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Group Title: Agrifest
Title: Agrifest : agriculture and food fair of St. Croix, Virgin Islands. 1975.
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 Material Information
Title: Agrifest : agriculture and food fair of St. Croix, Virgin Islands. 1975.
Series Title: Agrifest : agriculture and food fair of St. Croix, Virgin Islands.
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: United States of America -- United States Virgin Islands -- St. Croix -- Caribbean
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: CA01300011
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of the Virgin Islands
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 20948561

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover 1
    Main
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Full Text
VAD 1. 3
2/5
1975


RICULTURE


VIRSLAND

ISLANDS;
F


'e


64.


r-- r
~a~bs~ ?





Compliments
of
GRAND UNION


SUPERMARKETS


The Most Modern Supermarkets
in the Virgin Islands!









MESSAGE FROM GOVERNOR

CYRIL E. KING

OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES


It is a truism that for much too long agriculture has
been neglected in our Islands. There are many reasons
for this. But there are also many pressing reasons why it
must now be revitalized with some sense of urgency.
Certainly among them is the ever-increasing cost of
imported food items, notably fresh produce, and our
extreme dependence on imported foods in general. The
implications of this dependence are as obvious as they are
unsettling. Not only does it continually drain our economy
of needed capital, but holds the potential of a serious
crisis if communications were ever disrupted with the
Mainland, our main food supplier. We can no longer
remain complacent. The development of a degree of
self-sufficiency is more than prudent it is vital.


Exhibitions such as the 5th Annual Agriculture and
FoodFair can contribute much toward this objective, as
well as to a better use of available resources. The
organized display of wares, produce, and livestock
illustrates present accomplishments and suggests future
possibilities what is being done and what can indeed be
done with a measure of imagination and perseverance.
This in turn may stimulate greater public interest, foster
more favorable attitudes, and generate wider community
participation in productive activities of this nature. In
particular, it may make more of our young people aware of
the challenges and opportunities in the field of agriculture
and encourage their constructive involvement in this and
allied pursuits. The display and preparation of Native
foods can also promote a better use of local produce as
well as a deeper appreciation for our valuable cultural
heritage.

The Agriculture and Food Fair, however, is not only
important from an economic, educational, or cultural point
of view, it affords a day of genuine fun and entertainment
for the entire family. So let us all enjoy ourselves!

I would like to congratulate and thank all those who
once again made this Fair possible, and I urge everyone to
pause and reflect on this year's theme, "Let's produce
through agriculture, education, and industry."










YOU CAN'T------
EAT TOURISTS
(They wouldn't come back)
OR
ALUMINUM (you wouldn't like it)
OR
DRINK REFINED OIL
(bad for ulcers)



BUT YOU CAN-----

EAT FRESH BEEF

f \ ("No problem" with the cows)

AND

.1 ,, DRINK FRESH MILK

(good for the day after)



CANE GARDEN FARM- ST. CROIX
REGISTERED HOLSTEIN PUREBRED SENEPOL
REGISTERED CHAROLAIS THOROUGHBRED HORSES









MESSAGE FROM MR. RUDOLPH SHULTERBRANDT

PRESIDENT OF THE AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR


LET'S CONTINUE THE FAIR


Though the appreciation of the Agriculture and
Food Fair has been expressed by the thousands who
come here every year for recreation, education, curiosity,
and purchases, it seems that it might be helpful at this
time to present once more the basic objectives of this
event, and the purposes it has served so far.
First, lets take a backward look on the themes of the
past Fairs;
1971-The Good Soil, Let's Make It Produce.
1972-Let's Get Involved With; Agiculture, Education,
and Industry.
1973- Taking The Lead; Agriculture, Education, and
Industry.
1974-Better Living; Through Agriculture, Education
and Industry.
1975-Let's Produce Through Agriculture, Education,
and Industry.
You should readily see from our themes, that with the
presentation of each Fair, we have tried to stimulate our
people by pointing to a certain need of our islands. The
participants have always responded within the framework
of these themes.
We have also been fortunate in having our good
neighbors from Antigua, Guyana, Montserrat, Dominica,
and St. Vincent, show us how they are using some of the
same natural resources which we fail to use here.
At Fairtime our livestockmen display, with pride,
samples of their best animals. This has created much


interest among our visitors from the other islands who
would like to acquire our bloodlines. United States
Quarantine regulations has restricted these potential
sales, but we are gradually overcoming these barriers. The
potential of our Fair as the local apex for demonstrating
practices in good animal husbandry has not even
scratched.
The calendar year of 1974 was disastrous for
agriculture. This was due to the two extremes of weather
which the islands suffered; the first six months was one
of the driest seasons in the islands history, the second
half of the year was one of the wettest.None of these
extremes were conducive to vegetable crop production.
However, adverse situations of this nature should serve to
identify weaknesses which our agricultural framework
must overcome. For this reason our exhibition of
vegetable crops is not up to the high expectations we had
had in mind for this years Fair.
Don't stop the Fair!, it serves to bring our towns and
rural areas together. The towns need the farms to supply
the basic nutrition for a healthy life, and the farms need
the towns as markets for their produce.
Don't stop the Fair!, it has become one of the important
events on the calendar of activities of the Virgin Islands.
This is truly the place where all of our people meet; all
ages, races, creed, class, nationality, and ethnics. This
feature is one of our most satisfying accomplishment.
This is the only public function that certain citizens will
attend.
Don't Stop The Fair.
Let's make It Better,
Year after Year.


038679


i


i "I'





COMPLIMENTS OF:
LA GRANGE FARMS
FREDERIKSTED, ST. CROIX
BOB SOFFES
AND FAMILY


tractor FORD 4500
TRACTORES FORD Y FORDSON
IMPLEMENTOS AGRICOLAS


D TRACTORS
DISTRIBUIDORES EQUIPOS
CLMNESNITBN IC


Compliment of
HENDRICK'S
MEAT MARKET
7- 8 Oueen St. C'sted.


I









MESSAGE FROM CHAIRMAN

OSCAR E. HENRY

GOVERNOR'S AGRICULTURAL ADVISORY

COMMITTEE ST. CROIX


It is a special pleasure for me to write this
message of congratulations and appreciation to
the board of directors and participants of the 1975
Agriculture and Food Fair who worked long hours
to make this community event possible.

Agricultural fairs are designed to serve as
bridges of understanding between producers and
consumers of agricultural products. As a


lifetime Virgin Islands farmer, I am fully aware of
the problems and challenges that face our
agricultural industry. Therefore, I am always
striving to do everything possible to help our
existing, as well as prospective farmers. If this
fair serves the purpose of providing an outlet to
the local farmers' produce and inspire our young
people to practice farming, I pledge my whole
hearted support for the fair. However, I am
reluctant to see the manpower and equipment of
the agriculture department put into a "Fun Fair"
when our farmers and home gardeners need the
department's services so badly and urgently.

I wish to appeal to all the workers in the field of
agriculture to put it all together and work as a
family so that we can provide the best possible
services to our farmers. I look forward to closer
working relationships with the Extension Service,
V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station and other
federal agencies as together we can serve more
efficiently our common clientale-the people of
these beautiful Virgin Islands.

My best wishes to all the participants in the
1975 Agriculture and Food Fair.


CM~WIM~MNI/CMMMMMMMMN
C~C~CMMIC~CC~CMICMMMMM~MI


,AMMMMMMMMMM~MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM~I


"C
r.






ANNALY FARMS -
Box 1576, Frederiskled


ST. CROIX
Tel. 772-0669


"Breeders Of Purebred Senepol Cattle"
Purebred Bulls for sale


Purebred


Heifers for


sale.


"EAT FRESH ISLAND BEEF"


I- .....,










ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF


AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR OF VIRGIN Is


MMMMC~-cMrzC~Mlr~MhkMMM~CA~~M~MhMMMMhMM
)J*/Crrrr~hMMAMMMMMMMhMhMNJWVCMMhMMhhMMN


PRESIDENT
Honorable Rudolph Shulterbrandt


VICE-PRESIDENTS
Bent Lawaetz Dr. Fenton Sands


EXECUTIVE SECRETARY
Carmen Cabodevilla


TREASURER
Lauritz E. Gibbs


DIRECTOR, RULES & AWARDS
Lena Shulterbrandt


DIRECTOR,
ARTS & DESIGN
Wally Cluett


DIRECTOR,
SERVICES
Larry Bough


DIRECTOR,
PROMOTIONS
Morris Henderson


DIRECTOR,
FARM EXHIBITS
Charles A. Schuster


DIRECTOR,
FACILITIES
Alfredo Johnson


DIRECTOR,
OFF-ISLAND PARTICIPATION
& HOSPITALITY
Bob Soffes


DIRECTOR,
FOOD-EXHIBITS
Dorothy Walcott


EDITOR
Dr. Darshan Padda


---------- 4I


LIANDSMM


;LANDS


I












VIRGIN ISLANDS DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION


WHERE THE GOOD

GRADE "A" FRESH

MILK


COMES FROM


CANE GARDEN FARM ........

* CORN HILL FARM ...........

.LAREINE FARM ...............

* MON BIJOU FARM ...........

* SIGHT FARM .................


MARIO GASPERI

HENRY NELTHROPP

.STACY LLOYD

OLIVER SKOV

CHARLES SCHUSTER


. SOLITUDE FARM .............. RICHARD ROEBUCK


I -







WHY AGRICULTURE ON THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
Address delivered by Commissioner RUDOLPH SHULTERBRANDT at the
Annual Banquet of the Future Farmers of America, St. Croix Chapter.


Once again I have this priviledge and honor
to address you at the annual Banquet of the St.
Croix Future Farmers of America.
I would like to channel my words tonight on
the controversial policy which seem to emanate
from the point of The Effective Importance Of
Agriculture In The Economy And Livelihood Of
The Virgin Islands, Or Should I Say Rather, Why
Agriculture On The Virgin Islands?
As future farmers of the Virgin Islands you
have a responsibility of proving that agriculture
is important on our islands. I am sure that many
of our die-hard economists will defend and sup-
port the question, why produce something that
you can import at less cost or at a cheaper rate?
I agree that many of the foods that we can grow
here can be purchased from abroad at a cheaper
rate than the cost at which we can produce the
same commodity.
I feel it is my duty as Commissioner of
Agriculture to present points to you which would
indicate that costs are not the only considera-
tions which we have to think about when we try
to decide whether agriculture is good or bad for
the Virgin Islands.
The prosperity of a community depends upon
the soundness of its economy, and the soundness
of economy is determined by the stability of its
foundations. The prosperity of our people here in
the Virgin Islands is ascribed to three main fac-
tors which include tourism, inflated real estate
values, and business taxation. All these three
industries are always subject to face a slump.
No other example can be more appropriate than
the present situation in the Virgin Islands.
I want you to understand that this situation
has not come about by fault of any one individual
,or organization. This is the result of unstable
foundations of our economy. Any community
whose economy is based on fluctuating indus-
tries is liable to get in trouble any time. I am
not against these industries. They are very im-
portant and can bring quick prosperity. All I want
to convey to you is the economic fact that due
to the uncertain nature of these industries, a
total dependence on them can be a complete
disaster.


We in the Virgin Islands are facing very
critical times. The times need careful study to
decide our future course. We are now standing
on crossroads. Since you are our future leaders
and I want to make you aware of your respon-
sibilities and obligations to contribute your share
of inputs and involvements in evolving our future
policies, any path we take now, whether it is
right or wrong, will affect you the future gene-
ration of our islands.
This evening, therefore, I wish to put before
you a few facts to help you understand our plight.
As you might have learned, through your science
courses, we need the presence of a precursor and
an enzyme to get a biological action. Similarly,
we need a basic stable industry to act as precur-
sor and these fluctuating industries will work as
enzymes and as a result we will get a stable
prosperity of our people. Now, then, which in-
dustry should serve as our precursor. Let us
survey our natural resources which are always
with us to stay. Undoubtedly, the sunshine comes
at the top. Believe me this is the biggest plus
any community can ever have. It is the sunlight
which is responsible for the life sustaining phe-
nomenon called photosynthesis. Without the pho-
tosynthesis, there can be no food plants, and no
plant-dependent animals. Our soils are fertile.
We get sufficient rain to get one crop a year
from October to March, and we can always re-
search for more water to permit year round crop
production. Poultry does not need much water,
swine farming, cattle raising, and dairy farming
has been successfully demonstrated.
What else is then needed to decide on agri-
culture being the best candidate to be our pre-
cursor. The food crop production, poultry farming
and cattle farming will directly involve our people
and then we shall be proud to present to our
guests what we produce here. When the tourist
comes here he buys the merchandise that has
been produced elsewhere. Who sells that mer-
chandise is an outsider and a Virgin Islander does
not fit into the chain anywhere. We should, there-
fore, go all out for local production of all possible
commodities involving our people. Until then our
emphasis on tourism is like spending all efforts
in inviting customers and having nothing to sell.






We should not forget that we shall get the
maximum benefit from our customer guests when
we have something to sell.
As mentioned earlier, the time to make our
decisions is now, otherwise we will be too late.
As you are the ones who have to live with
the outcome of present decisions, I urge you
very strongly not to stay as silent spectators but
to get involved and be assured that my door is
always open to you not only as your Commis-
sioner of Agriculture but also as a well wishing
member of your community in case you need any
counselling.

AESTHETIC VALUE:

I am sure that, at this time, most of you can
recognize and approve the difference between
cultivated and uncultivated land. For example,
you will recall the large field which is located
a few hundred yards behind me, to my right,
which was transf .med from a field of wild sugar-
cane to a productive field of sorghum. In addition
to imporving the appearance of the area, the
sorghum was used for livestock feed at a critical
period.
As we proceed in a westernly direction, we
would arrive at the federal experiment station
and the College of the Virgin Islands. Here again
you can appreciate the difference in appearance
between cultivated and uncultivated land. On the
left side of the highway is the campus of the
College of the Virgin Islands and the research
fields of the Agricultural Experiment Station.
If the Government of the Virgin Islands
would acquire the acreage directly across from
the College and the Federal Experiment Station,
also the acreage west of Herbert Grigg Home
For The Aged and the Charles Emanuel School,
this central part of St. Croix could be developed
into several small, well-planned and organized
farms. Can you imagine how beautiful St. Croix
would be when you drive along the Centerline
Road?
This type of agricultural development would
fit or integrate, most effectively, into the tourist


industry which we are seeking to rejuvenate.
The tourist will not leave a metropolitan environ-
ment to come to an island that resembles ano-
ther metropolis. But they will come to a green
tropical island. We don't want to reproduce the
metropolitan way of life. There are other impor-
tant factors to consider when we tend to compare
cost of food on the Virgin Islands with costs on
the mainland of the United States. Some of these
are "Shelf Life", "Quality", "Perishability Losses".
If you should check with a local produce handler
who handles both import and local produce, he
will tell you that the losses per case on the im-
ported produce is much greater than the losses
on a case of local produce. The quality of local
produce is much better also. This is because the
imported produce has been brought from long
distances, and the better grades are sold else-
where.
As future farmers, I charge you with the res-
ponsibility of helping to insure a forJd supply, at
all times, on your home island. We must develop
our agriculture programs based on the crops and
enterprises that have proven possible over the
years, or have withstood the test of time. We
cannot risk a food shortage crisis here because
of a transportation cut-off. This is quite possible
at this time. We cannot risk empty shelves at our
supermarkets, because there is no fuel for the
planes or ships that bring the food here. There-
for, let us be sure that we are always producing
some food. We cannot risk a food shortage be-
cause the food is needed by some other country,
and the suppliers prefer not to sell it to us.
Let us also remember that when we produce
and consume food here, the money spent remains
here in our economy. This is not so when most
of the foods purchased and consumed come from
abroad. The money spent for imported food goes
to the country or state from which it was pur-
chased.
I hope that based on some of the points that
I have presented to you, that you will be sti-
mulated to continue your career in the field of
Agriculture.







MARTIN MARIETTA ALUMINA


A COOPERATIVE PARTICIPANT IN
THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE
U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS.
A VIRGIN ISLANDS EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY CORPORATION









AGRICULTURE:


ANOTHER DIMENSION IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS' FUTURE ECONOMY

By CHAD A. WYMER
Director, Investment Incentive Commission


One of the most overlooked and undeveloped
assets of most areas are the natural resources
and raw products of that locale. These can, and
should be, developed and utilized to enhance and
diversify the economy. In my opinion this is the
case in the Virgin Islands with all its agricultural
potential. Although agriculture development and
production doesn't create a great number of job
opportunities, it does, however, create other
"spinoff" benefits. Some of these are:
(1) Jobs created by agriculture support in-
dustry. These would include processing,
transportation and related services.
(2) New business opportunities that are
required to service and supply these
support industries.
(3) In the case of the Virgin Islands we
can produce numerous products for our
local consumption. These products are
presently being imported. By producing
locally we can achieve better quality at
less cost.
(4) Provide new opportunities for those
presently engaged in agriculture as well
as expand the field for others who may
desire to enter into the business of
agriculture.

(5) An overall productive agriculture eco-
nomy will provide an expanded tax base
to our Government which can be used
to provide more and improved services
and facilities for the citizens of the
Virgin Islands.
Before we can realize our expanded agricul-
ture industry we must take two things into con-
sideration:


(1) We have limited land areas available
for agriculture production.


(2) Water is not available in inexpensive
quantities to be used for agriculture
production during dry periods and
droughts.

Because of our limited land areas we should
give a high priority to determining the land areas
which have the best potential for agriculture and
reserve them for that purpose. We should also
give a high priority to the latest technological
advances which could reduce the requirements
on our land for certain types of agricultural pro-
duction. This would in effect increase our land
potential. This should be a part of a land-use
plan which is being developed by the Virgin
Islands Planning Office. This plan should also
classify the areas and their uses. Which would
be the best for grain sorghum production? For
poultry, pork and beef production? For fruits,
vegetables, etc.?
An indepth evaluation of water resources for
agriculture production and processing needs. to
be made. This should cover underground sources
and supply, recycling of waste water, use of cold
deep sea water as well as establishing storage
areas to retain run-off water.
We must seek and apply the latest techno-
logy in all our production and processing so we
can realize the maximum efficiency in land use
and water conservation. One example of this is
the proposed Controlled Environmental Agri-
culture (CEA) Facility by General Electric for St.
Croix.
The process has been in the development
stage several years and has proven to be success-
ful. A facility has been built and is in operation
in Alaska, although operating in a complete dif-
ferent environment than exists here in the Carib-
bean.







Here
(1)


are some of the advantages:
High Production in Any Climate


A) Located near consumer
(B) Eliminate shipping cost and time

(2) Continuous Year Round Production
(A) Reduces storage and processing
(B) Continuous labor force
(C) 100% utilization of facility
(D) Simplifies marketing distribution
(3) Uniform High Quality Produce
(A) Provides garden fresh produce
(B) Has longer shelf life
(4) Favorable Ecological Factors
(A) Minimizes use of insecticides, etc.
(B) Reduces water used by 80%
(C) Locate on wasteland
(D) Requires small land area to
produce V. I. needs
(5) Desirable Rewarding Work
(A) Provide constant year round
employment
(B) Better wages than normal field
wages

This facility can be programmed to produce
all the needs of the Virgin Islands for fresh ve-
getables on a very small plot of land. These in-
clude tomatoes, lettuce, peppers, cucumbers, etc.
Another long range advantage is export potential
for the Virgin Islands.
At the same time we should direct our at-
tention to other consumer products that might
benefit our local residents. For example, the
production of poultry, eggs, meats, etc. Always
keeping in mind our limited land areas might
lead us into confinement feeding techniques. If
confinement feeding is to be successful, we must
produce an adequate supply of grain sorghum, to
meet the needs of our dairy, beef, mutton, pork
and poultry producers. We should give as much
attention to confinement feeding and production
methods for dairy, beef and mutton as it is get-
ting in several areas on the U.S. Mainland. Again,
this type of production is not only more efficient,


but it will relieve land for other priority uses.
Feed, locally produced, becomes the key to suc-
cess of such a project. If we continue to be de-
pendent on the importation of grain, confinement
feeding does not appear to be nearly as econo-
mical.

We know that we can produce grain sorg-
hums on St. Croix. We should work to develop
other types of grain and forage crops that will
supply our needs. The same is true for the pro-
duction of tropical fruits and green plants. These
two areas provide another potential for export:
Papaya, mangos and avocados are all much in
demand and could provide very aood returns. The
same is true for the production of green house-
hold and landscape plants.

One other area, although not directly related
to agriculture that has excellent food production
potential is the mariculture and fishing industry.
These industries would supply our local consump-
tion as well as open another area for export
potential. Over the past few years the Lamont
Doherty Laboratories on St. Croix have shown
that, through the use of deep cold water and its
nutrients, we can produce the highest quality
clams and oysters. Through their research they
have been able to reduce the production time of
these products from three to four years to ten
to thirteen months.

If we take advantage of their research and
development we must develop investment capital
to initially develop the facilities and ultimately
supply the commercial markets around the world.
Although some work has been done with our
local fishing industry, we must expedite our ef-
forts. We should be able to produce enough fish
for our own needs and then investigate the pos-
sibilities of exporting our excess product.
If we want to realize our production potentials
from our land and from the sea, we must be
willing to re-direct some of our energies, efforts
and capital. We must be willing to change our
methods of production and processing and use
the latest technology available to us. We should
consider the formation of a cooperative or coo-







peratives which would organize the producers.
These coops could then conduct and direct pro-
grams that would achieve these aforementioned
goals. I will not, at this time go into the many
valid reasons for the formation of cooperatives.
But, if we want experienced organized production
and marketing methods, returning maximum pro-
fits to our producers, this is the best way to
proceed.
In conclusion, agriculture does have a great
potential in the Virgin Islands, and could become
a new dimension, in diversifying our economy.


It can offer more and better opportunities for
Virgin Islanders, and at the same time make us
less dependent on the importation of a majority
of our fresh foods. This can, and will, happen
only if we are willing to organize and dedicate
ourselves to a common cause. That cause is an
improved economy, life style and future of the
Virgin Islands through Agriculture.








STRATEGY OF FOOD CROP PRODUCTION IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
By DARSHAN S. PADDA, Ph.D.
Research Horticulturist
Agricultural Experiment Station
College of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix


The Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations has estimated that to provide a
decent level of nutrition for the world's popula-
tion the production of food will have to be
doubled by 1980 and tripled by 2000. Will it be
possible to produce enough to support the vast
growing world population? This is a complex
question that involves many issues other than
the volume of food production and the ways in
which food is used.

Granted, industrialization is very important
to provide the conveniences human beings have
become so accustomed to but if the choice
has to be made between conveniences and
necessities undoubtedly the necessities will take
the priorities. Food is a basic necessity for all
living things and Homo sapiens have always
taken keen interest and given top priority to
raising food. There can be no denying the fact
that human beings can survive without these
conveniences and luxuries of life but we all must
eat food regardless what we choose as our oc-
cupation. This point can be best exemplified by
reciting the case of our youngsters who in more
and more numbers are rejecting the modern con-
veniences and luxuries and are associating them-
selves with nature. No youngster has yet
abandoned food because without food there can
be no life.
The food we eat provide the essential
nutrients that can be broadly classified as car-
bohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
Nutrients and energy-rich substances may be
consumed in many forms. Most of us, however,
have a pattern of eating that involves only certain
selected foods. Food consumption patterns are a
result of many factors economic, technological,
geographical and cultural. Our diet is inextricably
bound up in our pattern of living.


The plant sources which are used in the
Virgin Islands to meet the nutritional require-
ments can be categorized as:
(a) Root crops
(b) Grain and edible legumes
(c) Vegetables
(d) Fruits
The production practices for vegetables and
fruits were discussed by the author in the Agri-
culture and Food Fair booklet for 1973 and 1974
respectively. In this article the discussion is
limited to root crops and edible legumes, which
are the main suppliers of carbohydrates and
proteins respectively.

I. ROOT CROPS
The root crops mainly used for food in the
Virgin Islands include sweet potatoes, yams,
dasheen, tannia and cassava. The biological effi-
ciency of these root crops for carbohydrate pro-
duction has been reported to exceed that of
tropical grain crops. The energy value of carbo-
hydrate produced by yam over a nine months
period and cassava over a twelve months period
has been rated at 266 x 10 cals/ha/day and
250 x 10 3 cals/ha/day respectively whereas the
energy value of carbohydrates produced by maize
and rice are reported to be 200 x 10 3 cals/ha/day
and 176 x 10 cals/ha/day respectively.
Dasheen and tannia grow best in moist re-
gions and therefore it will not be economical to
attempt commercial production and compete with
other Caribbean islands where low land bordering
rivers and streams provide more suitable growing
conditions. The consumption of cassava in the
Virgin Islands is not large enough to qualify it as
a staple crop. The remaining two root crops
namely sweet potato and yam are used exten-
sively. Their cultural requirements are not very
demanding and therefore, these crops offer a good
potential for commercial production.






Sweet potato and yams have similar cultural
requirements. They are highly nutritious food,
their water requirements are moderate, and they
are seldom seriously damaged by pests and
diseases. They can be grown on a variety of soils
with good aeration. It is recommended that these
crops be planted on ridges. In the case of sweet
potato, seed pieces should be entire small tubers
or cross section of cylindrical roots. Seed pieces
from the crown of a plant or upper part of the
plant are most satisfactory. Tip cuttings from
mature vines about 12 and 18 inches long can also
be used for propagation. A plant spacing of 3 feet
between ridges and 2 feet between plants is
sufficient for proper plant development. For
varietal recommendation it is important to consult
with agriculture officials as new varieties are
constantly being developed and tested. Puerto
Rican and West Indian varieties have better
chances of success as they are adapted to this
region.
In the planting of yam, whole tubers are
used. At time of harvest small tubers can be
picked up for use as seed. However, research in
the West Indies has clearly shown that the yield
of yam is closely related to the size of the seed
tuber. As a practical guide, seed tubers of 50 to
75 grams are best. Yields of 25 to 45 metric tons
are obtained depending upon the production in-
puts. Maximum yields at the Federal Experiment
Station, Mayaguez, P. R.; of 55 metric tons per
hectare were obtained with seed yams of 135
grams planted in hills spaced at 2 feet x 2 feet.

II. EDIBLE LEGUMES
Edible legumes are very valuable source of
vegetable protein. The plants of legumes are
also useful as rotation crops since they enrich
the soil with nitrogen. The crops following the
legumes will need lesser quantities of nitro-
genous fertilizers for their growth.

The grain legumes most commonly used in
the Virgin Islands include kidney beans (red
peas), cowpeas (blackeye peas), lima beans and
pigeon peas. The cultural requirements and pro-
duction practices for all these crops are the
same except the pigeon pea which is a perennial
shrub and can grow to a height of 10 or 12 feet.
When beans and peas are grown in a new
location, inoculation of the seed with cultures of
nitrogen-fixing bacteria may promote better
growth. Nitrogen fixing bacteria inoculant is


available under the commercial name of legume-
aid from seed companies. It can also be pur-
chased from the producer (Agricultural Laborato-
ries, Inc. 1145 Chesapeake Avenue, Columbus,
Ohio). Once used, the inoculant will remain alive
in the soil for many years. Bush and pole varieties
are available for kidney beans, lima beans and
cowpeas. Blackeye variety of cow peas, Bountiful
and Contender varieties of bush snap beans,
Kentucky Wonder variety of pole snap beans, Red
Kidney variety of dry beans, and Fordbook variety
of bush lima are some of the varieties recom-
mended to be planted in our area. Bean and cow-
pea seeds should be planted in rows 3 feet apart.
Spacing between plants may be kept at 3-6 inches
for bush varieties and 12-18 inches for pole va-
rieties.
At the V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station,
we are researching soybeans and mung beans
for use as vegetables. Two varieties of soybeans
under test can be used as green shelled beans.
When fully matured, the dried beans are round,
yellow and may be cooked as one would lima
beans. The mung bean seeds are used in soups
and can be cooked like red peas. In our field
plots, six different kinds of edible legumes are
being tested for climatic adaptation, earliness,
yield, and relative protein production efficiency.
When the field tests are completed the seeds
will be harvested and delivered to the Home
Economist of the V.I. Extension Service for
evaluating cooking characteristics and consumer
acceptance.
In our research on pigeon peas, we are
looking for high yielding dwarf varieties. Six
dwarf varieties growing in our test plots have
been introduced from the International Institute
of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. Although
these varieties look promising at this time, it
is too early to make statements regarding their
suitability for our islands.

HARD CHOICES TO BE MADE
Food supplies are getting scarce all over the
world. This situation is forcing communities to
make critical choices of the direction in which
to go. The choice is of the degree to which our
islands should be involved in agriculture. This
decision will require weighing of the opportunities
and limitations. The limitations include uncer-
tainties imposed by climate, the overall water
shortage, unavailability of farm labor, and pro-
blems of mechanization imposed by small size






and distance from the mainland. Under these
conditions, efforts to develop the Virgin Islands
economy soley on agriculture will be completely
unrealistic.
However, there are some basically favorable
factors that offer encouragement for crop farm-
ing for food production. The strongest point in
favor of food production is that it offers a diver-
sification and broader base to our economy. Total
dependence on tourist industry is parrellel to
keeping all the eggs in one basket. We have seen
the effect of already dwindling tourist industry
and construction programs Agriculture offers the
most stable base for economy. In these days of
skyhigh food prices and inflation, there is a con-
tinuing need for substantial production of local
foods to supplement incomes of the native
population and improve their diets through con-
sumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. We
should develop and whole heartedly support the
tourist industry, but should never forget that


economic recessions of varying durations are very
real. In such periods, food growing could provide
a livelyhood for a substantial share of the Virgin
Islands population. There is great justifications
for strong efforts even at significant government
expense, to keep a domestic food production
program going. Local food production offers our
population cheaper and better quality food, pro-
vides employment for our youngsters and give
us protection against emergencies of food sup-
ply cuts from outside.
The question then arises, what crops should
we promote for production under our limited soil
and climatic conditions. Keeping in view the food
preferences and availability of crop production
inputs, the following crops are recommended:
Root crops; sweet potato and yam; edible le-
gumes, beans and pigeon peas; vegetables, to-
matoes, okra, cucumber and onion; fruits, mango,
papaya and pineapple.


LOCALLY PRODUCED FOOD CROPS DISPLAYED AT 1974 AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR.







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SOLITUDE FARMS OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS.

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FUTURE OUTLOOK FOR ANIMAL FOOD SOURCES

IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
By FENTON B. SANDS, Ph.D.
Director of V.I. Extension Service and
V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station
College of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix.


One of the most picturesque scenes to be
observed on the Virgin Islands is one where our
livestock of all types are found roaming and
grazing in a lush, green field or pasture. Every
citizen, non-citizen, tourist and others appreciate
this scene. Aside from being picturesque, dairy
and beef animals, sheep and goats, swine and
poultry, play an important part in our economy
and way of life. Our livestock industry provides
us and, others in the Caribbean area (through
our exports of live animals), for breeding pur-
poses, with nutritious and reasonably priced
protein. It also helps to provide a source of in-
come to those who own livestock.
With our rising population and income, there
will continue to be a large potential market for
livestock products. Should our tourist trade in-
crease, this market could be developed especially
for fresh eggs.
Meat, be it of any kind, is usually the main
portion of any meal. Nutritionally, meat and dairy
products supply most of our protein require-
ments, approximately 50% of our fat intake, and
furnishes a fair amount of our vitamins and es-
sential minerals, particularly calcium and phos-
phorous. Milk alone Is considered the most per-
fect of all foods. In addition to its nutritional
value, meat has a delectable taste and for that
reason alone it is prized.
Unfortunately, over the years, livestock pro-
duction on the Virgin Islands has been on the
decline as has some other components of the
agricultural sector. One exception to the general
decline in agriculture production in the Virgin
Islands has been the production of fluid milk. For
example, milk production in 1964 was 1.4 million
quarts./1 In 1970, it was approximately 3.1 million


quarts, which represents a 120% increase. A
recent economic study/2 has shown that dairy
farming on St. Croix under normal conditions, is
a viable enterprise. This has been possible be-
cause fluid milk does have a competitive ad-
vantage over milk from other areas, because of
weight, perishability and distance from other
dairy-producing centers. This is true only if there
is no dumping of milk from areas of surplus on
the mainland.

The viability of the dairy industry exists also
and perhaps more importantly, because the dairy-
men in the Virgin Islands are an ingenious,
efficient, resilient and hard working group. They
have used their capital and know how wisely.
We have some of the best cattle to be found in
the Caribbean region and one of the most modern
milking parlors. In spite of this, dairymen, like
the other livestock producers, suffer from high
production costs and the vagaries of the weather.

For the dairy industry, prices of feed and
milk were found in the afore mentioned study
to be the prime factors affecting returns and
profits. It was pointed out also that there were
significant benefit received in moving from the
50-cow operation to the 75-cow herd.

The extent of our beef industry has been
estimated to number 5,000 head of cattle on 64
farms, grazing approximately 7,000 to 8,000 acres
of improved pasture land. When this sector of
the agricultural industry was examined by using
two "benchmark" cow-calf ranches, neither one
was found to be producing enough income to
meet its full production costs as well as land
costs./3 One ranch was evaluated on the basis
of present production practices of grass fattening.


/1. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Agriculture, 1969 Vol. Area Repts. Part 53. Virgin Islands.
/2. Profitability of Dairy Farming in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands V.L. A.E.S. Rept. No. 4, 1974.
/3. Profitability of Beef Production in the U. S. Virgin Islands, V. I. Agricultural Experiment Station report
No. 3, 1974.






The other ranch was evaluated considering the
possibility of producing and using sorghum silage
as a supplemental feed. The beef industry, ac-
cording to the beef study, in effect is operating
largely as a land holding strategy "to reduce the
holding cost of land pending its conversion to
higher economic use"./3 Be this as it may, the
local beef provides a source of reasonably priced
beef for segments of our population, being
cheaper than the imported beef. It is believed
that'beef production could be increased by use
of sorghum silage, improved pasture grasses and
brush control; all conducted by the Agricultural
Experiment Station of which will be part of the
research program.
Unlike the large animals, poultry and the
other small animals, hogs, sheep and goats, are
livestock that lend themselves to a family unit
in which all members can play a part. In the
Virgin Islands the demand for fresh eggs is very
high but the major problem facing the industry
is high feed costs. It is believed that, since fresh
egg prices are relatively high and do not fluc-
tuate a sthey do' on the mainland (being set by
the local producers), it is possible to maintain
viable poultry operations by efficient producers.
Fortunately, the industry is not plagued by disease
problems. Indications are that cages for large
flocks would be preferable to range flocks./4
The future for the hog industry is question-
able. This is largely because of high imported
feed costs and management practices. Slow gains
and high death rates are also limiting factors.
At present production units are herds consisting
of 9 to 10 sows being operated on a part-time
basis. More than 50% of the producers have used
garbage to reduce feed costs and this has enabled
them to remain in business. The demand here,
unlike many other areas, is greatest for roasting
pigs with a weight of 40 to 60 pounds. The inter-
mediate demand is for pigs up to 125 pounds
with a very small market for those over this
weight./5
Goats and sheep are hardy, and efficient
grazers that tend to stand up well under the
conditions on the island. With the relatively low


/3. Profitability of Beef Production in the U.S. Virgin
No. 3, 1974.


rental rate for grazing land, goats and sheep can
be a profitable, supplemental family enterprise.
Moreover, there is a great demand for the local
goat meat and mutton. This demand is not being
met to any great extent from other sources and
taste preferences seem to be for the local pro-
duce.
On the matter of returns, the study on goats
and sheep, "Potential Returns From Small Goat
and Sheep Enterprises in the U.S. Virgin Islands",
Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station
Report #7, 1974, indicated that returns to family
labor would of course depend upon the efficiency
of family labor. However, should the family be
able to run a 20-acre goat operation using 2 hours
labor a day, the hourly return would be $2.01
per hour. For the same size sheep operation it
would be less, around $1.55 per hour. This dif-
ference is attributed to a lower lambing percent-
age (300 percent compared to 350 percent). For
the smaller operation of 5 acres, the returns
would be expected to amount to $1.61 and $1.42
per hour for goats and sheep respectively. While
these rates may seem to be low, they would be
comparatively favorable when one considers wage
rates that one would normally be able to find for
family members.
For all classes of livestock, dairy, beef,
poultry and swine, our studies have shown that
the single common factor preventing each one of
these enterprises from becoming profitable or,
more economical in the case of dairy animals, is
a cheap, nutritious feed. With this in mind, our
station has just started a strong program to
tackle this problem. Full time scientists are
testing sorghum, millet and other animal feed
crop varieties for their suitability in three dif-
ferent ecological zones on the island. This in-
vestigations will cover such cultural practices as
fertilizer rates, pest and weed control and other
measures to maximize yields.
Some strains of sorghums that are now
being tested have a nutritional value almost
three times as great as the present traditional
varieties now being used in the Virgin Islands
and on the mainland as well. These special


Islands, V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station report


/4. Profitability of Poultry Production in the U.S. Virgin Islands, V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station Rept.
No. 5, 1974.
/5. Profitability of Hog Production in the U.S. Virgin Islands, V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station Rept. No.
6, 1974.





strains were originally obtained from Ethiopia on the industry and are the best way at this time
and were developed by the state research station that the research station can backstop the live-
at Purdue. Since we are a land grant station with stock industry.
world-wide contacts, we can very easily bring A r r rr
into our program the latest in scientific informa- nthe citing factor for
tion and plant material, in the livestock fields is managerial expertise,
tion and plant material.
particularly for poultry and the small animals. To
Also started are trials to determine the most improve their ability the Virgin Islands Exten-
adaptable, high yielding pasture and forage sion Service intends to develop a training and
grasses for all classes of livestock. It is believed educational program in this area this coming
that these two programs will have a great impact fiscal year.



MANY THANKS TO

THE DEPARTMENT OF

AGRICULTURE





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WHY THE STREAMS DON'T RUN ANYMORE

By BENT LAWAETZ
Director, Soil and Water Conservation Service
V. I. Department of Agriculture


Many years ago St. Croix had several run-
ning streams, some of which ran so constantly
they could almost be classified as perennial
streams. In those streams you could catch eels,
three types of cray fish (bongo, gut lobster and
cribishe), gut crab, mountain mullet and gobie.
Today there is probably not a single school child
that can tell you the difference between a gut
lobster and a cribishe. For several years now
the streams have been dry, and it is only very
rarely that you can find any life in them.
What has happened? Why don't the streams
run anymore? Will the streams ever run again?
There are at least five factors which affect the
streams ,and these have to be explored in order
to answer the above questions. The factors are
as follows:

1. Rainfall The most obvious factor in the
drying up of the streams has been the de-
cline in rainfall. This has been so bad in
recent years that in 1974 the Virgin Islands
was declared a drought disaster area. Figure
I shows the deviation from normal rainfall
which St. Croix has experienced during the
past hundred and twenty years. As can be
seen on the graph, the line has dropped a
total of 96 inches during the past 17 years.
This means that if we had received "normal"
rainfall during the past 17 years we would
have had 96 inches more rain than what ac-
tually fell. This has been the dominant factor
in the drying up of the streams.
It is interesting to note that from 1870
to 1876 the island also experienced a severe
dry spell, but no one is alive today to tell us
'* Ih the streams were also dry then, which
ti',y probably were. In his report of 1778
concerning Frederiksted. Frederik Oxholm
wrote that: "At all houses are big wooden
casks to catch the water, but this will not be
sufficient during long dry periods as the pre-
sent one, when all the inhabitants are sick
and miserable."
From 1876 to 1916 the island received 134
inches of above average rainfall. This sub-


stantiates the stories of the "oldtimers" when
they talk about how much water there used
to be on St. Croix.
The 1900's show a combination of dry
periods and wet periods. I learned about the
inhabitants of the streams when the streams
were running fairly regularly during the late
1940's and early 1950's. The graph indicates
no regularity in the duration of the wet and
dry periods. The farmer can only plant his
fields and pray that the rains will come.
2. Soil Condition During most of St. Croix's
history the land was extensively cultivated.
Cultivation breaks up the surface of the soil
and presents a more porous surface which
permits water to percolate down into the
water table, more correctly referred to as the
aquifer. This underground water reservoir is
what supplies wells with water and also the
streams during the periods between rainfalls.
As cultivation decreased in St. Croix,
more and more land developed a smooth hard
surface, causing a larger percentage of sur-
face run-off and less percolation down to the
aquifer. The recent trend of cultivating more
land for sorghum production will tend to in-
cre e the water percolation.
3. Vegetation Vegetables and grasses, in-
cluding sorghum and sugar cane, yield more
rain water to the aquifer than bush and
forests. Two possible reasons for this are:
first, bush and forests retain more water in
their foliage than do the grasses. The water
thus retained rapidly evaporates as soon as
it stops raining. Second, the deeper roots of
bush and forest trees enable them to dry out
the soil, and by acting as wind breakers,
periods. This deep dry layer of soil requires
large amounts of water to saturate it before
any excess water can pass on down to the
aquifer.
It is true that trees shade the ground,
thereby reducing the surface temperature of
the soil, and by acting as wind breakers,
they reduce the drying effect of wind on the







soil surface, but these factors are probably
more than offset by the above mentioned two.
It is much more common to find water in a
pond which has a grass covered watershed
than it is to find water in a pond which has
a watershed covered with bush and trees.

4. Wells Each year more wells are dug on
St. Croix. These wells draw water from the
same aquifers that feed nearby streams. The
effect of wells on streams varies considerably
to the geology of the area, the size of the
aquifer, the amount of water pumped out of
the wells and the proximity of the wells to
a given stream. In general terms, however, it
can be stated that the increase in the amount
of water pumped from wells has resulted in
a decrease in the amount of water available
to streams.

5. Recharge Area The quantity of water ab-
sorbed by the soil and passed down to the
aquifer is influenced by the amount of soil




100


90"



1 60'


40
S40"


Z 20

t
/ ASSUMED N



20'


40"


60"


surface area exposed to rainfall. Every time
a parking lot, road or building is put on the
land, the surface area available for absorbing
rainfall is decreased. These paved and con-
creted areas decrease water loss by evapora-
tion, but this does not compensate for the
decrease in water entering the soil. Further-
more, water collected from parking lots and
roads is normally channeled in a manner de-
signed to eject it into the sea as rapidly as
possible. It need hardly be mentioned that in
recent years the amount of land covered by
asphalt or concrete has greatly increased.

The increased use of wells and the co-
vering of land with asphalt or concrete will
continue, but with the increasing cost of food,
it is likely that more land will be put back
into cultivation or pasture. Most important,
we may soon enter a new rainy period. Per-
haps next year the streams will start running
again.


1852 1862 1872 1882 1892 1902 1912 1922 1932
FIGURE I. RAINFALL VARIATION FOR ST. CROIX DURING LAST 120 YEARS.


1942 1952 1962 1976








UTILIZATION OF WASTEWATER FOR BENEFICIAL PURPOSES
By KRISEN BUROS, Project Engineer
St. Croix Wastewater Reclamation Project


Although the thought of trying to use waste-
water (sewage) for something beneficial probably
evokes rather negative feelings in many people,
it is one of the most current topics in the field of
water resources on the mainland. A lot of time
and money is being spent on projects and re-
search into this new field.
As we all know, fresh water on this island
is a scarce and precious commodity forcing each
of us to think before we expend it. However,
contrary to the thinking of many people, water
does not just disappear after you use it and
watch it go down the drain. Although it goes out
of sight it does go somewhere. This somewhere
is into St. Croix's wastewater collection system.
This system along with a treatment facility has
been undergoing a massive expansion and re-
modernization during the past 5 years. Presently
much of the south coastal plain from Strawberry
Hill west to, and including, Fredricksted is hooked
up to sewers which direct the wastewater to a
modern primary sewage treatment plant located
on the south coast adjacent to the abbatoir. Here
the wastewater is processed to remove solid mat-
ter and then is discharged to the ocean via a
long ocean outfall.
This is fine from a strictly pollution stand-
point but it does mean that water which is pro-
duced and sold at a very high cost in money and
energy is used once and then, in effect, thrown
away without any further benefit to the com-
munity. This discharge through the plant now
amounts to about 750,000 gallons per day and
can be expected to climb to about 21/2 million
gallons per day within two years.
This problem was forseen over 5 years ago
by the Territory's Division of Environmental
Health. At that time plans were begun for a
scheme to reclaim and reuse some of this other-
wise wasted water. The result of these plans
is the St. Croix Wastewater Reclamation Project
which is currently in operation adjacent to the
Alexander Hamilton Airport.
The project consists of an advanced waste-
water treatment plant which can reclaim up to
1/2 million gallons of wastewater per day. The


AN AERIAL VIEW OF THE ADVANCED WASTE WATER
TREATMENT PLANT.
product of this reclamation plant is a clear, odor
free, thoroughly disinfected water from which
the dissolved and colloidal organic material has
been removed.
This reclaimed water can then be used for
a variety of beneficial purposes. One of its main
uses is for the artificial recharge of ground
water. For this, the water is placed in leaky bot-
tomed ponds located in Estates Golden Grove
and Negro Bay where it enters the soil, is further
purified, and percolates slowly down to the water
table. It supplements the ground water and aids
in preventing salt water intrusion which has
damaged many wells on St. Croix.
Another key use for the reclaimed water is in
agriculture. Reclaimed water costs a fraction of
that available via the Government's potable water
system. It can be used for irrigation of crops and
other agricultural purposes. Last Spring, during
the worst of the drought, this water was used at
the reclamation plant to irrigate vegetables such
as swiss chard, collards, peppers, cabbage and
tomatoes all of which grew quite nicely. At the
same time it was utilized to grow guinea and
bermudagrass which could be used as forage
crops for animals.







This use is being further developed by the
V.I. Extension Service at the College of the Virgin
Islands campus at Golden Grove. There they are
installing a line to deliver the reclaimed water
to their experimental station so as to conduct
research into the most suitable methods for
irrigation on the island.
In the private sector, the Grapetree Bay
Hotel, the Beach Hotel, the East End Gardens
and the West Indies Laboratory all utilize re-
claimed water for either watering their grounds,
flushing or both.
By adjusting the treatment of the wastewater
at the reclamation plant, water can be produced
with a high level of dissolved phosphorus and
nitrogen which are 2 of the 3 basic nutrients used
in commercial fertilizers. This means we can
irrigate and apply these fertilizers in one step
and save the trouble and expense of importing
those nutrients to the island. Any of this irriga-
tion water not utilized by the plants or lost
through evaporation will continue through the
soil to augment the ground water, thus giving a
double benefit.


Another use of
being exploited. This
fish and shellfish.


this nutrient rich water is
is its utilization for raising
The V.I. Agricultural Ex-


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___________________________ ~I'CLAMICMMTI


periment Station and the Columbia University's
Lamont Doherty Geological Laboratory (located
at Estate Rust-op-twist) are working on projects
to use the nutrients to grow algae which are fed
to fish, such as Tilapia aurea, or shellfish. The
shellfish in the initial experiments will be clams
which, when raised, can be shucked and ground
for cattle feed to provide a protein supplement
for animals.
In another agricultural endeavor, the V.I.
Department of Agriculture is constructing a filler
station at the reclamation plant to enable trucks
to be loaded with reclaimed water for dis-
tribution to agricultural enterprises in times of
drought.
On the non-agricultural scene reclaimed
water could be used for car washing, laundries,
flushing, cooling and many other uses which re-
quire large quantities of inexpensive non-potable
water. This will release more of the higher
quality water for use by domestic consumers.
Thus we can see a large variety of beneficial
uses for the community of wastewater which
would otherwise be lost to us. Clearly, water is
too precious a resource on St. Croix to be used
only once and then thrown away.


0&


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OF


P & P AUTO PARTS


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NO. 39 SUNNY ISLES


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CHRISTIANSTED, ST. CROIX, V.I. 00820

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REASONABLE PRICE."


% 111 % 111 1 0 1 1 I I I I I I I


9


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CoU


rtesy


of


We are proud to be an active growing
citizen of the Community working
daily for Better living of the Virgin
Islanders through agriculture,
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~(*~MMMM ----~--------~ f


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ARTIFICIAL REEFS IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
By ARTHUR E. DAMMANN, Ph.D.
Department of Conservation and Cultural Affairs
Division of Natural Resources Management
Bureau of Fish and Wildlife


Artificial reefs are being constructed in both
the marine and freshwater environments at an
accelerating pace around the world. When cons-
tructed in fresh water they are usually termed
"Fish Attractors" and this points up just one of
the unsolved questions regarding such structures.
What do they really do?

While millions of dollars are spent annually
on such structures, biologists do not agree upon
their relationship to fish and fisheries. The re-
lationship of the reefs placed by oyster farmers/
fishermen to the settling and growth of oyster
spat seems fairly straight forward. However, with
"fin fish" and some other "shellfish" such as
lobsters, the picture is not clear whether the reefs
actually produce more fish or only concentrate
and redistribute those already in existence.

Other questions also arise regarding such
things as the effects of certain reef building
materials on the aquatic environment, the dura-
bility and suitability of various materials, the best
reef sizes and the best configuration of materials,
proper anchoring methods to prevent drifting and
burial by sand and a number of other biological
and engineering details.

For these reasons, and others, reefs which
are constructed by federally funded agencies re-
quire detailed research and monitoring programs
to go along with them. This research and mon-
itoring starts with the choosing of a site and
continues through the biological growth of the
reef, and often the effect on fishing and the utili-
zation by fishermen. Most "fin fish" reefs are
built by and for sport fishermen since the areas
involved are usually not large enough to have a
significant effect on a commercial fishery.
All the previously mentioned factors apply to
the two marine reefs and the two fresh water
reefs currently being constructed under the
guidance of the Bureau of Fish and Wildlife of
the Department of Conservation and Cultural Af-
fairs in the Virgin Islands.


One of the marine reefs is being placed near
Frederiksted, St. Croix and the other in Pillsbury
Sound between St. Thomas and St. John. One of
the principle reasons for choosing these sites
was to put the reefs safely within reach of small
boats for the maximum number of days each
year.
Two fresh water "fish attractors" have been
constructed in a pond at Lower Love on St. Croix.
This pond is being stocked and managed as a
fresh water sport fishing pond by the Bureau of
Fish and Wildlife in cooperation with the Virgin
Islands Department of Agriculture.
Both the marine and fresh water reefs are
being built primarily with specially processed
junk automobile tires. The marine reefs will also
incorporate heavy construction material such as
concrete and heavy cast machinery. It has been
determined by many studies in many areas of
the world that junk automobiles are one of the
most expensive materials to place on a reef and
at the same time one of the least durable in salt
water.
As an indication of reef-building costs the
following figures are available for 1972-1973. In-
flation since then has certainly increased the
cost.


One junk automobile on
the reef
One junk automobile tire
on the reef


$100.00 $150.00.







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FREDERIKSTED, ST. CROIX
UNITED STATES, VIRGIN ISLANDS 00840
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POSSIBILITIES FOR FRESH WATER FISH CULTURE

IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
By DONATUS ST. AIMEE
Agricultural Experiment Station
College of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix


The tropical waters surrounding our islands
- are not very abundant in fish and commercial
marine fishing is of necessity a costly and un-
guaranteed enterprise. There has been very little
change of technique in our fishing over the years
in the Caribbean area and luck and chance seem
to be the rule or pattern with our fishermen.
Economically sound marine fish cultivating
is still a long way to becoming established, for
many reasons some obvious others not so obvious
to the layman. We have no lakes, rivers or major
streams to boast of and our rainfall, which can be
very deceiving to the tourist, does not afford as
with that constant and consistent supply of fresh
water for harness, use and abuse. Our growing
population demands that adequate water be sup-
plied for domestic use. By the just one shot use,
that water results in a waste of a commodity that
is already in short supply. As the population grows
so also is the demand for protein and other es-
sential nutrients. Poor marine fish catch and a
limited vegetable protein source leave us with
little chance but to find another means of pro-
viding the population with a cheap source of
animal protein.
The increasing number of desalination plants
in the area provide one source of water, but
operation cost is high and therefore it is not
profitable to use such water directly for fish cul-
tivating. The answer therefore seems to be in
making maximum and efficient use of water, and
the sewer treatment plants provide us with a
way of reusing water for fresh water fish cul-
tivating. Current research at the V.I. Agricultural
Experiment Station of the College of the Virgin
Islands is looking into the use of this effluent
water for fish cultivating vis-a-vis the develop-


ment of a cheap source of locally grown or avail-
able feedstuff for the fish, that would compete
favorably with feeds used in the mainland U.S.
Although definite results are not yet available,
a small farm fish project can go like this:
1. A pond of approximately 1/4 acre can be
constructed and filled with water in the
rainy season. This pond can be stocked
with Tilapia spp. of approximately 2-3 inch
long in a 5:1 ratio of females to males.
Care should be taken not to over stock
as Tilapia is a prolific breader; 20-25 fish
is a good stocking rate for 1/4 acre ponds.
With a dose of fertilizer (6-6-6 or 8-8-0)
after stocking, with heavy feeding of ap-
proximately 5% of body weight daily, the
fish should be of market size 4-6 months
after, weighing approximately 1/4 1/2 lb.
2. During the dry season the pond could be
filled with effluent water and restocked,
but this time the fish should be grown
in cages made of wire. This will allow
pumping water out of the pond for irriga-
tion purposes if necessary with no danger
of destroying the fish. A well on the farm
would be an advantage and would provide
more water for production of both fish
and other foods.
Research in other parts of the world have
shown that Tilapia spp. will eat almost anything
from grass to table left overs and the fish is
very hardy, being able to withstand little or no
care whatsoever. Diseases have not been reported
to be a problem, and we do not anticipate any
problem in that line even with the use of effluent
water.
Fresh water fish cultivating in the Virgin
Islands then would accomplish two things.






1. Provide some animal protein for the
population.
2. Allow for increased use of water, and
therefore reduce the production cost.
As opposed to marine fishing such a program
will lend itself well to calculations and manipula-
tions to provide the amount of fish needed and


when desired. Like crop production, both the
quality can be manipulated and regulated to in-
crease efficiency of the product.

The sea will always be our main source of
fish supply but like every thing else it should be
supplemented if it is to last, and fresh water fish
cultivating appears to be that supplement.


Woohlworelk


Christiansted, St. Croix 773-4466
One Stop Shopping for All Island Needs
Sporting Goods Cigarettes and Liquor
Cameras and Accessories Imported and local Perfumes

Developing Equipment and Film Processing
Souvenirs
Stay awhile and enjoy our Restaurant
SUNNY ISLE SHOPPING CENTER


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THE ST. GEORGE VILLAGE

BOTANICAL GARDEN OF ST. CROIX
By VERA KESLER and BEN KESLER

The St. George Village Botanical Garden of St. Croix is being
developed around the ruins of a sugar cane village the only
botanical garden in the world built around a complete village. With
the advantage of this unique situation, the aim is to make this
Botanical Garden the most outstanding in the Caribbean.
On one of the main buildings now standing is the date, 1830.
At this time --144 years ago- St. George's Village was head-
quarters for a number of sugar cane estates. Families who lived
there were in one way or other active in the process of manufac-
turing sugar cane into marketable sugar and rum. Skills ranged
from blacksmithing, barrel making and carpentry to over-seeing the
process of converting sugar cane into sugar and rum for export to
Denmark the Mother Country. (The United States bought the
Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917).


The present ruins add to the history. Heavy
stone walls -though crumbling- having with-
stood the 1916 hurricane and other erosion clear-
ly mark the blacksmith shop, baking oven, corral,
bull pen, lime kiln, sugar and rum factory, and
homes of the villagers. The walls of family
homes are largely intact. The lime kiln is well
preserved. In this kiln coral and shells from the
sea were burned into powder and then mixed
with sand and molasses to form cement for cons-
tructing homes and factories. The late Robert W.
Moon and Mrs. Moon of the Lakeside Manufac-
turing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, recent
owners of this Garden area, donated to the
people of St. Croix a total of thirteen and one-
half acres.
The Garden area so generously given by
Mr. and Mrs. Moon is beautifully wooded and
has deep, rich soil. A number of trees and shrubs
frequently found in established botanical gardens
have been carefully identified and protected when
the bulldozer cleared off the brush. The area
contains sufficient buildings, ruins and a small
cemetery to show how people lived, worked and
were buried in the 19th century. The Botanical
Garden membership is charged with the respon-
sibility of creating a first class botanical garden
and restoring the buildings and cemetery. During
the past year work at the Botanical Garden has
been expended in clearing away the wrecks, trash,
brush and vines and in picking up stones so that
mowers can keep the reclaimed areas under con-


trol. To tackle the job Saturday morning work ses-
sions were organized. Visitors stopping by saw
juniors and adults alike perspiring in their work
of clearing the area. They ripped away unsalva-
gable roofs and walls, whitewashed and patched
usable buildings. However, these Saturday mor-
ning sessions are not all perspiration and work.
They end with a social picnic of hot dogs and
cold drinks.
During one of the Saturday morning clean-
up sessions one of the Junior members, Elaine
Hare, found the metal handle of a sword with
the markings of a cross and the word, "St.
George", and the date, "1830". Through doing a
bit of research, it was learned that this artifact
is the handle of a sword worn by the Calvary
Division of the Royal Danish Militia. An artist's
drawing of this sword handle has become the
symbol of the St. George Village Botanical Gar-
den. Many hoes, hinges, horseshoes and other
hand-forged fragments of tools and hardware have
also been unearthed, adding to the picture of
life in a 19th century sugar cane economy.
With the area finally cleared, the most
pressing problem facing the Botanical Garden is
a dependable source of water. Several approaches
to the water problem have been or are being
explored. A St. Croix divining rod enthusiast
brought special divining branches from the States.
Followed by several other Garden members she
walked throughout the area holding the branches
loosely in her hands. Though this ardent 'diviner"







has discovered fresh water sources by this me-
thod in the past, in this examination the twigs
resolutely pointed to the sky. At no time would
they point down to the ground. As it developed,
the diviner and several engineers, who profess
a more "scientific" approach, agree that the Bo-
tanical Garden cannot depend on a well for its
water supply.
Knowledgable Cruzan citizens have warned
that during heavy rains and flash floods the gut,
which borders the property, would flood out the
Garden and rush on to Centerline destroying
a part of the road. A Government engineer saw
immediately that digging a big catchment at the
end of the gut, with an overflow outlet under the
Garden entrance, would provide supplemental
water for plantings, and at the same time prevent
flooding. Following this expert's advice earth has
recently been excavated at the Garden entrance
on the lower end of the gut thereby solving
the flooding problem. However, it has been found
that the catchment must be lined with plastic
in order for it to become a reservoir for watering
plants. A donor willing to provide such a liner
is now being solicited.
It was agreed that a cistern offered one
solution for needed water, and the architect
quickly incorporated a cistern in his overall plans.
The bottom and walls of a 60,000 gallon cistern
have been poured. The cistern provides the
foundation for "The Great Hall". Perhaps this is
a misnomer as The Great Hall will measure only
36 feet by 36 feet.
The architect's design for The Great Hall,
emphasizing Danish architecture of 1830, and two
adjacent standing buildings combine into a single
functional unit forming the administrative center
for the Botanical Garden. This enclave of buildings
relates to St. Croix's great cultural background
and reflects the dignity of the past. The Great
Hall and adjacent building being restored will
have gutters emptying into the cistern. In ad-
dition to providing a vital cistern The Great Hall
is designed to serve many purposes. It will be
used by the Botanical Garden for its meetings
and will be made available to other community
groups. Luncheons and dinners can be prepared
in a donated fully equipped kitchen. Educational
workshops, plant and flower exhibits can be easily
accommodated. A museum, library, offices, gift
shop and store rooms will be located in The Great
Hall complex and restored buildings. The infra-


structure to support a botanical garden water
supply, roads, parking areas, walkways, offices,
etc. is in the process of development. A land-
scaping and planting plan has been designed.
Scores of plants in containers are being tended
by members waiting to be transplanted in the
Garden when there is a water supply.
The Botanical Garden needs the support of
the community and welcomes memberships and
donations of services, materials and funds. An-
nual memberships (February 1st to February 1st)
are $10 for Adults, $2 for Juniors under 18 years;
Organizations $100; and Life Membership $1,000
Monthly meetings are held at the Botanical Gar-
den each 4th Saturday beginning at 9:00 A.M.
On other Saturdays from 9:00 A.M. to 1:00 P.M.
work sessions are in progress with a Garden
official on duty to give guided tours and informa-
tion about the Garden. Members and visitors are
most welcome and are invited to join the Satur-
day morning activities at the Botanical Garden.
In the "Far Off Tomorrow" say 100 years
from now, it is the hope that the St. George
Village Botanical Garden will offer a tranquil and
beautifully flourishing tropical garden featuring
the major trees, shrubs and flowers native to the
Caribbean. Virgin Islanders and visitors from all
over the world 100 years from now, while
wandering along the blossom bordered paths
among restored ruins will have a glimpse of St.
Croix history and culture in the sugar cane days
of the 1830s while enjoying the results of the
work of the Botanical Garden activists of the
1970s.


SATURDAY MORNING WORK SESSION.



























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La Grand Princesse
773-0787
Open Monday thru Friday 8 A.M. to 5 P.M.
Saturday 8 A.M. to Noon


CHARGE
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HE R E F l








TREES IN THE FUTURE OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
By FRANK H. WADSWORTH
Director, Institute of Tropical Forestry
U. S. Forest Service, Rio Piedras, P. R.


The rapid rise in the value of land has
brought to the Virgin Islands new opportunities
for development. Lands which until recently could
economically be used only for pasture or even
brush are suddenly attractive for golf courses,
resorts, industries, commercial centers, or re-
sidential subdivisions. Current land use planning
for the islands assigns or authorizes (with certain
restrictions) such developments almost every-
where.
The new-found land values in the Virgin Is-
lands are to a degree purely a result of location,
the favorable climate, and the resultant rapidly
growing community. The values assigned most of
these lands, however, count heavily upon the
assumption that the Virgin Islands will remain a
place of scenery and of greenery.
The continuing development of the Virgin
Islands is possible without impairment to either
the scenery or the greenery, but not if we take
it for granted. The Virgin Islands are fortunate
that despite dry periods exposed land surfaces
rapidly cover with vegetation, and trees can grow


almost everywhere. This has made possible
developments on each of the islands, where the
works of man blend appropriately subordinate to
those of nature. Nevertheless, economic con-
siderations tempt developers to construct to ever-
greater densities and heights, a practice which
turns the island's soft green surface to sharply
contrasting hard lines of concrete and asphalt.
Greater intensity of land use and more in-
frastructure in the Virgin Islands can be predicted
with certainty. If future generations are also to
share with us the natural beauty of the islands
a positive approach must apply to greenery as
well as to concrete. If it is proper that planners
designate areas for development, it is equally
incumbent on them to protect us all from an un-
balanced, unnatural future environment by as-
suring areas for greenery. And not just an out-of-
the way corner here and there, or even a few
isolated larger park areas.
We need greenery not just where we re-
create, but where we live. The Government and
the Planning Office will earn the everlasting
















17 YEARS OLD SEEDED
MAHOGANY.


I _






gratitude of this and all future generations of
Virgin Islanders if they successfully preserve and
enhance the natural attributes of all local environ-
ments, urban, suburban and rural by channelling
needed development in ways which do not sa-
crifice that objective.

To this end treess can play an ever more
important role in our lives. The virgin forests
which once covered all of the land yielded no-
thing comparable to the potential contribution
which awaits us from their progeny and the nu-
merous species introduced to the islands and
planted along roadsides and in residential areas.
It is tree with people which produce a synergy
not possible with trees and forests alone. Trees
near homes not only cool surroundings, they


provide privacy, clean the air, and abate noise.
Tree planting programs in the Virgin Islands
began with the Danes. Experience has shown
many species both native and exotic to be
adaptable to most needs, and which ones are not.
The Department of Agriculture, with the coopera-
tion of the Forest Service provides landowners
both rural and urban, with technical assistance
on tree planting and care, and produces a modest
supply of planting stock of adapted species for
free of charge distribution.
These are your islands, the government is
yours, and so is the future. A way to support all
three is to conserve and enhance the islands'
greenery and participate in activities and pro-
grams directed toward those ends.








CONGRATULATIONS!


XEROX


Banco de Ponce Building

268 Avenida Mufioz Rivera


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Telephone:


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-YOUTH CAN MAKE IT HAPPEN-
(WITH YOUR HELP)
By BOB LINDSTROM
V.I. 4-H Youth Program Leader
Cooperative Extension Service
College of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix


YOUTH RECEIVING INSTRUCTION IN PREPARING
SOIL FOR VEGETABLE GARDERING PROJECT AT
CLAUDE O. MARKOE SCHOOL.

All too often we hear cliches concerning
today's youths. The things that are wrong with
them irresponsible, disrespectful, lack of con-
cern for others and property. Usually those making
these remarks have no alternatives to offer youth
or refuse to involve themselves in programs to
assist young people in developing into productive,
responsible and capable citizens.
The youth of today are no different from past
generations. They have the same basic needs.
They want opportunities to grow, to learn, and
to become involved in meaningful activities. They
want guidance and direction from adults, not to
be told but to be shown. Young people will select
from the adult world around them role models
to emulate. It is the responsibility of each adult
to provide our youth with opportunities to attain
their personal growth and development in a so-
cially accepted manner. Whether you are a tea-
cher, a parent, public servant, a member of the
community, or a combination of these, you will
have the opportunity to influence young people
by what you do, say, or by your actions.


An example of a program where youths are
"doing their thing" under the guidance of adults
is the Claude O. Markoe 4-H program. This pro-
gram sponsored by the P.T.A., evolved when a
teenager donated a prize of five hundred dollars
she had won in an oratory contest in St. Croix,
to initiate an economic agricultural project for
youth. The leadership for this project came from
the principal, teachers, the Extension Service and
interested members of the community. To date
there are over seventy boys and girls involved
and approximately 14 adults providing expertise
and guidance for the program.
Girls are learning the art of bottle-cutting
and other crafts. The boys have been raising or-
namental plants to sell. At the present time they
are involved in vegetable garden and small ani-
mal projects, using land made available by con-
cerned citizens.
The program is designed to be an educational
and economical project. Educationally for youth
to learn to work together, to be responsible for
their actions, to learn recordkeeping, gardening
techniques, and respect for others. Another
objective of the project is to supplement the
diet with fresh vegetables grown locally, which
in many cases are absent from meals because
of the high cost of food in the Virgin Islands.
Economically, the objectives are to help
youth learn profitsharing and marketing tech-
niques.
Self-concepts and a feeling of worth are
strengthened by their achievements and the rein-
forcement of their actions by the adults pro-
viding the leadership.

It is too early to predict the outcome of this
program or the impact on the present and future
lives of the youth involved. But if the interest
and enthusiasm so discernable now is an indi-
cator, then all the efforts and time involved will
have been worth it.
Other schools such as Grove Place and






Charles Emanuel, are conducting 4-H programs to
supplement their ongoing educational programs.
The regular 4-H program in the community is ex-
panding also as more adults are taking on the
roles of 4-H leaders to groups of from 5 to 50
youths, teaching such subjects as clothing and
sewing, food and nutrition, leadership, raising of
livestock, health and sanitation, environmental
awareness and many areas where there is an
interest. As we expand, our needs, both physical
and financial demands increase. Can you help?
Yes! if you would like to start a club of your own
or contribute to the V.I. 4-H program. Please con-
tact me at the Extension Servcie, College of the
Virgin Islands, at 778.0050.
One of our greater needs is for financial
sponsors for activities such as sending youth to


Citizenship and other youth conferences held
in Washington, D. C. annually. Funds are also
needed for the acquisition of animals and
materials for various aspects of the 4-H youth
program and to enable volunteer leaders to attend
workshops and seminars held in the United
States. These workshops and seminars provide
training for leaders to increase their effective-
ness in working with youth.
The next time you find yourself critical of
the actions of youth, ask yourself, "What can I do
to change the situation?" To help is to get in-
volved. If the Virgin Islands are to be dynamic,
then its citizens must provide the catalyst for
the change. These future leaders, our youth of
today, can make it happen, but not without your
help.


JOHN DEERE |JOHNDEERE
HJOHN DDR E

THE MOST COMPLETE LINE

OF

AGRICULTURE,

CONSTRUCTION & INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT


CASCO-ESI EQUIPMENT SERVICES
GPO Box CD, San Juan, P. R. 00936
Tel. 782-1991
JOHN DEER JOHN DEERE,
Y _____ ^ -- -- ~





Woolworths
World Wide Fashions
Town & Country
Lerners
The Grotto
Magic Barbers
Bethany Bookstore
Post Office Station
Sunny Isle Twin Theaters
Caravans Imports
Sunny Isle Interiors
Marshall's
1st National City Bank
Ole's Snack Bar
Jr's Jewelry
J. Rojas Locksmith
American Red Cross
Lion's Den
The Unique Shop


Bata Shoe Store
Kinney's Shoes Store
Martinez Arias
V. I. Police Station
V. I. Lottery Sales
Good Samaritan Bakery
Logan's Pet Supply
Hughe's Photo Studio
Casa Marina
Terry's Children Wear
Seaman Electronics
People's Drug Store
Grand Union Super Market
Sylvia's Magazine Store
Kentucky Fried Chicken
Hometown Insurance
V. 1. Logo "T" Shirts
Tuti & Ivi Beauty Salon


~MMMMM~hMMMMMMMMMMM~hh~MMM~hiA


Sunny Isle

Shopping Center

Salutes the Virgin Islands Department of


Agriculture on the occasion of the

1975

AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIR










) .vtSU
L ~ ~ 3V~QA


C)n


THE PRESENT COST FOR SENDING A STUDENT THROUGH FOUR YEARS
OF COLLEGE IS APPROXIMATELY $9,000.00 FOR A STATE UNIVERSITY
SAND $17,000.00 FOR A PRIVATE UNIVERSITY. THESE FIGURES INCLUDE
) BOOKS, TUITION, ROOM AND BOARD, CLOTHING, TRANSPORTATION AND
MODEST LIVING ALLOWANCES. A RECENT NATIONAL SURVEY REVEALED
THAT THESE COST WILL INCREASE BY APPROXIMATELY 50% BY THE
MID EIGHTIES. FACED WITH THESE FACTS AND FIGURES, DO YOU THINK
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Q w v







DEVELOPING OUR COMMUNITY RESOURCES
By MORRIS R. HENDERSON
Assistant Director
V.I. Extension Service
College of the Virgin Islands, St. Croix


Community Resource Development is one of
the Program areas of work carried out by the
Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension Service.
This Program helps people work on problems that
are important to them and to their community.

On the local level the Program works with
individuals, in some instances, and with groups
in others, in helping people to improve their
homes, their surroundings and their community.
The following are a few recently carried out
examples of Community Resource Development
work.
In October 1973, the Program Leader, Com-
munity Resource Development (CRD), of the
Virgin Islands Extension Service met with a small
group of young men in one community to discuss
the possibility of forming a community action
group. They were given instructions in leadership
development for the purpose of helping them to
recognize what they considered priority needs in
their community. The group decided that there
were three projects which they believed would
benefit the residents of their community. They
were:
1. To improve the school bus shanty.
2. To improve the system of garbage
collection and removal.
3. To establish a community garden.

These young men, under the guidance and
direction of the CRD Program Leader, solicited
and received contributions of paint, rollers, and
building materials from some local businesses.
The young men painted the shanty and erected
two concrete benches for the use of school
children of their community. They were success-
ful in their request to have the V.I. Department
of Public Works place two double garbage bins
in the community for the use of the residents.
Their efforts to encourage residents to disconti-
nue placing their garbage in individual oil drums
and of dumping their garbage in the bins has
paid off to a great extent. It is hoped that
eventually all residents will refrain from the use
of individual garbage disposal drums.


At the present time their efforts to have
electricity installed in the shanty have resulted
in having the Puiblic Works Department install
fixtures, outlets and a meter box. The next step
is to have the V.I. Water and Power Authority
connect the installations to the power source.
When electricity is installed, the bus shanty will
be available to the residents as a community
meeting place.
Plans for the establishment of a community
garden are slowly developing. It is anticipated
that, although the site for the garden has had
to be changed, they will be able to develop such
a project within a reasonable time.
In another community, residents have been
given assistance in home beautification and land-
scaping. Plans for expanding on this project to
include additional participants in home beautifi-
cation projects are underway.
The extent to which programs in Community
Resource Development can render assistance by
providing educational programs to meet the needs
of a community depends on the desire of the
residents of that community for such assistance.
There are numerous ways in which the CRD pro-
gram area of the Virgin Islands Extension Service
can help. A few examples are: Consulting with
organizational leaders to service their needs;
Teaching leaders and citizens in face-to-face
groups; Locating resources needed; Designing
educational programs; Helping leaders understand
community development concepts; Involving the
citizens in the community in the planning and
determination of goals and priorities; Inducing
community participation in projects and programs
desired by the community as a whole.
As the Program of Community Resource
Development progresses, the Virgin Islands Ex-
tension Service hopes to become involved in
expanding efforts to reach your community. But
to accomplish this the community must respond
positively. It takes the efforts of everyone living
in any community to take advantage of the re-
sources available to them. Such efforts can
achieve a better and more satisfying way of life
for everyone in the community.






COMPLIMENTS OF:








BUTTERFLIES OF ST. CROIX

By: DAVID W. NELLIS, Ph.D.
Wildlife Biologist, V.I. Dept. of Agriculture, St. Croix


When the recent drought ended with life-
giving rains almost everyone rejoiced. However
it soon became evident that the rains had pro-
vided life to other things than the lush vegeta-
tion which clothed the hills. Mosquitos and sand
flies were the first to become evident; then the
phones began to ring at the Department of Agri-
culture. Everyone was calling to find out what
to do about the worms which were eating every
green morsel. As with any plague, the worms
eventually abated and some weeks later the
island was powdered with millions of butterflies.
While few people connected the aforementioned
events, they present a classic picture of ecology
in action.
At the peak of the drought, few butterflies
could be found on St. Croix. There were few
flowers from which the adults could gather nec-
tar and even less succulent growth for the cater-
pillars (larvae) to feed on. When the rains came,
many of the dormant eggs hatched into cater-
pillars which rapidly matured on the abundant
new growth of vegetation and formed pupae.
Within the pupae the ugly "worms" of everyone's
lawns and gardens metamorphosed into butter-
flies, which also had an excellent source of food
in all the new flowers. These excellent conditions
rapidly produced an abundance of caterpillars in
a short period of time. When these caterpillars
all metamorphosed in a short period of time, we
observed the result in the preponderance of
butterflies on the landscape. A question might be
raised as why there was only one population
peak of caterpillars and butterflies. This question
can be answered by ecological considerations.
All populations are controlled to some extent by
predators, parasites and diseases. When the
butterflies are scarce, predators find it more
effective to gather more easily found prey. When
butterflies and caterpillars are few and far bet-
ween a parasite of any sort has a difficult time
completing a life cycle from one host to the next.
When a population is low in density, contact bet-
ween individuals is greatly reduced thus making
disease transmission an infrequent event. When
a population suddenly increases, all the above
limiting factors swing in to play; thus all the


while caterpillars are increasing, the predators,
parasites and diseases which will contribute to
their demise are also increasing until they catch
up and the rapid population increase stops and
even more rapidly decreases. This is of course
an oversimplified explanation of a very complex
phenomenon.

Some of the further complicating factors are
that many control agents only attack certain
butterflies without bothering others. As each
type of caterpillar feeds only on certain specific
plants, the relative abundance of these plants
has a significant controlling influence on popula-
tions. An example is the vividly colored black
caterpillar with bright yellow bands and a red
head which feeds on Frangipani leaves. In a
forest with none of the appropriate food trees
this caterpillar is completely absent. However in
an area of several Frangipani the caterpillars
may be so abundant as to virtually strip every
leaf off the trees.

To even the casual observer these inter-
actions become evident as a type of butterfly
which only weeks before was overwhelming in
its abundance gradually becomes scarce, only to
be replaced in the fields by a previously rare
butterfly which has now risen to dominance.

As a reference to those persons who would
like to identify some of the common butterflies
and their caterpillars; following is a description
of some caterpillars; followed by two pages of
photographs of the common butterflies of St.
Croix.
Hypolinmas: Feed on several species of Mal-
vaceae, Impomea and Portulaca. The larvae
are gregarious. Coloration is black with
grey bands and rows of whitish branched
spines. Head is reddish with 2 branched
spines.

Biblis: Larvae feed on prigmosa (Tragia volubilis).

Ascia: The bright yellow eggs are laid in clusters
on the upper surfaces of leaves. Larvae
are hairy greenish yellow and mature in
about 21/2 weeks. They feed on cabbage,








kale, turnips and other garden plants. This
is the common white butterfly as a larvae.

Phoebis: Larvae feed on Cassia when fully grown
they are about 11/2 long and lemon yellow
with rows of small black tubercles.

Pyrgus: The yellowish green 3/4 inch larvae with
a black head and brown collar feed on
Malvaceae.

Choranthus: Sugar cane leaves, sudan grass, and
other grasses are the food of the light
blue caterpillar which has a yellow head.
They are nocturnal feeders and spend the
day in shelters of folded leaves in which
they also pupate.

Precis (Junonia): The black shiny larvae feed
on Valerianoides, and Lippa.

Heliconius: The smooth white larvae with 6
rows of black spines feed on Passiflora.

Aneae: The vigorous larvae feed on euphor-
biaceae, particularly species of Croton.

Danaus: The 2 inch larvae marked with a series
of transverse black yellow and green
stripes feed on plants of the milkweed
(Asclepias) family.
NOTE: FOR PICTURES OF BUTTERFLIES TURN
TO NEXT PAGE


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Agraulis (Dione): Passiflora is the favorite food
of these deep buff larvae with 6 rows of
compound spines.
Anartia: The shiny black larvae with silvery
spots feed on water hyssop (Bacopa mon-
niera).
Meta morpha: The larvae are black about 13/4
inches long with knobbed and spined
horns. They feed on Blechum blechum.
Eunica: The dull orange caterpillar has a lateral
black band which widens into a patch. It
feeds on Zanthoxybum pentagon.
Hemiargus: Larvae feed on flowers buds and
seeds of Macroptilium lathyroides.
Eurema: The one inch long green larvae have
a lateral greenish white stripe and feed on
various species of Cassia.
Papilio: The gregarious gray larvae with 2
tubercles on each segment fee oun Aris-
tolochia.
Panoquina: Larvae eat corn, sugar cane and
other coarse leaved grasses by night.

Urbanus: The yellow caterpillar with a brown
head feeds on legumes and may be abun-
dant on peas and beans.


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Kingshill, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, 00850


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(BRUSH FOOTED BUTTERFLIES)


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BIBLIS HYPERIA


ANAEA TROGLODYTA


PRECIS LAVINIA







FAMILY HESPERIDAE
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PANOQUINA NYCTELIA


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SMALL LIVESTOCK FOR MEAT IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

By RICHARD M. BOND, Ph.D.


"Small Livestock" are sheep, goats and
swine. Goats and sheep, if not allowed to over
graze, can do well most years without any im-
ported or specially raised feed. Under best pos-
sible care and management they will produce
more meat (and dollars) per acre than cattle on
pasture alone, but initial cost of fencing (mesh
rather than barbed wire) is greater, and so is
the danger of loss from theft, killer dogs, para-
sites and diseases.
If all goes well, sheep are more productive
than goasts, but they are easier to steal, easier
for dogs to kill, and less tolerant of parasites
and diseases. In fact a sheep owner may some-
times almost feel that his ungrateful animals lie
down and die just to frustrate him.
Swine produce more meat per pound of feed
than any other livestock, but their feed is ex-
pensive. A large family may be able to save
enough kitchen scraps to supply much of the
feed for one sow, but most pig-feed must be
bought. So far we have not found a practical
pasture plant for swine such as alfalfa, rape or
soybeans successfully used in parts of the United
States mainland.
Sheep: In the Virgin Islands, as almost
throughout the West Indies, the principal breed
is the West African wool-less sheep. This breed
is so well adapted to our conditions, that it over-
comes every attempt at cross-breeding, and after
a few generations is back in essentially pure form,
no matter what it has been crossed with.
Our "native" sheep have two great ad-
vantages: 1) they almost always have 2, 3 or
even 4 lambs at a time; and 2) they will breed
at almost any time of year, and if well enough
fed, will often bear 2 "litters" a year.
They also have a disadvantage: they are so
slender that they don't produce much meat. First
crosses with European breeds are meatier, but
breed only once a year, and produce only single
lambs (or very rarely twins). Their heavy wool
keeps them too hot, and they grow slowly, and
do not thrive. An English Hair breed, the Wilt-
shire Horn, was tried in Barbados, and though
the crosses kept cool, they still grew slowly
because, like the other "giant" English breeds,


Lincoln, and Romney Marsh, they are intrinsically
slow growing. They also bear single lambs and
breed only at one time each year.
Another breed that has been widely tried in
the West Indies is the misnamed Persian Black-
Head, which never saw Persia. It came originally
from Somalia, was introduced into South Africa,
and reached the West Indies from there. This is
one of the fat-rumped sheep, and even not count-
ing the heavy fat deposits, is meatier than our
sheep are. It has no wool, and does well in our
climate. Unfortunately, it is strictly a single lamb
breed, and clings so firmly to this trait that so
long as any trace of improved shape shows in
the crosses, they never bear even twins, still
less 3 or 4 lambs.
A few years ago, one of four native ewes
produced two litters of 4 lambs within a 12 month
period. Obviously 8 thin lambs will carry more
meat than 1 fat and chunky one, and probably
even twin native lambs will outweigh the meatiest
single that can be produced here. The Barbados
Black-belly, which is just a color variation of our
"native" breed, has been known to produce and
raise 5 lambs at one birth!
In other words, our best hope here, would
seem to be to use our native sheep, and to select
breeding-stocK trom among litters of three or
four, since the many lamb trait seems to be an
inherited characteristic.
Goats: Goats are probably the most adap-
table domestic animals on the islands. As a result,
any kind of goat does about equally well here,
except perhaps pure Angora. Therefore there has
been little natural selection for or against any
particular breed or characteristic. There is, how-
ever, a good deal of human selection against
large size. In the Virgin Islands, goats are eaten,
not milked. They are usually slaughtered at 9 or
10 months of age, when they are still tender.

I am sure that most owners of small live-
stock realize that they ought to save their best
and biggest kids for breeding, but the results of
selection of the best breeding stock cannot be
cashed in on for at least two years and often
more, whereas that husky young "ramgoat" in
the flock would be wonderful roasted whole, or






stewed with wine next week-end, so all too often
it ends up in the pot instead of the breeding
herd.
There are exceptionally "meaty" types of
other domestic meat animals; Comish game fowl,
south down sheep, landrace swine .and Black-
Angus cattle, for example. There is a so-called
"Spanish Meat Goat", but it is scarcely meatier
than any other goat, and the only ones available
to us are from Texas, where they are badly para-
sitized, and might be dangerous to bring into the
Virgin Islands.
The one goat breed that seems to produce
the most meat per beast is the Saanan, which is
productive not because of its shape, but because
of it size, which is very large. It has one dis-
advantage for us. It is not only the largest com-
mon breed, but it also produces the most milk.
It produces so much milk, that even the usual
two or even three kids cannot use it all, and the
Saanen does have to be milked by hand, or they
may get serious mastitis, and may even die of
the infection.
Fortunately for us, size seems to be in-
herited more strongly than milk production, so
that we could greatly improve our flocks by using
Saanan bucks on our native goats, since half
Saanan, or perhaps even 3/4 Saanan usually do
not need to be milked by hand.
Swine: Pigs are much more variable than
sheep or goats in size, shape and in size of
litters.


In the tropics black pigs need to have ample
shade, or they will over-heat and fail to do well.
White breeds also need shade, or they may sun-
burn as badly as a tourist and do as badly as over-
heated black pigs, or even worse. The best color
for sunny, tropical climates is red.

But color alone is not enough to make a
choice of breed. The ideal pig would have the
following characteristics:
1. Fast growth; 2. Large litters; 3. Most
meat produced per pound of feed (efficiency);
4. Bacon-type- least fat per pound of protein
(now-a-days nobady wants fat pork, and there is
little or no market for lard.)
The three outstanding bacon-type breads are
Landrace (white), Yorkshire (white) and Tam-
worth (red). Tamworth has the best shape and
color (for the tropics) but does not grow as fast
as Landrace, and tends to have smaller litters.
A selected cross of Landrace with Tamworth,
known as Minnesota No. 1, seem to have all the
best qualities of both parents. It is red with black
spots, and may well be the best breed for the
Virgin Islands (Some of the Formerly fat pig
breeds have been "redesigned" as bacon-type, by
intensive selection and breeding, but they tend
to slip back toward more fat unless careful selec-
tion is constantly maintained, and seem to have
no advantage over Minnesota No. 1, and are not
recommended for use here.)


COMPLIMENTS OF



o GESE T. McKAYs


South Side Farm

HUD FEES Reasonable



Pure Bred Ram Sheep to Improve

Sheep Breeding In St. Croix

`W1 -I qp -w- N w -4W~'







USE OF THE STERILE-MALE TECHNIQUE TO CONTROL

STABLE FLIES ON ST. CROIX

By R. S. PATTERSON, G. C. LABRECQUE and D. F. WILLIAMS


USDA. ARS, Federal
St. Croix, U.S.


Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) known
as the biting house fly, stock fly, or dog fly, are
common on St. Croix. They are normally found
feeding on the lower legs and hocks of livestock.
Cattle and horses are their preferred host, but
they will readily feed on other animals, especially
man. Their presence often goes unnoticed since
their numbers are usually low. This is especially
true on St. Croix, because of the limited rainfall
over the past several years. However, if environ-
mental conditions become favorable, this fly
could become a serious pest of the island's live-
stock and might also have a bad effect on the
tourist industry. In other parts of the world, this
fly does cause severe problems. For example,
in northwest Florida, heavy infestations of the
fly at the Gulf beach resort areas cost the tourist
industry an estimated million dollar a day in lost
revenue. In Africa, infestations are sometimes so
severe that cattle die from loss of blood. Indeed,
throughout most of the world, farmers have re-
ported loss in milk production and weight gain
whenever populations of the stable fly become
large.
The life history of the stable fly is similar
to that of the house fly. The female lays her eggs
in rotting vegetation, manure, or urinesoaked
bedding, or straw. One female may lay several
hundred eggs. These hatch within 2-3 days, and
the small white larvae (maggots) feed on the bac-
teria and fungus in the organic waste. In the sum-
mer, the larvae complete development in 6 to
14 days and then bury themselves under the
surface of the soil to pupate. Few people observe
this stage. The dark brown pupa looks like a
butterfly, cocoon and remains in this stage for 8
to 10 days. The flies emerge from the pupae,
crawl to the soil surface, spread their wings,
and are actively seeking a blood meal within an
hour. They normally take a blood meal twice a
day. Engorged flies rest on fences, trees, and
other such supports digesting their meal. It has
been estimulated that every fly observed feeding


Experiment Station,
Virgin Islands


STABLE FLY (STOMOXYS CALCITRANS (L)

on an animal in a 15-minute period represents
about 50 flies resting in the surrounding area.
Thus if 10 to 20 flies can be seen on an animal,
there are 500 to 1000 flies in the area that will
feed on this animal. That number of flies can
cause considerable blood loss and annoyance
that may result in weight loss, irritability and
general loss of vigor.
St. Croix would certainly benefit if stable
flies could be eliminated from the island. The
ecological balance would not be upset because
this pest was probably imported years ago with
cattle and horses. However, conventional me-
thods, that is, insecticides, would not suffice
because stable flies are present over the entire
island and can feed on any animal host, even
though the heaviest populations are concen-
trated near dairy and/or beef herds. A combina-
tion of newer techniques with insecticide treat-
ment may be the solution. The researchers at the
Federal Experiments Station are therefore inves-
tigating the use of the sterile male release me-
thods to control this insect and are considering
using it in conjunction with insecticides, which
would be used to reduce the population to low
levels.


I

















A STICKY TRAP USED
TO ASSAY THE NUMBER
OF STABLE FLIES IN
AN AREA.


The sterile male release method involves
the sterilization of male flies by exposure to low
levels.
The sterile male release method involves
the sterilization of male flies by exposure to irra-
diation and the release of these sterile flies into
the environment where they will mate with na-
tive females. The female stable fly mates only
once, so if she mates with a sterile male, she
will be rendered infertile, and all the eggs she
lays would fail to hatch. The idea is to overflood
the wild population with so many sterile males
that there will be a very high probability the
native virgin females will mate with sterile ra-
ther than with normal males. For example, if
there are nine times more sterile males in the
environment than normal males, 90 percent of the
wild females will be inseminated by sterile
males and thus rendered barren; only 10 percent
will lay fertile eggs. These eggs and larvae will
then be exposed to the normal environmental
pressures, parasites, predators, and pathogens,
that act on the native population at all times. The
next release will then have a much smaller po-
pulation of native flies to be rendered sterile
and the cycle can be continued as long as de-
sired. The methods also has the additional ad-
vantage that the released sterile males will seek


out the indigenous females in places which would
be normally overlooked if conventional applica-
tions of insecticide were used.
The flies for the releases will be reared at
the Federal Experiment Station on St. Croix from
flies captured locally. The offspring will be
sterilized by a short exposure in a gamma irra-
diator. Both sexes are infertile after the treatment,
and they bear no residue on their bodies so they
are completely safe to release into the environ-
ment. Their behavior, based on past research,
should be the same as that of normal males
except that they can not transfer viable healthy
sperm to the female. Therefore, none of the eggs
oviposited will hatch.
The sterile insects will be released daily,
usually at the principal breeding sites, but some
will disperse over the entire island. It is planned
to mark the released insects with colors so we
can easily identify them from the local native
flies in an area and will be able to check the
efficiency of the releases and the dispersal of
the sterile insects.

The current schedule calls for a three year
research program. It was begun last July 1974
and will run until July 1977. During the first
year, much of the research will be devoted to






studying the biology and ecology of the stable
fly on St. Croix and neighboring islands. Mean-
while, colonies will be developed, and methods
of mass rearing will be investigated. In 1975, the
releases of sterile insects will be initiated. These
releases will be continued until the local flies
are under control or eradicated. The last year of
the program will be devoted to evaluating the
results and, if necessary, to releasing more sterile
flies to complete the elimination of the indigenous
population.
Throughout the program, the local fly popula-
tion will be assayed by several methods. One
methods will be a tack trap made of special
plastic panels that are attractive to stable flies.
The panels are painted with an adhesive material
so any insect that lands on them is ensnared.
Also, animals will be placed in traps as a lure,


and these traps will be located at the dairies and
ranches. In addition, researchers will survey the
island to find the breeding areas for the im-
matures to determine what other control mea-
sures may be useful.

The sterile male release technique has been
used on individual dairy farms in Florida to
control stable flies and has proved to be very
effective. On St. Croix, it should be more effec-
tive because the water barrier will prevent much
of the infiltration from other areas. For example,
the nearest island that harbors stable flies is 34
miles away, so there should be little chance of
overflight. However, flies could easily hitchhike
on interisland boats and reestablish themselves.
We hope this program will be a real benefit to
the economy of the island by controlling or elimi-
nating a very potential nuisance.


qN









UNIVERSITY OF VIRGIN ISLANDS





3 3138 00145 5558


DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
ESTATE LOWER LOVE
8 Fence Pot Treatment
9 Silo
10 Nursery and plant sale area
11 Forestry
12. Horse Show Ring
13. Mango Orchard
14. Goat Corral
15. Quarantine Pens


Legend:
I Administration
2 Marketing
3 Warehouse
4 Vetennarian
5. Garage and Shopa
6 -Farmers Market
7 Piggery







































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