accompaniment for these catchments.
The first hillside catchments in the Virgin Islands were
built by the United States military in 1926 to provide water to
the military personnel stationed in St. Thomas. The local
Department of Public Works and some private interests ex-
panded the catchment network throughout the Virgin
Islands to where eventually there were 22 catchments on St.
Thomas, 4 on St. John and 5 on St. Croix. On St. Thomas
where catchments were more prevalent because the princi-
pal alternative source, groundwater, was more limited and
also water demand was highest, catchment sizes ranged
from 5,000 square feet (0.1 acres) to 220,000 square feet (5.1
acres). Associated cistern storage ranged from 3,342 cubic
feet (25,000 gallons) to 401,070 cubic feet (3,000,000 gallons).
The total public hillside catchment area on St. Thomas
eventually was 863,717 square feet (19.8 acres) and asso-
ciated public cistern storage was 1,241,444 cubic feet
Elsewhere in the Caribbean, Tortola constructed an
18,000 square foot (0.4 acre) concrete catchment which was
never fully utilized due to defective construction. Carria-
cou and Petit Martinique recently relied heavily on over
100,000 square feet of impervious catchments for water
supply. The Prospect Hill catchmentwhich occupies several
acres, is a major water supply source for Bermuda. Likewise,
the hillside catchments of Union Island, Palm and Bequia
are crucial in the provisioning of water in the Grenadines.
Because of the numbers of them present, it is obvious that
at one point in the history of the Virgin Islands hillside
catchments must have been a practical and major source of
water. During the period when they were constructed, the
water demand was far less due to the lower population. It
must also be kept in mind that several of them were con-
structed by the U.S. military and thus labor costs for con-
struction were not a major concern.
Maintenance requirements of these systems are com-
paratively low due to the low level of technology involved.
There is no need for highly trained specialists and there are
essentially no moving parts so the expected life of these sys-
tems with proper maintenance may be unlimited. Energy
costs for production of the water are non-existent since
rainfall is the water source. Associated storage facilities
dispersed on hillsides around the cities, while a nightmare
as far as security is concerned, provide gravity based distri-
bution systems that are particularly beneficial when elec-
tricity for pumping is not available.
Since hillside catchments rely on rainfall which isvariable
in both quantity and time, the reliability of these systems is
less than the other methods of water provision. This may be
controlled to some extent by varying the size of the cisterns.
Caution should be exercised here for while an extremely
large cistern provides a certain degree of confidence there
is the likelihood that it will never be filled to capacity except
during extreme events such as tropical storms. Then when
filled it may never be drawn down below certain levels.
Both of these situations are not desirable from an economic
point of view due to invested costs never being utilized.
Quality of the harvested and stored water is a concern.
With adequate exclusion of animals from the catchment
surfaces and storage structures and proper siting of the sys-
tems, very basic treatment of the water should be sufficient
to maintain the water at an acceptable quality.
Assessments have been made of the feasibility of hillside
catchments by the volume of water that may be expected to
be harvested. It is popular to takethe bulk annual precipita-
tion and a rainfall recovery rate for each catchment and
compute a likely rainfall harvest. A major assumption here is
that the cistern is capable of receiving and storing all the
water that runs off of the catchment surface. This assump-
tion is so erroneous that the method should not be used for
estimation. There is a high probability that during the rainy
season there will not be sufficient available space in the cis-
terns to store all the water when it is available. It is more
realistic to consider that there will be times when some of
the rainfall will be lost on account of overflows. Provision of
storage to lessen spills and increase system reliability also is
in reality not a linear function, for rainfall occurence in the
Virgin Islands is not evenly distributed throughout the year.
To demonstrate the effectiveness of a hillside catchment
as a water source, a computer model was used to simulate
the behavior of the Bromoler Hill catchment on the St.
Thomas campus of the University of the Virgin Islands for
Figure I: Bromoler Hill Catchment adjacent to the University of the Virgin Islands Campus Covers 220,000 Square Feet.
various levels of weekly demand. The area of this catchment
is 220,000 square feet and its cistern has a storage capacity of
3,000,000 gallons (see Figure 1). The surface is felt-coated
corrugated galvanize and if it were in perfect condition, its
efficiency as a catchment surface is estimated to be about 85
percent. Twenty one years of Virgin Islands weekly rainfall
data with an annual average of 48 inches was used in the
simulation. A summary of the results are presented in Table
1. Reliability as used in this table is defined to be the prob-
ability of the system being capable of satisfying the particu-
lar demand at any time period used in the simulation.
Large scale water harvesting using purpose-built catch-
ments with cisterns can be a water supply alternative in the
Virgin Islands. Proper evaluation of the costs associated
with constructing and maintaining these structures must be
made. The potential yield from these structures as well as
their reliability must be realistically evaluated. With proper
management and application of current treatment tech-
nology, the quality of water derived from hillside catch-
ments may be readily maintained within acceptable limits.
Reliability of Bromoler Hill Catchment for Several Demands
Weekly Demand Reliability Weekly Demand Reliability
(gallons) (percent) (gallons) (percent)
100,000 90 160,000 45
110,000 85 170,000 40
120,000 80 180,000 40
130,000 70 190,000 35
140,000 60 200,000 30
150,000 55 210,000 30
The White Hair Sheep Of St. Croix
Stephan Wildeus and Kim Traugott
Animal Science, CVI-AES
Virgin Island White Hair Sheep have been on St. Croix for
many years. The sheep are white in color, without horns and
have no wool. There are two theories on how this breed
originated. One hypothesis is that of a cross of the imported
Wiltshire Horn of England with a native creole sheep. The
other suggests the breed to be of West African descent due
to the similarities with other sheep breeds in the Caribbean
The 1982 USDA census estimates St. Croix's sheep popu-
lation to be about 3,000 head. White Hair Sheep popula-
tions do exist elsewhere. In the 1960's they were exported to
Maine, and in 1975 to Utah. From the Utah foundation,
animals went to Florida, Ohio, and California to establish
small research flocks of what is called the "St. Croix sheep."
There are also 5-6 commercial flocks on the continental
United States totalling 200-300 head. In Tobago the Blen-
heim Sheep Project has also been using White Hair sheep,
exported from St. Croix in 1983, for crossbreeding purposes.
Earlier in the century, St. Croix's sheep were exclusively
white and were considered highly prolific. Reports sug-
gested the native sheep to have 2, 3, or even 4 lambs at a
time, to breed throughout the year, and to bear two litters a
year under good management. Today the local sheep show
the results of much cross and/or random breeding. This can
be observed in the various color patterns (West African,
Barbados Blackbelly, Persian Blackhead) and the sporadic
presence of wool.
Virgin Island White ewe with twin lambs at University
of the Virgin Islands experimental station Sheep Research
A study conducted in 1979 collected data from these
farms on St. Croix and St. Thomas (Table 1). Lambing rates
ranging from 1.44 to 1.84 lambs per ewe and a multiple birth
rate of 50-70% were found to be lower than earlier esti-
mates. This survey also showed that local sheep varied con-
siderably in mature size, with an average ram weight of 119
Ibs. and an average ewe weight of 75 Ibs.
Production Characteristics of Virgin Islands White Hair Sheep
CVI-AES Int. Sheep & Goat Selected
Sheep Research Res. Institute Virgin Islands
Facility Utah Farms1
Mature weight (Ibs.)
rams 135 150 119
ewes 85 90- 100 75
(lambs/ewe) 1.70 1.77 -2.18 1.44- 1.84
% Multiple birth 60 -50-75
Birth weight (Ibs.) 6.8 6.2 -
Weaning weight (Ibs.)
(9 weeks) 33.2 33.0
1 Calculated from H. Hupp and D. Deller, "Virgin Islands White Hair Sheep", in "Hair Sheep of Western Africa and the Americas",
H.A. Fitzhugh and G.E. Bradford, ed., Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Additional date have recently been collected at the UVI
Agricultural Experiment Station Sheep Research Facility.
The research farm is located on 25 acres and currently main-
tains a flock of 55 mature ewes and their offspring. The flock
originated from various local farms, with the bulk of the ani-
mals being a donation from the V.I. Department of Correc-
tions, Golden Grove Facility. The flock is kept in semi-
confinement, grazed from early morning to late afternoon
and is housed in secured pens overnight. The objective of
this facility will be to characterize the Virgin Island White
Hair Sheep, evaluate different management and feeding
regimes, and study the biological production potential of
The Virgin Islands White sheep are a small to medium size
breed of sheep with a higher level of fertility than is usually
observed in wool sheep (Table 3). Their mature weight is
considerably lower than those of traditional meat-(ram)
breeds, such as Dorset, Hampshire, Southdown and Suffolk,
however, their lambing percentage is higher than that of
the wooled ewe breeds such as the Rambouillet and
Similar to the Barbados Blackbelly sheep, the V.I. White
sheep are year-round breeders in their native environ-
Preliminary data show mature weights of 135 and 85 Ibs.
for rams and ewes, respectively (Table 1). The lambing rate
Birth and Weaning Weights (9-week weights) of Virgin Islands White Sheep
at the CVI-AES Sheep Research Facility
Birth weight (Ibs.) 8.6 7.6 6.8 5.6
9 week weight (Ibs.) 44.5 37.3 31.7 28.7
daily gain1 (lbs./day) 0.20 0.22 0.28 0.28
1 Weaned animals were supplemented with 0.5 Ibs/head/day of concentrate during the postweaning period.
is 1.7 lambs per ewe and with a frequency of 60% multiple ments, but show indications of seasonal anestrus in more
births. The average birth weight is6.8 lbs. and the average 9- temperate locations with a greater variation in daylength
week weaning weight is 33.2 Ibs. Birth and weaning weights throughout the year. Although the lambing percentage of
vary according to sex and type of birth (Table 2). Generally the V.I. White Sheep is high, it does not approach that of the
ram lambs are heavier than ewe lambs and single lambs Barbados Blackbelly and Finnsheep. The latter have tradi-
heavier than twins for both birth and weaning weights. Fol- tionally been used in crossbreeding programs aimed at in-
lowing weaning twin lambs demonstrate a certain degree of creasing litter size for the production of mutton. The \.1.
compensatory growth, reflected in a higher average daily White sheep may potentially have a similar role in cross-
gain (Table 2). The observations on mature weights and breeding programs for meat production, but more infor-
lambing rates are very similarto data collected on the Virgin mation will have to be collected to identify their true
Islands White sheep under temperate conditions (Table 1). production potential.
Mature Weights and Lambing Percentage of Various Breeds of Wool and Hair Sheep
Mature Weight (Ibs.) Lambing
Ram Ewe %
V.I. White sheep
Barbados Blackbelly 1
1 Adapted from R.K. Rastogi, H.E. Williams and F.G. Youssef, "Barbados Blackbelly Sheep" in "Prolific Tropical Sheep", I.L. Mason, ed. FAO
Small Animals For Small Farms
In The Virgin Islands
Extension Livestock Specialist
Limited land area for livestock and agriculture produc-
tion in the Virgin Islands makes it impossible for most
farmers to raise large animals either for income or for
food for home consumption. But the interest in raising live-
stock is visible all over the islands. If you live here and are
interested in livestock production, do not let limited space
be a hindrance to you. There are several kinds of small
species of livestock which you can choose on your available
space. Also, if you are a crop farmer and you need to
supplement your income or hedge against crop failure,
small livestock production may be your answer.
The small animal species such as sheep, goats, swine,
rabbits and poultry have many advantages over large ani-
mals such as a cow for small-farm rearing. In this article, I
will briefly discuss some of these advantages and then the
individual kinds of animals.
Reproduction. Small animals reach sexual maturity more
rapidly and at a younger age than do large animals, making
it possible, therefore, for the farmer to have something to
eat or to sell within a shorter time. For example, local sheep
and goats can give birth at around 18 months of age com-
pared with 32 or more months of age for a cow. In swine it
takes only 10 or 11 months to get the first litter. Some breeds
of poultry can be slaughtered or marketed at six to eight
weeks of age. Small animals also have multiple births and
several litters in a year. Sheep and goat farmers in the V.I.
have about 150 percent lambing rtes, (i.e. 1.5 lambs per
birth) and for pigs it is not surprising to find a litter of about
10-12 on the islands. Fertility problems in small animals are
also low compared to large animals in the Virgin Islands.
Feeding. Small animals are often less selective when it
comes to grazing. Depending on livestock species, diets
may include grass and other forage such as leaves, stems
(bark), and even kitchen refuse which will otherwise be
wasted. Crop farmers who have surplus vegetables they
cannot sell can also utilize the surplus by feeding it to small
animals such as pigs, and get their money back. I know of a
few crop farmers in St. Croix who combine their vegetable
farms with a few small animals and are very happy and
comfortable with their profitable enterprise. A small plot of
land planted to a high-yeilding forage crop, which is also
drought-resistant such as Buffel grass or Green Panic, could
provide an adequate year-long supply of feed for a few
Small animals have more efficient feed conversion ratios
(i.e. amount of feed eaten per amount of gain) than larger
ones.For example, pigs fed on a balanced ration can have a
conversion ratio of less than 4:1, whereas for cattle it is 9:1.
Small animals have higher dressing percentages (carcass),
with 72 to 74 percent for swine, fifty to 70 percent for sheep
and goats, compared to cattle at 60 to 65 percent.
Space Requirements. Small animals, because of their size,
require less space for handling than their large counter-
parts. This is particularly important in respect to feed pro-
duction because the space required to produce feed for a
few small animals is less than that required for one large
one. It could become feasible for many small farmers,
although not all, to cultivate both food and feed crops.
Thus, you can raise small animals easily on an island such as
the Virgin Islands where we have limited feed resources.
Finally, the relatively small size and low maintenance cost
of small animals makes them more freely available to low
income households who have neither space nor capital for
a large animal.
There are several kinds of small animals that could be
profitably utilized in the Virgin Islands. Some of the charac-
teristics and productive capacities of these animals are
given below. Many of the species mentioned are already
being successfully reared and have adequate levels of pro-
duction in many parts of the islands, indicating thatthe idea
is practical and needs only to be encouraged, supported
Goats. Other than the dog, the goat has the widest eco-
logical range of any domestic animal. Because of this wide
range of adaptability, goats are found everywhere in the
West Indies. In the Virgin Islands, they are mostly utilized
for their meat and a few are milked. They are often referred
to as the poor man's cow. Two goats bred at alternate inter-
vasls can supply a small family in the Virgin Islands with a
whole year's supply of milk and meat.
As ruminants (that is, animals with four stomach compart-
ments who also chew their cuds), goats can be raised exclu-
sively on grass and crop by-products except where milk
production is intended, then their diets have to be supple-
mented with grain.
Adequate, well-ventilated housing for goats is important
in all climates. Housing for the tropics is relatively easy
to construct. In this case, shipping crates were used.
In the Virgin Islands four different goat management sys-
tems are practiced. The first and most common is tethering,
with animals tied every morning in a selected place where
they can have easy access to grass. They are normally untied
in the evening and penned to prevent predation and
stealing. If you utilize this practice, please make sure the
animals have access to shade and plenty of clean water. The
second is "cut and carry" where farmers without land go
out and cut grass from government land and other
properties to feed their animals daily, or buy chopped
guinea grass with tantan (leucaena) from the Dept. of Agri-
culture when available. This is a good practice for there
seems to be plenty of guinea grass all over the island that
could be utilized. The third is confinement where goats are
kept in fenced pastures and are rotated on a schedule basis
or should be. The fourth is unconfined herding, where the
goats are allowed to roam freely, normally with the owner
Goats are basically hardy and do not have as many
diseases as other animals. In the Virgin Islands, they are dis-
turbed more by internal parasites than diseases. Stomach
and intestinal worms usually cause the most damage.
Important symptoms of worm infestation are loss of weight
and digestive disturbances such as diarrhea and/or consti-
pation in alternation. You can control worms by following a
routine deworming schedule with medicines prescribed by
a veterinarian. Also, practicing good sanitation such as re-
moving manure where goats are penned will help decrease
the incidence of these pests. Pasture rotation done a regular
basis will also help decrease worm infestations.
Finally, there is a great demand for goat meat. Virgin
Islanders love "goat water" (stewed goat) and taste pre-
ferences seem to be for the local produce.
Sheep. In the Virgin Islands sheep are valuable for their
meat and, like goats, have a wide ecological range. The
Virgin Islands are known for the wool-less white hair sheep.
These sheep are prolific and have a lambing rate of over
200% (i.e. two lambs per birth). They breed out of season
unlike temperate wool sheep, have two gestations (preg-
nancies) a year and normally have twins or triplets. Studies
conducted at the Virgin Island Agriculture Experiment
Station on the Virgin Islands white hair sheep have shown
that they exhibit puberty at a younger age as compared to
other tropical sheep, have a higher litter size at birth and a
lower lamb mortality. They are also heavier, and have a
higher growth rate. Other sheep breeds found in the Virgin
Islands are Barbados Blackbelly and local Creole breeds.
Sheep are efficient converters of forage to meat. They can
produce a consumable lamb within seven or eight months
after conception without it having to be fed any concen-
trates. In the Virgin Islands, sheep management is similar to
that of goats. Thus, a small farmer with a small flock of our
own Virgin Islands prolific sheep can produce adequate
quantities of meat for the family and for additional income.
Poultry. Great strides in recent poultry research have
made it possible to economically raise birds in every part of
our islands, anytime of the year.
In the Virgin Islands many families find it profitable to
keep a few chickens to produce fresh eggs and meat for
themselves and a few to sell to neighbors. Others who live
Chicken coops protect poultry from predators and weather. Coops
also make it easy to gather eggs from the nests, and prevent breakage.
in residential areas and do not have the land to raise sheep
or goats but still want to cut down on food costs can raise
poultry as an alternative. Although poultry farming is quite
common in the Virgin Islands, it could be improved with a
few inexpensive managerial inputs. For example, I have
noticed that most small backyard flocks on our islands con-
tain old hens whose production is negligible. Laying hens
should not be kept for more than two laying years for a small
family because egg production decreases 20 to 25 percent in
each successive year. A simple improvement in
management, consisting of replacing old hens with young
ones (which could be purchased from time to time at the
Dept. of Agriculture) would tend to increase egg produc-
tion as well as provide more birds for consumption or sale.
Pigs. Pigs are more efficient converters of feed to meat
than any other red-meat producing animal. Pigs can thrive
on a variety of feeds including pasture. They have a de-
served reputation for their ability to consume agricultural
and industrial by-products, garbage and other such feeds
that would otherwise be wasted. With the numerous super-
markets, schools and hospitals in the Virgin Islands that
provide a lot of waste produce and garbage it is not sur-
prising that all our pigs are raised under backyard
conditions. Pigs normally complement vegetable farming in
the Virgin Islands where small farmers use them as a hedge
against crop failure and also as a means of disposing of
blemished vegetables or those they cannot sell easily.
Sows (females) can be bred at around eight months of age,
and two gestations per year are normal. They are prolific
and can produce up to 12 piglets per birth. The piglets can
reach 70 to 90 pounds within three months and 160 pounds
or more within six months. Although it is easy to raise pigs, a
few sound management practices can reduce piglet death
rates, and increase productivity. Dressing percentages for
pigs are 65-80 percent compared with 50-60 percent for
cattle and 45-55 percent for sheep.
Other small livestock that could be raised successfully in
our islands are rabbits and pigeons. Because of problems
associated with marketing of these animals, I have decided
not to discuss their production and management here.
If you desire to raise rabbits or pigeons or have any ques-
tions concerning any of the other species discussed in this
article, please feel free to contact me at the Cooperative
Extension Service livestock program, telephone 778-0246.
In Male Livestock
Joni Rae Fugle
Animal Science, Agricultural Experiment Station
All bulls should be examined for breeding soundness 30-
60 days prior to the breeding season or once a year in con-
tinuous mating systems. This simple and effective test can
eliminate loss of time and money due to male infertility in a
herd. It has been estimated that one out of five bulls has
The Breeding Soundness Exam (BSE) consists of three
parts; a physical examination, scrotal circumference mea-
surement and evaluation of semen sample. The physical
examination includes observation of all structural features
that may affect breeding performance. Special attention
should be paid to the eyes as well as leg and hoof confor-
mation. Bulls should be in good body condition, but not
overweight. The reproductive tract should be palpated
rectally to examine the secondary sex glands(prostate,
seminal vesicles, ampullae, and the internal inguinal rings).
The external genitalia including the penis and prepuce
should also be examined for any structural abnormalities.
Measuring scrotal circumference
The second component of the BSE is the measurement of
the scrotal circumference. Scrotal circumference is a mea-
sure of testicle size and is recorded in centimeters as the
largest horizontal circumference of the scrotal sack. The
scrotal circumference averages vary from breed to breed,
so the bull's measurements should be compared within his
breed averages (Table 1). Scrotal circumference and daily
sperm production are highly correlated, sperm production
being a biological constant per gram of testicular tissue.
Bulls with larger scrotal circumferences have also been
shown to sire daughters that show puberty at an early age.
Table 1. Scrotal Circumferences in Bulls of Various Breeds
Breed Age Scrotal Circum.
Holstein 12-18 34.9
Holstein 24-36 39.6
Holstein > 36 42.2
Brahman 14-17 27.4
Brahman 24-36 33.2
Brahman > 36 36.6
Angus 12-18 36.1
Angus 24-36 40.0
Angus > 36 40.6
Semen samples are usually collected with the aid of an
electro-ejaculator. This method is safe, effective, and in
most cases causes no trauma to the animal. The sample is
then evaluated for volume, motility, and spermatazoal
morphology. The volume of semen ejaculated varies,
dependent on the species (Table 2), but also according to
collection method. Electro-ejaculation will generally pro-
duce a larger volume than a natural ejaculate due to
increased stimulation of the accessory sex glands. Changes
in an individual bull's ejaculate volume should be noted,
especially when there is a downward trend. The motility of
the semen sample can be evaluated under a microscope.
The motility is expressed as a percentage of spermatazoa
with progressive forward motion, but sometimes also as
mass or wave motion.
Table 2. Common Characteristics of Ejaculates
for Various Farm Species
Cattle Sheep Swine Horses
Volume (cc) 5 1 225 60
Sperm Concentration 1.1 3.0 .2 .15
Total sperm 5.5 3 45 9
Motile sperm (%) 65 75 60 70
Normal sperm (%) 80 90 60 70
Finally, the semen sample is evaluated for morphological
abnormalities. This is done by looking at a small amount of
semen under the microscope and counting out at least one
hundred sperm cells. The cells are classified as either
normal or abnormal. Two types of abnormalities exist
(Figure 1). Primary abnormalities are abnormal heads, mid-
pieces, or tightly coiled tails. Secondary abnormalities
include defects such as bent tails and distal droplets. There
is evidence that a bull's fertility can be effected when sperm
cell abnormalities exceed 25%.
Coiled Tail and Midpiece
Distal Droplets _
score in this category would be given to a semen sample
with less than 10% primary abnormalities or less than 25%
total abnormalities. The final 20% of the BSE score is allo-
cated to the semen motility. The gross motility of the sample
or sometimes the movement of individual sperm cells is
evaluated and a score assigned according to the vigor of
Another characteristic that should be evaluated by the
producer is a bull's libido, or sex drive. The libido of a bull
can be tested by placing the bull in a small pen with several
females that are in standing heat. The bull should attemptto
mount a female within 2-5 minutes. A close observation of
the bull and his behavior in this situation will help the pro-
ducer identify any physical problems the bull might have.
Bulls that exhibit high libido settle more cows earlier in the
breeding season. However, there is no relationship
between libido and testicle size. A bull with large testes and
acceptable semen quality may have poor libido, thus
causing a low pregnancy rate in the group of females that he
The University of the Virgin Islands, Agricultural Experi-
ment Station on St. Croix is currently conducting research
on the effects of season on local Senepol and Holstein
cattle. Results from this research are forthcoming. N
Breeding Soundness is then scored by assigning point
values to the various factors in the test (Table 3). Scrotal
circumference is worth 40% of the total score. The points
assigned to the scrotal circumference depend not only on
the measurement but also on the age of the bull. Semen
morphology is also worth 40% of the total score. A perfect
Table 3. Scoring Criteria for Breeding Soundness Exam (BSE)
Scoring Criteria Very Good Good Fair Poor
Scrotal Circumference (cm)
(Mature Bulls) > 39 34 39 < 34 < 34
Score for Scrotal
Circumference 40 24 10 10
Semen Morphology (%)
Primary Abnormalities < 10 10 19 20 29 > 29
Secondary Abnormalities < 25 26 39 40 59 > 59
Score for Morphology 40 24 10 10
Motility Rapid Moderate Slow No
Score for Motility 20 12 10 3
The Miracle Of Soil Organic Matter
Extension Specialist Agronomy
Organic matter has been called the "miracle substance"
of soils because it so dramatically influences the physical,
chemical and biological properties of a soil. Organic matter
consists of three groups of substances. The first group in-
cludes raw and partially rotted materials, such as plant and
animal residues, which decompose very rapidly (Figure 1).
^l *C J J
The third group, know as humus, is derived from the first
two groups. It is the material that has decomposed so far
that it is impossible to determine the original nature of the
material. Humus is very resistant to further decomposition
and therefore is stable in soils for long periods of time.
By volume the organic fraction is the most important and
active substance in soils. The organic fraction along with the
mineral fraction, made up of sand, silt, and clay, form the
solid portion of a soil. The other half is an open pore space
thru which air and water flow.
Most soils have some native reserves of organic matter.
The amount of organic matter is determined by the soil's
history of climate, vegetation, topography, drainage, parent
material, management, and intensity of weathering. The
distribution of organic matter decreases with depth thru the
soil profile, with the surface horizons (or topsoil) generally
having the highest percentage of organic matter (Figure 3).
Figure 1. When plants and animals die
source of food for soil microorganisms.
they become a
The second group is composed of microbial tissue that
forms as the microbes consume the residue. This material
decomposes more slowly than the first (Figure 2).
C \ Sprillae
Figure 2. Soil microbes decompose organic materials
into soil humus.
Figure 3. Organic matter accumulates
organic materials are decomposed.
1 Parent rock
in the topsoil as
This miracle substance, organic matter, is a storehouse of
nutrients for both plants and microorganisms living in the
soil. The soil microbes consume the organic material as a
source of energy to live on. The year round climatic condi-
tions in the Virgin Islands of high temperatures, rainfall, and
humidity along with well-drained soils create perfect
growing conditions for the microbes. Because the microbes
are active throughout the year, there is therefore, relatively
little accumulation of organic matter in the soils.
Most Virgin Island soils have an average of one percent
organic matter. In general, the higher the organic matter
content the more productive the soil is. A soil organic
matter content of 3-4 percent is desirable for sustained agri-
formed by microbes
While decomposing the organic material the microbes
slowly release important plant nutrients, such as nitrogen,
phosphorus and sulfur into the soil solution where they can
be absorbed by the plant roots. This is an important con-
tinual source of these nutrients throughout the growing
Organic matter is also an important supplier of plant mi-
cronutrients. The micronutrients of copper, iron,
manganese and zinc are often stored in a chelated form
(organically bound) which makes them more readily avail-
able to the plant roots rather than being tied up as an
elemental form in the soil.
Increasing the amount of organic matter in a soil can
dramatically increase the ability of a soil to hold and release
nutrients such as potassium, zinc, iron, manganese, copper,
magnesium, and calcium.
Large amounts of organic matter also stabilize the soil re-
action making it less sensitive to harmful acidity, alkalinity
or the toxic effects from excessive amounts of chemicals
which might be added.
Soil organic matter can also improve the soil structure.
Organic matter promotes the grouping together, or aggre-
gation, of mineral particles into larger aggregates.
A soil high in organic matter will have a crumb-like
structure which does not readily break down during a rain-
storm. This strong soil structure keeps the surface from
crusting which would reduce the infiltration of rainfall. It
also decreases the potential for the soil to become com-
pacted during tillage operations. This creates a more
favorable seed-bed for planting a crop.
Soil Water Content
Improved soil structure greatly eases the penetration and
circulation of water and gases in the soil profile by creating
more open channels for the water to flow through. Organic
matter can hold up to 20 times its weight in water thereby
increasing the capacity of a soil to hold large amounts of
water in an available form for plants. This increased soil
moisture encourages both the production and preservation
or organic matter in the soil.
The strong soil structure creates larger open volume
space within the soil; this improves the exchange of air
between the atmosphere and the soil pore space, which
promotes greater root growth throughout the soil.
Plant roots will grow only into pores that are as large or
larger than the root tips. The larger pore spaces created by
better soil structure also allows the plant roots to penetrate
readily throughout the soil.
As the water infiltration rate increases with higher rates of
organic matter the rain will go into the soil and restore
moisture levels rather than run off over the surface and
erode the soil. Thus, water erosion decreases with high
levels of organic matter in the soil.
The organic matter content influences how some pesti-
cides will be absorbed and their effectiveness in the soil.
Pesticide labels should be read carefully to determine if the
amount of pesticide applied should vary according to the
amount of organic matter in the soil.
Managing the Soil Organic Matter Content
Unfortunately, the beneficial influences of organic
matter on the physical, chemical and biological properties
of soils only lasts as long as the organic matter remains
intact. Even humus, the most resistant form of organic
matter, is under constant attack by the soil microbes, which
destroy it and its positive effects. Fortunately, organic
matter is derived largely from natural organic substances.
Therefore, there are many ways for maintaining and in-
creasing the organic matter content of a soil.
Agriculture is usually a permanent system within a de-
fined area of fields or plots. Therefore, maintaining the pro-
ductivity of these areas is essential. When a soil is put into
crop production there is often a rapid decline in the organic
matter content due to poor soil management. This decline
results in a breakdown of the soil structure which in turn
causes the soil to be more difficult toworkand soil crusts to
form more easily after rainfall. The availability of plant nu-
trients and water also decreases causing crop yields to
The process of changing organic matter levels is a slow
one. Organic materials must be added at a rate that
produces new organic matter faster than it is being lost by
decomposition or the decomposition process must be
The best time to add organic materials to your soil is prior
to planting when it can be completely mixed into the soil.
Minimizing the number of times that the soil is disturbed by
tillage will slow down the decomposition process. Tillage
breaks down the aggregates which are being formed by the
organic matter. Plowing and mixing soils increases the
amount of air in the soil which creates a favorable environ-
ment for the microbes to live in. Therefore, they will con-
sume greater amounts of the organic matter which will
eventually weaken the soil structure.
Crops have different root systems, and therefore vary in
the amount of organic material that is left in the soil once
the crop is harvested. Crops with large extensive root sys-
tems such as grasses are beneficial to the soil by adding large
amounts of organic materials. Legume crops such as beans
and peas add nitrogen to the soil which is slowly released to
the following crop. Rotating crops that have large root sys-
tems or that are legumes, within a given plot area, helps to
maintain the organic matter content.
A legume crop that is grown and then plowed into the soil
before harvesting it is called a green manure. The addition
of large amounts of organic material and nitrogen will
rapidly increase the soil organic matter content and thus the
Manures can provide all of the needed plant nutrients
while improving the soil physical properties. The amount of
manure to apply depends on the type, age and chemical
properties of the material. An analysis of the material can be
performed by the Extension Diagnostic Lab on St. Thomas
to provide accurate information on how to utilize this
Seaweed can be used as a source of organic material.
However, even when washed, high soluble salt and sodium
contents are typically found in seaweed. These can damage
the root systems of a plant as well as lead to a salt problem
within your soil. A sample should always be analyzed by the
Extension Diagnostic Lab prior to adding seaweed to your
In general, woody materials, such as wood chips, saw-
dust, straw and shredded branches improve the soil struc-
ture and other physical properties rather than providing an
important source of plant nutrients. The carbohydrates
found in woody material provide the energy needed for the
growth of microorganisms. However, woody materials are
usually low in nitrogen which is also needed by microbes
during the decomposition process. If the nitrogen they
need is not in the woody material, they will take it from the
soil, resulting in a temporary shortage of available nitrogen
for plant growth. Adding a source of nitrogen such as
manure or chemical fertilizer with the woody material will
minimize this problem. Wood that has been treated with
toxic compounds for insect resistance and as preservative
such as wolmanized wood, should not be used in the soil.
Figure 4. Extension Agent Carlos Robles, takes a soil
sample to determine the soil's organic matter content.
It is important to continually add organic materials to
your soil in order to increase and maintain the optimum
levels of soil organic matter in it. Numerous sources of
organic material are available in the Virgin Islands. To know
what amounts of nutrients are being added to your soil, you
should have a sample analyzed prior to mixing it with the
soil to avoid potential problems (Figure 4). The organic
matter content of your soil may be analyzed by the Exten-
sion Diagnostic Lab on St. Thomas. Samples should be taken
according to Cooperative Extension Service Factsheet 25
which may be obtained at the publications office, Old CVI
Campus, Estate Golden Grove, St. Croix.
Fig. 1 and 2 Soils Facts and Concepts, 1984. Schroeder,
Diedrich. International Potash Institute, Bern, Switzerland.
The Soil, FAO, 1976, Rome.
Very best wishes from
41$ li- FF M-- ia~earb~
Prevention Is Better Than Cure
Extension Agent Pest Management
Healthy plants are more able
to withstand diseases
Throughout our lives, we have heard the saying "an
ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure." This
saying does not only pertain to situations affecting human
beings but also to conditions affecting plant health.
Plant diseases contribute to substantial losses in vege-
tables, fruits, nuts and ornamentals. Preventing disease in
plants will go a long way in helping to provide food to feed
our steadily increasing population and ornamentals to
beautify our islands.
In order for a disease to develop, three ingredients must
be present: 1) a susceptible host plant 2) a disease-
producing agent and 3) an environment favorable to
disease development. Thus, if you eliminate or reduce the
intensity of one or more of these ingredients, the resultwill
be a corresponding decrease in the occurrence or severity
of the disease. There are several preventive measures that
can be taken by farmers and home gardeners. By following
these measures, you can reduce or eliminate plant disease.
Consequently, you will have reduced yield loss as well as
the use of expensive chemicals.
These preventive measures involve five approaches. They
include: reducing plant stress; keeping diseases out of our
islands, nurseries and farms; eradicating it when it occurs;
using resistant varieties; and protecting plants.
Plants are stressed by a number of factors. Among them
are improper watering, lack of nutrients, unsuitable plant-
ing medium and poor drainage.
Lack of water produces stress in plants. This is shown by
symptoms such as wilting, tip or marginal burn of leaves,
twig and branch dieback, yellowing and early defoliation of
older leaves. To prevent drought stress you should water
Always maintain healthy plants
the root zone of plants thoroughly as needed, use plants
that are adapted to your conditions and apply a mulch
around plants to reduce evaporation.
On the other hand, as the saying goes "Too much of one
thing is good for nothing." And it's true too much water
can also be detrimental to plants. Excess water fills the air
space in the soil and decreases the amount of oxygen avail-
able to plants. In saturated soil, no oxygen is available for
plant use. This condition, if prolonged, will eventually kill
the plant. Overwatering is most common with claysoils and
in pots with inadequate drainage. To prevent poor drain-
age, use sandy soil, add vermiculite to soil mix or put rocks
in the bottom of your pots.
If your plants lack a well balanced nutrition, they will not
grow properly. Many soils lack certain nutrients and this
may cause the problem. In which case, you should add
chemical fertilizer, animal manure or compost to the soil.
Improper pH also accounts for nutrient unavailability.
The measure of the acidity or alkalinity of solutions is its pH.
A soil pH determines its ability to make the nutrients avail-
able to the plants. Some plants can even "starve" to death if
planted in soils that are unsuited for them. Lime or sulfur
may be used to correct the pH. Lime increases the pH, while
sulfur decreases it.
Yet another factor that contributes to plant stress is a
build up of salts in the soil. This may be caused by over-
fertilization. The use of potable or well water can also cause
this problem as it often contains high concentrations of
salts. Salt build-up is indicated by a white crust on dry soil
surfaces or on containers in which plants are grown.
Plants range in their tolerance to salts. If you have a prob-
lem with salty soils you might consider planting salt-tolerant
varieties, or reducing the use of potable and well water. If
plants grown in containers have saucers or catch pans,
remove them so that excess water can drain out of the con-
tainer to prevent salt accumulation.
Quarantine is one way of keeping disease out of our
islands. This is accomplished by not allowing certain plants,
fruits or vegetables, that often carry a particular disease into
the territory from other Caribbean islands. Many of us,
while traveling, will have had to fill out forms which ask if
we are carrying plants, fruits, or vegetables. Or, some of us
may have certain agricultural products taken away by
Customs officials. They were not trying to spite us (some of
us think that they want the fruits for themselves) but were
trying to intercept plant materials that frequently carry
diseases. To avoid any problems when traveling, you may
want to contact the Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ)
office. On request, they will provide information on the
regulations concerning any particular plant, fruit or vege-
table that you are interested in. The phone numbers are
774-2787 and 778-1696.
Another means of keeping diseases out of your gardens
and farms involves a simple effort by the farmer, gardener,
and homeowner. You should make sure that plants you
bring into your fields, gardens or homes are healthy and
free of insects and disease.
Even after a disease has invaded a plant, it can be eradi-
cated from the planting by removing the diseased parts or
the whole plant. The diseased plant or plant parts should be
carefully disposed of by burning or burying. This practice is
an effective way of preventing reinfection and will reduce
the number of disease-causing agents that are available to
infect other plants.
Loss of crops can also be prevented by using varieties of
plants that are resistant or tolerant to a specific disease.
There are many varieties of plants which have been devel-
oped which are resistant or tolerant to specific diseases.
Resistance involves the use of plants that are not susceptible
(easy to get disease) to a disease. There are many varieties of
field crops which are resistant or tolerant to specific
diseases. The timing of planting crops when disease is less
likely to occur will also aid in preventing diseases. For exam-
ple, planting seeds in wet soil generally increases seedling
diseases. Thus, you may (in some cases) want to avoid
planting seeds during periods of heavy rains. Early planted
Proper watering or fertilizer
and quick-maturing varieties may escape diseases and other
pests before they become well established.
Some plants have natural barriers such as hairs and thick
cuticles, which prevent the entry of disease-causing agents.
However, most plants do not have these characteristics and
must be protected from disease or organisms. Protection
involves the use of a protective barrier, usually a chemical,
between the plant and the disease-causing agent. These
chemicals must be applied before the disease organism is
present on the plant. Farmers who are aware or informed of
conditions favorable for disease development (for example,
moisture, temperature, etc.) may apply a fungicide to
protect the plants from the predicted disease.
It must be noted that these preventive measures will not
eliminate or control all diseases from the farm or home
garden. Spores (small seeds that cause disease) are brought
into the planting by means of which we have no control, for
example, by wind currents, animals, birds and insects.
Others are carried by man (unaware), machinery, tools and
other implements. However, the preventive measures
given will result in a noticeable reduction in crop loss
attributed to diseases. E
Pull up weeds which harbor
diseases and pests
Remove dead or
5 Company Street
St. Croix 00820
THE COMPASS ROSE
6 Company Street, Christiansted
Monday thru Saturday 11 a.m. to 9 p.m.
New And Nutritious Crops
For St. Croix
Blue Chip Farms, Frederiksted
The tropics contain more different types of plants than
most of the world. In our island of St. Croix, however, we
use only a fraction of the great variety of plants which grow
here. The purpose of this article is to mention several vege-
table plants which grow on the island successfully and to
share with you my experiences with them.
Two green vegetables are available which are vigorous,
fast growing, and nutritious. Two root crops are also men-
tioned which are productive and space saving. All of these
can be grown in a home garden and one is suitable for con-
tainer or hydroponic growing.
The green vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus dubious, A.
gangeticus, A. hybridus) is an extremely ancient plant once
cultivated by the Aztecs as a grain. The amaranth I am
writing of here is known as vegetable amaranth, "spinach",
Kallaloo, or Bajee. It already is collected here in St. Croix
from wild plants and is a common ingredient in local kalla-
The reason for mentioning it here is because, while most
wild amaranth only grows short (1-3 foot) plants with small
leaves, other varieties which grow to 6 feet tall and with 8-10
inch leaves are now available by seed and in several forms
growth and color.
Amaranth has another distinctive feature, it grows fast! A
plant only 6 inches high, when well supplied with water, can
grow up to 12 inches in one week, and after cutting it back,
be ready for harvest in two weeks. The long stems and
leaves of the young plant and the top 8-12 inches of older
plants are harvested and the taste is vaguely like spinach,
but no chalky aftertaste. The interior of large amaranth
stems provides a crisp treat similar to broccoli stems.
One drawback, however, in growing amaranth is pest
control. All amaranths, wild and planted, will require con-
trol of caterpillars (worms) weekly or else they will
destroy the crop. They can be easily protected, however, by
a safe, organic spray of Bacillus thurigiensis (Bactospiene)
which can be used up to the day of harvest and is harmless
to man, animals, and other insects. This productive, fast
growing green is a natural for this island, it's always been
here wild and new varieties make it better.
Water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) is an edible green
which is a member of the same family as sweet potatoes.
This plant prefers a life in a swampy environment, but some
varieties can also be grown in soil with adequate moisture. It
grows as a sprawling vine if left uncut but if cut produces a
clump of shoots which grow back after cutting. It can be
easily propagated by seeds or cuttings planted 6 inches
Due to its ability to grow in wet swampy places many
schemes of cultivation are possible. In Malaysia, it is grown
in fish ponds, the spinach is fed to pigs, the pig manure is
used to fertilize the ponds, and thus three products, fish,
spinach, and pigs can be harvested at the same time. A
friend of mine grows it on a portion of concrete pation in 1-
2 inches of dirt which is frequently flooded with water
from a leaking roof gutter. I believe it could be grown in any
container holding water or hydroponically at home with
Water spinach grows in moist rich soil or water. The leaves
can be used for salad or kallaloo and has a mild pleasant
The young shoots of the plant 6-12 inches long are cut
back, the leaves and hollow stems are chopped for use in
salads, stir fries, soups, and stews. They have a mild olive
spinach flavor but also no aftertaste. The fresh leaves have a
protein content of 2-4.5%. Amaranth and water spinach
contain low levels of oxalic acid, unlike other spinach which
can block calcium absorption in the body.
The jicama is native to South America and is grown com-
mercially in Mexico. It is a unique plant which grows like a
vegetable but produces a turnip shaped root which tastes
like an apple! The plants are grown from seed spaced one
foot apart and mature roots are up to 6 Ibs. in 120 days. In St.
Croix, my jicima have grown to 2 Ibs. and are excellent used
raw in salad or in stir fry dishes. Jicama is a member of the
bean family and grows as a sprawling vine similar to a
blackeye pea. It bears very attractive purple flowers which
are followed by the bean pods containing seeds. They do
not appear to have serious pest problems and can be suc-
cessfully grown here during the rainy season. They are
nutritious and contain 1.2% protein, 10% carbohydrates,
and .7% fiber.
The lesser yam (Dioscorea esculenta) is of ancient culti-
vation in Asia and is grown in other Caribbean islands. It is
special because while other yams "run" up to 30 feet and
take up a lot of space, this yam's vines are compact, running
only 6 feet or so. They also bear shallowly in the ground and
are therefore easier to harvest than other yams. The yam
itself is a cluster of potato-like tubers 4 inches across which
have a soft texture free of fibre and a slightly sweet taste.
Small tubers are saved to plant the next crop at a spacing of
12-18 inches apart. By using tripods of wooden sticks, the
twining vines can be restricted to a 3 foot wide bed with 3
rows in each bed. They are planted in May or June and can
be harvested 6 months later or left in the ground and dug as
needed. I have not seen any pest or disease problem with
Sources for seed:
Amaranth Greenleaf Seeds, P.O. Box 98, Conway, MA 01341
Jicama Hastings Seed, 434 Marietta St. N.W., P.O. Box 4274,
Atlanta, GA 30303-4274
Water Spinach Blue Chip Farm, St. Croix 772-2986
Potato Yams Blue Chip Farm, St. Croix 772-2986 Joseph Pember-
ton, Estate Concordia, St. Croix.
Jimcama, a root vegetable with slight apple flavor, can
be cooked or eaten raw.
Tropical yams (Dioscorea sp.) are different from sweet
potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) even though some sweet pota-
toes are known as "yams" in the U. S. Yams are commonly
grown on St. Croix, but a rare type, variously called potato
yam, tippy tombo, or cush cush, can be easily grown here,
and in much less space than other yams.
Cush-Cush yam is a potato-like root crop which grows in
clusters. It cooks to a soft texture in about 15 minutes
when harvested young.
Blue Chip Farm is located in Estate Northside. The author
can be seen tending his crops.
,AMM FOODS INC.
P.O. BOX 3637. CHRISTIANSTED, ST CROIX. U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS 00820
A Quality House of
Fine Food Products
GEORGE W. RAWLINS
"Who Are You?"
Identifying Your Livestock
Sue A. Lakos
Extension Agent Livestock
There are two major reasons for identifying your live-
stock. The first is to enable you to tell them apart from each
other, and the second is to tell them apart from those
owned by someone else or to prove that you are their
The methods of identification vary extremely and fall into
two categories, permanent and non-permanent.
The non-permanent forms of identification are useful
when the animal is to be owned for only a short period of
time or by many different owners during the course of its
life. It is also useful if the identification is used to indicate
the status of the animal and the status changes over time.
The permanent forms of identification are virtually
unchanging and unalterable marks that remain with the
animal throughout its life. It is the most reliable method to
use when animals must be accurately identified at all stages
of their development.
The most common forms of non-permanent identifica-
tion are eartags, marking crayons, paint sticks, auction tags,
paint branding and collars. Less common is the use of
dewlap or brisket tags and the paint pistol.
The most commonly used methods of permanent identi-
fication are hot branding, freeze branding, tattooing and ear
notching. Less commonly used are horn branding, body
sketching, photography, nose printing and electronic
There are many kinds of eartags used by livestock pro-
ducers. While they are considered temporary identifica-
tion, the removal of the tags will leave a mark on the animal,
usually in the form of a hole or tear.
An example of a soft plastic hanging eartag.
Eartags are constructed from a variety of materials such as
soft nylon, hard plastic or metal, and they can say anything
that the farmer wishes. There are also many different shapes
of eartags such as round "buttons", small rectangular tags,
large hanging tags and metal clamp type tags.
An example of the pliers used to attach the metal clip tags
to the ear.
Marking Crayons/Paint Sticks/Auction Tags
Marking crayons, paint sticks and auction tags are
temporary methods of identification used mostly on ani-
mals at sales. They can be used on any and all species of
The marking crayons and paint sticks leave a mark on the
animal that looks very much like the mark left by a child's
crayon. This is a very handy way to identify animals because
they are inexpensive, easily used in all types of weather and
leave a bold, bright mark that will last for several days.
The auction tags are paper tags that are attached to either
the back or forehead of a sale animal with a special rubber
Paint branding is a semi-permanent form of identification
that involves the marking of an animal through the use of
painted numbers on the hide. It can be used on most
species of livestock including sheep, goats, cattle, horses
and swine but it is primarily reserved for use on sheep and
The use of a collar is the most temporary method of iden-
tification available to the producer. It can be used on any
type of livestock such as horses, sheep, goats and cattle and
including dogs and cats. Collaring, however, does not work
well with pigs. In addition to the collar, many people attach
another form of identification to the collar in the form of a
tag or bell. Tags can either have a number or a name and
address imprinted on them. Bells assist the owner in
locating animals kept in range conditions.
Leg banding is another type of "collaring" used in the
livestock industry. There are two different types of leg
banding used. The first type is done on poultry. When
young, the chicks have a metal band clamped loosely
around their leg. The band has a number on it and stays with
the bird as it grows.
The second type of leg banding is used mostly in the dairy
industry. The bands buckle onto the animal's leg. They have
either the animal's number or a message to the milker such
as CAUTION or DUMP on them. Other types of dairy leg
bands use Velcro or webbing straps to attach the message.
Attaching the metal clip tag.
Dewlap or Brisket Tags
The dewlap or brisket is another method of semi-
permanent identification used on cattle. The tag is made of
metal and is attached, via a metal hasp, through a hole
pierced in the dewlap of the animal. In beef animals, the tag
is located about 8-10 inches below the jaw, while in dairy
animals, it is placed lower.
The metal clip tag in position in the ear.
The use of the paint pistol is an alternative to paint brand-
ing when the animals are under range conditions and no
restraint facilities are available. It allows the marking of ani-
mals from a distance.
The paint pistol fires a pellet containing the paint at the
animal. The pellet is propelled by a carbon dioxide car-
tridge and shatters as it strikes the animal, leaving a blotch of
bright paint that will last for several weeks.
Branding is the most common way of permanently identi-
fying cattle and horses. Branding is not common in other
species, but may also be performed on goats and hair sheep,
if desired. The brand can be placed in a variety of locations
such as the hip, back, side, shoulder, neck, cheek, or even
the forehead of the animal.
There are two types of branding that can be used. They
are hot branding and freeze branding.
Hot branding is the use of heated metal irons to burn the
hide of the animal. When these burns heal, a scar is left that
grows no hair and is, thus, visible from a distance.
Freeze branding uses extreme cold to place a mark on the
animal. The cold destroys the pigment cells of the hair
follicles so that, when the hair grows back, it comes in
white. Therefore, on a colored animal, the white numbers
stand out and can be easily read.
_~~ sr* '
Tattooing the ear of the animal.
Tattooing is the placement of ink under the skin to form a
permanent mark of identification. It can be used to mark
any species of animals. The preferred placement of the
tattoo is in the ear but some farmers tattoo their animals on
the shoulder, rump, lip or udder also.
Poultry can also be tattooed for identification. The tattoo-
ing is done with the same type of pliers on the webbing of
A perfect example of a proper tattoo.
Ear notching is a permanent identification technique
used for swine, sheep and goats. It is the process of re-
moving a portion of the ear resulting in spaces or "notches"
as the animal grows. The only way that this identification
can be altered is if the animal tears the ear (or a portion of it)
Horn branding is another type of hot branding used on
horned breeds of cattle such as the Hereford or Brahman. It
is the same as the hot branding described previously but the
horn is branded instead of the hide.
Body sketching is an identification method used almost
exclusively by the Holstein Association and other "spotted"
animal registries for identification of registered animals.
When registering an animal with their association, the
owner is given an animal outline and asked to "draw" the
animal in question. Since the color pattern born on theani-
mal remains with it for life, unchanging, this is an excellent
method of identifying spotted animals when it is done pre-
cisely and carefully.
Photographs are another permanent form of identifi-
cation useful for spotted animals. The pattern of the
animal's coat doesn't change throughout their lifetime so it
is an accurate method of identifying animals. Often,
though, this is not a practical method for large farmers due
to the bulk and inconvenience of carrying large quantities
of photos with them wherever they go. Many farmers,
however, do keep photos in their files as a secondary means
Noseprinting is a method of identification used on dogs
and cattle. The noses of these animals have a unique pattern
to them not unlike the human fingerprint. Each individual
nose is different from all others.
Since this is a fairly complicated (and often expensive)
method of identification and requires the use of special
training and/or a computer with a specialized program, this
technique is normally reserved for use by certain breed
associations or for very valuable animals.
The new computer age has affected all phases of the live-
stock industry including identification. Some livestock
owners, especially those in the horse industry, are now
putting this new technology to use. They are using glass-
encased bio-medical microchips the size of a pencil lead
that are preprogrammed with unique and unalterable
identification codes. They are implanted beneath the skin
and read by a special scanner to identify livestock.
For details on how to obtain the necessary equipment
and/or instruction on how to apply identification to your
livestock, please feel free to contact the livestock program
at the Cooperative Extension Service, phone 778-0246.
TRY WEDs NEW
THE SOFT KAISER BUN.
THE FAT TOMATOES.
THE FRESH TOPPINGS.
Bob and Harriet Soffes
a2J/ (AA ~I71Iix es;*i;~2~,muaI
We are an active part of the community
and gladly support community activities
TW o s
Long Bay 774-2695
Four Winds Plaza 775-4655 r Sub Base 774-4200
Golden Rock 773-0118 Villa La Reine 778-1272
PLEASE HELP KEEP OUR AMERICAN PARADISE BEAUTIFUL
OF ST. CROIX
P.O. Box 2570, Kingshill
St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 00850
Horses Of The Wo
Extension Livestock Specialist
It has often been said of the horse (Equus caballus) that no
other living creature has had the same cultured effect upon
the civilization of man or has so helped him to achieve his
ambitions. In many ways, though, no other creature has suf-
fered as much as the horse has at the hands of man, either.
According to biologists, zoologists and archaeologists all
breeds of horses have a common ancestor, Equus przeval-
skii, whose immediate descendant is Poljakoff, or the
Asiatic wild horse.
Horses are said to have populated the world long before
man evolved into a human being. Since the beginning of
history the numbers of horses which roamed the world so
freely have decreased enormously until today when one
breed after another is fast disappearing. But horses con-
tinue to be bred in all the recognized continents Africa,
Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America, and the
Caribbean. Many countries within these continents special-
ize in particular breeds which may be regarded as'native',
although perhaps not indigenous, to these countries.
Sometimes these native breeds, like the Arabian, whose
ancestry lies in Persia, have established themselves so suc-
cessfully in other lands that they have come to be regarded
as belonging there.
Chestnut Arabian Stallion
Apart from the recognized breeds, there are many dif-
ferent types of horses. All these breeds and types serve the
purpose for which man requires them, and have adapted
themselves to every condition of climate and service.
Breeds of horses must be studied in relationship to their
environment. The chief factors which govern the distribu-
tion and development of the genus Equus are climate, soil,
light, constitution of food and water and their availability.
Another factor is domestication which includes selective
breeding in order to obtain animals suited for specific
- The Arabian
The extremes of temperature in countries where the
horse is found play an important part in developing his
resilience. His extraordinary ability to adapt himself to cli-
matic changes is one of the most remarkable qualities which
the horse possesses. For instance, generally speaking,
ponies which are able to grow a thick coat are found in the
colder northern climates and mountainous regions, while
the hot climates have produced a noble, elegant animal
with a thin skin and fine coat. Damp climates which provide
lush grazing have produced the slow, heavy horse. In tropi-
cal climates a small, hard, energetic horse is found. He often
does not express particularly good conformation, but is
capable of enduring considerable hardship as that which is
found in the Virgin Islands.
The Arabian and Thoroughbred are regarded as the
noblest and most excellent of the species, and breeding
strategies have been developed upon the most scientific
Half-bred horses are normally considered to be crosses
between heavy horses or native ponies and thoroughbreds,
although in many cases the term is used to describe an ani-
mal of unknown ancestry. Anglo-Arab and Anglo-Norman
are the offspring of the cross between the Thoroughbred
and the Arabian, and the Thoroughbred and the Norman
horse, respectively. A country-bred horse is not a breed but
a type common to a certain locality. The expression "wild
horses" is an erroneous description for once domesticated
horses which are free to roam in herds and graze certain
districts. The proper term for these animals is'feral horses'.
The only true wild horses left in the world today are the
Mongolian wild horses (also known as Przewalski's horse or
the Asiatic wild horse), whose native land for hundreds of
thousands of years has been the steppe lands of the Western
The Arabian horse has been selectively bred for more
than 1,000 years longer than any other breed, and there are
those who claim that the horse has run wild in the deserts of
Arabia for many millennia. Others disagree on the grounds
that no prehistoric horse bones have ever been found in the
desert, and they are supported by the fact that the Arab was
not one of the 12 breeds mentioned by the Romans. There is
also no mention of it in pre-Roman history. The Moslems
believed, literally, that God (Allah) created the horse out of
a handful of the South wind, but the mundane truth of it
must be that, like all other breeds of horse and pony, the
Arabian evolved over many centuries from the prehistoric
wild horses who roamed the plateaux and steppes of
Europe and Asia before man was civilized, and who looked
very much like the tarpan and the Asiatic wild horse of
Selective breeding to the Arabian by the Bedouin people
has been going on since at least the time of Mohammed (7
A.D.) and there is evidence to suggest that it was practiced
for as long as a thousand years before that. The Bedouin's
ruthless attention to purity of line so absolute that unless
a horse was known to be pure, he could never be bred into
the pure line, no matter how perfect his conformation -
plus the exceptional hardships of the desert climate are the
two factors that have produced this, the most graceful and
individual horse in the world. Food was scarce in the desert,
grass grew only in winter and early spring and for the restof
the year the horses lived off camel's milk, dried dates,
locusts, and dried camel's meat. Only the strong could
endure this. So convinced was Mohammed of the military
importance of these tough desert horses, which he bought
from the wandering tribes and paid for with human slaves,
that he wrote into the Koran an irresistable injunction to
men to feed their horses well: "As many grains of barley as
thou givest thy horse, so many sins shall be forgiven thee."
Religious commandment, reinforced by the extraor-
dinary passion for their horses, led the Bedouin into a man-
to-horse relationship unequalled to this day. It was to last
for 13 centuries. Not only did a man share his food with his
horse, but even slept with it. The mares, and not the stal-
lions, were the most highly prized and were the mounts that
were used for war and plunder. Purity of blood line was
treated with fanatical seriousness, and horses were gener-
ally inbred to reinforce good qualities. This is an entirely
foreign concept to the western breeder, whose school of
thought has it that inbreeding produces congenital
The Arabian horses can be divided into three main types.
1. Kehylan masculine type symbol of power and
2. Seglami feminine type, symbol of beauty and
3. Munigi angular type, symbol of speed and racing.
The breeding of one Arabian type with another is not
always desirable, since the offspring is sometimes of lesser
quality than either parent.
Arabians were first introduced to Europe during the
Moorish invasions of the western Mediterranean. Some
incidental breeding with local mares must have occurred,
but there is little evidence to suggest that the Arabian was
thought of as anything more than perhaps a decorative
Arabian horses are sometimes known as Drinkers of the
Wind. They are famed for their kind disposition, patience,
trust and qualities of observation and also for their hearing,
sense of direction and memory. The action of the Arabian is
light and graceful with a long stride. Their natural gait is the
canter, covering much ground. The trot is generally in-
ferior. Special qualities possessed by the Arabian are
stamina and endurance over long distance. Endurance
records are 644 Km (390 miles) in five days and nights, 300
(180m) in two days and nights, and 100 miles in 15 1/2 days.
Most purebred Arabians are bay, chestnut, gray or not
quite gray ('flea-bitten gray'). Occasionally, white or black is
seen, but they are rare. The palomino and paint/pinto
colorations are never found in purebred Arabians,
although an orange colour has been known to exist. A true
Arabian, regardless of its colour, will always have a dark
skin, and a shiny metallic bloom to its coat.
Although its cavalry days are over, its dash and spirit as a
riding horse ensure its future. The Arabian's prepotency as a
sire will endure, as in so many cases in the past. whenever a
new breed of quality and refinement has evolved.
Photo from A Standard Guide To Horse And Pony Breeds
General Editor: Elwyn Hartley Edwards
Plot 82-C Estate Whim. F'sted.
RESTAURANT & GUEST HOUSE
Will Cater For Groups,
St Croix PAELLA
6 1 Closed Sundays
Dr. Ed Jacobs, DVM
St. Croix Animal Hospital
7 A Peter's Rest
The Crucians Of Sandy Point
Susan Basford and Robert Brandner
Directors, Principal Investigators
Leatherback Recovery Project
Sandy Point, St. Croix
Did you know that there is a population of Crucians that
only go to the beach at night? These Crucians will go to the
beach 5 10 times during the summer, disappear 2 3 years,
and return again to repeat the process. Males, however,
never come out of the water at all! Who are these Crucians?
They are Leatherback Sea Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).
We call them Crucians because it is believed by many turtle
researchers that when female leatherback turtles reach
sexual maturity and breed they return to the beaches where
they were born, to lay their eggs, continuing their repro-
ductive cycle. The eggs of many leatherbacks are laid on St.
Croix beaches, with hatchlings emerging and heading for
the sea. For the males this is the only time they will ever be
on the land, since they live their entire lives as aquatic ani-
mals. The turtles leave the warm Caribbean water as adults
migrating to the Northern waters of of Labrador and New-
foundland, but juveniles disappear and are almost never
encountered. Mature females head back to St. Croix to
deposit the eggs, eventually digging several nests at 10-day
intervals, and by August will have started their circular
migration North again not to return for 2-3 years, if at all.
The hatchling leatherbacks, 3 inches in length, emerge in
the dark of night, find the sea and will not be seen again
until they are 8000 times their original size.
Leatherback Sea Turtles are an endangered species, just
as are all sea turtles. Before management procedures can be
developed to protect their population, it is imperative to
discover as much as possible about the ecology of these
magnificent animals. For this reason, the St. Croix group is
of particular importance. The small local population has
been extensively studied over the past several years, and is
considered the largest nesting aggregation in the U.S. and
Northern Caribbean waters. At the same time, it is a small
enough group to permit long-term intensive data collec-
tion on the breeding biology and ecology of individual
The necessary date is collected by a small staff of biolo-
gists on contract to the Virgin Islands Division of Fish and
Wildlife, who sponsor this research, and with the help of 8
teams of Earthwatch volunteers (Earthwatch is a non-profit
organization that matches up lay people with scientific field
projects that need extra hands).The volunteers pay for their
own transportation, room and board, and agree to work 10
hours per night for 10 days. With staff,they patrol a 11/2 mile
beach study area on Sandy Point at hourly intervals from
7:00 p.m. to 5:00 a.m. This allows researchers to collect data
on every turtle during the nesting season. When a turtle is
seen on the beach, a data sheet is compiled, with informa-
tion regarding time, weather, location, the animal's activity,
her length and width, presence or absence of ectobiota,
and any other distinguishing characteristics she may have.
Weights can sometimes be taken by using a tripod with a
Turtlewatch crew are on hand as female excavates her nest.
block and tackle, along with an enormous group effort. Egg
deposition is carefully recorded, the nest depth measured,
and number of eggs counted. Since much of the beach
erodes, often the whole nest is relocated to a more stable
area. If this is the case, the depth of the nest is carefully
duplicated and the eggs are moved as quickly as possible to
prevent reduction in hatching success. However, it is not
recommended that novices attempt to relocate nests. Sixty
days after egg deposition, the nest site is monitored closely
for signs of hatching. Once the primary emergence of
hatchlings has occurred, the nest is excavated and contents
tabulated to determine hatching success.
During the season, from April through August, beach
profiles are drawn biweekly to monitor beach erosion
which aids staff in determining "safe" and "unsafe" areas of
the beach for egg deposition. Unsafe areas are those which
will experience a high degree of erosion during the 60 days
necessary for incubation.
This intensive effort results in saturation tagging of the
leatherback population, and every leatherback female that
nests on Sandy Point is tagged and identified, with all perti-
nent data recorded. This kind of documentation has been
going on for the past 5 years, and hopefully will continue for
at least 10 or more years.
Through this kind of painstaking work, some pieces of the
leatherback puzzle are beginning to be filled in. There is an
enormous amount of basic information yet to be learned,
including such seemingly simple facts as age at sexual
maturity, life span, and progress of juvenile development.
However, we do know that the typical leatherback female
which comes to Sandy Point to nest is approximately 800 Ibs.
(up to 1000 Ibs.). She is probably 5 feet long with a flipper
span of 8 feet. In general, she will come up on the beach
every 10 nights and lay an average of 80 eggs each time; she
will return to lay 5 nests, or maybe as many as 10 per season.
Eggs "like ping-pong balls" are dropped into sandy nest
Once her nesting season is over, usually by mid-July she will
leave St. Croix and not return again for 2-3 years. Since 1982
when regular patrols of the beach began, there have been
136 different females using the beach, ranging from 18-46
We know that the hatchlings generally emerge from their
2 1/2 foot deep nest as a group, each stimulating the other to
make its way through the sand and out into the night. When
there are no distracting lights, the youngsters turn un-
erringly to the sea, and disappear into the surf. They must
make their own way down the beach, protected from
hungry ghost crabs and yellow-crowned night herons by
Earthwatch volunteers. Once in the water, they are a tasty
morsel for passing fish. It has been estimated that even
without human interference, only 1 out of 1000 eggs laid
will hatch and survive into maturity not very good odds.
Recently emerged hatchling only few inches long make
its way into the frothy sea.
Conservation measures are being taken to increase the
odds of survival and to reduce the critical endangerment of
the species. In 1978, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service desig-
nated Sandy Point as Critical Habitat for the Leatherback
Sea Turtle. In 1979, the National Marine Fisheries Service
designated the surrounding water as Critical Habitat. In
1984, Sandy Point was purchased by the U.S. Fish and Wild-
life Service and incorporated into the Caribbean Islands
National Wildlife Refuge System. This was to help protect
this unique area and its wildlife for future generations.
More needs to be discovered about the ecology of the
leatherback and the on-going intensive research being
done here on St. Croix will certainly assist in this effort.
There is a great opportunity for Crucians to help protect
these gentle giants and it is important that more people on
St. Croix become aware of this unique natural resource.
This is one of the few places on earth that these animals can
be seen nesting. The staff of the leatherback project is
happy to take slides and an educational program into the
schools and welcomes all Crucians on Sandy Point at night.
Arrangements for this kind of tour should be made in
advance. National Wildlife Refuge rules limit the number of
visitors to the beach on any given night, in order to mini-
mize the effect on the nesting turtles. Reservations may be
made through Robert Brandner or Susan Basford by calling
2-0274 between 2-6 p.m., April through August. They will be
able to suggest nights when turtles are most likely to be
seen. During the rest of the year information may be ob-
tained by calling Ralf Boulon Jr. at the Division of Fish and
Wildlife at 775-6752.
People who would like to take an active part in learning
about this and other sea turtles, can participate in a beach
survey, helping to document turtle activities on beaches
throughout St. Croix. Again, call the above number for an
Young turtle enthusiasts take a propiety interest in Mama
turtle as she begins to lay her eggs.
Anyone can help in the conservation practices regarding
sea turtles simply by obeying the no-vehicle rules on the
beaches (tire tracks trap hatchlings on their way to the sea,
and if the nest itself is run over, the weight may crush soon-
to-emerge hatchlings laying just beneath the surface of the
sand). Fires also confuse the youngsters, and they will be
attracted to the light rather than the water. The use of lights
at all on the the beach should be discouraged as they
frighten and often dissuade the adults from nesting, and
confuse the hatchlings.
Saving an endangered species like the Leatherback Sea
Turtle takes an enormous effort by all parties, including the
turtle. Our part is a cooperative effort by all to reduce the
disturbing factors that may disrupt a female's nesting
success. This, coupled with a reduction in some of the
natural mortality factors for the hatchlings, may make the
difference in preserving these magnificent relicts from our
MARKET of St. Croix, Inc.
--- of St. Croix, Inc.
I* a I-1
70 PETER'S REST
CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX, V.I. 00820
AND MERCHANT'S ASSOCIATION
Salute the Virgin Islands Department of
Agriculture on the occasion of the
AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR
ANTILLES BROADCASTING CORPORATION
BLUE CROSS BLUE SHIELD INS.
CLEOPATRA GIFT SHOP
COLORAMA AUTO BODY SUPPLIES
COMMISSION ON AGING
EL PATIO FLOWER SHOP
GRAND UNION SUPERMARKET
IDEAL TOUCH & BEAUTY SALON
INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICES
ISLAND MEDICAL CENTER
KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN
NEW YORK SHOES
OFFICE OF DELEGATE TO CONGRESS
OLE'S SNACK BAR
PEOPLE'S DRUG STORE
PONDEROSA STEAK HOUSE
ROKER'S TRAVEL & TOUR
SOCIAL SECURITY OFFICE
SUNNY ISLE BARBER SHOP
SUNNY ISLE SEWING CENTER
SUNNY ISLE SPORT SHOP
TERRY'S CHILDREN WEAR
TOPS & BOTTOMS LINGERIE SHOP
TOWN & COUNTRY MEN'S WEAR
U.S. ARMY RECRUITER
U.S. POSTAL SERVICE
V.I. TELEPHONE CORPORATION
V.I. VENDING COMPANY
V. WILLOCKS & FARRELLY ASSOC.
Guinea Grass In The Virgin Islands
P. Joy Michaud
Extension Specialist Natural Resources
Of the three main U.S. Virgin Islands, St. Croix has92%of
the grazing land and 84% of the ruminant livestock (Table
1). The majority of these pastures are unimproved, com-
posed of local grasses and other broad leaf species. While
considering means to improve production a farmer might
consider plowing up these native pastures and planting a
commercial viable agricultural grass species. Before pursu-
ing this course, however, a farmer should first consider the
pastures he has. Do they need improving? Will the new pas-
ture be much better than the native one? Isthecost and risk
involved in pasture improvement worth it?
The native pastures in the Virgin Islands are normally
dominated by one of two grasses: guinea grass (Panicum
maximum) and hurricane grass (Bothriochloa pertusa).
These two pasture grasses are quite different in their char-
acteristics and value.
Guinea grass is the natural pasture grass of the Virgin
Islands. Land which is kept clear of bush and is ungrazed, or
only lightly grazed, will have a thick guinea grass pasture. It
is an excellent pasture grass, which produces high dry
matter yields and performs well in the low-input farming
system normally practiced in the Virgin Islands, i.e. little or
no fertilizer applied.
In comparison, hurricane grass is very unproductive and
is of poor quality (Oakes, 1968). A pasture composed mainly
of hurricane grass is considerably less productive than a
guinea grass pasture, and, consequently, can support far
It is clear, therefore, that a reseeding program should
only be considered by a farmer if his pastures are domi-
nated by hurricane grass or any other non-productive grass.
A farmer with guinea grass pastures should instead be con-
cerned about conducting good management techniques
that will maintain their fields' quality.
The reason so many pastures are dominated by hurricane
grass is due to the growth habits of the two grasses and their
respective responses to poor management and in particular
Guinea grass exhibits a tufted growth habit, i.e. it grows in
clumps with many areas of bare ground between. A healthy
guinea grass pasture will often have between 70 85% bare
ground. The bare ground is shaded by the large guinea grass
leaves and, as plants need light to grow, little can grow
there. With overgrazing the bare ground is not shaded and
hurricane grass can become established. The greater the
overgrazing the faster this happens. Furthermore, over-
grazing retards regrowth capacity of guinea grass, thus
making it less competitive against weeds.
A stocking rate which will maintain a guinea grass pasture
is generally much lower than many farmers realize. For
example, in mid-island a very productive guinea grass
pasture has been maintained for over ten years, with a
stocking rate of about 2.5 sheep or goats per acre. If the
stocking rate were increased for a long period of time the
pastures would deteriorate. This stocking rate may seem
low. However, under these conditions no extra feed need
be bought for the animals, even in the dry season. Under
these circumstances not many animals need to be sold
before the enterprise starts to make a profit. In comparison,
where a large number of animals are kept on hurricane grass
pastures, food has to be bought to maintain the animals.
Every bag of food or load of green chop costs money and
reduces profits that could be made on the enterprise. Many
livestock farmers in the Virgin Islands probably spend more
money on feeding their animals than they get in return from
the sales (Brown and Michaud, 1986) an expensive hobby.
There are many local pasture legumes that grow well in
conjunction with guinea grass. Some examples are blue wiss
(Clitoria ternetea), Desmanthus spp., Teramnus labialis and
Rhynchosia minima. Legumes growing in the pastures are
very desirable. They contain a high level of protein, which
improves the livestock's diet, and they improve the fertility
Table 1. Number of farms, pastures and ruminant livestock in the
U.S. Virgin Islands, (U.S. Dept. Commerce, 1983).
Farms with pastures:
Milk (quarts sold):
* Information withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual farms
of the land by encouraging the presence of certain soil bac-
teria that take nitrogen from the air and put it in the soil.
However, legumes are often particularly palatable to live-
stock, and are consequently grazed preferentially. There-
fore, in an overgrazed situation the legumes are often the
first plants to be lost.
A pasture that has mostly hurricane grass can not be im-
proved through just good management. The hurricane grass
is very competitive and any desirable pasture grass that is to
be introduced must be given a competitive edge. At pre-
sent the most reliable method is to remove the hurricane
pasture by plowing and then establish an introduced grass.
Brown, F. and Michaud, M.W. 1986. Production and marketing of
sheep and goats in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Presented at the
22nd Annual Meeting, Caribbean Food Crop Society. St.
Lucia. 25-29 August, 1986.
OAKES, A.J. 1968. Replacing Hurricane grass in pastures of the dry
tropics. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. 45:235-241.
U.S. Department of Commerce. 1983. 1982 Census of Agriculture,
Volume 1 Geographic Series, Part 54 Virgin Islands of the
United States. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau for the
Tel: (809) 778-0404
Sflythe tool box
Islands Best Selection of:
H. PETER MARTIN
Phone: Office (809) 778-5285
COMBUSTIBLE FUEL, DELIVERY & SALES
WHOLESALE & RETAIL
Across from Sunny Isle
St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 00820
102 King Street Frederiksted
Open Mon. -Sat. 8:30 a.m. -7:30 p.m.
Sun. 9 a.m. 1:00 p.m.
The University Of The Virgin Islands
Associate In Arts Degree
Arthur C. Petersen, Jr., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Agriculture
The University's Land-Grant system has three compo-
nents: the Agricultural Experiment Station, the Cooperative
Extension Service and the Agricultural Teaching Program
which leads to an Associate of Arts Degree.
The Agriculture Associate in Arts was officially initiated at
the College of the Virgin Islands under the Division of
Science and Mathematics in 1978. The Agriculture Teaching
Program seeks to provide formal and informal training to
persons interested in participating in the local agricultural
industry and provides the first two years of specialized
courses for students interested in pursuing a four year
degree in agriculture. Through these two objectives, the
College satisfies the goals of its mission to provide oppor-
tunities for higher education in the context of the needs
and cultural background of the Virgin Islands.
SAgriculture students take notes anywhere in the field.
The general education and math and science courses are
offered on both the St. Thomas and St. Croix campuses.
Introduction to Agriculture is the only Agriculture course
offered on the St. Thomas campus every semester. All other
Agriculture courses are normally offered only on the St.
Croix campus. A St. Thomas resident has the option to com-
plete the General Education Requirements on the St.
Thomas campus and then transfer to the St. Croix campus to
complete the Agriculture courses and other program
Planting seeds together makes the job easier for UVI's
The Virgin Islands and the rest of the Caribbean need
professional agriculturists, persons with degrees in agricul-
ture at the associate and baccalaureate levels, to render
professional services to the agriculture industry.
The A.A. in Agriculture degree is based on a sound curric-
ulum requiring students to successfully complete 20 credits
of introductory biology, chemistry, and algebra, 23 credits
of agriculture courses, and 24 credits of general education
courses. The curriculum is competitive academically, and
adequately prepares students for continued studies at the Preparing their plots, students get ready to plant young
baccalaureate level. tomato seedlings at the Experimental Station field.
Since 1983, the Agriculture Teaching Program has pro-
duced eight graduates, and four of these graduates have
continued their educations. They chose the University of
Hawaii, University of Florida, Texas A & M University and
the University of the Virgin Islands to complete bachelor's
degrees in biology or agriculture. Virgin Islander Errol
Chichester, attended the University of Florida and majored
in plant pathology. He completed his bachelor's degree and
is now an employee of the pest management program at
UVI's Cooperative Extension Service.
For further information contact the author at the Univer-
sity's St. Croix campus.
Dr Arthur Petersen. Jr., agriculture professor and co-
ordinator of the agriculture teaching program, stands
ready to help, as students Diana Collingwood and Yvette
Green study their field notes for a quiz.
General Education Requirements Credits
ENG 111-112 English Composition 6
SPE 115-116 Effective Communication 6
Physical Education 2
Social Science Electives 9
Humanities Electives 3
BIO 141-142 General Biology 8
Other Program Requirements
MAT 141 College Algebra & Trigonometry 4
CHE 151-152 General Chemistry 8
AGR 101 Introduction to Agriculture 3
*AGR 201 Agricultural Economics 4
AGR 202 Agronomy 4
*AGR 203 Farm Management & Planning 4
AGR 204 Tropical Horticulture 4
*AGR 205 Food Preservation & Utilization 4
AGR 206 Animal Science 4
The student must take two of these three courses.
HOME CENTER INC
Across from Sunny Isle
Your ELECTRONIC CENTER on St. Croix
Name brands in consumer
Stereos TV's Intercoms
Styli for all stereo
TV & Radio parts
Sunny Isle Shopping Center
Box 5980, Christiansted, St. Croix
What Is VIERS?
Manager, VI Ecological Research Station
The University of the Virgin Islands Ecological Research
Station (VIERS) located on the southeast coast of St. John at
Lameshur Bay has a bounty of natural eco-systems available
for study and research by Virgin Islands schools and organi-
zations. Undisturbed by human development, students,
teachers and scientists interested in learning more about
our islands in a natural setting and in how to preserve their
fragile beauty, can use VIERS as their base.
ywr jA .^sitn~
Activities at VIERS are wide and varied. Walking tours,
archeological hikes, slide/talk shows, educational seminars
and classes for credit are just some of the programs offered.
A large number of students from off island attend classes,
do laboratory research and learn diving techniques neces-
sary to conduct research and understand the underwater
Visting St. Thomas class gathers at entrance to dining room
for lunch. A dry lab and museum is on the right.
The Research Station has accommodations for forty stu-
dents and several cabins available for researchers to live in.
There is also a large classroom, kitchen-dining room, office,
workshops and a study area with up-to-date computers.
These twelve buildings are located inland from Greater
Lameshur Bay, a short walk from the University laboratory
and boat docking area.
VIERS is recognized by many as a nearly perfect environ-
ment to learn about the tropical islands of the Caribbean. Its
isolation and natural balance combine to create a sanctuary
for study and research which is ideal for those who feel at
home in a simple rustic setting. Inquiries may be addressed
to Manager of VIERS, P.O. 719, University of the Virgin
Islands, Cruz Bay, St. John, VI 00830 (Telephone 776-6721).
VIERS assistant manager Vincent Powell and Manager
Kristen Canoy. In background are dormitory cabins.
The natural eco-systems of the Greater Lameshur Bay
area, which are in the National Park, include mangroves,
rocky and sandy beaches, salt ponds, coral reefs and tropi-
cal vegetation, insects and animals. Animals which can be
seen include feral donkeys, white tailed deer, wild pigs and
of course, the ever populating mongooses. With the en-
couragement of the National Park Services, VIERS research
is being conducted to better understand th environment as
well as the measures needed to protect it. Research proj-
ects at VIERS include study of island foods coming from the
ocean: conch, whelk (wilk), lobster, fish and even sea weed
are being researched to find ways to increase their popu-
lation to meet the food supply demands by our citizens and
Meeting informally after a VIERS tour are (from left- Dr.
Darshan S. Padda, UVI vice-president, UVI president Dr.
Arthur A. Richards, St. John's Noble Samuel, and UVI
trustee Dr. James Fleming.
friendly, courteous service and expert help with
all your banking needs.
At First Pennsylvania Bank, our customers are
I" First Pennsqlvania Bank
St. Thomas St. Croix Tortola
1985 First Pennsylvania Bank, N.A. in U.S.V.I. Member F.D.I.C.
Richard A. Schrader, Sr.*
Come rain come
On the roof of our homes
Sweet music play.
Come rain come
Quench the thirst
Of the parched earth.
Come rain come
Raise the heads
Of trying Kalaloo.
Come rain come
Touch the roots
Of promising mango.
Come rain come
Pour out your life sustaining juice
To lake, river, and sea.
Come rain come
Rise to the heavens
Shower us with heavenly blessings
Again and again.
*Richard A. Schrader, Sr. has just had
a book of his poetry published entitled
"Home Sweet Home" which is available
at book stores.
The Missing Ingredient 9
Extension Home Economics Aide
Why is it the lovely breakfast
And why the hurried goodbye kiss
Is it because you feel
Breakfast is not an important meal?
Well, you are wrong in your as-
It's an important part of your daily
So eat some cereal, a fruit and an
Or a bowl of soup or rice and
You need to eat a nutritional
After the long night is past
It refreshes your body the beginning
of the day
It gives a good start for work,
school or play.
It supplies the energy to get up
Makes you more alert, more aglow
You'll be able to get more work done
Be more active and have more fun.
So if you think skipping breakfast
And rush off to work or school,
Remember, you're doing your body
By not eating the Breakfast you
. \,: should.
Poo 46' 00 4. 00 0. 000 40 4*4*4*4*4*4*4*go* $ **
~ ~~ ~~ -- --- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -~ -- -- -- -- -~ -~ ~ -- -~ -~ ~~ ~~ ~
I goeshoppin' in
Papalolo, whitey mary, puslane, eye brite
I buy (I buy)
Ya! Okra, collah green, fake Chinese cabbage,
Agg plant, green peppah. Fo
Tea 'n t' eat 'n
Flowers for the table (can't even
I go shopping' in
Some I plants money in the bank
Some God sen's there
Na tra lee
from Chapters of
Pomes, MESH UP,
*Marty Campbell currently lives in Frederik-
sted. His pocms have appeared in the Fair
bulletin in previous years. In addition to
being a poet, he also makes and sells jewelry
from natural things he finds on the island.
..-* -b -* -* &- -* *b -& -- ^- ^
At Sunny Isle Sport Shop, Inc.
We Specialize in
Laminating your Diplomas, Photos, Posters, etc.
We also make Plastic or Brass Name Plates and
signs for Desk, Doors, etc.
Computerized Engraving on Trophys,
Plaques, Medals etc.
Plus the Largest Selection of Bicycle Parts
& Accessories & Bicycle Sales
Best Brands on the Islands.
Come & see us and Save Money
or Call 778-6446
From Our Photo Album byLiz Wilson
Mrs. Arthur Richards, wife of UVI president, cuts ribbon signaling opening of 1986 Agriculture and Food Fair.
With her are Delegate to Congress Ron de Lugo, Fair vice president Darshan S. Padda, Fair president Patrick N.
Williams, Queens and other dignitaries.
The DuBerry family of Frederiksted had a booth filled
with ornamentals and edible plants at the Farmers'
Miss Bea Mopsy was greeted by Miss St. Croix (Carmen
Golden) after she was honored with a bouquet at the
OPEN 7 DAYS
JUST FOR YOU
Monday thru Saturday
7 A.M. to 11 P.M.
A.M. to 9 P.M.
Thumbs up means "the produce looks good!", according to
VI Senator Holland Redfield, who receives a tomato from
UVI agriculture associate professor Dr. Arthur Petersen,
while Custom Photos' Fred Davenport and wife Ginny
enjoy their encounter at the produce display.
Delight your children with
our wide selection of
Bicycles, Swing Sets, Toys,
Games, Books, Cars,
Trucks and Dolls.
We have a complete selection
of Birthday Party Supplies.
Fri. Sat. 9:30 6:00
St. Thomas Extension agent Carlo Robles shows young girl
how to handle one of the baby chicks at the Extension
Open 9:30 5:30
QUALITY CONCRETE PRODUCTS
Hexagonal, Round & Oval Paving Stones
Vicrete Planks for Walls
Square Tiles in Various Sizes & Shapes
2 C Hogensborg P.O.Box 1517
Frederiksted, St. Croix 00840
East of F'sted off Centerline Rd.
F Lunch or Dine
in a beautiful courtyard
Lunch 11:30 2:30 Mon.- Fri.
Dinner 6:30 9:30 closed Tues.
*- I V" ,11 '.
S* ... ., :.
Nubian goats like this one owned by Mike Foster of St.
Croix are perfect for small farms (see story elsewhere).
Dr. Arthur Richards, UVI president, congratulates 1st prize
winning home gardeners Jay and Karen Reynolds of Blue
Chip Farms north of Frederiksted.
GENERAL CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS
CHARLES H. STEVENSON
(809) 773-4583 (Office)
(809) 773-3202 (Residence)
123 GALLOWS BAY
P.O BOX 3751 CHRISTIANSTED
ST. CROIX, U.S.V.I. 00820
You plant it-We buy it!
Working jointly is profitable for all.
Congratulations on the
17th ANNUAL AGRICULTURE &
of the Virgin Islands
only air-conditioned Supermarket
Warehouse on St. Croix
Handsome wood sculpture provided blue ribbon for Roberto
Learning early about different local fruits, this youngster is
being shown the mesple sapodillaa) tree and photo of fruits
at the UVI extension service horticultural exhibit.
S Sunny Isle Shopping Center
MON/SAT 8:30 7:30
SUNDAY 9:00 6:30
LA REINE PHARMACY
VILLE LA REINE SHOPPING CENTER
Store Hours: Monday thru Saturday
8:30 A M. 7:30 P.M.
10% Sr. Citizens Discount
"SPECIALS IN EVERY AISLE"
Formerly Marshall's Sunny Isle Shopping Center
Be a Smart Shopper and
Catch all Our Great Bargains!
3 Convenient Locations
Sunny Isle Shopping Center
- -- ~ -- ---- -- -- -
It was reassuring to see that cassava bread is still being made
in Tortola as demonstrated by this picture of the BVI booth.
7 Peters Rest (in building of Scottie's Bakery)
"For low prices on lumber and other
building materials "
CGi Hcqltll Slo
UNITED SHOPPING PLAZA
For Your Health Foods
Natural Herb Teas, Drinks, Cosmetics,
and much, much more!
OPEN: Mon. Fri. 9am-7pm Sat. 9 am-8pm
SUNNY ISLE SHOPPING CENTER
GOLDEN ROCK SHOPPING CENTER
The #1 Encyclopedia in today's market
See the agent at Good Health Store
For your cruise trips, family vacations
business trips and other travel needs
See us at U-TRAVEL
"The best is always for less"
For years you've known us as Triumpho Electric of St. Croix.
Now we have new owners, but the same old commitment to
providing the island's largest inventory of electrical products
at reasonable prices.
Electricians and contractors know our extensive inventory.
We invite you, our retail customers to see us for:
Lamps and Fixtures by Thomas & Starlight
Onan Generators (Sales and Service)
Power and Hand Tools
Light Bulbs and Tubes
Complete Welding Shop
7-C Peter's Rest, St. Croix 773-4630
"If you need advice, we've got it also-for free."
L "If yo nee adie we
Vegetable Research aide Nelson Benitez gathers tomatoes raised at the UVI Agriculture Experiment Station
of the same type displayed at UVI exhibit.
Ryal 'Frederik Stores, 'Inc.
1 STRAND STREET P.O. BOX 213
FREDERIKSTED, ST. CROIX
U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS 00840
Liquor and Gift Shop Best prices in the Virgin Islands
FICO. & JEANNIE GARCIA
OPEN Mon. Fri. 8:00 5:30
Saturday 8:00 4:30
N North Shore Road La Grande Princess
Food Stamps Welcome
A STARBOARD STREET
THE EXCELLENCE IN STATIONERY
BROCHURES RATE SHEETS
* BOOKLETS CARBONLESS FORMS
* CONTINUOUS FORMS NUMBERING
* BUSINESS CARDS
OVER 20 YEARS PRINTING EXPERIENCE
CABLE ADDRESS: GENERVI TEL. 773-3709
PLOT 14 ESTATE PETER'S REST, P.O. BOX 7074, SUNNY ISLE, CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX, V.I. 00820
INDUSTRIAL SUPPLIES MEDICAL SUPPLIES CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY
& EQUIPMENT DIVISION &,EQUIPMENT DIVISION & EQUIPMENT DIVISION
Consumer Products White Westinghouse Appliances
pressurized 10 to 20 lb.
dry chemical extinguishers
When and Where You Need It
;.,* -. -. ,;^-_.-. .,--/-S --t ^- .S -' S *S
_ _w_' Portable Generators
HOMELITE POWER SAWS
and EXTRA HEAVY-DUTY
WORLD ENTERPRISES INDUSTRIES
ENGINEERING MULTISUPPLIES EOUIPMENTS & SERVICE
* Supplies for the Agriculture Department,
and others of Fruit Trees Mango, Avacado,
Citrus, Breadfruit, Coconut, etc.
* Liquid Fertilizer.
* Chemicals of all kinds.
For more information
Contact J.J. San Roman
Manager Kirsten Canoy, of the VI Ecological Research
Station on St. John, stresses a point in explaining the im-
portance of the UVI research retreat.
CERT IF IED
SERVING THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
Leonard J. Chasen, CPA
P.O. Box 2665
Old Tramway Bldg.
Pablo O'Neill, CPA
P.O. Box 3016
David J. O'Connell, CPA
Affiliated with Grant Thornton International
RE ARCH STATION)
G.P.O. Box 65
San Juan, P.R. 00936
JUST THE FACTS.
This product has no similarity to particle board!!
A T Thanks to a ACT Structurwood T The strength of
FA T : marine grade FA T 2: takes all fasten- FAC Structurwood is
adhesive Structurwood will ers. including nails, screws equal to or better than plywood.
not delaminate and staples, with exceptional In fact, it exceeds standards of
dependability the Amencan Plywood Asso-
ciation for Performance Rated
Structurwood With Structur- Structurwood's
FACT4: shapes, routs, C wood there are FACT : exceptional stiff-
drills and saws cleanly and no knotholes or "surprises" ness can be used over long
precisely, such as core voids, meaning spans with less bracing.
you get 100% usable product.
WOODWORTH would like to introduce you to an extraordinary product that outperforms
conventional wood panels. It is called Structurwood. Superior performance is only the
beginning. Structurwood strength, stiffness, size, weight, and density are engineered to give
you a panel made for your particular end use. Structurwood is the result of a Weyerhaeuser
breakthrough in oriented strand technology. A breakthrough you can take advantage of by
going to WOODWORTH in Gallows Bay and getting the facts!
GALLOWS BAY 778-8000
8 am 5 pm,
Hands-on experience in mango grafting was offered by UVI
Extension horticulturalist Clinton George during his many
demonstrations at the Fair.
The Virgin Islands Largest Printing Company
a STIHL ?
,entals. and.. .Sales
Sion Farm Shopping Center
Christiansted,St Croix 778-5738
Member American Rental Association
P.O Box 763 Christiansted, St. Croix U.S.V.I. 00820
THE FIGAR, INC.
P C's BOOKSTORE
JUNIOR'S GIFT SHOP
MIDDLE EAST LAUNDRY
THE FASHION COVE
KIRBCO RADIO & T.V.
SUPER DISTRIBUTORS, INC.
DR. METIN BEDIZEL
DR. DAUOD HAMDALLAH
MUTUAL OF OMAHA
ST. CROIX SURGICAL CENTER
SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
Local No. 8248
FARMERS' HOME ADMINISTRATION
I.M.C. FINANCIAL SERVICES, INC.
V.I. SMALL BUSINESS
Computers & Software
Children & Infant Clothing
Children & Ladies Clothing
Furniture & Appliances
Health Food Store
Boutique & Custom Clothes
Bar & Restaurant
Bar & Restaurant
Fabric, Sewing & Bridal Clothes
Electronic Sales & Repair
Electronic Sales & Repair
Ice Cream Parlor
U.S. S.B.A &
University of the Virgin Islands
To All Participating in the 1987 Agriculture and Food Fair
1987 Agriculture Dept. Acting Commissioner Larry Bough,
our Fair president, greets 1986 fairgoers when he was Fair
superintendent, an honorary position the well-known
forestry manager has held for many years.
Beautiful Virgin Islands' queens graced the fair Miss CVI
Valorica Bryson, Miss Virgin Islands Mudite Henderson and
Miss St. Croix Carmen Golden.
PeonJD I*un Stnerm
SUNNY ISLE SHOPPING CENTER 1-A KING ST., C'STED.
Oftcrsou the best it
HOURS SERVICE MERCHANDISE PRICE
OPEN EVERY DAY OF THE YEAR
8 am 9 pm Mon. thru Sat. 9 am 9 pm Sun.
Louise Samuel hasn't missed a Fair that we
can remember and the good foods at her booth are always sold
NEIGHBORHOOD CAR SALES, your auto connection that gives you
a touch of class; brings to the island, especially for you, the greatest
variety of taxi vans, cargo vans, church vans, trucks, used cars (small,
medium, and large), and special ordered new and used cars.
Located just across from Super Foods. Stop by and wheel a deal with
Rodgers for the vehicle of your choice!
P.O. Box 321
Christiansted, St. Croix
Located across from U.S. Virgin Islands 00820
Island Food Distributors (809) 778-5007
St. Lucia presented a beautiful display of their produce from
that lush island south of the Virgins.
Sfy -fahd wmrv,#webf
cm iifl~p ctuuwt
THE BANK OF NOVA SCOTIA
VISIT US NOW!
WE APPROVE LOANS!
"The Family Pharmacy"
"Great Values Every Day of the Year"
GENERIC MEDICINES AVAILABLE
DRUGS COSMETICS PERFUMES
SCHOOL SUPPLY HOUSEWARE
BABY NEEDS TOYS
VITAMINS SUNDRIES FILMS
UNITED SHOPPING PLAZA 778-5880
"LANDING ON WATER IS FUN"
Reservations & Information may be
obtained by calling the following number:
* U.S.V.I. 773-1776
13 STRAND STREET
FREDERIKSTED, ST. CROIX
U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS 00840
TELEPHONE: (809) 772-2780
WARREN J. SINGER
MICHAEL D. ZULLO
Home Economics EFNEP Assistant Miriam Green urges fairgoers
to eat nutritious balanced meals.
SCenter Line Road
SEstate Castle Coakley
* Front Ei
* Brake R
* Shock A
THE ROYAL DANE HOTEL
102 King Street Frederiksted
Open Mon. Sat. 8:30 a.m. 7:30 p.m.
Sun. 9 a.m. -1:00 p.m.
Delgado's Electrical &
MEYERS PUMPS AND STATE WATER HEATERS
FREDERIKSTED, ST. CROIX, V. I. 00840
Yams grow plenty big in the Virgin Islands and are tasty
when boiled with saltfish! Buy them at the Farmers' Market.
Sunday morning Fair visitors were treated to lovely hymns
sung by St. Paul's Church Choir.
Fine Men's and Boy's Wear
Sales and Rentals of Formal Wear
Style Value Quality
Sunny Isle Shopping Center
No. 1 in Service
No. 1 in Quality
Featuring: oil change and lubrication,
battery and tire sales and repair,
and light maintenance.
Located across from Sunny Isle Shopping
center by Melvin Evans Highway.
Just the FACTS!
For once, you're going to get just the facts. No fancy words, pretty pictures, or sophis-
ticated sell. The plain truth doesn't need adornment to make sense. Read on if you want to
get more value for your food budget, and please your family as well.
Fact #1: Island Dairies is the only dairy in the Virgin Islandsjat proce s fresh-from-the-
farm natural milk* produced by St. Croix cows.
'Fresh, natural milk is milk processed straight fro nDLWWvs 1Snisbnd Dairies midk
Reconstitute/ or recombmed milk is powdered mif/R drara wit.butter and water.
This is not Dairies milk "
Fact #2: The imported products in the supermaxts are q L 'ays old by the
time they reac e Virgin Islands. Also. if pi aufy mil l pastic jugs, much
of the vitar content has been lost duiiight pe n.
Fat # Island D es has spent five year million deve 'g the most modern pro-
cessing lnt in the Caribbean. nt is corp d to producing the high-
est qualify and most nutreting i r standards.
S#4: There i tif ith tural dai would you rather eat a
Seal l a wk ago and stoid r or one that was
cook u o u r, and then remixed with water rlhly prepared? Of
course i ast i e difference in a roduit like I'lad Dairies' milk
S#5: Island Da duces pr ice crt flavors t t ij res with the finest
in the wor cording t select \ ream connois 1. Island Dairies puts
its own nari its ice c cause ery proud of the q and wants to be iden-
tified with I hie curre -inefl I cludes: chocolate. a. strawberry. rum
raisin cher vanilla., a, pist pineapple. buttered al coconut, frozen
fruit, coffee, d bu$ pecan-
#t # : Island Dairi pr cts are c ble in price' to other brands on the market.
Though you' x t to pay a lo or Island Daries' fresh, natural quality. production
efficiency ene. the company o k %Lprices low and pass on the savings to you. the
customer Thsi land Dairies' ftl y quality and value at a reasonable price
'and sometimes e expensive i
Now you know the facts.oq can judge for yo l1f. You've invested this time in finding out why
Island Dairies' products a period, so doesn't it make sense for you to invest your hard-earned
money in the best food valuet Plus. Island Dairies is a locally-owned-and-managed company that
creates employment for close to 70 people on the Island. When you buy an Island Dairies' product.
you're investing in the local economy, not some big corporation half way across the world.
We invite you to test Island Dairies' quality. Please us the
coupon below for savings on our "Get Acquainted Offer."
10C GET ACQUAINTED 250
I OFFOFFER OFF I
This coupon entitles the bearer to 25e off the price
of any half gallon of Island Dairies milk or ice
cream, or 10 oH the price of a quart of Island
Dairies milk or ice cream. (Limit two products per I
Redeemable at the Golden Cow or Island Dairies
Retail Store (4-G Sion Farm, behind United Shop-
ping Plaza). ISLAND DAIRIES
10C The Best Is Fresh, NaturallyI 25C
OF (Good Through April 1, 1986) OFF