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Group Title: Agrifest
Title: Agrifest : agriculture and food fair of St. Croix, Virgin Islands. 1980.
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 Material Information
Title: Agrifest : agriculture and food fair of St. Croix, Virgin Islands. 1980.
Series Title: Agrifest : agriculture and food fair of St. Croix, Virgin Islands.
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: United States of America -- United States Virgin Islands -- St. Croix -- Caribbean
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Bibliographic ID: CA01300011
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: University of the Virgin Islands
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 20948561

Table of Contents
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Full Text




























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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Message from Juan Luis
Governor of the Virgin Islands ................................................. ....... 1
Message from Commissioner Rudolph Shulterbrandt
President of Agriculture and Food Fair .. ............... ................. .. ........3
Message from Dr. Arthur A. Richards
Acting President, College of the Virgin Islands ............................................ 5

Agriculture and Food Fair Administrative Staff ..... ........................... ............ 7

A Brief History of Virgin Islands Agriculture Since the U.S. Transfer ................. ... ........ 9
Agricultural Research and Education Programs
at the College of the Virgin Islands ...................................................... 15

M marketing Tilapia in the Virgin Islands ................................................. 17

Agriculture Curriculum at C.V.I.......................................... ............ 20

A Unique Veterinary Care System .................................................... 23

Pigeon Peas A Rewarding Crop ..................................................... 25

Dairying on St. Croix ... ... ....................................................... 29

From Our Agriculture Photo Album ................................................... 35

Watering Crops by Drip Irrigation .................................. .... ................ 39

A New Approach to Backyard Fish and Tomato Production .... .............................. 41

Sheltering Your Crops from Wind ................................;..................... .47

FHA Loans For Farmers ............................................................ 49

Learning by Doing .................................................................. 51

Cockroach Control in our Hom es ...................................................... 53

Why the Streams Don't Run Anymore Pt. 2 .... ....................................... 57

Island Cooking Naturally .............................................................. 60

Selecting and Handling Meats for the Home ............................................ 61

Possibilities of the W inged Bean ................................ ...................... 63

The St. Thomas Arboretum ........................... ..... .... ............... ......... 67

Editor
Darshan S. Padda










































THE VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES
OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR
Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands


Message from Honorable Juan Luis
Governor of the Virgin Islands

It is an honor and a pleasure to congratulate all the
participants involved in the Tenth Annual Agriculture
and Food Fair on St. Croix.
The theme "Food first, Produce at Home" is most
appropriate because it underlines the emphasis that must
be placed on greater food production in these islands to
reduce our dependence on imported products and to
help diversify our economy.
The renewal of interest in farming by many of our
young people is heartening and my Administration is
committed to provide the assistance possible to encour-
age greater productivity.
At my direction, the Departments of Agriculture and
Housing have identified additional land on St. Thomas
and St. Croix to be distributed to interested individuals
solely for agricultural purposes. The Department of
Agriculture already offers community garden plots,
assists with land preparation, and provides seedlings,
plants, and veterinary services to farmers. The College of
the Virgin Islands also plays an important role through
its Cooperative Extension Service and Agriculture
Experiment Station.
This is a step in the right direction but we must
intensify our efforts toward greater public participation
if we are to realize our goal of making the Virgin Islands
self-sufficient in food production.
On behalf of the people of the Virgin Islands, I wish
to commend all the participants, as well as those persons
who worked diligently to ensure the success of the 1980
Agriculture and Food Fair.


1
N. (01 R76








The Quality
of
Our Beef
and
Dairy Products




Reflects the clean shore breezes that freshen our
pastures and blue sea that frames them.
Our healthy flocks of cattle give St. Croix the taste
treat and eye appeal to please islander and tourist alike.
SUPPORT ALL LOCAL AGRICULTURE

CASTLE NUGENT

FARMS GASPERI





Home of the
Purebred Senepol
Registered Holsteins
and the big
White Cows...






Message from Commissioner Rudolph Shulterbrandt
President of the Agriculture and Food Fair





WELCOME to the Agriculture & Food Fair. This
Fair marks the 10th Anniversary of the revival of the
Agricultural Fairs. It is justifiable to say revival, because
the history of agricultural fairs on St. Croix dates back
to many years prior to 1969, the year of the revival of
agricultural fairs. Each of the previous fairs has been
significant, however, this fair of 1980 is of special sig-
nificance. This is so because of the large number of
citizens who recognize the need for an intensive increase
in agricultural production. The Agriculture & Food Fair
serves as the precursor, or the mirror, of our agricultural
situation. It gives us the opportunity to observe new
crops, new ideas, and new findings in the field of agricul-
tural research.

Our theme this year, "Food First Produce at Home"
presents a challenge to everyone with a piece of land
suitable for producing some food. As the cost of impor-
ted foods rises in the Virgin Islands, it becomes easier to
accept the necessity of producing food at home. This
fair, through its theme, was developed to demonstrate
some alternatives to imported food.
Our government will move, most positively, to cap-
ture the present enthusiasm of our young people in their
quest to become involved with food production programs.
Our government promises, even in its present financial
crisis, to maximize our limited agricultural resources in
order to create effective agriculture programming on
the islands.
We must continue to utilize the Agricultural Extension
and Research facilities of the College of the Virgin Islands
Department of Agriculture to render good, effective
services to our agriculture community.
My gratitude goes to our Board of Directors and the
many committees who are responsible for the success of
this, the 10th Agriculture and Food Fair.
Welcome to the Fair, enjoy the exhibits, the food, the
entertainment, renew old acquaintances, and above all
be stimulated to produce some food at home.





/









CASTLE NUGENT FARMS .. MARIO GASPERI
CORN HILL FARM ......HENRY NELTHROPP
WINDSOR FARM............. STACY LLOYD
MON BIJOU FARM ........... OLIVER SKOV
SIGHT FARM .......... CHARLES SCHUSTER



AI


VIRGIN ISLANDS DAIRYMEN'S ASSOC.


Fresh Grade "A"

Milk

For Your Table


I





c t Message From Arthur A. Richards
g... Acting President, College of the Virgin Islands

To The People of the Virgin Islands:
In celebrating the tenth Agriculture and Food Fair,
it is particularly apt that the theme of this year's Fair is
"Food First: Produce at Home". We have come a long
way in a decade toward the realization that agricultural
self-sufficiency must be a number one priority for
islanders before we can hope to make food exports a
part of the local economic picture. Learning to produce
food for home consumption in order to lessen the
burden of increasingly expensive imported fruit and
vegetables is a first step in the right direction.
As a land-grant institution, the College of the Virgin
Islands is committed to encourage public support of
agriculture, good nutrition, and community-development
through its out-reach programs at the Cooperative
Extension Service. Bringing the message to the com-
munity through the Extension Service have been those
personnel in home economics, pesticide management,
4-H youth programs, and the many varied resource
development programs.
At the same time, the College's Agricultural Experi-
ment Station Scientists and technicians continue to
research and explore new arid improved techniques for
profitable food production. The College, as a result of
its research in sorghum feed for cattle raisers, its assis-
tance to the V.I. Senepol breeders, its continual investi-
HE V1 gation through performance trials of fruit and vegetables,
and its well-publicized research on tilapia fish has served
to spark renewed interest in local agriculture.
With a third component, the new Associate in Arts
degree program in agriculture, the College is prepared
1962 to do its utmost to assist the development of a viable
food and agricultural industry in the Virgin Islands.
The continued success and increasing popularity of
the Agriculture and Food Fair is eloquent testimony
to the growing importance of agriculture in our com-
munity. We shall continue to lend our support toward
COLLEGE OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS realizing the theme "Food First: Produce at Home".
OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT
Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands






c~~C c~a






Courtesy
of


We are proud to be an active growing
citizen of the Community working
daily for Better living of the Virgin
Islanders through agriculture,
education and industry.


F Puebloir





VIRGIN ISLANDS AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR
ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF


PRESIDENT
Commissioner Rudolph Shulterbrandt

VICE PRESIDENT
Darshan S. Padda Ph.D.

FAIR SUPERINTENDENT TREASURER
Eric L. Bough Elisha R. Daniel, Sr.

DIRECTOR
EXECUTIVE SECRETARY ST. THOMAS/ST. JOHN ACTIVITIES
Kwame Garcia John Bernier, Jr.

DIRECTOR
FACILITIES AND SERVICES
Wilfred Finch

DIRECTOR
FOOD EXHIBITS
Ruth Lang

DIRECTOR
RULES AND AWARDS
Otis F. Hicks, Sr.

DIRECTOR
FARM EXHIBITS
Duke L. Deller, DVM

-W4q1 'DIRECTOR
PROMOTIONS
Robert Soffes

DIRECTOR
SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
Bent Lawaetz

DIRECTOR
ADVERTISEMENTS & PUBLICATIONS
Roseann Bell, Ph.D.

OFF-ISLAND LIAISON
Bill Bass

ART AND DESIGN
Leo Carty

j ASSISTANT EDITOR
Liz Wilson





FRESH & FANCY FOOD


ALL FOR THE


You Grow It


Wholesale...


We Sell It:


... Retail


gallows bay


gourmet gulch


BETTER







A Brief History of Virgin Islands Agriculture Since

the U.S. Transfer


By Jerome L. McElroy, Director
and John F. Tinsley, Chief Economist
Office of Policy Planning and Research
Virgin Islands Department of Commerce

In the last few years, the insular community has be-
come engaged in an intensive debate on the issue of managed
or controlled growth. This concern has resulted from a
variety of factors: dissatisfaction with the over-rapid and
under-planned patterns of the past; faltering infrastructure
as evidenced by the declining quantity and quality of
public services; and deliberate efforts by lead government
agencies to achieve a more harmonious balance between
commercial demands and the islands' finite physical and
human resource supplies. These efforts include the Eco-
nomic Policy Guidelines developed jointly by the Gover-
nor's Economic Policy Council and the Department of
Commerce; the Coastal Zone Management Program of the
Department of Conservation; and the Comprehensive Land
Use Plan presently underway in the Planning Office.

Fortuitously, the place of agriculture has figured
prominently throughout this dialogue for several obvious
reasons: our increasing food dependence coupled with
double-digit inflation; concerns over energy conservation
and competing land use; the emergence of several back-
to-the land subcultures; and a growing awareness s of the
positive research and pragmatic contributions of CVI's
Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.

Yet, despite the intense level of discussion and the
generous media coverage of agricultural related issues,
insufficient attention has been paid to the historical record.
Certainly some quantitative assessment of past performance
is necessary to accurately assess the economic feasibility
and future potential of the rural sector. This article rep-
resents a brief attempt to summarize some of the more
policy-relevant trends based on time-series data compiled
from Census of Agriculture information available since
1917. It is hoped that an understanding of these past
production patterns will inform the context and enhance
the discussion of agriculture's future role in the shape of
the insular economy.

Historians have documented how the rise and fall of
Virgin Islands society in the Danish colonial period was
intimately tied to the fate of sugar. During the Golden
Ages, the islands' population grew apace with expanded
sugarcane production. From the middle of the nineteenth
century, however, a cumulative cluster of unfavorable
factors set in motion a period of long-term deterioration.
These included: emancipation, loss of metropolitan pre-
ferences, the proliferation of competitive suppliers in the


West Indies, the introduction of beet sugar in Europe, soil
depletion, under capitalization, and other managerial
defects associated with absentee landlordism.
Since that time, sugar's secular slide continued until
1965 when it was formally phased out as a commercial ex-
port. As a result, the importance of agriculture has waned
in general and farming activity has become increasingly
concentrated on St. Croix. Table 1 indicates that although
the number of farms rose in the middle of the period --
partly because of VICORP programs and deliberate policies
to encourage small-scale farming and homesteading -- agri-
cultural acreage decreased rather steadily over the six
decades. Between 1917-75, acreage declines were most
perceptible on St. John (92%) and St. Thomas (78%), and
less so on St. Croix (56%). Most of the declines occurred in
St. John in the 1950's with the establishment of the Na-
tional Park. In both St. Croix and St. Thomas, heaviest
acreage losses took place after 1960 as tourism, manufac-
turing, and residential/commercial demands competed lands
away from traditional rural uses.

As a consequence of these changes, the Virgin Islands
has been transformed from an agricultural society with over
four-fifths of its total land areas in farming activity in 1917
into an urban service economy in 1975 with less than a
third of its land in rural uses. Again the losses in St. John
and St. Thomas were considerably more severe than in
St. Croix. Between 1917-75, agriculture's share of total
land area on these two islands declined from 78% and 52%
respectively to 7 and 11 percent. In St. Croix, the propor-
tion fell from 96 to 42 percent. As a result, St. Croix's
share of total V.I. farming acreage increased from 70% at
the time of the Transfer to almost 90% in 1975.

Other measures of farming effort tell the same story.
For example, according to Table 2, the ratio of harvested
cropland to total acreage has fallen from 10% to 3% with
87% located in St. Croix. Correspondingly, the average
size of farms have decreased by over one-half of its 1917
size. On the other hand, there has been an increase in the
percentage of total farm acreage in both small and very
large farms. To illustrate, between 1917-75 the proportion
of acreage in farms under 100 acres rose from 4.8% to
14.5%, while the percentage in farms of 1,000 acres or
more (all on St. Croix by 1975) increased from 34.7% to
53.3% percent. By contrast, the distribution of total
acres in the so-called more economic, medium-sized tracts
fell noticeably from 60.5% to 32.8 percent. These changes
coupled with the declining importance of harvested crop-
land and the rising share of pasture lands indicate the
growing significance of animal husbandry in contemporary
V.I. agriculture.





TABLE 1 FARM NUMBERS AND ACREAGE


V.I. TOTAL
NO. ACRES
430 69,892
329 68,322
828 55,219
754 62,113
501 44,062
466 39,539
212 20,470
327 24,703


ST.CROIX
NO. ACRES
341 49,206
193 47,150
610 38,942
508 41,241
315 34,376
291 30,596
136 17,669
236 21,548


ST. THOMAS
NO. ACRES
63 10,683
81 10,856
188 10,422
155 10,948
128 6,317
122 6,444
59 2,249
52 2,318


TABLE 2 OTHER


VARIABLE

Percent of Total Acreage
in Harvested Cropland
Average Farm Size (acres)
Percent Total Acreage/Size
0 99 Acres
100 1000 Acres
1000 and over
Percent Farm Ownership
5 years or more
Average Age Operator
Percent of Total Operators
with no off-farm work
200 days off-farm work


a-for 1930 b -for 1940


Finally, trends in the characteristics of farm operators
also re'. sal a pattern of declining effort. For example, (see
Table 2) between 1917-75, the percentage of total opera-
tors who owned their properties for 5 years or more in-
creased from 58% to approximately 75 percent. Moreover,
the average age of farm operators remained constant over
the six decades. These data suggest that local agriculture is


MEASURES OF FARMING EFFORT
1917 AND 1975


1917


10.1a
162.5

4.8
60.5
34.7

58.0
53.8

56.9 b
21.9b


1975


3.0
75.5

14.5
32.2
53.3

74.9
52.4

40.4
34.3


still a relatively traditional, family-oriented occupation as
opposed to a more open and dynamic sector attracting new
and young entrants.

Labor effort also has weakened. In 1917 almost 57(
of the farm operators were full-time farmers reporting no
supplemental off-farm work, whereas in 1975 the ratio was


YEAR
1917
1929
1939
1949
1960
1964
1970
1975


ST. JOHN
ACRES
10,003
10,316
5,855
9,924
3,369
2,499
552
837


Compliments of


AMERICAN CARPET SERVICE

7 Peters Rest St. Croix 773-4340

Havensight Mall St. Thomas 774-7070





40.4 percent. In addition, the proportion of operators who
worked 200 days or more off the farm rose from 22% to
34 percent. This indicates that in 1975 one third of the
operators spent almost two thirds of their time in non-
agricultural pursuits. This is certainly evidence of increasing
rural marginalization.

As the data make clear, since the American purchase
the transfer of land and labor resources from agricultural
to tourist, manufacturing, and construction activities has
been remarkable. In the period 1917 to 1975, some 45,189
acres were lost to farming; 27,658 on St. Croix, 8,365 on
St. Thomas, and 9, 166 on St. John. As a result, there has
been an increase in the proportion of small farms (less than
10 acres) and a decrease in the share of large farms (1.000
acres and more). For example, since 1917 the proportion of
small farms rose from 58% to 62% in 1975, while the pro-
portion of large farms -- though acreage per farm increased --
declined from 3.7% to 1.8 percent.

In connection with the marginalization thesis men-
tioned above, one consequence of this tendency toward
reduced farm size especially in recent years has been a
decline in relative farm profitability. This conclusion is
hinted at by the following: between 1964-75, the propor-
tion of farms reporting sales of $10,000 and more fell from
18% to 14%. On the other hand, the proportion of farms
reporting sales less than $2,500 rose from 58 to 62 percent.
The argument is even stronger given the historically high
inflation experienced over the same period.


According to Table 3, in general the historical behav-
ior of major fruit crops produced locally bears the imprint
of declining acreage. In every case where date are available,
there were increases in output between 1917 and the 1930
and 1940 decades, partly the result of major government
efforts to encourage intensive small-scale activity. After this
time however, major output declines occurred. In some
cases, such as avocados, mangoes, lemons/limes and papayas,
there were visible increases after 1970. In all cases, the pro-
duction levels achieved in 1975 were considerably less than
previously recorded highs.

Table 4 indicates a similar pattern for vegetable pro-
duction though the behavior is not smooth. There is an in-
crease in acreage and dollar value from 1917 to a peak in
1949 and declines thereafter. Obviously, the 1975 level of
S21,000 is insignificant and represents undoubtedly less
than the average daily sales of a large local supermarket.
Table 5 records the cash value of production for specific
vegetable crops since 1960. In recent years the most impor-
tant vegetables in market value have been okra, onions,
peppers, tomatoes, lettuce and celery.

Although in terms of acreage planted the historical
behavior of field crops most closely parallels the steadily
falling fate of sugarcane (see Table 6), production levels
follow the familiar bell-shape pattern previously discussed.
This is evident for the six major field crops represented in
Table 7. Once again, except for corn, very measurable
increases occurred after 1970. But the 1975 levels were


TABLE 3 FRUITS QUANTITY HARVESTED


YEAR AVOCADOS1


1917
1929
1939
1949
1960
1964
1970
1975


14,700
163,751
124,597
37,945
13,311
10,026
16,561


1 Fruits


BANANAS2 MANGOES1 PLANTAINS2


818
6,790
46,645
16,424
20,539
8,249
5,411
4,785


2,750
407,683
442,656
959,903
173,457
166,061
150,359
217,807


823
9,130
1,223
401
596
1,241
284


2 Bunches


TABLE 4 VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
ACRES HARVESTED AND DOLLAR VALUE


ACRES
168
50
156
269
45
53
66
36


LEMONS & LIMES3


11,640
88,080
85,968
29,860
15,991
4,815
35,099


PAPAYAS3






36,672
31,507
32,807


3 Pounds


YEAR
1917
1929
1939
1949
1960
1964
1970
1975


VALUE
$ 6,537
2,690
16,050
52,022
13,137
11,986
31,890
20,737






1;,


Compliments
of
GRAND UNION


The ~lAL Supermarkets in
the Virgin Islands





still significantly below former peaks. What is significant
is that despite absolute declines in acreage of 96% from
1929 through 1975, in most cases productivity per acre
increased especially in recent years. This pattern is most
evident for cassava, corn, sweet potatoes, and yams. Such
performance is indicative of a local capacity to apply
modern techniques to intensively cultivate an eroding land
base.

Finally, the historical record of livestock and poultry
production shows perhaps the brightest picture of all from
a contemporary perspective. Aside from the expected de-
cline in horses/colts with increased mechanization, all
categories of livestock (except cattle) and poultry demon-
strate increasing trends. This is a pattern quite unique in
the Virgin Islands context. The increases are most pro-


nounced in the case of poultry and sheep. The rising trends
are more moderate for goats and swine.

This strong positive growth suggests that the major
transformation within the rural sector in this century has
been the substitution of livestock and poultry production
(catering to local demand) for export sugar. These trends
also represent a noticeable achievement in import sub-
stitution during a period of severe land encroachment.
The future status of livestock production in particular
and the rural sector in general will depend on whether
there is sufficient political commitment to nourish the
entrepreneurial resiliency identified above with a series
of pragmatic policies designed to reduce the long-term
deterioration of Virgin Islands agriculture.


TABLE 5 DOLLAR VALUE OF SPECIFIC VEGETABLE CROPS

VEGETABLE 1960 1964 1970
Cabbage $ 752 $ 120 $ 100
Carrots 1,615 667 2,070
Celery 693 248 1,985
Cucumbers 360 2,870 3,800
Eggplant 1,277 576 1,000
Green beans 350 107 140
Lettuce n.a. n.a. 3,080
Okra 1,209 1,217 2,585
Onions 362 125 -3,215
Peppers 815 2,843 6,290
Squash 335 193 220
Tomatoes 2.515 2,113 7,405


TABLE 6 ACRES IN FIELD CROPS
EXCLUDING SUGARCANE AND SORGHUM


YEAR
1917
1929
1939
1949


ACRES
n.a.
700
309
274


YEAR
1960
1964
1970
1975


ACRES
98
46
19
28


1975
$1,210
1,200
1,800
933
1,647
335
1,800
2,485
3,760
2,040
760
2,327


WE ARE PROUD TO BE A PART OF THE
10TH ANNUAL AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR




uLc 1t. I Ig X Au. ti
STHE ONLY LOCALLY OWNED NEWSPAPER SERVING THE VIRGIN ISLANDS SINCE 1844

.. AND WE ARE PROUD OF OUR 136 YEARS OF SERVICE TO ST. CROIX











TABLE 7 PRODUCTION IN POUNDS OF MAJOR FIELD CROPS


SWEET POTATO
n.a.
67,700
104,900
81,186
43,121
16,120
3,135
20,830


PRODUCTION POUNDS PER ACRE


n.a.
3,077
1,264
955
958
1,343
1,045
3,472


TABLE 8 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY ON FARMS


SHEEP/
LAMBS
1,046
1,533
819
2,784
2,152
2,268
2,185
3,122


GOATS/
KIDS
1,584
1,476
2,134
3,846
2,334
3,203
2,721
4,162


Tickets and Cruise Ship Reservations Airline to Anywhere Car Rentals Island Tours Bus Information
MAJOR CREDIT CARDS ACCEPTED


YEAR
1917
1929
1939
1949
1960
1964
1970
1975


CASSAVA
n.a.
2,690
15,653
14,790
3,284
6,277
2,413
7,510


CORN
17,700
13,900
17,200
29,330
9,626
17,266
15,012
6,476


DRY BEANS
90
430
8,343
12,441
1,192
835
100
2,281


TANYA
n.a.
31,300
102,100
24,853
7,165
2,830
465
3,835


YAMS
n.a.
15,400
75,200
72,930
21,131
30,941
6,891
30,505


1917
1929
1939
1949
1960
1964
1970
1975


n.a.
1,345
745
643
1,095
1,569
603
1,502


708
695
688
599
438
1,570
1,876
2,159


90
143
491
518
596
835
n.a.
456


n.a.
2,087
1,201
753
1,024
943
465
1,278


n.a.
2,567
1,567
1,403
1,112
2,063
2,297
5,084


YEAR
1917
1929
1939
1949
1960
1964
1970
1975


CHICKENS
6,137
3,331
8,046
10,067
17,598
33,409
13,034
40,079


HORSES/
COLTS
1,872
862
954
1,075
431
265
183
216


HOGS/
PIGS
2,145
860
1,124
976
1,297
1.323
898
1,454


CATTLE/
CALVES
12,187
12,252
8,796
11,342
8,383
6,532
5,645
6,106


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Agricultural Research and Education Programs at

the College of the Virgin Islands


By Darshan S. Padda
Director
Cooperative Extension Service and
Agricultural Experiment Station
College of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix


The United States Congress granted land-grant status
to the College of the Virgin Islands in 1972. This legislative
act provided the college with federal funds for the develop-
ment of agricultural research and education programs
beneficial to the residents of the Virgin Islands. The land-
grant system of research and education was originally cre-
ated through three pieces of legislation by the United States
Congress. The Morril Act of 1862 granted land (or money)
to each state in the union to help establish a state college
for the benefit of agriculture. Research funds for the con-
stant development of new information was provided by the
Hatch Act of 1887 which established an agricultural experi-
ment station at each land-grant college. Finally, in 1914,
congress passed the Smith-Lever Act which established a
cooperative extension service at each land-grant college to
offer informal educational services to farmers, homemakers,
and youth and community groups.
Through land-grant status, the College of the Virgin
Islands has committed itself to an active role in the future
agricultural development of the Virgin Islands. The college
has initiated formal education opportunities in agriculture
through the development of an agriculture curriculum
leading to an associate of arts degree. Agricultural research
is conducted by the CVI Agricultural Experiment Station
and informal educational programs are provided by the
CVI Cooperative Extension Service.
Since the associate of arts degree in agriculture is dis-
cussed in detail elsewhere in this book, this article will high-
light the agricultural research and extension education
program at the College of the Virgin Islands.

Agricultural Experiment Station
The objective of the CVI Agricultural Experiment
Station is to conduct research that will meet the short and
long range needs of the farming community and other
residents of the Virgin Islands. Although research priorities
are determined locally with local needs in mind, the pro-
jects must be approved by the United States Department of
Agriculture before funds can be expended. Local needs
were analyzed through feasibility studies of various agri-
cultural enterprises and four broad research areas were
selected -- these are agronomy, animal science, aquaculture,
and horticulture.


The main objective of agronomic research is to
develop a feed crop industry in the Virgin Islands. To date,
research on forage sorghum, grain sorghum, and sudan grass
has lead to the identification of higher yielding, better
adapted varieties for feed crop production in the Virgin
Islands. The success of this research was immediately recog-
nized by local farmers who quickly adopted experiment
station recommendations stemming from this research.
Agronomic research on local guinea grass demonstrated that
both yield and quality of this grass could be improved by
simple nitrogen fertilization. The agronomy program is
presently researching the various forage legumes suitable for
the Virgin Islands.
The major emphasis of the animal science program
has been to characterize the Senepol cattle, a locally
developed beef cattle breed. The history and development
of the Senepol cattle was researched and published as an
experiment station bulletin. Present research is evaluating
the effects of pasture grazing versus grain feed on growth
rate and carcass quality of the Senepol cattle.
Research in aquaculture has centered on the devel-
opment of tilapia as a fresh-water food fish in small scale
fish farming system. Methods of raising fish in cages and
growth response to various feeding regimes have been
investigated. Tilapia testing demonstrations and surveys
have indicated a good market acceptability by the com-
munity.
To promote increased production of food crops,
horticultural research has included variety testing and the
development of sound cultural practices for vegetables
and fruits in the Virgin Islands. Gardeners Fact Sheets have
been published for the benefit of small farmers and home
gardeners. Present research is emphasizing the development
of small irrigation systems having minimal water require-
ments for Virgin Island vegetable crop production.
Cooperative Extension Service
The Cooperative Extension Service is an agency with
the primary responsibility to disseminate information
through informal education opportunities to the general
public regarding the latest proven practices for farming,
human nutrition, family living, and community develop-
ment. The agency is divided into four program areas which
include agriculture and natural resources, home economics,
4-H youth development, and community resource develop-
ment. These programs function through extension offices
on all three Virgin Islands and last year served approxi-
mately 46,000 people.
The agricultural and natural resources component
provides technical assistance through personal visits, tele-
15





phone consultation and literature distribution to Virgin
Islanders needing advice on raising plants or animals.
Additionally, agricultural-related workshops and clinics
as well as result demonstrations are held regularly for the
benefit of Virgin Islanders.

Pesticide applicator training classes are held to
qualify people for certification as "restricted-pesticide
users". To avoid unnecessary use of chemicals, new pro-
grams of integrated pest management and pesticide im-
pact assessment have been initiated.

The home economics component of the extension
service has been one of the most successful community
service programs for improving the physical and social
well-being of Virgin Islands residents. Homemakers are
taught the basics of human nutrition, food purchasing and
preparing, and clothing construction on a year-round basis.
A special effort has been made to promote the knowledge
and use of local plants as sources of food and beverages.
Along this line, home economics extension staff compiled
a listing of authentic native recipes which was published as
an extension bulletin that has remained in great public
demand.
As a youth service arm of extension, the 4-H program
is helping youths between the ages of 9 and 19 grow into



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mature, responsible members of society. There are about
600 youths enrolled in Virgin Islands 4-H clubs. In addition,
summer 4-H day camp programs have provided learning
experiences to approximately 1,000 participants yearly.
These summer programs also provided meaningful and
satisfying jobs to approximately 100 high school and
college students who served as counselors.
The community resource development program
attempts to develop human resources through providing
assistance in organizing community groups, developing
educational material on local government and promoting
public awareness about community concerns through
weekly radio talks.


,- -e


The College of the Virgin Islands has a major advan-
tage as the agency for research and education services in
the field of food and agriculture. As a land-grant institution,
and depending on the resources made available by the local
government, substantial funding is also readily obtainable
on a matching basis from the federal government. These
matching funds can essentially double the available finan-
cing for research and extension programs.
However, equally important to the success of these
programs is active interest, involvement and utilization by
the Virgin Islands community.


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Marketing Tilapia in the Virgin Islands

By Robert L. Busch
C.V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station

For the past two years, the C.V.I. aquaculture prog-
gram has raised a freshwater fish called blue tilapia (Tilapia
aurea) in cages located in a St. Croix freshwater pond.
Research indicates that the blue tilapia could be grown suc-
cessfully for human consumption in many St. Croix ponds
if maintained in cages and fed a commercial pelleted fish
feed. S

A major question facing the development of tilapia
fish culture in the Virgin Islands is the tiltimate acceptabil-
ity of-the fish by consumers. Even if tilapia can be grown
successfully, will Virgin Island consumers buy the fish and
will they pay a price acceptable to the fish culturist?


In May, 1979, the aquaculture program cooperated
with the C.V.I. Extension Home Economics staff to con-
duct tilapia fish tasting demonstrations in 10 housing pro-
jects on St. Croix. The aquaculture program provided the
tilapia and developed a questionnaire that fish tasters were
asked to complete after sampling the fish. Home Economic
Extension aides prepared the tilapia and carried the fish and
questionnaires to the housing projects where they conduc-
ted the advertised fish tasting demonstrations. The project
was quite successful and many people were given the
opportunity to taste small samples of tilapia. A total of
312 questionnaires were returned to the aquaculture pro-
gram for evaluation.

Those attending the fish tasting demonstrations were
avid fish eaters. Eighty percent of the people responding to
the questionnaire reported that they ate fish at least once a
week.

Sixty-eight percent of the respondents reported that
they "usually" purchased fresh fish caught by local fisher-
men. Twenty percent indicated they "sometimes" bought
fresh fish and only 12% reported they "hardly ever" or
"never" purchased fresh, locally caught fish.

Only 14% of the respondents reported that they
"usually" purchased frozen fish such as whole, eviscerated
blue runners or kingfish steaks available in the larger super-
markets. Another 50% indicated they "sometimes" bought
these fish while 36% reported they "hardly ever" or "never"
purchased such frozen fish products.

Two percent of the respondents reported that they
"usually" purchased frozen, processed and prepackaged


C.V.I. Cooperative Extension Service paraprofessional
Agatha Ross displays three plump blue tilapia freshwater
fish prior to frying them for a delicious luncheon.

fish fillets or fish stick products available in the larger
supermarkets. Another 22% indicated that they "some-
times" bought these products, but 76% responded that
they "hardly ever" or "neveg" purchased the frozen pre-
packaged fish fillets or fish sticks.
A fish size of 3/4 pound or larger was preferred by
82% of the respondents when purchasing whole fresh fish.
Ninety-six percent of the respondents indicated that they
normally paid $1.00 $1.75 for a pound of fish with 76%
of these individuals paying $1.25 $1.50 per pound.

The respondents preferred to buy the following fish
or groups of fish as recognized by local names, and listed
here from the most often cited to least cited: snapper, king-
fish, bluefish, doctorfish, grouper, goatfish, tuna, grunt,
butterfish, and dolphin.

The tilapia were evaluated by Virgin Islanders, who,
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for the most part, ate fish regularly. Most ate salt water
species and many had never eaten a freshwater fish. When
asked if the liked the taste of the tilapia, 96% of those
answering the question responded, "yes".

Forty-six percent of the respondents indicated that
they would purchase tilapia in preference to the salt water
fish they normally buy if available in their local markets
and sold at the same price. Another fifty percent of the
respondents reported that they would buy the tilapia, but
only if the fish they normally buy was sold out. The re-
maining 4% reported they didn't care for tilapia and would
not purchase it.
Many people further expressed their opinions in written
comments which ranged from, and I quote: "No, don't like
the taste. I don't like the idea of freshwater fish." to I
like it very much. I am not pleased with the small sample.
It should have been much bigger. Can't wait to buy some."
These additional comments often revealed a prejudice
against freshwater fish. The tilapia samples, once tasted,
usually contradicted this prejudice to the apparent surprise
of the fish taster. Some of their comments included: I
like the tilapia very much. It tasted as good as the salt
water fish to me. It doesn't taste like it was raised in
freshwater pond;" The tilapia was very good and it
does not even taste like freshwater fish."; "It tastes very
good, just as good as salt water fish."

Our overall findings were that Virgin Islanders an-
swering this questionnaire preferred to buy fresh fish
caught by local fishermen. They readily paid $1.25 S1.50
a pound for these fish, and when buying whole fish, they
preferred fish weighing a minimum of 3/4 pound. Ninety-
six percent of the fish tasters answering the questionnaire
considered the tilapia a good tasting fish, and nearly one-
half of these people indicated that they would buy tilapia
in preference to the fish they normally purchased if avail-
able at the same price.

The fish tasting project confirmed our belief that
"farm raised" blue tilapia are a fine tasting, high quality
food fish that should be readily accepted by Virgin Island-
ers. Nonetheless, the project did not consider the actual
marketability of tilapia.



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GENERAL AGENTS
REAL ESTATE P.O. BOX 40, CRUZ BAY
(809) 776-6776 ST. JOHN, U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS 00830






In September, 1979, the aquaculture program sold
330 pounds of "farm raised" blue tilapia to the general
public. The fish were marketed at $1.00 per pound, live
weight on a first-come, first-served basis. Individual sales
were limited to 3 pounds of fish per customer so that as
many Virgin Islanders as possible could purchase the
available fish. The original sale was scheduled for a 3-day
period. All fish were sold by the middle of the third day
and many customers had to be turned away that afternoon.


The fish were sold cheaply at $1.00 per pound, live
weight. This price was selected as (1) it might entice cus-
tomers to buy a freshwater fish they may not have tried
before and (2) it was probably the minimum price that
would allow an acceptable return to the fish farmer. In all
probability "farm raised" tilapia, with their uniform size
and quality can easily be marketed at a higher price. This
will further improve the economics of raising the fish, yet,
will not reduce its ability to compete in the fresh fish
market where fish characteristically sell for $1.25 or more
per pound.



A common complaint voiced by consumers who want
to purchase fresh fish is simply that it is often difficult to
find fresh fish to buy. The development of tilapia fish
culture could supplement to some degree the amount of
fresh fish available to Virgin Islanders. "Farm raised"
tilapia can be harvested at whatever size is most desired
by the customer and all fish can be graded for uniform
size and quality. Harvested tilapia can be easily maintained
alive in holding facilities. The customer is assured of an
absolutely fresh fish (still swimming) and the fish culturists
or salesperson can maintain any unsold fish for the next
day.


Authorities estimate that locally caught marine fishes
account for approximately 30% of the fish eaten in the
Virgin Islands. This catch is believed to be very close to the
maximum sustainable yield for Virgin Island waters as
currently exploited. If this is true then any real scarcity of
fresh fish in the marketplace can be expected to intensify
with demand. To meet this demand either fresh fish will
have to be imported, or any previously untapped marine
or freshwater resources will need to be developed.


The development of tilapia fish farming in the U.S.
Virgin Islands will never replace the marine fisheries, and it
is not intended to do so. It is thought, however, that tilapia
fish farming could supplement the supply of fresh fish to
Virgin Islanders, and provide the fish farmer with both a
source of supplemental income and a high quality fish for
his table.


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Agriculture Curriculum at C.V.I.


By Harold Hupp,
C.V.I. Agricultural Teaching Program Coordinator

Today, a renewed interest in Virgin Islands agricul-
ture has been brought about by spiraling food prices which
have led to a higher proportion of the income being spent
on the family food budget, due in part also to the necessity
of importing most food items.

Food requirements for the ever-expanding human
population will continue to tax the ability of the agricul-
tural industry to meet the world food needs. To meet the
challenge of increased food production necessary for the
future, here and elsewhere, the agricultural industry will
require more and more college trained people in all aspects
of the industry. They will have to be trained in the techni-
cal know-how of crop production, animal husbandry,
agricultural business and in the development and use of
sophisticated equipment.

Now Virgin Islanders can begin such training without
leaving- home. Not until the College of the Virgin Islands
developed and implemented the Associate of Arts Degree
in Agriculture was there opportunity for people of the
Virgin Islands to study in this field beyond the high school
level. In fact, only Central High School offered this oppor-
tunity through its Vocational Agriculture Program. The
student with an interest in Agriculture as a career has in
the past been forced to seek further education off-island.

The fundamental objective of the C.V.I. Agriculture
degree program is to provide the basic knowledge for the
graduate to assume a responsible position in the agricultural
industry. The curriculum guides the student through a
series of both formal classroom instruction and informal,
laboratory learning experiences. The program is designed
to give the student a basic understanding of the scientific
and technological vocabulary, concepts, and practical
skills related to the agriculture industry. The program also
provides a strong background for the student who wishes
to continue on to more advanced degrees.

The following are the seven agricultural courses
offered at C.V.I.: Introduction to Agriculture, Agricul-
tural Economics, Agronomy, Tropical Horticulture, Animal
Science, Farm Management and Planning, and Food Preser-
vation and Utilization. Introduction to Agriculture is
offered every spring semester and will cover biological
principles as they apply to agriculture. This course also
gives a general background in basic terminology and history
of agriculture. Agricultural Economics studies the economic
factors dealing with soil types and field crop production.


Tropical Horticulture examines the production of tropical
fruits and vegetables. Animal Science reviews the breeds of
livestock, basic physiology and tropical animal husbandry.
Farm Management analyzes the basic items needed to plan
and operate a profitable farm enterprise. Food Preservation
and Utilization studies basic human nutrition as well as the
proper storage and preparation of foods.
Today agriculture is a diversified industry that offers
unlimited employment opportunities in the areas of agricul-
tural Science or Agricultural Business. Agriculture is de-
fined as the science, art and the business of cultivating the
soil, producing crops and raising livestock for the use of
man.

Scientific research in agriculture is conducted to
select the best crop varieties and the most economical
fertilization rates, or to develop treatment of animal health
problems and develop better equipment. new or better
methods of harvesting crops and raising livestock or better
methods of controlling pests and weeds. The art of agri-
culture refers to the farmer's "green thumb". This aspect
of agriculture is hard to pinpoint; this art is an intuition
or talent that is learned through experience.

Today in the United States, agriculture employs 30-
of the national work force, with only about 5- of the work
force actually on the farm producing food and fiber. Most
agricultural employment is found in the community infra-
structure that supports the farmer. This includes suppliers
who provide the farmer with energy, machinery. seeds.
fertilizer and other resources. After the farmer produces
food and fiber, his products are transported, processed.
distributed and sold by off-the-farm labor. The type of
marketing system can range from a simple roadside stand
to a highly refined and packaged product.

Agriculture in the Virgin Islands has come full circle.
From the early 18th century through the mid-19th century.
the Virgin Islands was noted as a leading agricultural
production area. After 1848, the large commercial farms
were divided into the small subsistence family farms.
Although the Virgin Islands soon lost its status as a major
port of agricultural trade, it remained important as a pro-
visioning station for shipping. Even though on a smaller
scale than before, agriculture continued to be the mainstay
of the economy for the next 100 years.

The increase in tourism began to have an effect on
Virgin Islands agriculture during the post-war era of the
early 1950's. The tourism industry, along with manufac-
turing caused an enormous shift in the labor force. In a




short span of about 10 years, agriculture almost vanished
from the scene as a viable ingredient in the local economy.
However, today out of necessity agriculture is starting to
again become a viable industry in the local economy. And
today, Virgin Islanders can learn on their home island
about the basics of agriculture through the Agriculture
Degree Program offered by the College of the Virgin
Islands.
For a brochure on the Associate of Arts Degree in
Agriculture program or questions about admission, tuition,
financial aid or classes, contact the Student Services Office
in St. Croix or the Admissions Office in St. Thomas.




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*
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A Unique Veterinary Care System


By Duke Deller, D.V.M.
Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture


Veterinary services provided through the Veterinary
Division of the Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture
are unique in the field of United States veterinary medicine.
Territorial veterinarians are employed to help formulate
and monitor Virgin Islands animal health regulations and
programs, as well as administer to the medical needs of
food producing animals. Usually government employed
veterinarians are involved with only the formulation and
implementing of government animal health regulations.
However, the providing of veterinary care to a relatively
small number of food producing animals, scattered over
three islands, makes it unfeasible for their health needs
to be met properly and profitably by a private practitioner.
The Virgin Islands solution of government hired veterinar-
ians is probably a reflection of what will happen in various
low density food animal areas on the mainland. In certain
mainland counties it is almost impossible or exceedingly
expensive to induce a veterinarian to make a farm call.
At present, only about one-third of the practicing veter-
inarians in the U.S.A. involve themselves with large animal
medicine. In spite of the increasing interest in food animals,
the area of pet medicine is growing much faster than large
animal medicine. Thus the Virgin Islands has evolved
farther than many other low density food animal areas in
meeting food animal health care needs.

The system has worked well in providing veterinary
services to animal owners. St. Croix has two veterinarians
and St. Thomas/St. John has one. These veterinarians can
be reached at the Agricultural Station during week days,
and in cases of emergency at night or on weekends, they
may be reached at home. Food animal owners are charged
a nominal fee to cover the cost of medicine. Most of the
services provided are not of an emergency nature but deal
with preventitive herd health designed to stop disease
situations before animals have a chance to become debili-
tated and acutely ill. Some services provided in addition
to the care of diseased animals are castrations, pregnancy
checks, blood testing, vaccination, euthanasias and routine
treatment for parasitism. During the last fifteen months on
St. Croix over 11,000 animals were given veterinary atten-
tion, and 5,721 on St. Thomas.

Some of the common disease conditions diagnosed
mainly by clinical observation are as follows:


Anaplasmosis & Piroplasmosis
Abcess
Cancer Eye
Coccidiosis
Diarrhea
Dog Bite
Downer Cows
Dystocia
Hernias
Infectious Coryza
Joint III
Lameness
Mange
Mareks
Mastitis
Metritis
Parasitism
Peritonitis
Pneumonia
Retained Placenta
Wounds


Fiscal 1978 Fiscal 1979
No. of Cases No. of Cases
27 54
12 27
2 9
98 10
25 44
50 43
21 6
20 24
3 25
4 100
3 26
39 57
20 26
0 101
14 63
47 105
66 87
1 17
71 270
16 16
24 23


A very important duty of the Veterinary Division is
to prevent the introduction of any exotic diseases to the
island. Several very dangerous diseases are present in the


Food animals, such as these pigs, receive veterinary care
services from three veterinarians in the Virgin Islands
who work with the V.I. Department of Agriculture.






Caribbean and includes African Swine Fever, Hog Cholera,
Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Exotic Newcastle disease and
Rabies. African Swine Fever recently swept through the
island of Hispaniola killing most of the pigs on that island.
Exotic Newcastle disease has invaded Forida and California
through imported birds, costing millions of dollars to
eradicate. It could easily enter the Virgin Islands, with the
resulting death or wasteful destruction of many pet birds
and chickens. Brucellosis, Tuberculosis and Rabies would
not only raise havoc with our animals but are also a threat
to human health.

Besides supervising the movement of animals in and
out of the islands, veterinarians are involved in blood sam-
ple surveillance for African Swine Fever, Hog Cholera and
Brucellosis. The tick control program also comes under the
auspices of the Veterinary Division. During the fiscal year
1979, 33,180 cattle were sprayed or dipped for ticks, and
589 sheep and goats were sprayed for lice. Ticks cause
losses of animals through transmitting the well known and
.devastating tick fever. Ticks also cause debilitation of
animals by direct blood consumption.

Other duties that fall under the responsibility of the
Veterinary Division are the collection of stray horses, aid to
the animal shelter and involvement with the abattoir. In
addition, the Division has cooperated with several research
projects conducted by the College of the Virgin Islands
Agricultural Experiment Station and a joint paper will
soon be-published on the Virgin Islands White Sheep.






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Pigeon Peas A Rewarding Crop


By Christopher Ramcharan
C.V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station

For a large majority of Virgin Islanders, peas form a
major part of the daily diet. Whether the dish is called
"Pelau", "Arroz con Gandules" or just plain peas and rice,
pigeon peas are usually the main ingredient.

The pigeon pea is widely grown throughout the Carib-
bean primarily as a cash crop but also cultivated on a large
scale for canning in such places as Trinidad and Puerto Rico,
where the farm value is estimated at over $3 million per
year. Unfortunately, as with many other food crops, almost
all of the pigeon peas used in the Virgin Islands are im-
ported and only a small crop is grown in backyards or home
gardens. Although almost every Tan-Tan plant growing in
unused land could just as easily be a pigeon pea plant, Vir-
gin Islanders pay a heavy price for shelled fresh or frozen
pigeon peas, or simply open a can of their favorite imported
brand.

New varieties of pigeon peas are continually being
developed for large scale production that can be mechani-
cally planted and harvested. With the present acreage of un-
cultivated land on St. Croix, the island can very easily
become self-sufficient in pigeon peas and even produce
enough for export.

The pigeon pea (Cajanus Cajan (L.) Millsp.) is also
known as Gungo Pea in Jamaica and Gandul in Puerto
Rico. It is a short-lived perennial 8-15 feet tall, native of
Africa but it is distributed throughout the tropical world,
where it is the best adapted of all the grain legumes. As a
legume, the pigeon pea belongs to the botanical group of
plants which include the local Tan-Tan, Casha (Acacia) and
the popular ornamental Flamboyant.

The legumes have been traditionally regarded as "the
poor man's meat", because the high protein content of
their seeds, particularly when dried, makes them a meat
substitute. This family of plants is also well noted for the
ability to thrive in soils of low fertility the Tan-Tan of the
Virgin Islands being no exception. Also, the roots of many
legumes have the amazing capability of making their own
nitrogen-fertilizer from nitrogen in the soil air.

Environmental Requirements
The pigeon pea is adapted to a wide range of climatic
and soil conditions but sensitive to water-logging, particu-
larly in the early stages of growth. Planting areas should,
therefore, be well prepared and have good drainage. On
sloping land, contour drains should be dug. The plant has


a deep penetrating tap root system that makes it one of the
most drought-resistant vegetables. It thrives well within a
rainfall range of 20 to 90 inches per year.

The production of pigeon peas is seasonal mainly be-
cause the plant is photosensitive requiring.short days to
flower. Consequently, the crop, once mature, comes into
flower around late October irrespective of the time of sow-
ing. Planting should be at the end of May or early June, so
that the plants are of good size before flowering and fruit-
ing. Normally, this period coincides with the beginning of
the rainy season in the Caribbean. Because of the erratic
rainfall pattern in the Virgin Islands, the crop may have to
be watered or irrigated if planted in May or June.
Varieties
There are two main types of cultivars of pigeon pea:
1. Tall varieties (8-15 ft.) have been traditionally
grown in the Caribbean. These are all indeterminate -- that
is, they bear flowers and pods over a period of several
weeks, the pods maturing progressively from the base to the
apex of a long flowering stalk (inflorescence). As a result,
such plants may have, at any time, flower buds, open
flowers, young pods, mature pods and even dry pods. The
indeterminate types have a greater yield than the shorter
varieties, since they are larger and bear pods over a longer
period. They e ideal for the howe gardener. Of several tall
varieties introrciced from the Isabella Agricultural Station
in Puerto Rico, the f 11..1 ii,.- types have grown and pro-
duced well at CVI Agriculture Experiment Station: Kaki,
Totiempo, 394487, 394776.
2. Dwarf and Semi-dwarf varieties (4-5 ft.) are new
types that have been developed in the last decade. These are
more determinate plants that is, they produce flowers al-
most simultaneously. These varieties also bear earlier and
harvesting is easier because of their smaller size, more com-
pact form and the greater uniformity in pod maturity. They
are therefore, more adaptable to large scale growing and
mechanical harvesting.

New varieties are also being produced which are not
affected by day length and so produce pods all year round.
Particularly promising are the semi-dwarf neutral strains
that mature in less than five months. Since two major plant
breeding centres for pigeon peas here in the Caribbean are
Puerto Rico and Trinidad, a constant source of seed material
to the Virgin Islands should not be difficult.

Planting
Pigeon Peas are grown by direct seeding with 3 to 4
seeds per hole and later thinned out to one plant for the tall
varieties and two plants for the dwarf types. Transplanting








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VIRGIN ISLANDS, U.S.A. 00820
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from a seed-bed or from seed-boxes is possible, but is
generally unnecessary. The crop is usually spaced from 3x3
feet for dwarf varieties, to 5x5 feet (or more if it is to be
intercropped) for the tall varieties. With the dwarf varieties.
spacing has a marked effect on height and yield. Close
spacing increases height and reduces yield per plant, but the
greater plant number per acre at close spacings increases
yield per acre.

Fertilizer Requirement
Several research trials have shown that the pigeon pea
is one of the few crops that does not respond to fertilizer
treatments. Consequently, there are no fertilizer recommen-
dations.

Weed Control
Weed control is essential during establishment of
young plants as early growth is slow. and the crop can
easily be smothered if weeds are not .. -i l!. .! For home
gardeners, hand weeding is the best method, but where the
crop is grown on a large scale, inter-row mechanical cultiva-
tion and chemical control may be necessary. Gesagard 50 W
(Prometryne) at 2 lbs/acre applied right after seeding, will
control many annual weeds for up to 6 weeks. If weeds are
present at time of planting, Paraquat (1 pint/acre) or
Glyphosate (Roundup) (1 qt/acre) should be added to the
spray mixture. However, once the plants have established
themselves, they grow vigorously and where they are planted
closely, can effectively smother out weeds.

Insect and Disease Control
The pigeon pea is relatively free from insect pests
except for the green and dry pods which are infested by
one or more insects. Of the pod borers that attack pigeon
peas, three have so far been identified but the relative
damage that each causes has not been evaluated. They are
the larvae of the moths Ancylostomia stercorea, Heliothis
virescens and Elasmopalpus rubedinellus. In general, the
adults lay eggs on flowers and young pods and the young
larvae burrow into the pod and feed on the developing
seeds. The loss of one or more seeds per pod as a result of
pod borer damage, affects both yield and quality. Towards
the end of the crop, infestation increases and plants left to
stand over a second year are early sources of infestation for
the new crop. If a large area is grown with pigeon peas. this
degree of infestation can be reduced by replanting fields
every year and by removing and destroying plants at the
end of the crop. Several insecticides are being screened for
the control of the pod borers, but so far, no firm recom-
mendations have been made. Coincidentally, however, the
USDA has been using the pigeon pea as a test plant for the
biological control of Heliothis virescens in St.. Croix and
this research, if extended to the other pod borers, could
very well solve the major pest problem with the pigeon pea.
Biological control method would be superb for a crop like
the pigeon pea particularly when grown in an island situa-
tion like St. Croix.






Disease problems with pigeon peas are of less impor-
tance than insects and should pose no major problems here
in the Virgin islands. Rust disease and stem canker which
do occur in other areas of the world, do not infect the crop
here.
Non-Food Uses
Because of its dense mat-like root system, the pigeon
pea can be planted on sloping land to hold the soil and pro-
duce a good anti-erosion effect. The plant also makes a
good windbreak planted in rows, 2 to 4 ft. apart. For a tall
woody windbreak, the blossoms can be removed to pro-
mote thick vegetable growth. Seedlings should be thinned
to about 2 feet apart at end of first year if the windbreak is
to be maintained for 2 years or longer. The windbreak
should be planted 8 to 10 feet from the nearest vegetable to
avoid competition.

The pigeon pea can also be interplanted with a wide
range of other crops such as corn, sweet potato, cucumber
and tomato. It is also ideal for inclusion in any crop rota-
tion system. Like the Tan-Tan, young plants may also be
used in pastures as a browse plant.


Homemaker Angela Roberts picks pigeon peas for dinner.
A popular legume in the Caribbean and called "the poor
man's meat" due to high protein content, the pigeon pea
can be grown easily in everyone's back yard.

Harvesting and Yields
Pods should be harvested in the mature or ripe stage
for use as a green pea. For the dwarf varieties, this takes
from 14 to 16 weeks after planting with a longer period
required for the tall varieties. Twenty to 25 weeks are re-
quired if the peas are to be used as a dried vegetable. Tall
varieties are difficult to harvest but give bigger yields and
produce over a longer period ot time.


Part of the


island


scene




















For more than 15 years St.Thomas Dairies
has been supplying the Virgin Islands with
locally-made, always-fresh dairy products,
juices and drinks from tropical fruits. Fine
quality foods produced in the islands for
our island neighbors. We're part of the
scene...
._____________________

































MANY THANKS TO

THE DEPARTMENT

OF AGRICULTURE

Produced Daily On St. Croix
From Six Purebred Dairy Herds


Grade A Fresh Milk
Non Fat Skim Milk
Fresh Whipping Cream
Chocolate Milk
Buttermilk
Sour Cream


Cottage Cheese
24 Ice Cream and
Sherbet Flavors
made fresh daily
Orange Juice


A sk for Island Dairies Products at your local grocery store
or stop at THE GOLDEN COW in Christiansted.


ISLAND

DAIRIES
ST. CROIX, VIRGIN ISLAND


For large scale growing, harvesting can be the Inost
costly and time-consuming operation. If pigeon pea growing
is to be made a commercially viable industry rather than
just a small farm or home garden crop in the Virgin Islands.
then harvesting must be mechanized. The right varieties and
machinery have been developed in the Caribbean so that
the Virgin Islands are not far away from such technology.
The compact form and determinacy of bearing of the dwarf
varieties are ideal plant characteristics for mechanized har-
vesting. Planting these varieties late in the year, reduces
plant height at flowering and branching. By spacing them
very close up to 12x16 inches, the plants bear most of their
pods near the top of the plant canopy and mechanical har-
vesting is greatly simplified. The tops of dwarf varieties
grown in this way and bearing green pods can be cut by a
mower and then threshed by a viner. For dry seed produc-
tion a conventional combine harvester with minor modifi-
cations can be used.

The pigeon pea can be treated as an annual or biennial
plant. After the first crop, plants may be pruned to encour-
age branching for the second crop. The crop can be contin-
ued for three to four years but yields usually drop off after
the first year and it is best to replant yearly for maximum
production. In pure stands, yields of 1000 to 4000 lbs. per
acre of green pods and 500-1000 lbs. per acre of dried seeds
have been obtained.




CONCORDIA ROAD GROCERY, INC.

QUALITY MERCHANDISE
WHOLESALE & RETAIL
COMPETITIVE PRICES
P.O. Box 63
Frederiksted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands 00840









American


Airlines
For passenger reservations and information
St. Thomas or St. Croix call 774-7111
or see your travel agent.









Dairying on St. Croix

By Neal K. Thomsen
C.V.I. Cooperative Extension Service, St. Croix



The island of St. Croix is the only Grade A approved
milk shed in the Caribbean. The demand for fluid milk
products by 46,000 Cruzans and numerous tourists is met
by 650 dairy cows on five separate dairy farms. The five
principal dairy producers have formed the Virgin Islands
Dairymen's Association (VIDA). Through this organiza-
tion, the dairymen meet together to discuss and solve
common problems. The Virgin Islands Cooperative Exten-
sion Service has also helped the dairymen in the institution
of a dairy herd testing program known as the V.I. Area
Dairy Herd Improvement Association. These activities,
along with educational and demonstrational activities by
the Extension Service, herd health care in cooperation with
the V.I. Department of Agriculture, and sanitary standards
watched over by the V.I. Department of Health, are all for
one purpose -to assure an adequate supply of pure and
wholesome fluid milk products to the residents of the
Virgin Islands.

Of course all of the above people, agencies, and
activities are dependent upon the presence of the dairy
cow. On St. Croix, the prime producers of milk are Holstein-
Friesian cattle. Mature Holstein cows have .n average body
weight of 1,500 pounds and are excellent milk producers.
The world record for milk production is held by a Holstein
cow, Beecher Arlinda Ellen. This particular cow averaged
150 pounds, (68.2 quarts) per day for an entire year. Her
highest recorded production for a single day was 195.5
pounds, (88.9 quarts) of milk. Due to differences in climate
and quality of feed available, St. Croix Holsteins produce
considerably less milk than the outstanding Ellen, but the
potential is there. These large black and white and occasion-
ally red and white cows are the top milk producers here on
St. Croix. Average production for Holsteins in the Virgin
Islands is 28.9 pounds milk, (13.1 quarts) with a butterfat
test of 3.0% for 0.87 pounds butterfat.

The second most numerous dairy breed on St. Croix
is the Jersey, of which there are about 150 on St. Croix.
Jersey cattle are usually a solid fawn colored animal, and
are considerably smaller than Holsteins, averaging around
900 pounds body weight. Jerseys produce less milk than
Holsteins, but produce a milk that has a higher butterfat
content.

A third dairy breed, the Brown Swiss, can also be
found on St. Croix. Brown Swiss, as the name implies, are
brown in color and similar in size and milk production to
the Holsteins.


Not all of the dairy animals in the Virgin Islands are
purebred Brown Swiss, Jersey or Holstein. There are a fair
number of crossbred dairy animals as well. These cross-
breeds may appear to be Holsteins but they are actually
crosses between Holsteins and various other breeds of
cattle.

Dairy cattle need a source of protein and energy to
produce milk. The main sources of these nutrients on
St. Croix are pasture, sorghum silage, and hay. Forages
alone cannot meet the high nutrient needs of dairy cows for
optimum milk production. Therefore. concentrate supple-
mental feeds must be fed. The supplement imported from
the States is a grain mixture containing corn, oats, wheat,
soybean oil meal, and various other feed grains. The corn
supplies the energy, with soybean oil meal supplying the
additional needed protein. Finally, cows need vitamins
and minerals added to their diet for maintenance and milk
production.

Under ideal conditions, a cow will have a calf once
each year. The breeding of dairy cows is done in two ways.
The first is natural service, in which a bull is kept on the
farm and used for breeding the cows. The second method
is artificial insemination or AI. Here no bull is kept on the
farm, but instead frozen semen is purchased from a dis-
tributor and stored in liquid nitrogen (-3200F) until it is
used for breeding a cow.

There are advantages and disadvantages to both
methods. Conception rates using natural service are gener-
ally higher than those which can be obtained using AI tech-
niques. However, the keeping of a mature breeding bull is
often very dangerous. Considering that a mature Holstein
bull will weigh in the vicinity of 2,200 pounds and even a
Jersey bull will top the 1,500 pound mark, size coupled
with an ill temperament will make these animals difficult
to handle. Partly because of the problems associated with
keeping a bull, artificial insemination for breeding cows
has become very popular among dairymen. The use of Al
enables the 'farmers to use bulls that are proven sires of
animals with desirable milking and appearance' qualities.
A dairyman is not limited to the bull he or his neighbors
has, but can select bulls from anywhere in the country or
the world. This ability to select from a greater number of
bulls is one the reasons Al has become so successful.

Perhaps the most fascinating and most time-consuming
part of the dairy business is milking time. Cows are milked
twice daily, every day of the year. In a commercial dairy
operation, milking is no longer done by hand under the
shade of a tree. These dairy herds are milked in modern
milking parlors. The cow enters the milking parlor where
she will receive some grain while she is being milked. Before
29






COMPLIMENTS OF





milking begins, several squirts of milk are withdrawn from
each of the four teats or quarters, to check for abnormal
milk resulting from an udder infection known as mastitis.
The udder is then washed with water, dried and then the
milking unit is applied to each of the quarters. Suction
created by a vacuum pump, along with a physiological
process of the cow known as "milk let down" combine
to remove the milk from the cow's udder in 5 to 6 minutes.
After the cow is milked out, the milking unit is removed.
An iodine or similar solution is then applied to each teat
to help prevent the entry of any harmful bacteria into the
udder.
In order to assist dairymen in improving their manage-
ment techniques and to increase milk production, the V.I.
Dairymen's Association along with the Cooperative Exten-
sion Service is involved jointly with the V.1. Area Dairy
Herd Improvement Association testing program. One day
each month, milk production is recorded on all cows in a
herd, along with feed and reproductive information on each
cow. This information is then summarized by a computer in
Raleigh, North Carolina and returned to the dairyman for
his use. The returning information gives the dairyman a
summary of his herd's individual and overall production, his
income over feed costs, and lists cows that should be bred
or are due to calve. Cows are also ranked on the basis of
their milk production (adjusted for age, and number of
days in milk) to visually show which are the top cows and
which are not producing enough for their keep.
The milk from each milking is collected and stored in
the bulk tank at each farm. The bulk tank cools the milk
and then keeps the temperature of the milk at 450 or less
until it is picked up by the milk truck. The milk truck
collects the milk from each farm's bulk tank daily and then
delivers the milk to Island Dairies, where the milk is pas-
turized and processed. At Island Dairies, a process called
high temperature-short time pasteurization is used to kill
any bacteria that may be in the milk prior to processing.
After processing, the milk is homogenized so that the
cream will not separate out, then bottled in the familiar
half gallon and quart containers. Some of the milk also
finds its way into skim milk, chocolate milk, ice cream
and cottage cheese. The processed milk is then delivered
to the stores and restaurants of St. Croix for sale to retail
consumers The total time for the milk to come from the
cow and be in the hands of the consumer is 2-3 days.


POSTERS
BUMPER STRIPS
.cro x SIGNS
S-DECALS
^ilk TEXTILES
T-SHIRTS
screen
CERAMICS
GLASS
128 PORT TERMINAL CHRISTIANSTED PLASTICS
773-4553


S
Tracs
E qL^ J)I1('^ t


CLEMENTE

SANTISTEBAN, INC.
G.P.O. Box 2140
San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936
Ponce de Leon 103 Pda. 2772
Hato Rey, Puerto Rico

753-6471 753-6472 753-6053 753-6893


+\EW HOLLAND









WRRA

RADIO REEF
1290 on your dial

Emanating from Frederiksted, St. Croix, Radio REEF is your com-
munity oriented station on the scene when it's happening!
Transmitting 7 days a week from sunrise to sunset WRRA is your
bi-lingual station with News, Public Service, Music and Features in both
English and Spanish.
Celebrating our 3rd Anniversary of service to the people of the Virgin
Islands as well as Vieques, Culebra and Eastern Puerto Rico.
and Joining in congratulating the 10th Annual Agricultural and Food
Fair of the Virgin Islands We're with you again, as we are every year.







ENRIQUE J. RODRIGUEZ MARVIN PICKERING AL LYNCH BERNARDINE WILLIAMS
GENERAL MANAGER PROGRAM DIRECTOR
32








A New Approach to Backyard

Fish and Tomato Production


By Barnaby J. Watten
C.V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station


Local food production in the Virgin Islands has
lagged behind the increasing demand imposed by a rising
population. Consequently, large quantities of food items
must be imported annually. Many of our social and eco-
nomic problems stem from this lack of agricultural self-
sufficiency. It is important that every attempt be made to
increase the food production capabilities of our islands.

In the Virgin Islands, conventional agricultural prac-
tices are limited by shortages of suitable, inexpensive land
and reliable freshwater resources. With this in mind, we
should expand our agricultural alternatives to include inten-
sive culture systems that conserve these limiting resources.
Historically, intensive fish culture and hydroponic garden-
ing systems have been able to provide land and water
resource conservation. However, the energy and capital
demands imposed by either system on an individual basis
reduces their likelihood of operating profitably. The inte-
gration of hydroponic gardening and intensive fish culture
into a single water reuse system, potentially increases the
chance for economic success of such production systems.

Hydroponic Gardening
Hydroponics can be defined as the art and science of
growing plants without soil. Plants are grown in an artificial
medium such as gravel and obtain their nutrients from fer-
tilized water that is circulated about their roots. One of the
advantages of hydroponic gardening is a greatly increased
crop yield per unit area. This rise in production can be
attributed to: closer spacing of plants; faster growth
through a constant supply of water and nutrients; virtually
no weed problems; and a greater percentage of marketable
vegetables. A small scale or "backyard" hydroponic vege-
table production system (gravel culture) requires: a hydro-
ponic gravel bed, a nutrient solution reservoir, and a plumb-
ing system to circulate water between the hydroponic beds
and nutrient reservoir.

Intensive Fish Culture
Intensive fish culture techniques are used to signifi-
cantly increase fish production on a per unit area basis. This
is accomplished by use of supplemental fish feeds and
control of the environment in which the fish are grown.
The extent of this control is determined by the level of
productivity desired and the resources available. Large
quantities of fish can be grown in small volumes of water
only if their waste products are removed and adequate


supplies of dissolved oxygen are maintained in the system.
Therefore, water quality is one of the critical factors
determining the success or failure of an intensive fish
culture system.

A small scale or "backyard" intensive fish culture
system requires: a fish tank, aeration equipment such as
electric agitators, air or water pumps, and a waste removal
unit which incorporates biological or chemical filters,
settling tanks and plumbing for water circulation.


System Design
Combining the equipment needs of an intensive
fish culture system and a hydroponic unit results in a
substantial decrease in initial capital costs and operating
expenditures. In addition, waste products from fish fed
in the culture system can be used as a valuable nutrient
source for hydroponically grown vegetables. With this in
mind, I developed an integrated fish and tomato produc-
tion unit which incorporated hydroponic and intensive fish
culture techniques. The system used a water reuse plan
while also maintaining simple construction and operating
procedures. / TOMATOES

HYDROPONIC
SPOOLS I


SLUDGE


FISH
FEED- I


FISH


Figure 1 Simplified diagram of integrated hydroponic, fish culture
system built and operated on St. Croix. Within S months, 123 Ibs.
of Tilapia aureaand 172.3 Ibs. of marketable tomatoes were produced.
Costs of the building materials $459.00 (January 1979).

The design of this system consisted of 3 major coin-
ponents: a fish culture tank; a fish waste removal unit; and
hydroponic tomato beds (see figure 1). Fish were cultured
in a vinyl lined, above-ground swimming pool (12 feet
diameter x 3 feet deep). This pool also served as a nutrient
reservoir for the hydroponic tomato unit. Water was con-
tinuously pumped from the fish pool to four 55 gallon
drums that comprised the biological filtration and settling
33






tank unit. This unit effectively converted toxic fish waste in
the water to valuable plant nutrients. Water from the filtra-
tion unit was then distributed to 2 swimming pools ( 8 feet
diameter x 1.7 feet deep) filled with gravel for growing
tornatoes hydronponically. As the tomatoes absorbed
nutrients for growth and fruit production, the water quality
was improved for the fish. Water from the hydroponic
units flowed by gravity back to the fish culture tank for
reuse.

Water was recirculated in this closed system by a
continuous duty 1/6 hp submersible pump located in the
center of the fish culture pool. Water flow from the fish
pool, to the filtration unit, was controlled by an adjustable
relief valve located above the fish pool. As this valve was
opened, a portion of the pumped water was diverted
immediately back to the fish pool, thereby reducing the
total flow to the rest of the system. The water returning
to the fish pool through the relief valve was directed at
an angle to the water's surface. This beneficially aerated
the fish pool's water and created a circular flow pattern
which induced a "self-cleaning" current.
Substantial quantities of solid waste and ammonia are
released by fish as a byproduct of their metabolic activity.
Decomposition of fish feces and uneaten fish feed also
releases ammonia which is toxic to fish in very small concen-
trations. Therefore, it is important that solid waste material
and ammonia are removed quickly. The self-cleaning
circulation pattern within the fish tank gradually moved
settleable waste material toward the pump intake. The
waste laden water was then pumped from the fish pool to
the filtration units where it was sprinkled over the surface
of crushed rock contained in two 55 gallon drums. The
flow of water to this unit was regulated so that the total
volume of water (1,940 gallons) in the system was filtered
about 4 times per day. Ammonia was oxidized to nitrate by
aerobic bacteria living on the surface of the crushed rock.
Nitrate is a very important nutrient required by tomatoes
for growth.

Periodically, growths of bacterial slime sloughed off
the crushed rock and were carried by the trickling water
through the filter outlet to the settling tanks. The settling
tanks consisted of two interconnected 55 gallon drums that
provided the necessary water retention time for gravita-
tional removal of settleable solids. Consequently, the solid
fish waste and bacterial slimes which were heavier than
water, settled and formed sludge deposits in the settling
drums. The sludge was periodically removed to avert a
large build-up of this material.

Nutrient laden water leaving the settling tanks was
distributed by small plastic tubing to individual tomato
plants grown in the hydroponic gravel beds. Two grades of
commercially available gravel were used to provide the
growth medium for plant roots. A 6.7 inch layer of medium
sized gravel (3/4" 1'A") covered the bottom of the hydro-
ponic beds. This was topped with a 6.7 inch layer of
slightly smaller gravel (3/8" -4"). The use of larger gravel


on the bottom insured proper drainage.

Support for the tomato plants was provided by an
overhead trellis. Twine attached to this trellis was hung
down and tied loosely to the plants. This eliminated the
need for individual stakes, while helping to expose maxi-
mum leaf area to the sun.

Water which had been applied to individual tomato
plants trickled down through the gravel and was collected
in a sump. This water then flowed by gravity back to the
fish culture tank for reuse. Fish, algal and bacterial respir-
ation impose a considerable oxygen demand on the system.
To counteract this demand, water returning to the fish tank
flowed through a cascade aerator consisting of four verti-
cally stacked perforated aluminum pans. This simple
aerator effectively oxygenated the inflowing water and
combined with aeration from the adjustable relief valve.
maintained adequate dissolved oxygen concentrations
throughout the study. Rain and well water were used to
replace losses due to evaporation, plant transpiration and
leakage. This amounted to an average daily loss of 51 gal-
lons, 44% of which was replaced by rainfall.

Fish Production
The fish culture pool was stocked with 125 male Blue
Tilapia (Tilapia aurea) fingerlings. These freshwater fish are
very hardy, disease resistant and grow well under intensive
culture conditions. Male tilapia grow 2-3 times faster than
females and are therefore, preferred for production pur-
poses. The cultured fish were fed a floating commercial
catfish feed on a percent body weight basis. The daily feed
allotment was gradually decreased from 4.07 to 1.2% per
day. Tilapia aurea are also able to utilize algae and aquatic
invertebrates as a source of food. For this reason no at-
tempt was made to inhibit growth of algae in the fish
culture pool.

The tilapia cultured in this system grew at an excellent
rate. Within the 181 day growth period the mean weight of
the fish increased from 0.14 pounds to 1.13 pounds. The
standing crop at the time of harvest was 140 pounds with a
98% survival rate. Throughout the study the fish remained
healthy and in good condition.

Tomato Production
During the experimental period two trials of 26
tomato plants were grown. The varieties used were those
which are thought to do well in the Virgin Islands. The
plants were checked daily for ripe fruit, pest problems.
and nutrient deficiency symptoms. If the latter occurred.
small quantities of the appropriate fertilizer were added to
the culture water. Tomato plant performance varied with
the variety and the season (see Table 1). This data was
compared to field variety trial data collected during roughly
the same time period. Plants grown in this system hydro-
ponically produced an average yield 78% greater than the
field grown plants. The percentage of marketable fruit was
( Continued on page 39)





From our Agriculture Photo Album

Photographs by
Liz Wilson


A


Shown touring the 1979 Agriculture and Food Fair on opening day are (from left) Lieutenant Governor Henry A. Million,
Agriculture Commissioner Rudolph Shulterbrandt and Director of the C.V.I. Cooperative Extension Service and Agricultural
Experiment Station Darshan S. Padda.


N -.,


Arawak Program Director Marotha Pasha feeds one of the camp's goats. The
youth program has strong agricultural activity throughout the year aided by
4-H.


1 4
~.-,




Cadre Leader Everett Jackson at
Camp Arawak is one young man who
has benefited from assistance by 4-H
in raising poultry as well as vegetables
at the site on St. Croix's South Shore.
35


iC P


















~- C

zt


',1 ;~

r.5


Seeo d f .


Senepol herd heads for grazing fields after being released from pens on St. Croix.

M ohm,


Last minute spruce-up for his dairy calf just prior to judging
for animal husbandry and showmanship is always important
for showmen young and old.

Do you need an
Identification Card ?
Well just walk into


THE PICTURE PLACE


and in minutes you will have that service
We also photograph -
-REEN CARD, PASSPORTS of all types LICENSE and
GUN PERMIT photos in color or Black and White
And if it's a portrait you need just call us at
42 KING STREET 773-7409 9-6 DAILY


Producing at home on St. Croix are Senepol cattle growers
who display one of their live products at 1979 Food Fair.




LEOCADIO CAMACHO, INC.


8Ii'.~ Y~l;~RII~,


ESTATE PEARL, #4
CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX
U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS 00820

Wholesale & Retail


t.4


. *,

P.O. Box 817


Tel. 773-3354
















Improving quality of life through new recipes is just one of
the objectives of Extension Service at College of the Virgin
Islands. New Horizons Homemakers learn about combining
local produce with store purchases for enriching meals.


Admiring giant cassava root is CVI trustee attorney Warren
Williams of St. Thomas who toured extension and experi-
ment fields on St. Crqix. Note new growth on plant despite
the fact it was stored inside extension office building for


Top prize winners every year for their fine food produce
are Margaret and Henry Carter of Estate Mon Bijou shown
here with their leafy lettuce and eggplant at last year's fair.


Explaining reasons for a sickly tomato plant to curious fair-
goer is CVI Agriculture Extension Leader David Farrar.
iI


ABCu .

EXTERMINATORS
World's Largest Small Game Hunters
ANY QUESTIONS ? ? ? ? ? ?CALL 773-3780


























z~rr


-*
,.~CI-Y
C
7
/_ ~cC


4. IA
:CCITg-"' I
-r [


.. ..- -,, .
%46 77.


s -, .- ." ,". ..-

Looperation is tne key word here as CVI Cooperative Extension Service workers and St. Thomas Agriculture Department
personnel prepare beds together at Estate Dorothea for experimental crops.


., -


Grasses, soybeans and a variety of ground covers are displayed at CVI
Agricultural Experiment Station booth featuring local agronomy
projects at last year's fair.
38


All that hard work paid off. Here 13 year old
Paul Rojas proudly poses with his dairy calf
after winning a blue ribbon award for animal hus-
bandry during competition at last year's fair. A
member of Future Farmers of America, Rojas
and others received calves as a donation from St.
Croix Dairy men and raised them for 18 months.




24% higher than those grown unstaked under field condi-
tions. A great reduction in yield of the second crop was
experienced because of the high temperatures of June and
July. However, the variety, Red Cherry, was able to pro-
duce an acceptable quantity of fruit during this period.

In conclusion, the system worked well. Over 171
pounds of high quality tomatoes and 123 pounds of fish
were produced. Water and nutrients were conserved. The
initial cost and operating expenditures were kept to a
level that permitted operation of the system on a profit-
able basis. A potentially useful by-product, sludge, was
Tabli


produced in this system. Samples of sludge removed from
the settling tanks were analyzed for plant nutrient content.
The results of these analyses indicated that the sludge
could be used as a soil enhancer for conventional garden
production of fruits and vegetables.

The success of this system design has provided the
impetus for additional investigation at the College of the
Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station. Further
refinement and development is needed if similar systems are
to one day contribute to the agricultural self-sufficiency of
our islands.


Tomato varieties and production data for two trials conducted in an integrated intensive fish culture hydroponic
culture system.


TRIAL AVERAGE YIELD % MARKETABLE
DATES VARIETY (Lb./Plant) (Weight basis)

Feb. 1, 1979 to Tropic 6.83 89
Homestead 24 5.53 95
May 8, 1979 Prime Beefsteak 3.10 100

May 10, 1979 Tropic 0.48 49
thru Red Cherry 323 68
Aug. 5, 1979


LA GRANGE FARMS

Compliments of

Bob and Harriet Soffes
and
Family








11'.' 773-2170
Claims 773-2096

Insurance
Moarhall G 6trllnq Inc.
has moved to
THE EASTERLY BUILDING, GOLDEN ROCK
P.O. Box 98, Christiansted, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 00820





ALEXANDER SALES & SERVICE, INC.
FOREIGN AND AMERICAN AUTO PARTS

Alignment {Electronic) Brake Service
Tune-Up Wheel Balancing
Tire & Tubes Batteries
Accessories

"What we don't have in stock we will order"
Phone 778-1575, 778-2050 ESTATE GLYNN ROAD


VIRGIN ISLANDS SENEPOL ASSOCIATION OF ST. ROIX
BOX 969, CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX U..S. VIRGIN ISLANDS PHONE (809) 773-1508

A PERFORMANCE BREED FROM THE U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS


The Senepol Breed is Noted for Being:
Polled Fertile
Maternal Heat Tolerant
Adaptable Early Maturing


Good Foragers
Good Meat Production
Good Milk Production


All interested producers with Senepol Cattle are strongly encouraged to
become members and register their cattle with the Senepol Association.


Aarriott
IN-FLITE, V.I., INC.
P.O. BOX 86, KINGSHILL
ST. CROIX, U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS 00850
Catering for all occasions.
778-1822 778-0830









Watering Crops By Drip Irrigation


By John M. Gerber
C.V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station

Farmers and gardeners in the Virgin Islands are
plagued with many problems including insects, diseases,
and weeds. However, the major problem we face when
growing vegetables is WATER. We always seem to have
either too much or too little.

Vegetable plants require about one inch of rain per
week or 52 inches per year. Some regions of the islands
receive a total of 52 inches each year or more, but it
always seems to come at the same time. Distribution is
one problem. We need a system that will-store water during
the rainy system and an efficient means of applying water
during the dry season. Although we don't profess to have
solved the storage problem, we do have an efficient method
of application. That is DRIP IRRIGATION.

Drip or trickle irrigation is a method of applying a
minimal amount of water where it's needed. Properly
designed drip systems supply water uniformly and slowly
to the soil immediately around the plant's roots, and thus
avoid wasting water. Since drip systems wet only the soil
around the plant's roots, less water is required than other
forms of irrigation; weeds are not encouraged between the
rows, less nutrients are leached from the soil, and foliage is
not wet, so there is less chance that plant disease may
develop. Also, there is less chance of erosion of topsoil
from hillside gardens when water is applied through a
drip system. However, the most important positive effect
of drip irrigation is that plants simply grow better. Plants
grow faster and healthier when they receive a continuous
supply of water. A drip system can supply exactly the
amount of water required every day, so as to avoid periods
of water stress between applications.

Drip irrigation is not only useful during the dry sea-
son when rainfall may be non-existent, but also during the
rainy season. Even during the wet months of October and
November we have experienced periods of several weeks
when it doesn't rain. Although most vegetables can survive
a two-week dry spell, they don't particularly like it. If this
dry period should occur at a critical stage of the plant's
life such as during development of the fruit, a serious loss
of productivity may result. If it should occur immediately
after planting (which is not uncommon in September) you
may have to start over again. Also fluctuating soil moisture
levels during the growing season are known to cause blossom-
end rot of tomatoes, cracking of carrots and irregular-
shaped cucumbers. These problems can be avoided by using
drip irrigation as insurance against unreliable rains.


Drip irrigation systems are made up of three general
components: the water source, the delivery system and the
application system.


Water In-put

Major components for a basic drip system.


Drip system on tomatoes at C.V.I. Agricultural experiment
Station,St. Croix.



Water Source
A constant supply of clean water is required. Although
drip irrigation will provide an efficient method of applying
water, it does not eliminate the need for water. A pond, a
well or a cistern (either gray water or potable water) may
be used. If you are not sure of your water quality, have it
tested for mineral content by one of the commercial water
dealers. Acceptable values for mineral content are provided
below.






Water Quality Values


No
Problem
(Less than)


1. Salinity
Electrical Conductivity
(micromhos/cm)
(millimhos/cm)
Concentration
(ppm)
2. Chloride (ppm)
root absorption
applied to leaves
3. Bicarbonates of Ca & Mg (ppm)
applied to leaves

4. Boron (ppm)


750
0.75

500

142
106

90

0.5


Possible
Problem
(Between)



750-3000
0.75-3.0

500-2000

142-355
106-above


Severe
Problem
(Greater than)


3000
3.0

2000


90-520

0.5-1.0


The water must also be free of silt or sand particles
which will clog tie system. Both particulate and organic
matter will be removed by a filter with a 100-200 mesh
screen. The filter should also have a flush valve for easy
cleaning. If the water contains a great amount of silt, a
centrifugal sand separator should be used along with the
filter.

You should be prepared to supply water through the
entire dry season. Even though it may rain, be prepared for
the worst. A ten foot planting of a row crop such as carrots,
beans, onions, or corn, will use approximately 10 pints of
water per day or about 40 gallons per month during the
dry season. A single tomato plant, pepper plant, eggplant,
melon, pumpkin, or squash will use about 4 gallons of
water per month or about 1 pint per day. To calculate how
much water will be required for 10 tomato plants, simply
multiply the amount of water per plant per month (4 gal-
lons) by the number of plants (10 plants), by the number
of months it will be watered (4 months average). Therefore,
4 gallons x 10 plants x 4 months = 160 gallons of water
needed for your 10 tomato plants during the dry months.
If you don't have enough water for irrigation purposes,
don't plan on growing a garden in the dry season.
Delivery System
A method of moving the water from the source to the
garden is required. While the water is in transit it is filtered
and adjusted for proper rate and pressure. Usually either
PVC or polyplastic pipe is used to carry the water to the
garden (PVC is cheaper but less flexible). And unless your
water source is at a higher elevation than the garden you
will require a pump.

The pump must be able to maintain adequate pres-
sure through the line and to the garden. For small gardens,
house pressure is more than adequate. However, if you
want to use a gray water cistern, a pond, or a well, a sep-


arate pump will be required. The pump should be capable
of maintaining at least 10 psi (pounds per square inch)
pressure at the garden with all of the emitters open. The
size of the pump will depend on the size of your garden,
the amount of water you have to move and the layout of
your system. A reliable dealer should be able to help you
choose the correct size pump. For most home gardeners a
HP centrifugal pump will be adequate unless you have
to move water a long distance or up a steep incline.

The size of the main delivery pipe depends on how
much water you want to move to the garden. For small
gardens a % inch garden hose will work well. For larger
gardens it will be necessary to calculate how much water
you want to apply per minute. GPM (gallons per minute)
will depend on the size of your garden, the species of
plants and the type of application system. For example.
2000 feet of garden row will require about 250 gallons of
water per day. If you want to apply that water over an
eight-hour period, you will pump about 30 gallons per
hour or V/ GPM. This will require a small mainline. If you
want to pump out the entire 250 gallons in one hour, you
will pump at 250 gallons per hour or about 4 GPM. This
will require a slightly larger mainline. For help in calcu-
lating GPM, check the product literature and directions
provided with the emitters. If you still need help, call the
Cooperative Extension Service of the College of the Virgin
Islands. The following are general recommendations for the
size of the mainline.


Flow Rate
0-3 GPM
3-6 GPM
6-10 GPM
10-30 GPM
30-60 GPM
60-200 GPM
200-600 GPM


Pipe Size
/2 inch
/4 inch
1 inch
1V2 inches
2 inches
4 inches
6 inches







Sunny Isle

Shopping Center
AND MERCHANT'S ASSOCIATION

Salute the Virgin Islands Department of


Agriculture on the occasion of the


1980

AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR


BASKIN ROBBIN'S ICE CREAM
WOOLWORTHS
UNIQUE SHOP (Ladies)
TOWN & COUNTRY
LERNERS
IDEAL TOUCH BEAUTY SALON
BETHANY BOOKSTORE
POST OFFICE STATION
SUNNY ISLE TWIN THEATRES
CARAVAN IMPORTS
MARSHALL'S
CITI-BANK
OLE'S SNACK BAR
JUNIOR'S JEWELRY
LION'S DEN
"COLORAMA" (Home Improvement)
SUNNY ISLE SEWING CENTER
CLEOPATRA'S GIFTS
MINNI SHOP
BATA SHOE STORE
U.S. ARMY RECRUITING
ANTILLES BROADCASTING
U.S. DEPT. OF SOIL CONSERVATION
ROKER'S TRAVEL
EL PATIO FLOWER SHOP
ANCHOR INSURANCE
WATERING HOLE COCKTAIL LOUNGE


BENJAMIN SECURITY
KINNEY'S SHOE STORE
GENTLEMEN'S
V.I. LOTTERY SALES
LOGAN'S PET SUPPLIES
HUGHES' PHOTO STUDIO
CASA MARINA
TERRY'S CHILDREN'S WEAR
SEAMAN ELECTRONICS
PEOPLE'S DRUG STORE
GRAND UNION SUPER MARKET
KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN
COMMUNITY INSURANCE CORP.
COMMON LOCO
GODERICH-GUERRA SHIPPING AGENCY
SPEEDY SECRETARIAL SERVICE
SINGH'S BARBER SHOP
U.S. NAVY RECRUITING
MR. LOCKSMITH
QUICK PICS KIOSK
ST. CROIX MEDICAL CENTER
ZANZIBAR DISCO & LOUNGE
ST. CROIX SPORT SHOP & HOBBY CENTER
BENEFICIAL FINANCE
BUSINESS WORLD
NEW YORK SHOES
OFFICE OF DELEGATE TO CONGRESS









Compliments of JOHNIE JOHN'S


RELIABLE TIRE SERVICE, INC.

Hannah's Rest, Frederiksted
6A La Grande Princesse, Christiansted


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UNITED STATES, VIRGIN ISLANDS 00840
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ALSO KNOWN FOR

DEPENDABLE

SERVICE


Most gardens in the Virgin Islands will require a
. -3% inch mainline.

A method of regulating water pressure will be re-
quired between the mainline and the application system.
For large farms a pressure regulator will be required. How-
ever, most large gardens can use a simple stop valve or gate
valve and a pressure gauge.


The filter, gate valve and pressure gauge.


Flow rate can be regulated in small gardens from the
hose fixture. Pressure will be maintained in the application
system by flow regulators that are installed in the female
coupling of the garden hose. Flow regulators are plastic
discs with varying sized holes in the center of each disc.
The size of the hole regulates the rate of flow.

Once the system is set up, measure the amount of
water being applied and adjust the rate of flow accordingly.
The amount of water applied per hour can be calculated
by catching water from one emitter or one hole in a tube.
Then multiply the amount released from one emitter by
the number of emitters. Take several measurements to be
sure the emitters are working uniformly.

Application System
This is the part of the system generally thought of as
the trickle system itself. The application system may con-
sist of an old hose with holes punched in it, a special
double-wall row crop tubing with holes spaced every 18
inches or single emitters dripping water on fruit trees and
ornamental shrubs spaced several feet apart. The type of
application depends on the plants grown and how the
garden is designed. Generally, applicators can be divided
into those for row crops and those with individual emitters.

Tubing with holes spaced at set intervals is used for
crops grown less than 4 ft. apart in a row. Holes spaced
18 inches apart will work well on tomatoes and most
other garden crops. The plants are not spaced exactly
where the water is emitted, although this is possible.
Usually, the tube will wet an area about 1% feet wide










M_


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LARRY GEORGE CAR SALES

TRUCKS BUSES VANS

SPECIAL ORDERS: 8-9 WEEKS
OUT OF STOCK AND USED: 7-8 DAYS

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P.O. Box 2625, Christiansted
St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 00820



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wb, 48 KING STREET
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tiny pores. This provides an even distribution of water
along the row and is better for closely seeded crops such
as carrots and onions. All of the row crop tubes can be
covered with soil for convenience.



Individual emitters are punched into garden hose or
black polyplastic for application of water to single trees,
shrubs and widely spaced vegetables such as melons, squash
and pumpkins. The emitters can be set at the factory at
regular intervals such as 2 ft., 4 ft., 6 ft., etc. However, it
is very simple to custom build a system to fit your particu-
lar garden. Emitters are easily punched into uld hose or
black polyplastic at intervals that correspond to actual
distances between the trees and/or shrubs to be watered.

For help in designing your drip irrigation system, call
the Cooperative Extension Service.


Row crop drip tubing on tomato plant.


Drip irrigation supplies
lowing sources:
Submatic Irrigation Systems
P.O. Box 246
Lubbock, Texas 79408

Rain Bird Sprinkler Corp.
7045 North Grand Avenue
Glendora, California 91740


are available from the fol-

Reed Irrigation Systems
908 Railroad Avenue
P.O. Box 1412
Winterpark, Florida 32790
Chapin Watermatics, Inc.
P.O. Box 298
368 N. Colorado Avenue
Watertown, N.Y. 13601


Spot Systems
12702 N.E. 124th St.
P.O. Box M
Kirkland, Wa. 98033


Individual emitter in hose.


for the entire length of the row. Either Chapin Twinwall
or Reed Biwall tubes are examples of row crop applicators.
Another type of row crop applicator is available that
emits water evenly over the entire length of the tube.
Viaflow allows water to "sweat" out through thousands of


Conversion Table for Home Gardeners
1 gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups
1 cup 8 fl. oz. = 16 Tablespoons = 48 teaspoons
1 liter = 1000 milliliters (mls) = 1.057 quarts = 0.264 gallons
1 pound = 16 ounces = 453.59 grams
1 ounce = 3 Tablespoons (dry) = 9 teaspoons (dry)
1 ounce = 2 Tablespoons (liquid) = 6 teaspoons (liquid)
1 ounce = 28.35 grams
1 yard = 3 feet = 36 inches
1 foot = 30.5 centimeters (cm)
1 meter = 100 centimeters (cm) = 3.28 ft. = 39.4 inches
1 acre = 43,560 feet = 4,840 sq. yards
1 acre = 21,780 ft. of row at 24" between rows
1 acre = 14,520 ft. of row at 36" between rows
1 ppm = parts per million
gpm = gallons per minute
gph = gallons per hour
psi = pounds per square inch








Sheltering Your Crops from Wind


By Eric Dillingham
C.V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station

Virgin Islanders are fortunate to live in a climate
suitable for growing many different types of fruits and
vegetables. Warm tropical temperatures ensure that no
frost damage will occur to crops. The constant breezes of
the trade winds provide relief from the sun's heat, but when
the wind becomes too strong, it can cause damage to many
plants including fruits and vegetables. Wind makes plants
dry out more quickly and increases their need for water.
It can also cause valuable topsoil in uncultivated and
unprotected fields to be blown away during dry periods.

Wind-breaks and shelter-breaks can be easily planted
to act as barriers against winds in the -Virgin Islands. A
shelter-break is stronger and provides more protection
than a wind-break which is merely a line of shrubs or trees
grown across the path of prevailing winds.

A shelter-break consists of a combination of trees,
shrubs and closely planted vegetation. A good shelter-
break is made up of two or three rows. The first row,
closest to the crop, is planted with quick growing shrubs,
the second row consists of quick growing trees and the
third row is planted with slowgtowing but long standing
trees. A shelter-break is suitable for areas which are directly
in the path of constant wind coming from the sea, such as
on the eastern end of St. Croix.

Simple wind-breaks are more suitable for the other
parts of the islands where the wind is not as strong. The
effectiveness of a wind-break depends upon the thickness
and height of the trees or shrubs used. As a rule of thumb,
a wind-break will protect an area eight times its height.
Therefore, a 10 foot high row of shrubs will provide 80 feet
of protection.

A good practice is to establish a row of tall-growing
trees and on either side of the row, plant low-growing
shrubs. Also lines of rapidly growing trees may be planted
as a single row or a double row with staggered spaces so
they overlap. These types of plantings will provide very
effective wind barriers within a few years. The trees must
be closely spaced so that their leaves become interwoven
to form a good barrier against strong winds. Such a wind-
break will give considerable protection for 800 feet or more.
However, the use of trees as wind-breaks must be limited
because of the large amounts of soil they take away from
crops due to their extensive root systems.
Vegetables
Hedges are often planted to provide a shelter against
wind for vegetable plants. After the young vegetable plants


Pigeon peas serve as a good wind-break for crops grown
in Virgin Islands fields such as this one at St. Croix's
Agricultural Experiment Station.


are up, they are very tender.and can be easily destroyed by
wind. When a temporary wind-break is needed, a few rows
of corn or sorghum can be planted earlier than the vege-
table crop between every third or fourth row.

Other more permanent hedge type wind-breaks can
be grown on areas that are constantly used for vegetable
crops. Such local plants as pigeon peas, cassava and tan-tan
can easily be planted around garden plots to protect vege-
tables from wind damage.

Pigeon pea seeds can be bought in the local super-
markets and easily grown. Besides their wind-break function
they will give a crop of eatable peas in 5 months. Cassava
will root easily when sections of the stems are planted in
the soil. (One can check with the V.I. Department of
Agriculture to find out where planting material of cassava
can be obtained.) Tan-Tan is found all over the Virgin
Islands and also grows easily when pieces of the stems are
planted. Tan-Tan spreads very quickly and to prevent un-
wanted plants, it is essential to remove the young plants
when they appear.

Until a permanent hedge type wind-break is estab-
lished, temporary protection can be constructed from
woven palm fronds such as the leaves of coconut trees.

Fruits
Fruits also are injured when blown about by wind
and rubbed against twigs, leaves and other surfaces. This
results in scars which affect the appearance of fruit. If
fruit is injured when young, decay can develop as it ripens
and destroy it. Mangos, avocados, papayas, guavas, bananas,
plantains and citrus fruits can be damaged by wind.






Severe root damage may occur when plants have
been exposed to strong winds even when they have not
been broken or uprooted. The results of this damage may
not become known until many months later. Therefore,
wind-breaks should be established to protect both the
quality of the fruit and the health of plants in areas where
wind is a problem.
To protect most fruit trees it is necessary to establish
tall wind-breaks. Eucalyptus or Australian pine trees are
good species. Both of these trees grow well in the Virgin
Islands and can form useful wind-breaks within two or
three years. Australian pine trees can be pruned to produce
a bushy spreading shape if desired.
Other smaller spreading trees such as cashew or sea
grapes can be interplanted between the taller Eucalyptus
and Australian pines to fill in the spaces lower to the
ground. Small amounts of Eucalyptus, Australian pine
and cashew seeds can be obtained from the United States
Forest Service, P. O. Box A Q, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico,
00928. Sea grapes grow wild in the Virgin Islands and can
be easily grown from seeds. They are also highly salt
tolerarnt and are useful plants for landscaping near the
coast.
Many people are not aware of the physical damage
and economical loss which is caused by wind. Establishing
a wind-break can be inexpensive and easy. The amount of
high quality fruits and vegetables and the health of the
plants can be increased simply by providing protection
from the wind.


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Telephone 774- 8105

P.O. Box 7097
Barbel Plaza
St. Thomas, U.S.V.I.
00801

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FHA Loans for Farmers

By John Preston
Farmers Home Administration, U.S.D.A.

During fiscal year 1979 Farmers Home Administration
was active in several of its loan and grant programs. Loans
and grants made through Farmers Home Administration
supplement the amount of credit and capital directly
available from commercial lenders in rural areas. In most
programs, the agency makes loans to qualified applicants
who can find no other sources of financing available on
terms or conditions they can meet.

The money loaned by Farmers Home Administration
comes from collections on previous loans, or from private
investors through sale of Government securities. In guaran-
teed loan programs, funds are supplied directly to borrowers
by commercial lenders under Farmers Home Administration
guarantees that minimize the lender's risk.

FARMER PROGRAMS

Farm Ownership Loans Enable capable family farmers
lacking other sources of credit to buy, improve or enlarge
farms they operate -- a significant source of credit by
which young farmers become established as owner-operators.
Family size farms operated by individuals, partnerships,
cooperatives, or corporations are eligible for assistance.
Loan limits are $200,000 for insured loans and $300,000
for guaranteed loans. Insured loans may be repaid in up to
40 years. The interest rate for these loans is set periodically,
based on the cost of government borrowing. Repayment
terms and interest rates are negotiated between the bor-
rower and the lender in the case of guaranteed loans. Bor-
rowers who prosper sufficiently to qualify for conventional
credit refinance through conventional lenders when possible,
thereby "graduating" from Farmers Home Administration
credit.
Farm Operating Loans Insured or guaranteed loans,
usually secured by chattel mortgage for feed, seed, fertil-
izer, livestock, machinery or other elements of production;
made to family farmers and ranchers lacking other sources
of production financing. Terms usually range from 1 to 7
years according to loan purpose; interest rate is fixed annu-
ally with advice of the U. S. Treasury. The limit is $100,000
for insured loans and $200,000 for guaranteed loans.

Included under the operating loan portfolio are youth
loans which may be made to individuals who are at least
10 years old, but under 21 years of age, to establish and
operate income-producing farm or non-farm projects of
modest size.

Each project must be part of an organized and super-
vised program of work. The project must be planned with


the help of the organization supervisor and operated under
his guidance, must give indication that it will produce
sufficient income to repay the loan, and must provide
the youth with practical business experience.

To secure a Farmers Home Administration youth loan
one must: be a citizen of the United States; be 10 years old,
but under 21 years old; live in open country or in 4 town
of less than 10,000 people; be unable to get a loan from
other sources; and conduct a modest income-producing
project in a supervised program of work, as outlined above.
Also, one must have a good character, and be capable of
planning, managing and operating the project under guid-
ance and assistance from a project advisor. The project
advisor must recommend the project and the loan and
agree to provide adequate supervision.

Some examples of possible projects are: crop produc-
tion; livestock production; repair shops; re-upholstering and
re-finishing furniture; lawn mowing or grounds care. To
receive a loan, one must sign a promissory note making him
or her personally and fully responsible for the debt. Loans
greater than $2500 must be co-signed.
Emergency Loans Insured or guaranteed loans to cover
farming losses inflicted by natural disaster, ordinarily made
at the rate of 5 percent interest; loans at market rates to
resume production following a disaster.

Soil & Water Loans These loans may have significant
impact in the Virgin Islands to provide water resources,
including irrigation systems, for farming operations. They
may also be used to provide pollution abatement or facil-
ities for animal wastes. Other equally important uses are
land development to control erosion through such features
as diversion ditches, terracing, tile drainage, and establishing
permanent seed covers in pastures.

Following is farm loan activity for the past two years
in the Virgin Islands:


Loan Type
Farm ownership (FO)
Operating loans (OL)
Soil & water loans (SW)
Emergency loans (EM)


No. of
loans
1
5
0
3


1978
$38,000
58,000
-0-
74,230


No. of
loans '1979
4 $241,000
7 113,700
2 29,000
0 -0-


HOUSING PROGRAMS

Housing loans to individual home owners are the
greatest activity of Farmers Home Administration in the
Virgin Islands. These are insured loans to families of low to
moderate income, including senior citizens, who need
adequate housing. The maximum term for repayment is
49
















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33 years. Interest rates are adjustable and are determined
by formula. Interest supplement benefits may reduce
interest to as low as 1 percent for low-income families.
Direct loans for home repair are made to very low-income
families for 20 years at 1 percent interest; loan limit is
$5,000. Farmers Home Administration housing credit is
available to eligible applicants from the general population
of rural areas including rural towns of not more than
20,000. The agency's guarantee authority, when in use,
covers 90 percent of principal and interest on housing loans
by commercial lenders. Grants of up to $5,000 are made to
very low income senior citizens for repair of severely defic-
ient homes.

During fiscal '79, there were 312 loans made to buy,
build or repair houses totalling $9,007,780.

Rental Housing Is a relatively new program to make
rental apartments available to low and moderate income
families who may not desire homeownership. Rates of
1 percent and terms up to 50 years are for not-for-profit
or limited profit projects.

Other programs available through Farmers Home
Administration are: community facilities which encompass
water and waste disposal loans, community malls, hospitals,
nursing homes, medical clinics, fire houses and equipment.
etc.
BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

Guaranteed Loans Loans by commercial lenders to pri-
vate businesses and industries are encouraged by Farmers
Home Administration's guarantee to refund up to 90 per-
cent of any loss ultimately incurred by a lender. Loan terms
are negotiated between lender and borrower.

Industrial development grants Are grants to local public
bodies to buy land, install utilities and make other essential
improvements on rural industrial sites.

For additional information, please contact the Farmers
Home Administration offices on St. Croix at 773-4280 and
St. Thomas at 774-5792.


Comliments of
HERBS & THINGS
Prince Phillips Passage
Frederiksted




COMPLIMENTS OF

JOHN A. BERNIER, JR.










Learning by Doing

By Liz Wilson
C.V.I. Cooperative Extension Service, St. Croix

Motorists passing the Community Gardens on Center-
line Road opposite the College of the Virgin Islands during
planting season are sure to notice a beehive of activity at
one plot, with young people weeding, hoeing and adminis-
tering a garden area burgeoning with new vegetable seed-
lings; at the same time, a stroll through an area such as
Estate Profit migh reveal a youngster laboriously carrying
a load of fresh cut hay to an eager young dairy calf stretch-
ing its head through a backyard fence for morning rations.
In another yard a 15-year old youth sits under a tamarind
tree, carefully filling out his log book with feeding statistics
for his four-month old calf grazing nearby.

These and other young people are learning-by-doing -
an age-old technique for all of those who are involved in
the world of agriculture, whether it is raising crops or farm
animals. While apprenticeship in the agriculture industry --
the practice whereby a youth will learn skills working with
a mature, experienced individual generally on a one-to-one
basis -- is no longer a common method of learning a trade
as it once was, there are programs in the Virgin Islands
which do provide similar training for young people.

Our young gardeners and dairy calf farmers are all
members of Future Farmers of America (FFA), an agency
which has been in operation here since 1952, and now
under the auspices of the Vocational Agriculture program
at Central High School. FFA is a federal youth program
conducted by the youths themselves and their adult ad-
visors with the express purpose of assisting interested
students prepare for future careers in some field of agricul-
ture. This may be veterinary medicine, chemical agriculture,
home gardening, horticulture, plant pathology or even
agribusiness.

The dairy calf program is a good example of training
young people in the Virgin Islands for a possible future in
animal husbandry and management (either the dairy herd
industry or that of beef cattle growing). It is a cooperative
project utilizing the skills of professional adults in the
field, with assistance from local dairymen who have do-
nated the calves.

In order to qualify for a calf, the applicant must be
a member of either FFA or one of CVI Cooperative Exten-
sion Service's 4-H clubs. Each participating herdsman
should have adequate land for pasturage, a pen area, and is
required to sign a contract stating he will care for his
animal properly with the understanding that he must relin-
quish it if there is any indication of abuse or mishandling.


Working closely with the youth and the vocational
agriculture instructor in the dairy calf program are the ani-
mal scientist at College of the Virgin Islands Extension
Service and V. I. Agriculture Department veterinarians.
The young farmers are taught about animal health, proper
feeding, record keeping and grooming as well as animal
showmanship. The latter information is important because
the calves, as part of the original agreement, are shown
twice at the annual Agriculture and Food Fair -- the first
time when they are approximately eight months old, and
again when full grown the following year.

While the young people enrolled in FFA's Work
Experience Program receive their calves free, they must
take care of all expenses including feed bit once the
calves reach marketable weight (around 850 pounds) and
after their second showing at the fair, they may be sold.
Hopefully, the young farmers will realize a modest profit
for their efforts in rearing their animals over the many
months. However, more important is the instructive exper-
ience and new skills in all aspects of caring for a live animal
which they have gained, as have their counterparts at the
Community Gardens plot who will reap more than just
vegetables in terms of enriching experience.


Helping four-month old "Pancho" get ready for a lesson in
walking with a halter is Carlos J. Herrera who will show
his calf for the first time at the 1980 Agriculture and Food
Fair.




























ISLANDIA REAL ESTATE
siailer bass n abl
warren abel

Inga St. John
hiilivirta
bob eaton ;
phone (809) 776 6666
box 56, st. john, u.s.v.i. 00830 REALTOR



the fishery inc.

The Wheatly Center, St. Thomas
Virgin Islands 00801
Area Code 809 774-6995
"Monica" has her picture taken for the first time with her
owner, Central High School student Carlos Candelario, who
is a member of the local Future Farmers of America pro-
gram at that school.









Cockroach Control in Our Homes


By Michael Ivie
C.V.I. Cooperative Extension Service, St. Thomas

In the tropics, man's war with insect pests moves
indoors with continual battles. Insect pests in the home
are a nuisance and often a health hazard. But even the
cleanest of tropical homes will have insect problems. The
most common and obnoxious are those insects that eat
what we eat, the pantry pests. This article will discuss one
of the most troublesome and infuriating groups of pantry
pests -- the cockroaches -- and suggest strategies to rid the
home of the worst of their invasions.

Cockroach control costs Virgin Islands consumers and
businessmen millions of dollars each year. While the hotelier
and restaurateur is probably going to be doing business with
the exterminator for some time, the individual homeowner,
by learning to identify the cockroaches and their life cycles,
can effectively achieve acceptable control.

Cockroaches are among the oldest groups of living
creatures, and at times they seem destined to win out over
feeble human attempts to eliminate them from homes.
They begin life as an egg, packed alone with their brothers
and sisters inside a purselike egg case. Upon hatching, the
baby cockroaches (called nymphs) eat, grow, and shed their
skins several times before reaching winged adulthood.
The placement of the egg case, the number of eggs per
case, number of sheddings, and length of time from egg to
adulthood vary between species, and are important factors
in the control of each pest species.


far the most common in houses, the Australian (P. austral-
asiae) and Brown (P. brunnea) cockroaches also will breed
inside. In the Virgin Islands they are known collectively as
the Mahogany Bird. This large (up to 2 inches) reddish-
brown cockroach is so well known to everyone in the V.I.
that a description is hardly necessary.

The female deposits her leathery, dark-brown egg case
in secluded dark places, such as cracks or crevices. The eggs
inside hatch a little over a month, and the young roaches
must survive a year to reach maturity. With this slow life
cycle, so many of the egg cases and young are destroyed by
the housewife that few reach maturity. Screens on windows
and doors, inspection of incoming boxes and grocery bags,
and closing all wall cracks around water pipes and electrical
fixtures will go a long way toward controlling the Mahog-
any Bird.


'


"<, <-


FIGURE II An Ensign
Shining, black and active.


FIGURE I A Mahogany Bird, Periplaneta americana.
Dark reddish brown with yellow on the"hood".

Of the 23 species of cockroaches in the V.I., only a
few commonly occur in houses. Three of these are closely
related species that can be treated as one. Though the
American cockroach (periplaneta americana) (Fig. I) is by


Wasp, Evania appendigaster.


Two species of parasitic wasps aid in our war with
roaches by attacking the egg cases. One tiny wasp, (Tetra-
stichus hagenowi) is so small that few people ever notice it.
The other one is larger ('") and, because of its active na-
ture and shining black color, it is often noticed. Evania
appendigaster, (Fig. II) as it is known to the scientist, is an
'ensign wasp'. The name comes from its flag-like abdomen
(an ensign in nautical terms) at the end of a thin stalk. This
insect is beneficial, and should be treated like a good friend.
The wasps (which do not sting) check into all those cracks
and crevices, laying an egg whenever they find a roach egg
case. When the wasp's egg hatches, the larvae enters the
leathery egg case and proceeds to eat all the eggs, thus
removing several potential cockroaches.


S-

\





















FIGURE III The Surinam Cockroach, Pycnoscelus
surinamensis. Light brown with a shining, dark brown"hood"

The Surinam Cockroach (Pycnoscelus surinamensis)
(Fig. III) is sometimes a pest in wooden homes, especially
those with damp moldy areas, and can become a problem.
It is identified by the shining dark brown hood over the
head, and the lighter brown wings. Its life cycle is usually
completed outside in leaf litter.


FIGURE IV The Green Cockroach, Panchlora sagax.
Light green with two yellow stripes on hood and wing
bases.
The Green Cockroach (Panchlora sagax) (Fig. IV) is
much more common on the Northern Islands than on
St. Croix. It is an accidental visitor, coming to lights at
night, but not reproducing inside. It is a beautiful visitor
too, the most vivid pale green, with an ebony band of eyes.
It is harmless, but still a cockroach.


A harmless visitor, like the previous one, but without
the virtue of its beauty is Symploce bilabiata (Fig. V). This
medium-sized, reddish-brown roach with black, spiny legs,
lives in vegetation. It only ventures inside due to its attrac-
tion to light and poses no threat of invasion. The flyswatter
will suffice when one of these accidental intruders gets past
the screen.


FIGURE V A common Cockroach, Symploce bilabiata.
Reddish brown with black, shiny legs.


FIGURE VI The German Cockroach, Blattella germanica.
Dusty brown with indistinct dark spots on the "hood".

Though the smallest, and least showy of all domestic
cockroaches, the German Cockroach (Blattella germanica)
(Fig. VI) is the most common, and most difficult to control.
It is often a pest in the best-kept and tightest screened
houses. The female carries her egg case with her, and thus
protects it from diligent housewives and parasites. It also
has a shortened life cycle (maturing to adult in two months)
and has more eggs per case, thus reproducing at a much
faster rate than the Mahogany Bird, virtually exploding in
optimum situations, such as the unprotected home of
vacationers. Outbreaks often come and go without apparent
regard to food availability.

Effective control has three steps exclusion, habitat
reduction, and chemical treatment. If these three steps are
followed, you will see few German Cockroaches in your
home, and only very rarely an odd individual of the others.

Again, tight screens are a must. Like all the domicili-
ary cockroaches, the German cockroach is attracted to
Thus if your house has ill-fitting screens, unbarred cracks
around doors, or other entrances, you will have a nightly
invasion to take the place of any roaches killed or removed.
Without a "tight" house you will never get past first base in
cockroach control.




Once your house is tight, you should make life as
miserable as possible for any roaches that penetrate your
first line of defense. Roaches like dark cracks to hide in.
Using a mirror and flashlight, locate all such spots. If you
can insert a knife blade, the area is large enough to harbor
a cockroach. Pay special attention to the underside of
countertops, inside cupboards, and under the sink. All
such cracks and crannies should be plugged with putty or
wall filler. Larger holes can be stopped with steel wool and
then covered with wall filler. This elimination of hiding
places where roaches can retire and avoid chemical controls
can dramatically increase the effects of such controls.
After you've eliminated shelter, go after the other
necessity of life -- food. Unwashed dishes, the garbage or
diaper pail, spills, stove splatter, and poorly covered food
are all favorites of cockroaches. Here is where their impor-
tance in disease come in. While cockroaches are not known
to be vectors of any disease, they can pick up disease
organisms on their feet, legs or bodies and contaminate
the food or utensils they later crawl upon. Washing dishes
promptly, wiping up food spills when they happen, and
keeping garbage and food containers tightly covered will go
a long way towards avoiding problems.
After you've kept out as many invaders as possible,
made it hard for those who get in to find shelter and made
choice foods unavailable, you very often will still have
cockroaches. This is no reason to give up the exclusion
and habitat reductions. These practices will make your
last control step, chemical treatment, needed much less
often, and much more effective when it is used. Several
chemicals can be used for cockroach control. For low
population levels boric acid bait tablets, placed in areas
likely to harbor a few cockroaches, are all that is needed.
The roaches will chew on the tablets to get the bait, and
be poisoned. Boric acid does not kill quickly, but will
slow down and eventually kill the roaches who eat it.
It is not a preferred food, and will only be effective if the
habitat reduction actions are carried out to make more
preferred food scarce. Though these tablets are safe to
use and relatively non-toxic, care should be taken to place
them out of the way of children or pets. Behind books on
book shelves, under appliances and in dark corners are good
locations. Don't forget a few in the bathroom. For higher
populations, a spray treatment is called for. Several insecti-
cide sprays are available for cockroach control. You should
make your choice based on local availability and by com-
paring the various labels. Generally, the convenience of
aerosol type sprays is good for occasional spot treatment,
but for full-scale spraying, the concentrate mixed in the
home and applied with a pump or pressurized sprayer is
much more economical, and often more effective.


After you've selected your pesticide, read and follow
all the instructions on the label, paying particular attention
to applicable sections regarding pets, children, and food.


When spraying for cockroaches, do not attempt to
spray the entire house. Spray instead only those spots
most likely to be frequented by roaches. Remove the kick
panel in front of the refrigerator and other appliances and
spray there. Give attention behind and beside appliances.
Baseboards, storage areas, and under the sink should also
be protected. Some pesticides may be used in cupboards
provided new shelf paper is installed before returning food
or utensils. However, this is not generally a good practice,
and should be done only as a last resort. Follow the label
instructions very carefully to avoid contamination of food
utensils.


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Why the Streams Don't Run Anymore

PART II


By Bent Lawaetz, Director of Soil and Water Conservation
V. I. Department of Agriculture

As recently as 25 to 30 years ago, many streams on
St. Croix regularly ran for several months out of the year.
Further back in our history old-timers tell of even larger
and more regular stream flows. Today our streams only run
for relatively short periods following heavy rains. Why?

In the 1975 Agriculture and Food Fair Booklet I
attempted to answer that question in my article "Why the
Streams Don't Run Anymore". During the past five years I
have had the opportunity to reflect on the points made in
that article, and I have come to the conclusion that al-
though those original points are valid, I missed three of the
most important factors. It is for this reason that I have now
written this revised article. The factors enumerated here
do not apply to all parts of the island. In some areas only
one or two of the factors might apply. The attempt here is
to define what factors do tend to cause the drying up of
the streams. In order to resolve the problem, we first need
to define the parts of the problem.

Here is a summary of the five factors that were men-
tioned in the original article and an investigation into the
three additional factors affecting our island streams.

1. Rainfall: With only a few notable exceptions tlhe
rainfall in the last two decades has been generally low. In
1974, and again in 1977, the Virgin Islands were declared
a drought disaster area. Earlier history of the Virgin Islands
shows varying periods of above normal and below normal
rainfall. These periods are unpredictable both as to when
they occur and their duration.

2. Soil Condition: During most of St. Croix's history
the land has been extensively cultivated. Cultivation breaks
up the soil and presents a more porous surface which per-
mits more water to enter the soil and percolate down to
the water table or aquifer, as the underground water is
more correctly referred to. This underground water reser-
voir is what supplies wells with water, and also the streams
during the periods between rainfalls, in those cases where
the aquifer is exposed to the land surface, such as in the
bottoms of valleys.
As cultivation decreased in St. Croix, more and more
land developed a smooth, hard surface, causing a larger per-
centage of surface runoff and less percolation down to the
aquifer. Any increase in cultivation will reverse this trend.
3. Vegetation: Vegetables and grasses, including
sorghum and sugar cane, yield more rain water to the
aquifer than bush and forests. Two possible reasons for this


An all-too-familiar view of erosion caused by heavy rains
creating new gullies and guts on St. Croix. Water run-off
as a result often ends up in the sea rather than percolating
down into the island's aquifer.
are: first, bush and forests retain more water in their foliage
than do the grasses. The water thus retained rapidly evapor-
ates as soon as it stops raining. Second, the deeper roots of
bush and forest trees enable them to dry out the soil to a
much greater depth during dry periods. This deep dry layer
of soil requires large amounts of water to saturate it before
any excess water can pass on down to the aquifer.
It is true that trees shade the ground, thereby reducing
the surface temperature of the soil, and by acting as wind
breakers they reduce the drying effect of wind on the soil
surface, but these factors are probably more than offset by
the above-mentioned two. It is much more common to find
water in a pond which has a grass covered watershed than
it is to find water in a pond which has a watershed covered
by bush and trees.

4. Wells: Each year more wells are dug on St. Croix.
Some of these wells draw water from the same aquifers
that feed nearby streams. The effect of wells on streams
varies considerably with the geology of the area, the size of
the aquifer, the amount of water pumped out of the wells
and the proximity of the wells to a given stream. In general
terms, however, it can be stated that the increase in the
amount of water pumped from wells has resulted in a
decrease in the amount of water available to streams.

5. Recharge Area: The quantity of water absorbed by
the soil and passed down to the aquifer is influenced by
the amount of soil surface area exposed to rainfall. Every-
time a parking lot, road or building is put on the land, the
surface area available for absorbing rainfall is decreased.
These paved and concreted areas decrease water loss by

57






evaporation, but this does not compensate for the decrease
in water entering the soil. Furthermore, water collected
from parking lots and roads is normally channeled in a
manner designed to eject it into the sea as rapidly as pos-
sible. It need hardly be mentioned that in recent years the
amount of land covered by asphalt or concrete has greatly
increased.

6. Soil Erosion: One day, about two years ago, while
walking across a pasture looking for a dam site, I noticed
that the ground was covered with stones. In fact, the pro-
portion of stone to soil in that pasture was so great that I
concluded that there was not sufficient suitable material
in the area for building a dam.
This situation somewhat surprised me as it was not
typical of that general area. This pasture was on a hillside
that had been overgrazed by a herd of goats for many
years. As there was naturally a certain amount of stones
in the soil of that area, I speculated that the soil had
washed away, leaving behind the layers of stones which
I saw. When pastureland is overgrazed by livestock, there is
not enough grass or other vegetation left on the land to
protect the soil from being washed away by heavy rains.
The thought then occurred to me that similar erosion, to
a greater or lesserextett, has occurred across virtually the
entire island in recent history.

When rain falls, we depend on the soil as the first
means of retaining the rain by soaking it up, and then
allowing the water to seep into the subsoil and on down
to the aquifer. Water-saturated soil will continue to yield
water long after it has stopped raining. The initial ability
of the land to retain rain water is largely dependent on the
amount of soil on the land. As the amount of soil on the
land decreases, so does the land's ability to retain water
during periods of rainfall.
St. Croix has seen periods of extensive cultivation,
(including cultivation on the hillsides,) droughts which
depleted the vegetation on the land followed by floods,
land left bare by bulldozers, overgrazing and hurricanes.


iIF






ST. CRIX U.S VIGI ISLAND
LOW SEASONAIBL ~RAITIEI
Represnted y Hot ls O Unliite



NEWYORKll l~TJl BOS .=TI]ONiIi l


In view of these facts, it would seem reasonable to assume
that our land has lost much of its soil. If we further accept
that the amount of soil on the land has an important
bearing on how much rainfall reaches the aquifer, then we
must recognize the soil erosion of past years as an import-
ant factor as to "why the streams don't run anymore".

7. Organic Content of the Soil: Although the cultiva-
tion of sugar cane, particularly that which was done on
sloping land, probably contributed to soil erosion, it
nevertheless had the beneficial effect of increasing the
organic content of the soil by virtue of all the cane tops
and "trash" that was returned to the soil. The water-holding
capacity of soil is directly influenced by the soil's organic
content. The phasing out of sugar cane has probably resul-
ted in a lower soil organic content, and consequently, a
lower water retention capability.

8. Hillside Roads: Most of the hillsides on St. Croix
have 6 to 24 inches of soil resting on rotten rock. During
periods of heavy rains the soil gets saturated, and there is a
slow underground flow of water in the area where the soil
rests on top of the rock. Much of this water eventually
finds porous strata in the rock and percolates down to
an aquifer, or it reaches an area of sedimentation at the
base of the slope and similarly enters an aquifer. Roads
cut along hillsides frequently intercept this water and
rapidly remove it from the area in the form of surface
runoff, so that it does not have an opportunity to enter
the aquifers of that area. Anyone travelling on a hillside
road after a heavy rain can frequently see water seeping
from the road's upper bank onto the road, and running
on to the sea.

In another five years I may get enough new ideas to
write a third article on the subject. Meanwhile, I would
welcome ideas from readers as to other reasons "why the
streams don't run anymore".


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Sub Base, St. Thomas, V.I.


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Island Cooking Naturally!

By Arona Petersen
St. Thomas Cook, Restaurateur, Traveler, Dressmaker,
Author, Poet and Columnist

Bread is the staff of life
So all men say
Each morn we pray
Give us this day our daily bread

Man can live without music, poetry, art, hope, books,
love and all the other additives. But food is the one thing
that man, civilized or uncivilized, cannot live without.
As Ben Franklin said it "There's nothing to eat but food."
Also the Good Book says "Let your food be your medicine
and let your medicine be your food". In the perpetual
struggle man can take cue from the ant which having no
guide, overseer or ruler, provideth her meat in the summer
and gathereth her food in the harvest.

When freshly harvested from the ground, vine or
branch, or fresh caught from the sea, food is far more
satisfying and pleasing to'the palate than reading labels to
count calories. You are assured of getting per serving what-
ever the product has to offer plus the needs and require-
ments nutrition-wise going from A to Z in one stretch, and
believe me, that's saying a mouthful. Getting food and
medicine in one package seems the best way to keep in
good health taking cue not only from the ant, but birds,
bees, and all the other smart creatures as well.

Okra Soup with Elizabeth and Della

"Hey Lizabeth -- What tis you cooking smell so good? I
smell it from all down the street."
"Oh Della -- dats you? Come in, come see, meh chile I
here making up a dab-dab, dats all I could call it."
"I doan care what you call it. I come in time to taste it.
From the time I turn round the corner meh belly start
asking meh stomach what do meh throat."
"You yourself know how dese kinda pot does start.
First you doan know what to cook, then you fine a lil bit
of this and you put it wid some of that, then you mix it
wid a spoonful a the other and before you know what
happen it smell up all over. Everybody following dey nose
coming to you kitchen door. Day asking what page a the
cookbook you take it outa.
"Dis morning I was knocking meh brains out wonder-
ing what to cook, so I walk round the yard when I see the
okra dem so overbearing watching me up in meh face,
right away I remember a hambone I had put up. I went in,
put it in a pot a water and on the fire to boil, then I went
out again and pick the okra dem what was young and ten-
der, dig up two good size sweet potato, pull up some chervil,
cut some thyme, pick a hot pepper and some celery.


i.j.A'ul


K--


Ms any good Virgin Island cook knows, a mortar and
pestle is an important kitchen 'necessity. Here Arona
Petersen is shown in her own kitchen preparing one of her
famous dishes with a "dab-dab" of this and a little bit of
that.
"While getting dese tings ready to put in wid the ham-
bone I tell Mabel to clean two fish (wenchman) and steam
dem before we put dem in the pot wid the rest tings. I had
some crab in a barrel so I take out two take off the back
and wash the gundy and the foot and put them in the pot.
I make some plain white flour dumplins and put in. Now I
only have to roll some dry papa-lolo and she will be all set
when I taste her to see if she salt enough and she simmer
down for 5 minutes mo, she good enough to eat."
"I can't hardly wait to get some and the children dem
all waiting roun the table. You know all dat cooking I see
you doing and I ain see the first measuring cup or spoon
yet; how you does know how much of what to put in?"
"Della you well know we doan bother bout dose
kind of tings, and the people dem who do can't get food
taste like ours own, no time. I ain saying dat ain the right
way for dem I only saying when I have hurry up wid meh
cooking I doan have time to waste."
"Oh, let me ask you dis question while the soup
cooking Dat what you call papa-lolo is what some people
call kren-kren? And what other kind of soup you does put
it in?"
"Yes, some people call it kren-kren, you could put
it in kallaloo or any okra dish. You know from plantation
days back our people had like okra and other green bush
cook together and wid fish, crab and saltpork was enough
to make them forget miseries for a while. And doan forget
to always keep a wooden spoon to keep the okra from
sticking to the bottom of the pot and make the soup taste
better."
"You mean tis the spoon you stir it wid make it taste
so good? If you have enough you could please put some mo
in my calabash? Thank you, Lizabeth, I ain taste okra soup
so good for years. Dis is just like old-time when we use to
take everything from the ground and put it in the pot and
cook the fish as soon as we ketch dem from the sea."
"Now meh gran children coming home telling how
much vitamin in okra, celery, onion, thyme, sweet potato,
parsley and even pepper and all the minerals in fish and
crab. Della, you see how we never too old to learn?"









Selecting and Handling Meats for the Home


By Bill Janes
C.V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station

Virgin Island residents spend a larger portion of their
food dollars on meat than on any other food group. Be-
cause meats are so commonly prepared at home, some tips
on selection, handling and cooking may be helpful.

SELECTING MEAT
A variety of fresh, cured, cured-and-smoked, frozen,
freeze-dried, canned, and ready-to-serve meats are available
to the Virgin Island consumer. It is important that you
select your meat carefully. When buying fresh beef and
lamb, look for a U.S.D.A. quality grade on the package
or ask the butcher what quality grade you are buying.
For beef, the U.S.D.A. quality grades are prime, choice,
good, standard, commercial, utility, cutter and canner.
These grades are based upon animal age and amount of
marbling (small flecks of fat on the lean surfaces). Usually
prime, choice and good grades of beef are sold as retail
cuts in large chain supermarkets. Choice is the most com-
monly found. Locally produced young beef is usually
equivalent to the standard quality grade but is not assigned
a U.S.D.A. quality grade and is commonly sold by local
butcher shops. The lower grades of beef, from older ani-
mals, are primarily used in processed meat products. Lamb
U.S.D.A. quality grades are prime, choice, good, standard
and utility. Choice and good lamb are the most commonly,
encountered grades at the retail level. Pork quality varies
only slightly between animals. The U.S.D.A. quality grades
are based primarily on amount of carcass fat. Pork quality
grades are seldom used by retail markets so select fresh
and frozen pork by the amount of fat and color of the
lean surface.

GOAT
Goat meat, one of the favorite meats of Virgin
Islanders, is not U.S.D.A. quality graded. However, goat
meat is U.S.D.A. inspected for wholesomeness. Younger
goats are usually more flavorful and tender than older
goats. If you have your own goat slaughtered at the.St. Croix
abbatoir, be sure to properly package the meat in a suitable
wrapping paper before taking it home.

PORK

Locally produced fresh pork is available at a reason-
able price. Most local pork is of similar quality to imported
pork, however, local swine is slaughtered at a relatively light
weight of about 75 pounds as compared to about 230 pounds
on the U.S. mainland. This weight difference is due to the
high price of imported feeds.


LAMB
Lamb and mutton produced in the Virgin Islands
are also available. Local farmers do not feed lambs high
grain rations, so quality of local lamb is slightly lower
than U.S.D.A. choice lamb which is imported.

When selecting fresh chilled and frozen meat, always
look-at the color of the lean surface and the amount of fat
and bone of the cut. Fresh beef and lamb should have a
rich cherry red color. Fresh pork should have a bright
greyish-pink color with minimum amount of fat. Discol-
oration or darkening usually indicates the cut of meat is
not very fresh or is of a lower quality grade. If you buy
frozen meat, check to see that is is properly packaged.
Freezer burn is commonly observed in improperly packaged
frozen meat. Freezer burn causes deterioration of the pro-
duct, an unattractive bleached appearance, and a decrease
in palatability.


When purchasing processed prepared cured meats
such as bacon and lunch meats, look for a uniform rich
pinkish color. Check the package or can to see that it is
properly sealed and maintains a vacuum. Look on the
package or can for a recommended date of purchase.
If the date has passed or is near expiration, don't buy
the product. Read the label carefully. Ingredients are
always listed in descending amounts. Often cheaper pro-
ducts have less desirable ingredients.


MEAT IN THE HOME
Once you have selected from the various types
of meat products, it is important to properly handle the
meats at home. Fresh meat which is not to be frozen
should be stored in the coldest part of the refrigerator

or in the compartment designed for meat storage. Fresh
meat prepackaged from your grocer should be stored
unopened in the refrigerator in the original wrapping not
more than two days; or it may be frozen without rewrap-
ping and stored in the freezer from 1 to 2 weeks. For
longer freezer storage the original package should also be
wrapped in freezer paper, labeled with cut and weight,
and dated. Cured meat products such as bacon or ham
should not be frozen for more than a few weeks. It is
known that frozen cured meats develop rancidity more
rapidly than frozen fresh meat. Longer storage periods
can lead to flavor changes. The appropriate lengths of
time for freezing different types of fresh meats is pre-
sented in Table 1. If meat is kept longer than the recom-
mended storage time, the meat quality will begin to decline.







Product
Ground beef
Beef
Lamb
Pork
Goat


TABLE 1
10F
3 months
5-8 months
3-6 months
2 months
5-8 months


OOF
4 months
8-12 months
6-8 months
4-6 months
6-8 months


There are several methods by which frozen meats
may be thawed. Meats may be thawed in the refrigerator, at
room temperature or in circulating water; or they may be
cooked without prior thawing. Thawing in the refrigerator
or while cooking are the most desirable methods. Frozen
meat should not be left thawed too long before cooking.

When the electricity goes off and meat in your freezer
begins to thaw, you can refreeze the meat as long as some
ice crystals remain in the meat. However, there will be
increased drip loss, loss of water soluble nutrients, and a
decrease in palatability if you refreeze red meats. If the
meat is completely thawed but not spoiled, you should
cook it as soon as possible and refrigerate the cooked
meat, if possible, for future use.


Cooked meats should be wrapped or covered and
stored in the coldest part of the refrigerator within 1 to 2
hours after cooking. Cooked meats will keep better if left
in larger pieces and not cut until ready to use. Covering
prevents drying of meat which lost some moisture during
cooking. Refreezing cooked meats is alright except meats
tend to undergo oxidation which causes a "warmed over"
flavor. Cooked meats have better flavor if protected by a
gravy or similar material during freezer storage.

PREPARING MEAT
The key to successfully preparing delicious meat
dishes for your family is selecting the proper cooking
methods to match the cut of meat. The type of meat
quality and anatomical location from which a cut is derived
dictate the method of cooking. The basic cooking methods
and their variations are listed below.


Cooking with dry heat Cooking with moist heat
Roasting Braising
Broiling Stewing
Pan Broiling Pressure cooking
Frying Simmering
Microwave cooking

Moist heat methods have a tenderizing effect on
meats. The less tender cuts such as: beef cuts from the
round or chuck and most of the cuts from beef carcasses
graded U.S. standard and U.S. commercial should be
braised. All cuts of meat with very high levels of connec-
62


tive tissue should be stewed or simmered, such as: shank,
brisket, plate, heel of round, pig hocks, etc. Dry cookery
improves the flavor of meat through crust formation and
carmelization of the meat surface. Thus, tender cuts of
meats of high quality are most suited for dry heat cookery.
These tender cuts of high quality include:
Beef rib, loin, rump, inside round
Pork cured ham, cured bacon, leg roast, loin,
boston butt, picnic shoulder
Lamb- rib, loin, shoulder, leg
Once you have matched the cut of meat with the
appropriate method of cooking, you must consider the
degree of doneness. A meat thermometer is an inexpensive
fool-proof method of having the meat properly prepared.
Just remember to insert the thermometer into the center
of the cut to get an accurate reading. The temperature
readings for rare, medium, and well done are 1400F inter-
nal, 1500F internal, and 1650F internal respectively. The
timed method of measuring if the meat is sufficiently
cooked is less precise but is often used. Another method
of determining if the meat is sufficiently cooked is to cut
the meat during cooking and observe the color. Red muscle
color is well done. For recommended cooking procedures
consult your cookbook.

Hopefully, some of the advice offered will help you
improve, your selection and preparation of meats. Regard-
less of the cut of meat you choose to serve your family here
in the Virgin Islands, you can be sure that if it is properly
handled and prepared the result will be a delicious nutri-
tious meal for your family.








Possibilities of the Winged Bean

By John M. Matuszak
C.V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station

Scientific evidence about its unusually high protein
content has sparked interest in the winged bean, a little
known tropical plant species of great nutritional value and
versatility. The plant, a grain legume or pulse, is regarded
by many to be the tropical equivalent of the soybean.

Like the soybean, mature seeds have a protein con-
tent of approximately 34%. In addition, however, tuberous
roots may contain as much as 20% protein and the leaves
and flowers are also edible and high in protein. This tropical
bean plant is known throughout Asia, Africa and the Pacific
by a variety of local names, such as goa beans, seguidillas,
manilla beans, or winged beans..The title winged bean has
been adopted by the contemporary press, because of the
appearance of the pod, which has a jagged wing at the inter-
secting angles of each of the four sides. (See Figure 1).


Potentials
Finding a versatile grain legume, well suited to the
tropics is indeed cause for excitement. Among the different
varieties of the winged bean, some may be used as a cover
crop or green manure capable of enriching the soil by cap-
turing nitrogen from the atmosphere. A free source of
organic nitrogen fertilizer is thus produced and can be used
by associated or succeeding crops. Possibilities as a cover
crop exist in erosion control on sloping lands and for weed
control and nitrogen source under fruit trees, for example.
Other varieties show tremendous potential as human food
or animal feed. All parts of the plant are edible, from the
tuberous roots which develop in some varieties when left
unstaked and untended, to the flowers, said to have a flavor
similar to mushrooms. The leaves may be used in soups and
salads, the young pods may be eaten fresh, lightly cooked
like a snap bean or used like snow pea pods in oriental
cuisine. Once the beans mature, they must be dried for
seed storage or soaked and then cooked like other dried
beans. The mature seeds like most dried beans should not
be eaten without long cooking (up to four hours), as they
contain toxins that prohibit digestion and may be danger-
ous. Cooking turns these substances inactive and the beans
can then be eaten without problems. Possibilities exist in
using the oil of mature seeds for cooking, much like peanut
or soy oil. The long cooking time required and strong nutty
flavor discourage use of the dried bean as a human food
source. However, mature seeds may be used as a component
of a high protein animal food.
Limitations
Versatile as the winged bean is as a food, people are
slow to change their eating habits, especially when they


Figure 1 The Winged Bean Psophocarpus tetraganolobus
(Based on a drawing by G.A.C. Herklots)
must grow the food themselves in order to obtain sufficient
quantities to prepare. Because of the minimal attention this
crop has received until recently, bush type varieties which
can be mechanically harvested do not exist. The plant's
viny growth limits its commercial development as a grain
crop but could be an advantage if grown as part of a grass
legume pasture or as forage mix. Once the winged bean is
established, its prolific growth and positive response to
cutting, seem to indicate its value not only as an animal
feed, but also as a green manure providing nitrogen and as
a cover crop for erosion control.

Research
Scientists must investigate palatability for livestock
and devise experiments to test the adaptability of varieties
to plant densities, cutting and pasturing rates, and other
cultural practices. Since the winged bean's greatest poten-
tial as an animal feed is a part of a grass-legume mixture,
varieties must be tested with local and improved grasses for
correct combinations and percentage mix. Scientists should
also ascertain nutritional quality of these combinations.

Whether winged beans -Psophocarpus tetraganolobus
(L.) DC as they are known scientifically can be adapted to
the soil and climatic conditions of the Virgin Islands, is our
first concern. Likely, the answers shall be mixed depending
on variety, location and usage. Whatever the answers, the
continued testing of the winged bean and other legumes
from around the world will increase our fund of agricultural
knowledge and add new plants to the list of those already
nutritionally and economically of value.






























Courtesy of
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Hannah's Rest
Frederiksted



























"LET SER VICE LIGHT THE WA Y"

CELEBRATING THE 75th ANNIVERSARY
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February 23, 1980

Committed to Promote Health, Fight Hunger
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HAPPY TENTH ANNIVERSARY TO THE
1980
AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR

ROTARY CLUB OF ST. CROIX
ROTARY CLUB OF ST. CROIX WEST


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A giant ficus or fig tree with elaborate root system exposed
is just one of may different ancient trees which have come
to light as the result of brush clearing in the St. Thomas
Arboretum at Megans Bay.

PLEASE SUPPORT YOUR ADVERTISERS
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The St. Thomas Arboretum


By Gene Zegetosky
with Michael Ivie
C.V.I. Cooperative Extension Service, St. Thomas

According to National Geographic Magazine,
St. Thomas's Magen's Bay is one of the "Ten Most Beautiful
Beaches in the World". The beach though, is not the only
attraction at Magen's Bay Park. Hidden away near the
southern corner of the bay, there also exists an arboretum.

Originally the arboretum was planted in the early
1930's by Arthur Fairchild of Louisenhoj with the help of
Horticulturist Alfonso Nelthropp. Mr. Fairchild was a world
traveler and brought many seeds and plants back to St. Thom-
as. These were the foundation of the arboretum and were
taken care of primarily by Mr. Nelthropp.

Shortly after World War II, Mr. Fairchild decided to
donate the arboretum area to the people of St. Thomas and
St. John along with the beach area. The garden portion was,
unfortunately, forgotten due to lack of funds and interest.
Consequently, the arboretum declined and many trees died
from lack of care, competition from the better adapted
native trees or a combination of environmental factors.

Situated on approximately five acres of land, the
arboretum is a garden of rare and exotic trees for people
to view and appreciate. The main reasons this area is not
well known is because it has been overgrown with sweet-
lime and bush and is not openly visible to the public.

Some of the trees here should definitely be seen and
many of them can be found nowhere else on the island.
Certainly there is no other spot where you can see such
a large variety of interesting and unusual specimens. Some
of the real attention getters are a giant silk cotton or kapok
tree (Ceiba pentrandra) which is approximately 75 feet tall
with buttresses which extend ten feet out from the tree
and almost as high. This species is one of the largest trees
in tropical America and fiber from its seed pods is used
commercially in sleeping bags and life preservers.

Another interesting tree is the barnngtoma (Barring-
tonia asiatica), native to the South Pacific. This medium-
sized ornamental tree grows to 30 feet, has large, shiny,
dark green leaves and a peculiar looking fruit. The 4-sided
dark brown fruit has a very fibrous corky husk, much like
that of a coconut, which enables it to float. This accounts
for the tree's wide range along tropical shores.


Also found in the arboretum is a large banyan tree
(Ficus -benghalensis). The canopy of this Indian tree has a
spread 100 feet in diameter. This is made possible by
numerous accessory trunks which hang down from the low,
spreading branches. These "extra" trunks give the tree an
unusual appearance and make it an extremely sturdy
specimen.

These are just a few of the more interesting species
found in the arboretum, but there are many more which
are equally impressive. A beautiful sago palm (Cycas
revoluta), a fiddle-leaf fig (Ficus lyrata), a strange looking
screw pine (Pandanus spp.) and many exotic palms are
also on display here. The diversity of form and wealth of
greenery make the arboretum a showcase of nature, but it
needs more attention if it is to be appreciated by all.

Despite the long period of neglect, there is still hope
for the arboretum. The potential for a beautiful park set-
ting, complete with benches, trails and informative plaques
is definitely there. Several persons have recognized this
potential and have taken the necessary action to reclaim
the arboretum for t'- people of the Virgin Islands.

Today the arboretum is in a state of change. During
the Summer of 1979, the C.V.I. Cooperative Extension
Service with the help of the Youth Conservation Corps
went in and cleared the bush, cut trails and generally made
the area more accessible. Now some of these interesting
trees are out in the open for everyone to see.

Considering that this area has been relatively ignored
for over 30 years, it will take more than a summer's work
to get it into top condition. The work done so far is only a
drop in the bucket, but one can clearly see the potential
for this arboretum.

With the many people working behind the project,
the area could easily become one of the most popular
garden spots on St. Thomas and possibly in the Virgin
Islands. Before the recent work was started the arboretum
was literally a jungle. Now, it is much more open and has
the look of a serene forest. There is still a need for an
overall landscape plan, a corresponding maintenance
schedule, labels for the trees, a guide booklet and many
other things which will take time, effort and money.
There is also expansion space for a section set aside for
tropical flowering plants.











Very best wishes from


VIRGIN ISUiNDSTELEPHON COPOATION


Farm Family of the Year 1979, Barbara and Henry Nelthrop
of Corn Hill Dairy Farm accept commemorative placque
from Senator Leroy Arnold.


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CUTTER-HAVER LOCKHART BAY VET. CORP.
DIAMOND-SYNTEX LABS.
JENSEN SALSBERY LABS.
EVSCO LABORATORIES, INC.
PITMAN MOORE, INC.
SCHROER COMPANY INT'L. DIVISION
SCHERING CORPORATIONS
THOROUGHBRED REMEDY CORP.


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