• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 Overview: A history of agriculture...
 Agricultural experiment station...
 Cooperative extension service program...
 The Virgin Islands agriculture...
 Caribbean basin administrative...
 Caribbean food crops society
 Publications of the Agricultural...
 Credits
 Back Cover














Title: Twenty years of excellence
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Title: Twenty years of excellence
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Language: English
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, University of the Virgin Islands
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Foreword
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Overview: A history of agriculture research and extension in the U.S. Virgin Islands
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Agricultural experiment station program histories
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Cooperative extension service program histories
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    The Virgin Islands agriculture and food fairs
        Page 41
    Caribbean basin administrative group
        Page 42
    Caribbean food crops society
        Page 43
    Publications of the Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 1972-1992
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Credits
        Page 56
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text
FINDING THE ANSWERS and SHARING THE KNOWLEDGE






0"00









Table of Contents


2 Foreword by Dr. D.S. Padda
Messages
3 Dr. Orville Kean
4 Mr. Patrick N. Williams
4 Mr. Oscar E. Henry
5 Dr. Lawrence C. Wanlass
5 Dr. Arthur A. Richards
6 Dr. John Patrick Jordan
6 Dr. Myron D. Johnsrud
7 Dr. James E. Halpin
7 Dr. Roy L. Loworn
7 Dr. Fenton B. Sands

8 Overview: A History of Agriculture Research and Extension
in the U.S. Virgin Islands
:~ 8 The Land-Grant System
9 Agriculture and Extension in the Virgin Islands
10 The Feasibility Studies
11 Growth and Excellence
S, r 12 Hurricane Hugo
13 The Research and Extension Center
Senepol cattle grazing on St. Croix 14 The Future

15 Agricultural Experiment Station Program Histories
16 Animal Science
19 Agronomy
21 Aquaculture
24 Vegetable Crops
27 Fruit Crops
29 Cooperative Extension Service Program Histories
30 Home Economics
33 Agriculture and Natural Resources
36 Livestock
38 4-H
40 St. Thomas/St. John Extension
41 Agriculture and Food Fairs
42 Caribbean Basin Administrative Group
1992 43 Caribbean Food Crops Society
A publication of UVI Land-Grant Programs, Communications Unit 44 Publications of the Agricultural Experiment Station
and Cooperative Extension Service, 1972-1992
Robin Sterns, Editor 56 Credits







CELEBRATING EXCELLENCE


This publication, celebrating the 20th anniversary of Land-Grant status
of the University of the Virgin Islands, highlights two areas of which we are
extremely proud: excellence and collaboration.
Included here are program histories from the units comprising the
Agricultural Experiment Station (AES) and Cooperative Extension Service
(CES). Some stretch back much fartherthan the official life of our organization.
At the back of this publication, you will find a database listing of the
nearly 500 publications issued byAES researchers and CES educators since
1972.
In addition, located throughout the text are historic and brand-new
photographs representing moments of pride, accomplishment and history of
these programs.
I would like to take a moment to highlight salient accomplishments of
the Land-Grant Programs of which we are particularly proud:

We have fought hard and successfullywon the trust of our clientele
in the U.S. Virgin Islands. This is our most basic mission.

We have become active participants and leaders for such regional
and international organizations as the Caribbean Food Crops
Society(CFCS) and Caribbean Basin AdministrativeGroup(CBAG).
Their stories are included in these pages.

We have played an active role in the growth of the annual
Agriculture and Food Fair on St. Croix and the expansion of the
event to St. Thomas/St. John. Combined attendance at these
showcases for local agriculture, food products and socio-cultural
activities is one of the largest for any single event in the U.S.V.I.

Although our programs are small compared with the major stateside
land-grant universities with whom we must compete for grant
monies and quality staff, we have been successful at winning
competitive grants and receiving national and international awards.

We have trained a team of local research and extension specialists
who are prepared to assume leadership roles in the future and
developed an infrastructure with state-of-the-art physical facilities.

We were instrumental in collaborating with the local cattle industry
in standardizing and promoting the Senepol breed of cattle, native
to St. Croix.

International symposia held at UVI on Senepol cattle and on hair
sheep made us a global hub for research efforts on these important
breeds.


Our unique recirculating fish culture and vegetable hydroponics
system was recognized as a promising new development in May of
1992 by the Worldwatch Institute.

Our fruits researchers successfully identified the bacteria that had
been wreaking havoc with local papaya trees until the early 1980's,
threatening this important crop. Current efforts are concentrating on
selecting resistant varieties.

Both AES and CES efforts in research and information dissemination
have encouraged local adoption of drip irrigation as the most
efficient, water-saving and productive method for local agriculture.

Extension efforts in theVirgin Islands haveconcentrated on providing
educational programs that help families cope with economic,
occupational and social change. We assist a wide range of age
groups with programs that encourage leadership and positive
activities for youth, parenting and marketable skills, and community
programs for the elderly.

A two-year instructional program in agriculture was initiated to fulfill
the University's land-grant mission in the area of teaching.

Locally produced publications get our messages to the people,
ranging from one-page factsheets on gardening to The Heart of the
Pumpkin, a CES cookbook featuring nutritional breakdowns of local
recipes, to scientific AES articles published in internationally
recognized journals.

We work as team. The accomplishments you will read about in these
pages have been made possible by teamwork among colleagues within the
Land-Grant Programs and the larger U niversitycommunity, among researchers
and specialists at other similar institutions, and among citizens of the
Caribbean region and the United States.
The history of UVI's Land-Grant Programs is a Virgin Islands success
story in which our people can take pride. For myself, it has been a privilege
to serve as the captain of such a winning team and as an active participant
in the pursuit of excellence. I gratefully acknowledge the support of all who
have made these accomplishments possible.






D. S. Padda
Vice President,
Research and Land-Grant Affairs

CELEBRATING EXCELLENCE


Foreword







"In the last analysis civilization
is based upon the food supply."

Will Durant
The Story of Civilization













UNIVERSITY of the VIRGIN ISLANDS
Office of the President


Greetings!

This year has been one of celebration for the University of the Virgin Islands.
We are celebrating our 30th anniversary as an institution of higher learning and
our 20th anniversary as a land-grant institution. There is much for us to be
proud about.

The Land-Grant Programs at UVI have contributed tremendously to our reasons
for celebrating in 1992. Under the leadership of Dr. Darshan Padda and through
the creative efforts and dedication of researchers and staff, Land-Grant
Programs excelled during the past 20 years establishing UVI as a leader in the
region, in the nation, and in the international arena.

High among Land-Grant's most noteworthy accomplishments are its unique
work on Senepol cattle, research on regional agriculture and food production, its
many scholarly and popular publications, and its immensely successful
agricultural and food fairs on both St. Croix and St. Thomas.

This component of the University has moved the institution closer to the
fulfillment of its mission in improving the region, in building nations, and in
changing society for the betterment of all.

Congratulations to Dr. Padda and all the men and women who have contributed
toward these outstanding accomplishments. We are extremely proud of their
achievements.


0a /4 Message from Dr. Orville Kean
Orville Kean, Ph.D. President
President r
University of the Virgin Islands












Message from
Patrick N. Williams
Chairman,
UVI Board of Trustees


Message from Oscar E. Henry
Chairman,
Territorial Advisory Committee,
UVI Research and
Land-Grant Affairs


It is with great joy that I extend my congratulations to the
University's Land Grant Program under the leadership of Dr.
Darshan Padda as we celebrate the twenty years of its existence.

I have had the distinct honor and privilege of working closely with
Dr. Padda during my tenure as Commissioner of Agriculture, and as
a member of the Board of Trustees for many years. Over these years
I have found the services provided by this component of the
university to be of substantial benefit to the farming community of
the Virgin Islands through its research and other services rendered to
the people of the Virgin Islands, our neighbors in the Eastern
Caribbean, Puerto Rico, and even within certain parts of the United
States.

As chairman of the Board of Trustees, and on behalf of my
colleagues on the Board, I extend to Dr. Padda and his staff of
dedicated individuals our heartfelt thanks for a job well done. Please
continue the good work and keep UVI as a leader in this most
important industry.

Sincerely,



Patrick N. Williams
Chairman
Board of Trustees


Before the Virgin Islands had the benefit of a territorial land-grant institution, the United
States Department of Agriculturehada program in research and extension intheVirgin Islands
for a number of years. Some excellent scientists came here to help develop agriculture.
However, over the years, the program became almost a disappointment: local farmers were
not getting the service they needed.

Iwasverypleasedin 1972 whenthethen Collegeof theVirgin Islands (CVI)got Land-Grant
status. It brought new hopes. Substantive changedidn't occurright away, however. In the early
1970's, Darshan S. Padda joined the local department of agriculture, and I had the opportunity
to work with him. I then encouraged him to join CVI in 1974. In 1976, newly elected Governor
Cyril E. King asked meto serves Commissionerof Agriculture. I wasfirst reluctant; however,
Dr. Padda convinced me I had the right qualifications to help the local agriculture industry.
During my term as Commissioner, Dr. Padda and I worked closely together. We traveled
to Washington, D.C. and received tremendous support at all levels, including the U. S.
Secretary of Agriculture Dr. Butz. Many things came from our collaborative effort: Senepol
cattle development, garden plots on St. Croix, a successful sorghum program and expanded
three-day St. Croix Agriculture and Food Fairare only some of theexamples of ourjoint efforts.
After I completed my term as Commissioner, I continued my relationshipwith the university
as chair of the Territorial Advisory Committee and as the Virgin Islands non-institutional
member of the national Council for Agricultural Research, Extension and Teaching.

I have always been impressed with Dr. Padda's ease of interaction at national and
international levels and the excellent quality of programs that he has developed locally and
throughout the Caribbean. The prestigious awards he has received have made us all proud.

I feel tremendous pride to have played a role in the development of the University of the
Virgin Islands (UVI) Land-Grant Programs. I wish to commend the University and join in
celebration of the 20th anniversary. I sincerely hope the current level of excellence will be
maintained.
This is a challenge for UVI's new administration.
^/7 o ^/














Message from
Dr. Lawrence C. Wanlass
CVI President Emeritus


Message from
Dr. Arthur A. Richards
UVI President Emeritus


Connecting the past with the present, I am happy to join with Dr.
Padda and the members of his staff in celebrating the first 20 years
of the University's land-grant programs.

The original mission, goals and objectives of the then College of
the Virgin Islands were limited in scope and purpose. In 1962, when
the first planning was done, the College was conceived of as a two-
year college which might be organized around havingthe institution
serve as a model for possible adoption by underdeveloped countries.

It soon became apparent to those of us charged with actually
developing the institution that a more important mission for the
College would be to serve the Virgin Islands through education,
research, and community service in the same manner as the
successful land-grant universities serve their states on the mainland.

Resolved to achieve this goal, we sought federal land-grant
legislation for the Virgin Islands. Finally, in 1972, after working for
six or seven years with three of the standing committees of the
Congress, this status was accomplished.

The programs and achievements of Dr. Padda andhis staff, based
on land-grant status, are recounted in the pages which follow.

If it was my privilege to be of help in bringing research and
community service to the Virgin Islands, making university status
possible, the real sense of accomplishment belongs to Dr. Padda and
his staff. They have labored long and successfully to write this most
important chapter in the growth of the University of the Virgin
Islands.


Lawreene C. Wanlass
President Emeritus


August 19, 1992

I offer my congratulations upon the occasion of the twentieth
anniversary of the award of land-grant status to the then College of
the Virgin Islands. It was a momentous achievement, and it was due
principally to the efforts of President Lawrence Wanlass and Trustee
Chairman Ralph M. Paiewonsky.

Many changes, advancements occurred during the ensuing years,
butthe Agricultural Experiment Station and the Cooperative Extension
Service expanded and improved under Dr. Padda's leadership.
Service is available to all the people of the Virgin Islands as well as
to others who request it. In this connection, I am happy that Dr.
Padda's and my beliefs were the same: that the children of low
income persons and the wealthy are entitled to the same quality of
service.

One of the highlights of my presidencywas to witness unprecedented
growth and acceptance of the land-grant programs not only in the
Virgin Islands but the larger Caribbean and the United States as well,
and especially the national and international recognition that Dr.
Padda has received through many prestigious awards.

Dr. Padda and his colleagues have accomplished much beneficial
research at the Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Extension
Service has carried that research and other pertinent information to
the people. I am glad that I played a role. Carry on.


Arthur A. Richards, Ph.D.
President Emeritus


I












Message from
Dr. John Patrick Jordan
Administrator,
USDA Cooperative State
Research Service


Message from
Dr. Myron D. Johnsrud
Administrator,
USDA
Extension Service


United States
Department of
Agriculture

Dear Dr. Padda:


Cooperative Office of the
State Research Administrator
Service


Washington,D.C.
20250


August 11, 1992


United States
Department of
Agriculture


Extension Office of the Washington,D.C.
Service Administrator 20250-0900


Twenty years ago, in 1972, the College ofthe Virgin Islandswas given
Land Grant University status by the U.S. Congress. That was a
milestone for the people of the Virgin Islands. This new status
provided an expanded mission for the College, now the University of
the Virgin Islands.

Through the establishment of the Virgin Islands Agricultural
Experiment Station and the Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension
Service, the Universitywas no longer limited to principallyclassroom
activities. The University now has territory-wide research and
education responsibilities for all the citizens of the United States
Virgin Islands. The whole territory is now the University's classroom
and all the citizens are its students. Students of all ages.

This is what the concept of Land Grant University status is all about:
service to everyone. During its first 20 years, research and extension
education efforts by the faculty and staff have left their mark.
Scientists are generating new information and technology while
extension specialists are carrying the messages to the people.

President Abraham Lincoln started the idea. It is still valid today. We
all benefit from the Land Grant Programs of the University of the
Virgin Islands. Congratulations to you and all the people involved.

Sincerely,


A .ICK 6AN
Ad ~ strator


Greetings to University Colleagues and Clientele:

I am pleased to extend avery warm and hearty congratulations to the
University of the Virgin Islands on your 20th Anniversary. During
your relatively brief history as one of the 74 national land-grant
universities, you have accomplished and endured much. The birth
and maturity of organizations, like individuals, requires thoughtful
and caring leadership, support, and a sincere desire to succeed.
Your Universityand its leadership have possessed allthese attributes.
And you have encountered some stormy challenges during this 20
year period including the devastation of a hurricane and securing the
resources to not only rebuild but also establish the basic facilities.
Each of you should stand tall with great pride for your many
accomplishments in just two decades.

I have thoroughly enjoyed visiting your University and working with
your Vice President. Your USDA-Extension Service partner looks
forward to continuing this excellent partnership in the decades
ahead as you pursue your dreams and aspirations for the University
of the Virgin Islands.


MYRON D. "OHNSRUD
Administrator













Message from
Dr. James E. Halpin
Retired Director at Large,
State Agricultural
Experiment Stations


Message from
Dr. Roy L. Lovvorn
Former Administrator,
USDA Cooperative State
Research Service


Message from
Dr. Fenton B. Sands
Former Director,
CVI AES and CES


Dear Vice President Padda:

The University ofthe Virgin Islandsis celebrating a milestone: 20 years
of Land Grant University status, the great majority of which have been
underyourleadership. Having cooperated with the developmentofthis
program, since its inception, I have had the pleasure of watching it
expand, increase in relevance to the islands, and mature into a fine
researchand extension educational institutionwith islandwide missions.
A lot has been accomplished in a very short time under your leadership.

You have brought together, at the University, a fine collection of
dedicated scientists to accomplish important research and extension
activities. These scientists are aware that the major relevance of their
activities is through better understanding and use by the public of new
technology. Their stature within the world wide research community
has been enhanced. And the extension education activities are models
for others to follow!

CONGRATULATIONS I

The University ofthe Virgin Islands canbeproudofits accomplishments,
the spirit of cooperation itprovidesto otherinstitutions, and the concept
of mission established under your leadership. The people of the islands
have been well served. Few universities have the record you and your
people have developed in such a short time. Also, the opportunities
available for the future. The University ofthe Virgin Islands is, in many
ways, the model for the Land Grant University concept as established
by President Lincoln.

My best wishes to you and your staff, as well as to the people of the
Virgin Islands, upon your successful completion of 20 years of service

Ially yr ura

tired Director at Large,
State Agricultural Experiment Stations


Dear Dr. Padda:

I remember so well the morning your predecessor and I sat with the
President of the University and "created the Agricultural
Experiment Station" of the University of the Virgin Islands! What
a historic event. The Congress had just passed legislation bringing
your University into the Land-Grant University System and
provided some small but significant funds for research and
extension.

As the administrator of the Cooperative State Research Service, I
was to join later with Dr. McDougal of the Federal Extension
Service in an orientation visit with you. It was a tremendous
experience for all three of us in planning for what has become an
integral part of the University and an economic force in agricultural
development on the islands.

After my retirement I wasinvited on two different occasions to visit
your program and to review the research underway and also to visit
some of your agricultural leaders. In those early days the concept of
a Land-Grant University was new to your constituents, but even
then, the interest was there. This was true not only from you and
your staff but from your community leaders as well.

Twenty years have passed! What a great period in the history of the
Virgin Islands. You have demonstrated leadership and vision in
recruiting a capable staff, in maintaining morale among them, and
in obtaining support, both local and national. In addition, under
your leadership, the research and education programs are
recognized and appreciated throughout the Caribbean area.

This 20th anniversary is a wonderful story and I salute the
University, itsadministrators, faculty and supporters on thishistoric
occasion. I am grateful for havinghad a small role inits development.

Sincerely,

Roy Lovvorn
Former Administrator
USDA Cooperative State Research Service


Dear Dr. Padda:
It is a real pleasure to send you greetings and
congratulations on the 20th anniversary of the University of the
Virgin Islands as a land-grant institution. The honor of being the
first director posed a distinct challenge to me and all who assisted
ininitiating the program. However, being the product of the land-
grant system and having seen it, or modified versions, function
in the many foreign countries I had worked in, I knew it would
be successful.
The various congressional acts that make up the land-
grant system, namely the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890, the
Hatch Act of 1887 and the Smith-Lever Act of 1914, have had a
tremendous impact on the lives of American citizens. Although
the system cannot change the natural environmental features of
any country or territory, it does enable the people to maximize
the use of their natural resources such as rainfall, soil, water,
winds and sunlight to improve their quality of life. Such has been
the goal of the University of the Virgin Islands.
To obtain an objective and in-depth appraisal of the
agricultural industry when we started, a series of feasibility
studies on various agricultural enterprises were undertaken.
These reports, prepared by the V.I. Agricultural Experiment
Station, identified the limiting factors associated with crop and
livestock production, provided insight on the need for training
and education of farmers and recognized the gaps in our knowledge
about crops and livestock on the islands. The factors revealed by
the study became the basis of the extension and research programs.
With the opening of the new Research and Extension
Center, I am sure the land-grant program will significantly raise
the level of education, training and research thereby improving
the quality of life for the people of the Virgin Islands.
My sincere good wishes for continued success.
Cordially,


Fenton B. Sands, Ph.D.


EL








OVERVIEW: A HISTORY OF

AGRICULTURE RESEARCH AND

EXTENSION IN THE U.S. VIRGIN

ISLANDS

"It was a 'labor of love'"
Dr. Lawrence C. Wanlass, President Emeritus,
on the process of achieving Land-Grant status

The College of the Virgin Islands (CVI), now the University of the Virgin
Islands (UVI), became a Land-Grant institution on June 23, 1972, when U.S.
President Richard M. Nixon signed the Education Amendments Act. Since
then, the Land-Grant Program has developed and expanded into a vigorous
research and extension arm of the university, its most direct connection to
the citizens of the Virgin Islands.
These pages contain histories of the programs that make up the
research arm of the component, the Agricultural Experiment Station, and the
information dissemination arm, the Cooperative Extension Service. These
histories summarize the major struggles and successes these entities have
had, locally, regionally and internationally, as they have grown over20 years.
But an understanding of UVI Land-Grant requires an understanding of
the Land-Grant system, as well as an understanding of the status of
agriculture research and extension in the Virgin Islands prior to 1972.

The Land-Grant System

When CVI was granted Land-Grant status, it joined what is in 1992 an
educational network of 74 colleges and universities in the United States and
its territories, all of which have a mission of providing research-based
practical information and education to the people.
According to the National Association of State Universities and Land-
Grant Colleges, Thomas Jefferson first proposed in 1806 the concept of
using "grants of land" as a way to endow a national university. The concept
did not become a reality, however, until Abraham Lincoln signed the Morrill
Act into federal law in 1862. This act provided that practical education should
be available to all interested students, not just the wealthy.
With the signing of the Hatch Act in 1887 and the Smith-Lever Act in
Produce display at 1991 St. Thomas/St. John Agriculture and Food Fair.








1914, the Land-Grant concept expanded to include two major services to the
people in each region: an Agricultural Experiment Station (AES) and a
Cooperative Extension Service (CES). Simply put, AES scientists conduct
research to solve local agricultural problems and assist farmers in achieving
greater economic returns. CES specialists and agents pass this research on
to the people.
While in the beginning Extension efforts were clearly divided between
"hard" agriculture and domestic science, time and the changing priorities of
Americans have made these efforts much more technical, diverse and
urban. Today's Extension staff provide assistance in areas as specialized as
the unique nutrition needs of diabetics, youth drug abuse prevention,
propagating ornamental plants by grafting and managing home-based
businesses.

Agriculture and Extension in the Virgin Islands

,- ,- Agricultural research and extension
< was by no means new to the Virgin
4:/ ,- .-. Islands in 1972. According to Richard
SW< HE WEST END NEWI. M. Bond, former officer in charge of
:, ;_ .... -- .-" 4' the local United States Department of
:Wededay1 petember 2'.l Agriculture (USDA), offices had been
} First Experime nt.:. '. operating on St. Croix and St. Thomas for
The Agricullura.Station ha. years. Specifically, the Farmers' Home
Just. completed its'1st expert Administration (FmHA), a farm financing
Sent in the control of ,acacia entity, had been in operation (as Farm
in patures by spraying.- .'
ed all about it in tomorrow Security) since 1939. In a 1961 letter to
paper and voes the word a 'The Daily News, he noted that FmHA
our farmer friend@.to
Sfarmer friend. .had 40 outstanding loans in the territory
\ "'- and was making low-cost loans available
Sfor rural housing on all three islands.
The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) also
has a long history in the Virgin Islands. Bond noted in 1961 that SCS was
concentrating its efforts in water conservation and had designed and
supervised the construction of more than 140 dams on the three islands.
The Virgin Islands Agricultural Program was started in 1952, with a
Federal Experiment Station (now the USDA Agriculture Research Service,
located adjacent to the UVI St. Croix campus) and an Extension Service
conducting home economics information dissemination and supervising
4-H clubs. A St. Croix West End News report on October 22, 1953, titled
"One Year's Work Reviewed," noted that the Experiment Station had
already cleared land for experimental plots and begun 28 experiments on


fruit and nut varieties, weed control, pasture improvement and fertilizers for
sugarcane. Four 4-H clubs had already been started, as well, and a
community development project had been organized to beautify New Works
Village.
USDA also had a Plant Quarantine Division with offices on St. Thomas
and St. Croix, and a reforestation and forest management project on all three
islands being coordinated by the U.S. Forest Service, which had been in the
Virgin Islands since the early 1950's. A 1953 Daily News article, for example,
noted that the Forest Service had conducted an experimental sowing of
mahogany seeds from a chartered airplane over St. Croix and St. John.
Two-inch high headlines in the January 26, 1966, issue of The Daily
News screamed, "LACK OF FUNDS MAY END V.I. AGRICULTURAL
WORK," and the February 17, 1966, issue of The Virgin Islands Times ran
the story, "Agriculture Station Faces Closure Here." President Lyndon B.
Johnson had just announced plans to severely cut the budget for the
Agriculture Research Service in 1967, and decisions were made locally to
continue programs with a skeleton staff, saving 4-H but virtually eliminating
the work at the federal Experiment Station.
In 1967, however, an August 21 article in The Daily News noted that
plans had been laid for the formation of an Agriculture and Research
Extension Program, under the direction of USDA, but with the cooperation
of the College of the Virgin Islands. Mr. Harold Clum was appointed director,
Mr. Morris Henderson, associate director, and Mrs. Amy KcKay named home
economics supervisor. Both Mr. Henderson and Mrs. McKay continued their
association with the programs after Land-Grant status placed them underthe
CVI umbrella.
Moving from cooperation to Land-Grant status, however, was not a

THE DAILY NW, MONDAY, AUGBT TI,1 M1 1

Agriculture-Research
Extension Program
lIst Nlornber Morri R. l the opeup, will eoanucE a ad s
dern and Mrs. *my R. Mackay, rt lCloal emaaellin weadm wst
who w re norkgor the A1,n1ubl- loal red n stla in te aram of: hild
lWa. Resacb Divisio. under th enrmpaan. an paren tdacatiam.
Unitedd States Department of Agri- ntiti, family bhaIbth, family afe
culture. began to Iay Cst an Rap tly, br Impmvmnl. we l m4a00-
he formatiod ni the Agricultre ad si ona homea b o d u probauio.
Rasearh ExrnHason Proram. Dugl hbe monthsea JulY and
On July 6, the director Of the w. A" Mn. Mackay and HNIdos
ly forned program. Harold V. Ctulm hae ment t. tbone wlth VISTA
massued ildus, aM ad he point nlmember In St. CoIr, who wil ase
extension education program sit In the development of 4HI Chabs,
thUw m Caeg of the Virgin Is, by b helping eo dop ICl ader-
lands and in cooperation with the Sbip and local,resdents to act a,
UVS. Deprlranent ofl AgicultMure wa lay 0Ladea..
launchd In St. Croi. Mrn. Mackay aM. 'We will d in
Mi Margaret Oliver, who is tpa ne asmManc a lo ol ) e1 6 -
U.S Ag'VIutre departlm en o. ce scasn th Departtaole So
gram leader for 13 rmuthrn vtate., Cal Welfare when we ld that we VIRGIN ISLANDS EXTENSION SERVICE, sodate director Morris Hiadersea, Mss
Purto Sia and th Virgin lands are i nead ldhigly specalhsd a'. Margaret Oliver, progren leaderr 1 he U.S. Deparimet of Agriculiawe, and Mrs. AMy
eplalned that the program nornal- Isam.ce Mackay. homn, conoans supervisor for the Virgl Islands Exteionsa Sanrries,
ly funcb'm between d gran col. (Daly News Phlao)
lepes and the Federal loV0roant.






MNWS FROMl THE COLLEGE OF THE VIRGCI ISLANDS
Rele.e.d by: Jrame K. Ready
FOR INDILT. RELIA& simple or brief process for the
Jue 1972 college. According to Dr.
it ith conid... er.b ple.ure that w have l.erned tht th Lawrence C. Wanlass, CVI
U.S. HouI of R.pr.nt.t.ives today paed the Omnibus Higher P
iducotion ill by a vote of 216 to 180, Lwrence C. w.ni.., President Emeritus, it took
president of the College of the Virgin Island., *id today. The bill
no a... the i.ntur.. of the Pr d..nt of the United Sate.. Six years. He said the
In lded in the bill f pro.vilon to gie lnd r.nt .t origins go back to lans
to thb College of the Virgin Island.. This would provide the coleg ii go ack to pas
with an ndowment of $3 million, plu] an annual income of $450,000. f
Th. bill *dditionally includes provliono fo ot+r ,. o he formulated in
importnce to the Colleg. of the Virgin Island.. / "
if tr bil e...o. x w, it will h.v g..at or....a agreement with the
lignificanc for higher education in the Virgin Iland# and will D ^ T'
r..tly ...e..t in oll.. pln ,or th. d.vlop..nt of th t. Board of Trustees in the t;
Croix campus of the College.
,,,,, early 1960's, while '
defining and 4
underwriting the mission of the new College of the Virgin Islands.
Earliest assistance came from Wayne Morse, an influential Senator
from Oregon, Wanlass said.
He said the legislation "churned its way" through three House of
Representatives standing committees, and unfortunately became the basis
for a jurisdictional dispute among the Interior Committee, the Agricultural
Committee and the Labor and Education Committee, which made passage
of the legislation much more difficult. Wanlass credits "major help" from 14
or 15 U.S. Senators and Representatives, including Hubert Humphrey,
Henry "Scoop" Jackson, Phil Burton and Carl Perkins, for eventual passage
of the legislation.


Serving The Virgin leilnda Since 1@8446 eE E



IncldeV.I. In Educati Bl ill

Withiand Grant Statu VI
S.--A '.
$3 Millriin Ew; in W A is I
Devel6pentSl. Co, Co mpusm 5
yeI~oanl SI. Croix C -IIege&rnpu at the same time.
t 06.r M 'r. w m., w.%
,--.", .,. In 1973, the then director
* I... -.. Extension Service Dr. Fenton S<
CVWV. B0Ig, a:i.., Ml-.0.. h_-Id;


Eventually,
Wanlass said, this
legislation played
an important role in
the passage of the
Higher Education
Act of 1972, and
both Guam and the
District of Columbia
were able to take
advantage of CVI
efforts to achieve
Land-Grant status

of the Virgin Islands
hands noted in a Virgin


islands Agriculture ana -ooa I-air article that Land-
Grant status would mean an expansion of existing
Programs in 4-H and itssummerday camp, the Expanded
Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP),


;Z2, 47sd' 1 agricultural demonstration and
*- 'O'b' production, community resource
J ," development and dissemination of
R.J ,. d. information to the public.
1 4 d. Essentially, then, a tradition of
sa 5, 'J .& agricultural research and information
4, 1 dissemination had been set up in the
o.R.,l..? Virgin Islands long before the ten-
z-" "" year old College of the Virgin Islands
..' took in 1972 what was a very unusual
444t6h^ ^ step: it achieved Land-Grant status and
sk, 4 took over responsibility for AES and
^ ''e, CES without first having been an
"agriculture school."

The Feasibility Studies

Once Land-Grant Status was designated, Dr. Fenton Sands was
named director of the Cooperative Extension Service and acting
director of the Agricultural Experiment Station. The staff
was very small, but hopes were high, and Dr. Sands
commissioned a numberof feasibility studiesto
be conducted by visiting researchers.
These reports drew conclusions on
the potential for agriculture
markets and profitability
in the areas of grain
sorghum and forage,
beef production, dairy
farming, hog production,
poultry production, fruits and
vegetables, livestock 4
products, and goat and sheep
enterprises.
In a 1974 letter to Dr. Roy .; Y.
Lovvorn, Administrator, USDA
Cooperative State Research
Service, Dr. Sands proposed four new
AES projects, on sorghum production
for grain and silage, on selection of
superiorforage grasses, and on improving
production of local fruits and vegetables.





























Dr. Wanlass (with family) during his term as first CVI President.


He called these projects"a natural out-growth from the feasibility studies that
were undertaken over the last year and a half."
Soil chemist Dr. Bill Ott, now Professor Emeritus of the Texas
A&M Agricultural Experiment Station, led the research group for the
feasibility study on grain sorghum and forages. He said the group,
which included agronomist Dr. Marvin Riewe and agricultural
economists Dr. Ronald Kay and Dr. Raymond Dietrich, came to St.
Croix with the goal of determining the current status of production
practices and projecting future potential. He remembers being escorted
around the island very graciously by Mr. Roy Rogers, and his
impressions of the island in 1974 were of a beautiful place, under
heavy population pressure and almost totally dependant on imports.
The group's findings eventually became AES Report No. 1, and the
19-page summary includes cultural practices of the time, the potential
for replacing imported feed grains with local production, and the
break-even point and rate of return for production and processing.
The book was printed in 1974 and reprinted the next year, and it
formed a cornerstone for the variety of AES research reports and
scholarly articles listed at the end of this book.


'-; .ZtD ENT iF'R'M

LAND


S-







Dr. Padda congratulating Dr. Richards as second CV President in 1981.

Dr. Padda congratulating Dr. Richards as second CVI President in 1981.


Growth ana Excellence

Dr. Darshan S. Paddajoined AES in 1974 as research horticulturist, and
was named acting director in 1975. He became director of both AES and CES
in 1976, and in 1984 was promoted to Vice President of UVI's Research and
Land-Grant Affairs component.
"The history of this component is my history, too," he has said, and,
indeed, the majority of Dr. Padda's professional career has been spent
directing and expanding AES and CES, directing the university's research
efforts in general, overseeing the UVI Water Resources Research Institute
and extending the university's collaborative relationship with individuals,
institutions and governments. As you will read in the histories to follow, under
his leadership the component has grown from a skeleton staff with few
resources to a productive group of research faculty and extensionists
engaged in 25AES projects and 28 CES programs. Formula and competitive
grant funding are ten times what they were in 1972, and a third of the
residents of the Virgin Islands are regular clientele of CES.
Along the way he has been proud to lead a responsive team, and he has
been rewarded for his efforts by his peers many times. The following are
highlights. He was awarded the Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Memorial Prize for


:
i ::~:

















































Dr. Padda (with Mrs. Padda, top photo) being awarded the Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Memorial Prize
by AmbassadorK. R. Narayanan, now Vice President of ndia. Bottom photo: receiving the USDA
Distinguished Service Award in 1983, awarded by USDA Secretary John Block.


Agricultural Research for 1978-1979, for his "outstanding contribution in the
field of horticulture." He received the USDA's Distinguished Service Award
in 1983, for "exceptional foresight and leadership in developing and
conducting extension education programs that serve as models for
technology transfer systems in the Virgin Islands, Caribbean and other
developing countries." In 1987, the USDA Office of International Cooperation
and Development presented Dr. Padda its International Honor Award.
Awards that hold special meaning for Dr. Padda include a 1977
Commendation Plaque "for exceptional ingenuity" for his part in the Virgin
Islands Senepol Association; a Distinguished Service Award from the Board
of Directors of the Agriculture and Food Fair ofthe Virgin Islands in 1979; and
a Certificate of Award from the Black History Committee of the UVI Student
Government Association for an "outstanding achievement in the field of
agricultural science" in 1987.
He has also chaired the Caribbean Basin Administrative Group since
1986, has served the Caribbean Food Crops Society as president in 1983-
1984 and as chair since 1986, and, in 1992, was appointed to the national
Extension Committee on Organization and Policy, the highest national
policy-making body on extension programs. He also serves as secretary of
the Association of Southern Extension Directors.

Hurricane Hugo

Hurricane Hugo churned its 140-mile-per-hourwinds across St. Croix on
September 17, 1989, leaving behind an astonishing path of destruction and
damage. For everyone who was here at the time, history will forever be
measured in terms of "before Hugo" and "after Hugo."
As Dr. Padda noted in his 1991 Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
article on the hurricane, its effect on the St. Croix campus eclipsed all past
accomplishments in a single night.
Two CES buildings were completely destroyed. The Great House, which
had housed the administrative offices, was largely destroyed and later
condemned, and in 1992 is still awaiting renovation. The space occupied by
Home Economics, Agriculture and 4-H was ruined.
The newly-completed AES biotechnology laboratory was blown off its
foundation and destroyed. The greenhouses were reduced to heaps of
twisted metal. The aquaculture program lost 17 tanks and thousands of fish.
More heartbreaking than the damage to facilities, however, was the loss
of critical research data and information. As Dr. Padda noted, it was a very
sad experience to survey a field littered with hundreds of water-soaked books
amid broken test tubes containing tissue cultured plants.
However, two days after the hurricane, the majority of staff were back







on the job, assessing the damage done to farmers, distributing food to the
needy, cleaning up the campus, sorting through debris for salvageable
equipment and files and generally rebuilding their programs.
The USDA damage assessment report predicted it would probably take
two years for AES' research programs to be fully operational. That turned out
to be true. The 1992 issue of the normally annual AES research report, for
example, is the first one to be published since the storm.

The Research and Extension Center

While staff has been limping along since Hugo, tripling up in
offices, squeezing past filing cabinets in hallways, and begging
computers that went through the storm to function a little while longer,
1992 marks a new era for the component, with the completion of the
10,000-square foot Research and Extension Center on the St. Croix
campus. It will house the Vice President's office; three laboratories for
plant science, biotechnology and human nutrition; fourteen offices, a
resource room with displays of AES and CES publications of interest
to the public; and four seminar rooms. Completion of this building,
new greenhouses and storage and work rooms means the component
is fully operational again.


Top: Extension Great House Building in 1973. Bottom: Same building, just after Hurricane Hugo
in 1989.


"=*'- y ,;'. "'-' -..
""" -"' ,' r "" -' -

i ....-., .,,':'.. ."e~r ... "x .iui -.u



.in
Gunbran ,. ,


Groundbreaking, 1991.








The Future


In his 1992 book on the future of our planet, "Earth in the Balance"
(Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston), Vice President-Elect Al Gore outlines a
world-wide cooperative plan calling for the increased use of a number of
"new, environmentally appropriate agricultural technologies." These include
(1) refinements in irrigation technology that reduce water consumption while
increasing yields, (2) low-input crop management to reduce soil erosion, (3)
advances in plant genetics to introduce natural resistance to diseases and
predators while reducing pesticide and herbicide uses, (4) new discoveries
in aquaculture and fishing techniques to offer alternative to destructive
practices, and (5) more sophisticated techniques of food distribution to
reduce costs and losses during distribution, especially among lessdeveloped
nations (p. 322).
Gore also decries the "steady loss of genetic diversity" in a number of
important food crops around the world, noting that every plant and animal on
our planet fights off extinction through the genetic ability to respond to
changes in its environment. He notes that The United Nations International
Board for Plant Genetic Resources lists "most at risk" fruits and vegetables
including avocado, cassava, coconut, mango, okra, pepper, sorghum,
sugarcane, sweet potato, tomato and yam (p. 137).
As the histories on the following pages will indicate, the University of the


Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station is already actively responding
to these global needs, by conducting studies into the responses of various
crops to water-conserving irrigation systems; testing many varieties of fruits
and vegetables for their viability in semi-arid climates around the world;
seeking plant varieties that are naturally disease- and insect-resistant;
promoting an inexpensive, dependable and environmentally responsible
source of protein through aquaculture; fighting erosion and species loss
through reforestation; improving the quality of feed available to local animal
species; and improving the animals themselves, to the benefit of all
consumers.
The UVI Cooperative Extension Service has also responded to these
needs, by promoting environmental responsibility and awareness to its
clientele, emphasizing natural resources, teaching safe and limited use of
pesticides while offering natural alternatives whenever possible, and passing
along the research results of AES experiments conducted at UVI and at other
similar institutions to the people.
Finally, through its CES home economics program, which emphasizes
the relationship between nutrition and health, and through the component's
active involvement in the Caribbean Food Crops Society, UVI Land-Grant
has already made a priority of promoting a better food source for the people
of the Virgin Islands and the Caribbean.
We are a small group, and our work is just 20 years old. But we are
committed to a vision of the future, committed to collaboration, and committed
to excellence. We promise to redouble our efforts to improve the lives of
Virgin Islanders and make our beautiful island home a paradise our
grandchildren can inherit with pride.












Aquaculture Research Specialist Bill Cole with the new UVI-AES marine finfish culture tanks on
St. Croix. Seawatercirculates through these tanks, which are being used to grow popularmarine
food fish to market size.










AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
PROGRAM HISTORIES


Dr. Stefan Buzdugan, AES Horticulturist, with a drip irrigation trialin the early 1980's. At the time,
irrigation research was being conducted on tomatoes, papaya, watermelons and pineapples.








HISTORY OF THE
AES ANIMAL SCIENCE PROGRAM

Dr. Stephan Wildeus, Animal Scientist

The first animal-related research work conducted at the newly established
Agricultural Experiment Station at CVI were several feasibility studies.
Consultants produced profitability reports on beef production, dairy farming,
poultry production, hog production and sheep and goat enterprises as well
as the marketing potential of livestock products. These early reports were
followed by a visit of animal scientists in April of 1976 to appraise the beef
cattle situation on the islands, with special reference to the Senepol cattle
native to St. Croix. The recommendations of this group included the need to
establish performance testing procedures, characterize the production
potential of the breed and subsequently compare the performance of the
Senepol cattle to that of established breeds.
To implement these recommendations CVI-AES became a cooperating
member in the S(southern)-10 regional research project on "Breeding
Methods for Beef Cattle in the Southern Region." A cooperative research
project with the USDA-ARS Subtropical Agricultural Research Station in
Brooksville, Florida, was initiated at this point under the direction of their
research geneticist Dr. Will Butts. It involved the shipment of semen
samples from local bulls to the USDA-ARS station for breed comparison
studies. The cooperative research links with the USDA-ARS Subtropical
Agricultural Research Station and the Animal Science program at UVI-AES
have remained strong to the present day, involving a number of different
scientists.
In 1977, Dr. Harold Hupp was hired as the first resident AES animal
scientist. Dr. Hupp's initial efforts were directed towards assisting the
fledging Senepol breed association and the publication of an Experiment
Station report on the history and development of the breed. His subsequent
work was directed towards the establishment and implementation of a
performance testing program to determine breed standards and improve the
breed through selection. He developed and published a manual on the
performance testing procedures for the Senepol breed, and the testing
program is still a vital part of the livestock extension program today.
Under Dr. Hupp's leadership data sets were developed on the Senepol
cattle on St. Croix that resulted in two master's degree theses and one Ph.D.
dissertation in conjunction with Clemson University, Michigan State University


Senepol cattle on St. Croix.








and the University of Arkansas. Apart from the routine performance data,
additional data were collected on growth potential in feeding trials, milking
ability, and the characteristics and palatability of Senepol carcasses. The
results of these data have been reported at scientific meetings and published
in the scientific press. Dr. Hupp was an active participant of the S-10 regional
research project, served as its secretary, and in 1981 AES hosted the annual
technical committee meeting of this group on St. Croix.
Dr. Hupp also became involved in some on-farm performance recording
of the local Virgin Islands White hair sheep, and the results of these efforts
were published as part of book of a Winrock International study on Hair
Sheep of Western Africa and the Americas by Drs. Fitzhugh and Bradford.
Following Dr. Hupp's departure from the AES in 1984, the emphasis of
the research work on Senepol cattle shifted from performance testing to
aspects of reproduction under his successor, Dr. Stephan Wildeus. AES
remained involved in S-10 until the termination of the project in 1988.
Research was conducted on reproduction in the female and male, involving
puberal development, calving interval, sperm production and seasonality of
reproduction. AES hosted an international research symposium in 1987 that
resulted in published proceedings summarizing the scientific knowledge of
the breed at this point. The symposium had participation by both scientists


and commercial cattleman.
In 1986 emphasis of the livestock research changed from the Senepol
cattle, which were now well covered underthe CES beef cattle performance
program, to the Virgin Islands White (St. Croix) hair sheep. A small hair
sheep research facility was developed on part of the St. Croix campus and
stocked with animals from a number of local farms. With time this facility
expanded, and today it houses approximately 200 head, representing three
breedtypes, including Barbados Blackbelly and Florida Native wool sheep in
addition to the Virgin Islands White.
Initial research was concerned with the characterization of the breed
under local conditions and the preservation of the available germplasm.
Extramural funding was obtained to conduct studies on the reproductive
performance of these sheep, in conjunction with Dr. Warren Foote at Utah
State University. Additional funding was secured for research on
gastrointestinal parasitism in a joint project with Dr. Charles Courtney of the
College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Florida. This work was
followed by a project on strategic supplementation of sheep on tropical grass
pastures, in cooperation with Dr. Andrew Hammond at the USDA-ARS
Subtropical Agricultural Research Station.
To expand the scope of the sheep research AES became a member of


Animal Science Program hair sheep in the field. Metabolism trials use "diapers" to tell researchers how efficiently sheep are able to use feeds.








the NC(north-central)-I 11 regional research project on "Increasing Prolificacy
in Sheep and Its Impact on Nutritional Needs." AES hosted the annual
meeting of the technical committee of this group in 1991 on St. Croix. In
conjunction with this meeting, AES also hosted an international hair sheep
research symposium, in which data were presented from the Caribbean, the
continental U.S., South America, Africa and Asia. The presentations of this
symposium were summarized and published in a proceedings.
Community outreach with hair sheep research has taken the form of field
days with demonstrations of management techniques and the presentation
of research findings, guided tours of the facility to the public (i.e., schools)
and the dissemination of breeding stock to interested farmers. Research
data resulting from the work conducted in the Animal Science Program have
been published in several scientific articles, apart from the published
proceedings from the two symposia.
Dr. Wildeus has just left the AES program to work on a new animal
science project at Virginia State University. Current staff include Mr. Mark
Gray, research specialist; Ms. Joni Rae Collins, research analyst; and Mr.
Victor Callas, agricultural aide.
























Above: In 1982, (from left) Douglas Wright, Audrey Valmont Schuster, Yvonne Horton, Amy
Lawaetz, Alan Schuster and Dr. Harold Hupp. Below: Research Analyst Joni Rae Collins talks
to second graders about sheep, 1992.








HISTORY OF THE
AES AGRONOMY PROGRAM

Dr. Martin B. Adjei, Agronomist

On St. Croix, the extensive sugarcane farms and the sugar industry
ceased to exist with the demise of the Virgin Islands Corporation in 1966.
Various agricultural alternatives were considered and examined, including
vegetables, fruits, grain crops, forages, beef cattle and dairying, but eventually,
dairying emerged as the most important agricultural enterprise on St. Croix.
In addition to dairy cattle, approximately 5,000 beef cattle were maintained
on about 3,000 acres and raised to slaughter weight on grass in 1973.
In the U.S. Virgin Islands, the most limiting factorto feed-grain and crop
production is effective soil moisture. Average annual rainfall is 1100 mm,
with approximately 50 percent of it falling between Septemberand December.
Open pan evaporation is constantly high and exceeds 1800 mm, yearly. The
climate, therefore, is semi-arid, characterized by alternate wet and dry
seasons, yearly moisture deficit and thus periodic acute feed shortages (both
quality and quantity) on limited land holdings.
Because of the feed-grain deficit, approximately 95 percent of the Virgin
Islands livestock feed was imported prior to 1973, and local leadership had
a strong desire to supplant feed imports with local production. One of the
initial AES feasibility studies was conducted by a team of specialists from
Texaswho looked at the production and utilization potential of grain sorghum
and forages in St. Croix. Based on the specialists' recommendations in 1975,
the initial agronomic research efforts at AES focused on the perennial dry
season feed deficiency problem and its solution.
The years from 1976 to 1985 saw considerable progress at the UVI-AES
in grain and forage sorghum research for silage production as a means of
forage conservation for the dry season. From replicated field performance
trials, conducted by A.J. Conje, suitable sorghum varieties adapted to Virgin
Islands conditions were identified, including the Taylor-Evans Silomaker and
Yieldmaker intermediate varieties which were capable of producing 10 to 15
tons dry forage per acre, yearly.
Agronomic research results made available to local farmers through
several AES publications included information on land and seedbed
preparation; planting date and row-spacing; rates of fertilization; weed,
insect and disease control; harvesting and storage methods. There was a
corresponding increased response in sorghum crop production for silage by

Former AES agronomist Dr. Ahmed El Nadi Hegab with sorghum.








local farmers and an upsurge in beef and dairy output for the Virgin Islands
market.
By 1982, the livestock industry at St. Croixwas comprised of 5,000 cattle
(both beef and dairy) and 5,000 sheep and goats on 6,000 hectares of
farmland (U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 1983). Despite the earlier success with
silage conservation,the livestock industry was supported primarily by native
grasslands which are dominated by guineagrass (Panicum maximum) and
leucaena (Luecaena leucocephala) in productive areas and by hurricane
grass (Bothriochloa pertusa) and casha (Acacia spp.) in overgrazed,
deteriorated sites. A 1986 AES survey determined that the noxious weed
casha had invaded 90 percent of St. Croix's pastures and decreased useable
pasture by up to 26 percent. As a result, the period from 1986 marked a clear
departure from sorghum research toward concentration on the study of
management systems for native grasslands in the U.S. Virgin Islands.
The overall objectives of this study initiated in 1986 by Michael and Joy
Michaud were to ascertain the management methods that promote dry
matter production, improve forage quality and maintain the integrity of
indigenous pastures, as well as to determine ecological and environmental
factors affecting the ingress of malevolent plant species such as hurricane
grass and casha into the native swards.
Several important reports emerged from those studies between 1986
and 1990 that defined for the first time, the composition and productive
capacity of native pastures. Appropriate establishment procedures and
cutting management for guineagrass-based pastures were developed, and
promising native and introduced legumes and grasses for pasture
improvement in the Virgin Islands were selected.
Pasture development recommendations formulated from researchwere
made available to local farmers on the topics of land preparation, seeding
rates, time of planting, and cutting heights and frequencies. Grasses
recommended for pasture improvement included green panic (Panicum
maximum) and buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) fordry sites and pangola grass
(Digitaria decumbens) for wet sites. Adapted legumes recommended for
commercial plantings were perennial soybeans (Neonotonia wightil), Siratro
(Macroptilium atropurpureum) and teramnus (Teramnus labialis).
A few of the acreages established by farmers to recommended species
persist on the islands. However, due to a lack of appropriate grazing
management guidelines, most renovated pastures have reverted to their
native situation.
A new and broader phase of the forage research program at UVI-AES
was initiated in 1990 by M.B. Adjei, based on the successes and failures of
previous programs. It attempts to merge forage conservation with pasture
and grazing management in one package. One project aims at the selection


of grass-legume mixtures with a potential for forage conservation (silage or
forage bank) and the development of low-input cropping systems (e.g.,
alley-cropping) for sustainable forage production. Under this project,
seeded and perennial pearl millet x elephantgrass (both Pennisetum spp.)
interspecific hybrids are being selected in mixtures with local legumes as an
alternative to sorghum for silage production. These mixtures overcome the
need for and expense of yearly establishment and nitrogen fertilization.
Another project has just been initiated to examine the possibility of
improving the quality of locally-produced guineagrass hay through urea
treatment. In addition, grazing trials are being conducted to determine the
animal carrying capacities of native and improved pastures as a means of
preventing continued range deterioration. Mechanical and chemical methods
for the control of casha are being evaluated.
As the tourist industry and urban development in the U.S. Virgin Islands
continue to expand, agricultural land available for livestock grazing will
continue to diminish and become more expensive. Economical methods for
pasture improvement coupled with sustainable forage and grazing
management strategies will hold the key to any future survival and success
of the dairy, beef, sheep and goat industry. The AES forage research
program is aware of the challenges ahead and will continue to provide the
necessary research and information for that success.
Research analyst Cyndi Wildeus is leaving the program. Agricultural
aides are Osvaldo Lopez and Antonio Rodriguez.
Agricultural aides Osvaldo Lopez (left) and Antonio Rodriguez.
,;-;,-m.- .i








HISTORY OF THE
AES AQUACULTURE PROGRAM

Dr. James E. Rakocy, Aquaculturist

The Aquaculture Program began in 1973 with a project on cage culture
of fish using tertiary treated water. A second project on clam culture in treated
wastewater, conducted in cooperation with Columbia University's Lamont-
Doherty Geological Observatory on St. Croix, was added in 1974. These
projects took advantage of the large quantity of treated wastewater available
from St. Croix's newly-constructed tertiary wastewater treatment plant.
The clam project was directed by Dr. Ken Haines of the Lamont-Doherty
Laboratory. The program's first employee was Mr. Donatus St. Aimee, who
was hired in 1974. During his employment, he conducted research related
to his project to obtain a masters degree from the West Indies Laboratory
(Fairleigh Dickinson University). He left the program in 1976 to become the
St. Lucia Representative to the United Nations.
Tilapia fish have been the focal point of the research program. Although
the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) has inhabited the
inland waters of St. Croix since its introduction in 1953, several other species
have been studied by the program. In 1987, a study showed that the Nile and
Florida red tilapia were the fastest growing species. All subsequent work has
concentrated on these species.
The first research facilities consisted of concrete and fiberglass tanks at
the wastewater treatment plant and four dug ponds adjacent to the Golden
Grove Correctional Facility. These were eventually abandoned as better
research facilities were developed on the St. Croix campus.
Ms. Lauren Bishop, a VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America) Volunteer,
worked for the program in 1976 and maintained the facilities until the arrival
of Dr. Robert Busch. During his three years at AES, he built a cage culture
research facility in a pond at the V.I. Department of Agriculture in 1977 and
established a water quality laboratory on the St. Croix campus.
The tilapia produced in the experiments were sold to the public in an
effort to interest farmers in raising this fish. After one experiment, the CES
Home Economics staff conducted tilapia tasting demonstrations in ten
housing projects on St. Croix and distributed questionnaires to assess the
participants' response, which was overwhelmingly (96%) favorable.
In 1978, the program joined a southern regional research project on
freshwater food animals and began to lay plans to develop a backyard fish
Research specialist John Hargreaves and research analyst Don Bailey collect and weigh tilapia
grown in marine cages in 1988.








culture research facility in plastic swimming pools. AES also funded a
ciguatera fish poisoning project in 1978, directed by Dr. Joe McMillan on the
St. Thomas campus. When people on St. Croix suffered fish poisoning, the
aquaculture staff collected the remaining fish and sent them to St. Thomas
where Dr. McMillan attempted to extract and purify the toxic compounds for
chemical identification. This was usually a piecemeal, one-fish-at-a-time
operation until one weekend when dozens of people became ill after eating
toxic red snappers at three St. Croix restaurants. The 200 pounds of toxic
fish supplied to Dr. McMillan were enough for several year's work.
Another new project was initiated in 1979 by Mr. Barnaby Watten, a
research analyst hired in 1977. He wanted to go to graduate school, but he
was told by an admissions officerthat he needed to demonstrate his research
capability. With the cooperation of AES, he built and tested an integrated
recirculating system for tilapia and tomato production in his backyard. The
project was a success and led to the program's first professional journal
article. Mr. Watten went on to obtain a M.S. degree from Oregon State
University and a Ph.D. from Auburn University, both in aquaculture
engineering. As the developer of several patents, an author, and an expert
on aquaculture aeration systems, he isthe foremost alumni of the aquaculture
program to date.
Hydroponic lettuce.


In 1979, Mr. Jim Clarke joined the aquaculture program as a research
aide, and in 1980 Mr. Watten was replaced by Mr. Ayyappan Nair, a research
specialist. Also in 1980, Dr. Jim Rakocy replaced Dr. Busch as program
leader. Dr. Rakocy implemented the plans for an aquaculture research
facility on the St. Croix campus, on a one-acre parcel of land. Thirty-six vinyl-
lined, steel-walled swimming pools of varying sizes were erected. Six of
these tanks became recirculating systems, as they were connected to a water
treatment component consisting of a settling tank, a reservoir and two
hydroponic beds.
The facility was used to breed tilapia and raise fingerlings for production
experiments in cages and recirculating systems integrated with vegetable
hydroponics. Experiments were conducted with tomatoes, Chinese cabbage,
pac choi and lettuce. A backyard model of this system was made from oil
barrels and displayed at the 1981 Agriculture and Food Fair where it
generated considerable interest, since it was able to produce a hundred
pounds of food (tilapia, tomatoes and lettuce) in a single three-and-a-half-
month production cycle.
The program had a number of challenges perfecting its facilities,
including toxic and brittle vinyl tank liners, holes poked by nutsedge, fish that
liked to eat the lining material, and leaching herbicide that killed the
hydroponic vegetables one week before AES hosted the 1984 annual
meeting of the southern regional aquaculture project.
In 1980-81, the program staff assisted in the redesign of the cage culture
facility at the V.I. Department of Agriculture, which was having problems with
vandals. Thirty cages of improved design were moved to the Annally Farm
pond located behind the processing plant. Unfortunately, no sooner had one
problem been solved when a drought hit. There was little rain in 1982, and
the pond level dropped by ten feet. The fish were returned to tanks at the
Station and the cages were removed for safekeeping.
In 1983 the cages were redeployed in three new ponds with sufficient
waterto conduct an experiment on the use of demand feeders, which allowed
fish to feed themselves and reduced the labor of fish farmers by 90 percent.
This work led to several publications, a presentation at an international
conference in Bangkok, Thailand, and a masters thesis at Auburn University
by Mr. John Hargreaves.
In 1986 the cage culture facility was moved once again to Chimney Bush
Pond in Estate Bethlehem. The cages were integrated into St. Croix's first
commercial operation, Virgin Islands Food Fish Farm, Inc., which provided
logistical support, security and an opportunity for the aquaculture program to
develop commercial-scale production systems. Two experiments were
completed and 18,500 pounds of tilapia produced when Hurricane Hugo
brought an end to the farm and the facility. A recent economic analysis of








the project, however, indicates that cage culture of tilapia is economically
feasible in the U.S. Virgin Islands. The hurricane also destroyed a cage
culture project in Salt River Bay to test the feasibility of culturing tilapia in
saltwater.
A number of personnel changes occurred during this period. Mr. Marc
Pacifico worked for the program as a research analyst during 1981-82. He
was replaced by Mr. Hargreaves, who served the program twice, as a
research analyst from 1983-85, and as research specialist from 1987-91. Mr.
Hargreaves is currently working on his Ph.D. in aquaculture at Louisiana
State University. Mr. Daniel Miller, an M.S. student on leave from Auburn
University, filled in as research analyst from 1985-86. Mr. Clarke left the
program in 1982 and was replaced by Mr. Vernon Smith, who worked from
1983-87. In 1988, a new position was created for a research analyst in water
quality. Mr. Eric Kusterserved in this position from 1989-90, followed by Ms.
Angela Rangel, from 1991-92. The position has recently been filled by Mr.
Kurt Shultz.
The current aquaculture program staff includes Mr. Donald Bailey, who
joined the program as a research analyst in 1986 and this year assumed a
research specialist position in charge of economic studies. Mr. Bailey
distinguished himself by becoming the first employee in the program to
obtain a MBA degree from UVI. Mr. Ezekiel Clarke hasworked in the program
as a research aide since 1987. Mr. William Cole joined the program in 1991
as a research specialist. Dr. Rakocy expanded his duties by becoming the
assistant director of AES in 1987 and associate/research director in 1989.
Hurricane Hugo provided the impetus to remodel and upgrade the
aquaculture research facilities. All of the damaged tanks were finally
replaced with fiberglass. Three 22,000-gallon water storage tanks provide a
catchment capacity of nearly one million gallons peryear. Six new tanks hold
fingerlings and marketable fish. A concrete block building offers a cold
storage room for feed. One of the new greenhouses is being used for the
production of vegetable transplants for hydroponic experiments.
The program has embarked on several new research initiatives. One
researches the marine cage culture of tilapia. A research facility to explore
the potential of culturing marine finfish like snappers, groupers and grunts
has been constructed on private property in Cotton Valley. Two commercial-
scale integrated systems have been constructed at the aquaculture research
facility and are being run on a sustained basis to collect data for the
development of enterprise budgets. Finally, a project has been initiated to
study the integration of tilapia tank culture with the field production of
vegetables. In the first experiment, culture water and sludge from the 20-feet
tanks are being used to irrigate a field crop of bell peppers.


Above: New research looks at marine finfish, like these white grunts. Below: Letter from Jinnie
Richards, Good Hope School, grade 5, after a tour of the aquaculture program.




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________________R ^C~a^ og ^








HISTORY OF THE
AES VEGETABLE CROPS PROGRAM

Dr. Manuel C. Palada, Horticulturist

The Vegetable Crops Program, a unit of the UVI horticulture program,
began in the mid 1970s as a response to the declining production output of
fruits and vegetables in the islands after government development priorities
were focused on tourism and industrialization.
Before actual field research in horticulture was started, a feasibility
study was conducted to determine production, consumption potentials and
marketing problems of fruits and vegetables in the Virgin Islands. This study
identified the major physical, biological, technical and socio-economic
constraintsto fruit and vegetable production, but suggested that commercial
production of fruits and vegetables can be economically viable given the
opportunities for year-round production, increased local consumption and a
favorable market. In general, the program's efforts since that initial study
have been aimed at providing local growers with specific information on
individual crops in the Virgin Islands.
The program plays a major role in promoting and stimulating vegetable
production in the Virgin Islands. Its objectives are developing appropriate
technologies for improving vegetable production and cooperating with the
extension service to provide and disseminate research information to local
vegetable growers and the community.
Since its beginning, the program has focused research into five major
areas: germplasm evaluation; drip irrigation; soils and fertilizers; weed,
insect and disease control; improved cultural management practices; and
introduction of new crops with economic potential in the Virgin Islands.
The search for superior varieties suitable for growing in the Virgin
Islands has been a continuing effort. Evaluation of vegetable varieties was
initiated in 1978, and since then hundreds of varieties of vegetables ranging
from broccoli to tomatoes, okra and sweet potato, have been conducted.
The results of more than 10 years of research on variety evaluation have
provided information on new and high-yielding varieties that can be extended
to vegetable growers in the islands.
Limited water for crop production has been a major constraint to
successful farming in the Virgin Islands. Without supplemental irrigation,
commercial vegetable production is not economically feasible. Since 1980,
the program has conducted studies to determine water requirements of fruits

Research Assistant Albion Francis with eggplants, 1985.








and vegetables in the Virgin Islands. Field trials were conducted from 1981-
1983 on the effect of trickle (drip) irrigation on yield and economic returns of
vegetable crops and fruits, including tomatoes, watermelon, sweet corn,
cucumber and bell peppers.
Most of these studies indicated that under limited water and energy
supplies, the use of drip irrigation is the most appropriate, efficient and
economical method of irrigating high value crops. As a result of more than
a decade of irrigation research with vegetable crops at the experiment
station, many Virgin Islands growers now considerdrip irrigation an essential
component of their vegetable production enterprise.
Root crops such as sweet potato, yam and cassava are popular in the
Virgin Islands and other Caribbean nations. In terms of hectarage and
production, sweet potato ranks first followed by cassava and yam. These
crops are a major source of energy, carbohydrates and vitamins. The
program conducted research projects between 1988 and 1991 to evaluate
germplasm suitable for growing in the Virgin Islands and improve crop


management practices for increased local production. These studies continue,
as well as research into the control of the sweet potato weevil.
Herbs and spices are horticultural crops with economic potential in the
Virgin Islands and most of the Caribbean region. Although sales from herbs
contribute a major source of cash income for small-scale farmers in the
Virgin Islands, little research has been done to improve crop management
and increase production. Since 1988 the program has been responding to
this need through a grant from USDA/CSRS. This project addresses
germplasm collection and multiplication, as well as major production
constraints experienced by herb growers in the Virgin Islands, including
inefficient water and fertilizer use; insect, disease and weed control problems;
inadequate planting materials and spacing needs.
The program is presently conducting studies on techniques that can
reduce evapotranspiration and soil moisture loss, such as mulching, hedgerow
intercropping, windbreaks, water absorbing polymers and drought tolerant
crops. Studies will continue to determine minimum water requirement of
other vegetable crops with economic importance in the Virgin Islands.
Research on soil water conservation will also include the use of

Left: Agricultural Aide Nelson Benitez with tomato trial. Below: 1992 harvest from sweet potato
variety trials.








alternative water sources for irrigation. For example, a project on integrating
fish culture in tanks with field production of vegetable crops to conserve
water and provide fertilizer is being initiated this year. Another new project
is testing the use of saline or brackish water for irrigating vegetable crops.
A new research emphasis of the program is alley cropping or hedgerow
intercropping, a method of sustainable agriculture that is receiving international
attention. It is a form of agroforestry in which food crops are grown in
association with trees or shrubs. The crops benefit from the trees in many
ways, including improved soil fertility, erosion control, windbreak and
sustained crop yieldswith low inputs. Many research studies in alley cropping
have focused on agronomic crops, but its applicability to vegetable crops has
not been adequately investigated. A research grant has been awarded to the
Vegetable Crops Program to initiate this research project. The three-year
grant will cover studies which screen potential tree and shrub species for
alley cropping with vegetable crops and investigate the effect of alley
cropping on soil fertility, soil water, evapotranspiration and total productivity.
Current staff includes Dr. Manuel Palada, horticulturist; Mr. Stafford
M.A. Crossman, research specialist; and Mr. Charles Collingwood, research
analyst.






















Top, this page: papaya trial from 1990. Bottom: UVI Board of Trustees and President Kean tour
ornamental horticulture facility in 1991. Next page: Horticulturist Christopher Ramcharan and
Station Superintendant Eric Dillingham with bananas in the early 1980's.








HISTORY OF THE
AES FRUIT CROPS PROGRAM

Dr. Christopher Ramcharan, Horticulturist

Initial feasibility studies in production and consumption potentials of
fruits and vegetables in the U.S Virgin Islands conducted in June, 1974,
concluded that profit potential for farmers in St.Croix appeared best for
tomatoes, mangos, papaya and okra. Another study in 1977 (published as
Prospects for Growing Grapes in the U.S. Virgin Islands, AES Report No. 10)
examined the potential for table grape production. Based on these surveys,
a ten-year Hatch Act project entitled "Improvement of Tropical Fruit Production
in the Virgin Islands" was initiated in 1975. Prior to this, papaya production
using the well known Solo cultivars from Hawaii had shown good prospects
for the domestic and export markets. This was, however, severely curtailed
by papaya ringspot virus and St. Croix decline disease.
Field trials for identifying resistant papaya cultivars and incorporating
resistance into the Solo cultivar through plant breeding techniques were
therefore the basis for the initial fruit crops research. A grape orchard was
also established. High soil pH-induced nutrient deficiencies and mildew
disease problems were the major grape-growing constraints, but a highly
tolerant local rootstock was identified. This has been selectively propagated
and has the potential forfacilitating commercial production grafting techniques.
In 1981, further projects in papaya and new studies in banana, plantain,
citrus and minor tropical fruits were initiated. Major field testing of several
papaya cultivars was conducted to identify tolerance to Papaya ringspot
virus and, more critically, St.Croix decline disease. Another major study
involving nutrients, soil-applied sulfur and methyl bromide fumigation
concluded that the papaya decline problem was caused by airborne rather
than soil-based pathogens, and this eliminated a considerable amount of
future research in identifying a control method.
Also during this period, a citrus germplasm study incorporating 22
cultivars was initiated on a one-acre site to evaluate the feasibility of growing
citrus in the Virgin Islands.
At the 1981 CFCS meeting in Venezuela, tissue culture techniques,
particularly of banana and plantain, were exhibited, and a field evaluation of
'Grande Naine' banana and Maricongo plantain was initiated later that year
from a donation of plants from the original tissue culture lab in Florida. This
technology was ideal forthe Virgin Islands since it overcame plant quarantine
problems and the scarcity of local planting materials. As a result, the Banana/
Plantain program at AES received a significant boost. The 'Grande Naine'







banana became firmly established as the ideal cultivar for the Virgin Islands,
and several thousand plants were distributed to local backyard gardeners
and farmers. At the same time, ongoing research identified irrigation
methods, nematicides and appropriate manures and fertilizers for growing
banana. Also of significance was the selection of a Dwarf French Plantain
from the tissue culture lab that produced bunches with an average of over
120 fruits. This cultivar was later distributed to researchers in Honduras,
Israel, Nigeria and Australia.
Work in the Musaceous crops reached its peakwith invited presentations
on the Dwarf French plantain at the Third International Association for
Research in Plantain and Cooking Bananas in the Ivory Coast in May, 1985,
and on the 'Grande Naine' banana at the Second International Working
Group on Banana Physiology in Costa Rica in 1986.
By 1983 the Fruit Crop Program had become well-established and a
research specialist was hired. In 1984, a USDA-CBAG project on heat stress
physiology of fruit and ornamental plants was approved. This also allowed
Mr. Christopher Ramcharan, as a co-investigator, to do research at the
University of Florida and fulfil the requirements for a Ph.D. Critical root-zone
temperatures for potted banana, ixora, dracaena and citrus were
characterized, and several publications on this topic were written.
Simultaneous work on St.Croix resulted in methods of container color, pot
spacing, and mulching materials to reduce and control high temperature
buildup in container nursery plants.
During this time, a plant pathologist was hired to continue the work on
the decline disease in papaya. Extensive investigations elucidated an
Erwina sp. bacteria as the pathogen responsible for the decline problem.
Most significant,however, was the discovery that the Barbados solo cultivar
was highly tolerant to bacterial infection, and that when papaya were
intercropped with species such as pigeon pea, cassava, and Moringa, there
was a significant decrease in bacterial infection. Windbreak protection and
intercropping with these species therefore became a standard
recommendation for controlling decline disease, which has since been
termed "papaya stem canker."
In 1985, pineapple work revealed that most pineapple cultivars were
highly susceptible to high pH-induced iron chlorosis on St.Croix. This
deficiency severely retarded growth and plants became highly susceptible to
insect-induced wilt disease and heart rot. Studies identified most- and least-
resistent varieties under local conditions. Plants started from tissue culture
were found to grow and produce better since they were less infested with
insects and could acclimatize better to local soil conditions.
With the return of theDr. Ramcharan in 1987, the decision was made to
convert the former plant pathology lab to a newly reorganized biotechnology


lab. A CBAG project on the micropropagation of breadfruit was developed
and approved and a research specialist in tissue culture was hired to conduct
the research. At the same time, ornamental horticulture was included in the
program because of the increasing importance of interior and landscape
plants and the new emphasis on environmental horticulture.
In 1989, an ornamental horticulture greenhouse was constructed and a
tissue culture lab fully refurbished when Hurricane Hugo struckand completely
decimated both projects. In addition, all fruit tree crop orchards, including
magoes being used for a flowering project, were totally destroyed, and
phenology studies on mahogany were severely disrupted .
Since 1991, all efforts have been devoted to rebuilding the greenhouses,
offices and the biotechnology lab. Mango flowering studies abandoned in the
field were continued in a modified form in containerized plants in the
greenhouse. In 1991, a CBAG project on the potential for ornamental pot
production from local species using plant growth regulators was initiated in
the newly- rebuilt greenhouses at AES. The biotechnology lab is just being
completed within the new Research and Extension complex and a tissue
culture specialist will be hired soon.

Forestry

In 1976, a report was issued by the AES entitled Virgin Islands Forestry
Research: A Problem Analysis. The report outlined the need for forestry
research in the U.S. Virgin Islands and listed six areas of possible AES
research: town forestry, medium-leaf mahogany, forest recreation,
watershed protection, wildlife and production of Christmas trees.
At the time of the report both the Institute of Tropical Forestry (U.S.
Forest Service) and the Forestry Division of the V.I. Department of Agriculture
(now Economic Development and Agriculture) were conducting research on
St. Croix. Since then, research activities by these two agencies have been
greatly curtailed.
AES officially began forestry field research in 1989 when funding was
granted by the USDA to initiate research on the three mahogany species
found in the Virgin Islands: small-leaf, medium-leaf and big-leaf mahogany.
Research Analyst Mr. James O'Donnell is presently conducting research on
the phenological and physiological response of the three species to drought
stress. In addition to the mahogany studies, future forestry research at the
station will be directed toward adaptability of othertree species to conditions
in the Virgin Islands and development of agroforestry systems for local
agriculture.







COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
PROGRAM HISTORIES


VAc?
all $ fi


This Daily News photo accompanied the story of the first-ever Virgin Islands 4-H Achievement
Day and Fair, held at Nisky Demonstration School on St. Thomas, in May of 1965. One club
competed from St. John, five from St. Croix and two from St. Thomas.


I6A


~t~~" .+I








HISTORY OF THE
CES HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAM

Josephine Petersen-Springer, Program Leader

Twenty years ago, like today, the CES Home Economics program
emphasized the entire family. Traditional programs include assistance to
homemakers in cooking and sewing skills. New programs target the elderly,
child care, teen pregnancy and youth at risk, along with managing money and
other resources. These reflect the change in attitudes of Virgin Islanders, and
the continued requests and demands many government agencies and
private concerns make of the program. Foods, nutrition, and diet are
becoming increasingly important: diabetes, hypertension, cancer and obesity
are all prominent diseases in ourisland community that receive our attention.
According to Mrs. Agatha Ross, hired in 1969 as the second Home
Economics Extension Aide, working with the program back then was
challenging and exhilarating. She says that afterthe program was established,
all she did was "blow the horn for my car" and the clients came out.
Mrs. Amy McKay, a Virgin Islander and the first Home Economics
Program Leader, who retired in October of 1969, set the stage for the second
Program Leader, Mrs. Anne Postell. Mrs. McKay published a book of local
recipes entitled Le Awe Cook. Mrs. Postell brought to the Virgin Islands many
USDA recipes prepared for use with the donated Foods Commodity Program
launched in the territory.
Because donated food recipients were tired of cooking the same foods
over and over, the extension aide introduced recipes prepared in both
Spanish and English to low-income clients. Like today, the program then
focused on reading labels and shopping wisely. Because of the tremendous
demand for new ideas to use the donated foods, sessions were conducted in
clusters or groups, instead of a one-to-one basis, shortly after the program
started.
The aide was also responsible for the 4-H program. She taught 4-Hers
fund-raising ideas using baked goods. Plant distributions and follow-up visits
with agriculture agent Mr. David Farrar were also integrated with the
program.
Food demonstrations began with the very first Agriculture and Food Fair
sponsored in 1970 at the Christiansted Market Place. Donated food recipes
were distributed and prepared for sampling using a coal-pot, a dripping pan
with cover and a spoon. Mrs. Olivia Henry, a foods and nutrition specialist
Mrs. Agatha Ross, who retired in 1982, looks over the Home Economics collection of dried bush
teas.








Columns in the St. Croix Avis, Sept. 17, 1962

VOL.. 118 ::. .. ;:MONDAY, SPTEMBER 17, 1962 No. 214
PRESS RELEASE. '.'*:': .. .


',:'. .. .R. HENDERSON, Exteolon Age .-. -.:
.Vr.Lsla.nd Agrculstual Prosgam
United States Departmant of Agriculture
J USING THE AVOCADO '
Today our third'ina seriesof three rticls on fruits in
season comes from our Home Demonstration Agent.for.the
benetft of .our Homemakers.'Avocados ,are versatile in .the
,enu, teaming up well in many combinations'Th. Avocado
iaittractive.n appearance and hasJiLdelicatei nt-lik flayor
.:Itis high'in lat coenteitherefore high n c de.Co
ray^ 'Populax. beief;;, it is not a good source of,. protein.
ae-halot. a;-ediumn West India AAvocad owetains.about
*9 granosf. protein. and. 200 calories.. Compare this to one
erving of lean, meat which'contains 18.4 grams, protein and
-244 calories. Avocado contains a fair-amountof Iron, Vita-
m in A'id the B Vitamins.: ..
In-selecting avocadoes, hold the fruit and press gently.
If-the avocado "gives" a- little, it is soft enough forsame-da
"serving. -Avocado may-be frozen in Puree form to be used
later in molded salads, sandwich fillings, ices and dips. Whole
jor sliced avocado does not freeze welL

MAKING JELLIES THE MODERN WAY
". Mrs Am vMacka :
.".In grandmother'. days she had to have both skill and experience
in order to be. a successful jelly maker. She had to experiment with
different kinds of fruit to find.out.which Were the good j)llying"'
fruits. Shehad to guess atthe amount of sugar the would need. Thez
she.had to boil the mixture until it reached the "jelly tage", using
tests-.that were not always reliable. But with all .her experience
Could never be-sure that every batch of jam or jelly would be
ucce;ssful.every tiMe., ',., ,.. .....
'Today anyone can make: delicious 'jeliywithiy. a ind o fruit
and with a.minimum of effort~-science has simpuled.and.controed,
jelly-making methods o. that even. the. beginer. can be sure ot sae'
ces. .Guess work and. long slow cooking .have. been eliminated. *
*Todayr use, the! short-bon method. .(Using added Pectin) that'
hs.revolutionisied Inthis time-saving- method, the .fruit is prepared,
,then the a jeir-r or'mpar alado ixttpra is. brought.to ull roll.
lagiand boiled .onij Apminu t .This hort bol is just enough to sterl
~i~xtture,. prev d poilag eWithout added pecin, most
ellie ,jam ,be. 20to30 minutes in ordr .to cocen.
the.7ixtui to th. point .where proportions 'oftruit acid. sugar,
pqcn,'a e in't4 Osb-p
|^ H^ / ~p~ i fa het.. theo n
theme. l m eMi'je-makermakes jelly the -boil w
cited to'. um '.ood jellyin"frui
11 and recipes th aaure the correct r
pectin, no matter. wht fruit i i d.-
th. easy, time-saving, short-bol l


who served as the program's third program leader, continued the emphasis on food demonstrations,
including canning and freezing of fruits and vegetables, demonstrations using sorghum flour, the use of
tilapia (freshwater fish cultivated on campus), and the compilation of recipes using local foods.
Three cookbooks using local foods were prepared under her direction: Native Recipes, Breads, and
Holiday Cooking. Two leaflets were published on table manners and tea leaves of St. Croix. These
publications are still widely circulated and constantly requested in the community.
Once the Food Stamp Program replaced the Donated Foods Program in 1972, and with the introduction
of the Expanded Foods & Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) through the Extension Service Home
Economics Program, consumers' attention to nutrition and creativity with foods was lost, according to
current program leader Mrs. Josephine Petersen-Springer, who decries the fact that food stamps are used
for multiple reasons with little emphasis on nutrition and price as is reflected in shopping carts piled with
chips, soft drinks and candies.
In the early years, the Donated Foods Program supplied CES Home Economics program with foods
for demonstration purposes. Today the program pays directly for foods at a local supermarket. In spite of
these changes, extension assistants (this has since replaced the title "aides") continue to make a difference
in the lives of consumers enrolled in the EFNEP Program.
Another notable difference in the foods program in the "good old days" was that the homemakers or
clients received a certificate at graduation three years after enrollment. The extension aides met with them
a maximum of twice a month since there were many othersubject areas and community centers and villages
to reach. Today, however, certificates can be earned in six months to one year of EFNEP training.
As a spin-off of the Donated Foods Program, Extension Homemakers Clubs were formed, where
graduates were encouraged to assume the leadership roles for this national volunteer program which was
very active "back then," according to the extension aide. Today, the V.I. Extension Homemakers Council's
new name is the V.I. Family Community Education Program, with its mission of developing leadership skills
in volunteers to improve the family, and community.
The clothing construction and cultural arts and crafts programs continue to be popular and attract
people from all walks of life. Mrs. Beulah Thompson, Mrs. Hope Murphy, Mrs. Esther Mischer, Alma
Wesselhoft, Leona Cline, Anabelle Frett and Mrs. Josefina Monell followed Mrs. Ross' footsteps in
providing the workshops which met three hours per week, with an emphasis on beginner and intermediate
classes.
Early on, the 4-H program was part of the Home Economics program, and extension aides established
clubs and trained 4-H leaders. Once a week, an after-school clothing construction session was held for all
interested youths. Eventually, because of the continued interest, machines were taken from the Cooperative
Extension Home Economics program to the respective communities for the residents to use for their
sessions. Later on, a Mrs. Bostic, who served in the capacity of an agent, traveled from St. Thomas to
conduct evening sewing class, prior to the hiring of Ms. Loomis Bryan of St. Croix.
As a result of the clothing construction after-school program, the Home Economics Summer Teen
Program was established, offering youth of the families of the annual program something to do during the
summer months. Basicgarments using three to five pattern pieces continue to be the basis forthe beginners
classes with more difficult patterns for the intermediate classes. In the beginning, the extension aides
transported clients of the clothing construction classes to the Textile Mills to select their materials and
notions for their initial sessions. Today, however, there are many outlets from which to purchase supplies







and materials and accessible transportation to the stores.
Currently, the clothing laboratory can accommodate upto 15 persons at
a time, with modern sewing machines and video tapes to guide the clients
along. Modeling or fashioning the completed garment at a pre-arranged time
continues to be the norm.
The first summer teen program started in 1979 to celebrate the Year of
the Child. In 1984 the first Food Procurement Workshop was conducted on
St. Croix; Senior Citizen's Day, Creative Cooking, Canning with Kerr
representatives at the 1982 Agriculture and Food Fair, and the Wide Awake
Overcomers Groupwith the Department of Mental Health were also activities
of the home economics program at the time.
Mrs. Josephine Petersen-Springer, a family life and consumer economics
specialist, became the fourth program leader forthe program in 1988. Under
her leadership, the traditional focus on the family continues, but with
emphasis on building coalitions with existing community agencies and
groups to maximize Extension's limited human resources, organizing program
delivery necessaryto monitorthe impact of the programs offered, encouraging
volunteer community involvement to assist with program delivery, and
expanding food research, particularly as it affects persons with common
Nutrtitonist Mrs. Ramonita Caines shares diabetes information with Ms. Val Henderson of The
St. Croix Avis at the 1992 World Food Day activities.


diseases such as diabetes.
In 1989, foods and nutrition specialist Nan M. Lenhart published The
Heart of the Pumpkin, the first UVI cookbook to offer a complete nutritional
analysis, including information on calories, fat, protein, carbohydrates,
sodium and cholesterol, for recipes using Caribbean fruits and vegetables.
Like twenty years ago, staffing continues to be uncertain, with continued
demand on the extension assistants to deliver technical information
professionally to our clientele.
The program currently hastwo professional staff, Mrs. Ramonita Caines
and Ms. Fern Callwood; in addition to the program leader, Mrs. Josephine
Petersen-Springer; an administrative assistant, Mrs. Evannie Jeremiah; and
four extension assistants, Mrs. Rosalind Browne, Mrs. Dorothy Gibbs, Ms.
Miriam Greene, and Ms. Blanche Mills.
According to Mrs. Petersen-Springer, our emphasis now should be on
giant steps to help resolve the multiple social ills that now plague our
beautiful Virgin Islands community. Government social services program
cannot resolve the ills because of the bureaucratic red tape involved.
Extension Service might just be the catalyst of change needed, because of
our commitment to improve individuals and families.
Miss Blanche Mills (left), Extension assistant, with St. Thomas EFNEP group.
















































1.10 Z- 1. :4I
'A


History of the
CES Agriculture and Natural Resources Program

Clinton George, Program Leader

Mr. David Farrar joined the Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension
Service in October, 1973. At that time, the staff was small, and the agriculture
program staff was comprised of one paraprofessional and the Extension
director, Dr. Fenton B. Sands, who devoted about ten percent of his effort and
time to agriculture development. The St. Croix Extension staff was housed
in what is now Extension Building A. Office space comprised two small rooms
and a storage area. Because of limited funding and a lack of agriculture
program definition, there was no agriculture staff in the St. Thomas/St. John
district.
Shortly after Mr. Farrarjoined the staff, he was assigned all agriculture-
related responsibilities. Under the circumstances, the assignment provided
many challenges. Production of most food products was low in the three
islands. More than 95 percent of the food consumed by Virgin Islanders and
thousands of visitors was imported. Fresh milk and milk products were the
only locally produced food items in nearly sufficient supply. Five to six dairy
farmers on St. Croix and St. Thomas produced the bulk of fluid milk. A short
drive through communities quickly provided evidence that fruit and vegetable
growers needed technical assistance.
Also, livestock raisers needed to do a better job of pasture management
and growing legume and forage crops for hay and grain for supplemental
feed during prolonged dry periods. And, as one would expect in a tropical
environment, there was a crying need for pest control strategies.
The V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station lacked competent staff and
therefore was unable to provide the research data necessary for
comprehensive program planning. Consequently, most information was
collected from a variety of locally-based federal agencies and farmers. The
agronomist and horticulturist at the V.I. Department of Agriculture, for
example, gave valuable input regarding grain sorghum production, fruit and
vegetable production and marketing. Dr. D. S. Padda joined the AES staff in
1974, as research horticulturist. Right away, AES and CES formed a linkage
which increased the capability of the agencies to transfer locally generated
research results to anyone who requested it.
When Dr. Sands resigned in 1975, Dr. Padda was appointed acting
director. He soon became AES/CES Director. After a few months the
Local farmerOscarE. Henry, whose property is sometimes used for Extension demonstrations,
and his prized mangoes.








program accelerated.
The first project of the Natural Resources Program to be implemented
wasthe Pesticide Applicator Training Program in 1976. Since that time large
numbers of applicators of restricted use pesticides, both private and
commercial, have been trained in preparation for certification by the Virgin
Islands Government. Collaboration with a commercial dealer and consulting
firm in Puerto Rico enabled the program to provide frequent up-to-date
information on numerous pesticides with application potential in the territory.
This program was coordinated by Mr. Farrar until his retirement in 1990.
The Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Pesticide Impact
Assessment Programs started to function independently of each other in
1979, developed and directed by Dr. Walter Knausenberger. IPM practices
have clearly led to significant reductions in crop losses that could be
attributed to pests, especially in tomatoes and bananas. IPM assistance soon
was extended to include ornamentals and turf as well as dwellings and other
structures.
The years 1979-1985 were golden. Professional and paraprofessional
staffing more than tripled on each of the three islands. Clientele interest rose
noticeably. Distribution of educational materials increased. Office space and
facilities improved.


By this point, activities and services provided included the following:
communicating local experiment station research results to groups and
individuals; conducting workshops, short courses, seminars, and meetings;
conducting farm and home visits to provide commercial, organic and home
gardening assistance, small livestock and poultry improvement assistance;
providing dairy herd improvement assistance to local dairymen and Senepol
assistance to local cattlemen; offering tractor operation and maintenance
workshops; maintaining Extension demonstration plots for gardening,
legumes and forage crops; holding pesticide applicator training and
certification classes; and providing exhibits for annual agriculture fairs on St.
Croix and St. Thomas.
In 1981 a new horticulture specialist, Mr. Clinton George, was employed
to workwith the agriculture program. His majorarea of responsibility included
the planning and implementation of horticultural programs for crop farmers,
home gardeners and other residents of the Virgin Islands. After conducting
a preliminary needs assessment survey, he developed two programs to
assist small growers and home gardeners improve fruit and vegetable
production techniques, using workshops, seminars, result demonstrations,
guided tours and clientele visits.
In 1982 a soil diagnostic laboratory was established which tested soil,


In the early 1980's, Mr. Ezekiel Farrell (left) and Mr. Clinton George display produce. Box gardening demonstration by Mr. Clarles Smith, Extension assistant, 1992








water and plant tissue samples for residents on the three U.S. Virgin Islands.
Dr. Knausenberger started the Natural Resources Program per se in
1982 with the Non-Point Source Pollution and the Rangeland Management
programs. The function of the formerwas primarily to evaluate the Extension
Service role in assembling land use data while the latter's role has developed
from the initial survey of the flora in pasture land to providing assistance to
farmers in optimal management of range and pasture land. Effective weed
management in pastures is being investigated continually. Through workshops
and demonstrations the improvement of modern chemical control over the
traditional method of using diesel oil has been clearly shown.
In 1983 other aspects of natural resources were added to the activities
of the program staff. As interest in environmental issues increased, CES
became recognized as a source for expert information on the territory's
terrestrial flora as well as other natural resources issues. From the very
beginning, attention was placed on the development of a herbarium as well
as providing information of ethnobotanical interest. Many public agencies
and individuals have made use of the staff's expertise, particularly in relation
to rare and endangered plant species. The carefully acquired information on
the medicinal values of locally available plants has also been of continuing
interest.
During the years 1984-1987, the V.I. government purchased 2,000
acres forthe development of agriculture in theterritory. Extension's horticulture
and Community and Rural Development (CRD) specialist, along with the
AES irrigation specialist, played a major role in drafting plans for the
agriculture development of Harvland property. This study was submitted to
the V.I. Department of Planning and Natural Resources for implementation.
Forthe next four years, the agriculture program increased emphasis on
food crop production management, including work on irrigation systems.
Eventually this effort paid off, as the number of growers incorporating drip
irrigation into their production systems increased from five to 50 growers,
territory-wide. Also, growers significantly improved their crop production
methods to include the use of recommended crop varieties and better
cultural practices. Additionally, through our fruit and ornamental propagation
program, interested farmers and other residents learned to multiply plants
using modern plant propagation techniques.
Between 1988-1991, several significant changes took place. The
programs were consolidated into Agriculture and Natural Resources (ANR).
Mr. George was promoted to program leader, and the CRD agent was
transferred to the ANR program. Also, several integrated programs were
initiated where multi-disciplinary efforts from the various components of
CES, AES and other agencies are coordinated. The integrated programs
include Extension Exhibitions and Fairs, Alternative Crops, and Integrated


Farming Systems.
The alternative crop production and marketing program evaluates and
develops alternative food and industrial crops with good marketing potential.
The integrated farm systems program was initiated to strengthen the farming
sector and to improve mixed (crop and livestock) farming in the Virgin
Islands. This study facilitated the coordination of multi-disciplinary efforts
between CES, AES and the Department of Economic Development and
Agriculture. Five "model" farms in crop and livestock production were
developed emphasizing adoption of low-input farming techniques. These
farms demonstrated the effectiveness of integrated farm systems to the rest
of the farming community. Several field tours were conducted to expose our
farmers to the system.
In 1989, Hurricane Hugo interrupted all ANR programs. The building
occupied by ANR was destroyed, along with all our files and records. The
most devastating loss, however, was the destruction of the homes and farms
of our clientele. Farmers suffered a tremendous loss of crops, livestock,
facilities and equipment.
After the hurricane, the ANR staff assisted 275 farmers territory-wide in
assessing damages to their farms. Over 10 million dollars in damages was
incurred by our farming community. The verified information on the farm
damage assessment reports was used by local and federal agencies in
offering disaster assistance to our farmers.
In 1990-1991, a series of educational activities were conducted to assist
farmers and home gardeners return to optimal levels of production afterthe
hurricane and help farmers to better organize their agriculture enterprises.
For the future, the ANR program plans to coordinate efforts with all the
federal and local agriculture-related agencies in an effort to move towards
developing fruit, vegetable and herb production as an industry in the Virgin
Islands. The Agriculture Support Network will be established among the
agencies to plan development activities.








CES LIVESTOCK PROGRAM HISTORY

Kofi Boateng, Extension Program Supervisor, Small Livestock

The initial feasibility studies conducted on dairy, poultry and general
livestock production and management in the Virgin Islands showed that the
territory has the resources to develop a very promising livestock enterprise.
This is particularly true because of two local breeds, Senepol cattle and
Virgin Islands White (St. Croix) hairsheep. What was needed were production
and management techniques that could add value to the resource and
enhance its marketability.
The first livestock specialist, Dr. Harold Hupp, was employed in 1976 to
help develop the livestock industry by starting programs in Animal Science.
In 1977 the beef performance testing program was initiated with about seven
beef producers. Most of these producers were Senepol farmers with small
herds. This program assisted in the identification and classification of the
Senepol breed of cattle. A registry association was also initiated and the
Senepol breed became registered. The success of this effort was demonstrated
by the first shipment of cattle to the U.S. mainland. During this time the dairy
herd management program was initiated to assist the
islands dairy operations in proper management
techniques.
Between 1979 and 1981, the
livestock program developed ..
with cattle shipments- .
and the -^ '
tothe mainland

increase in the \
rolling herd
average of milk .
production.
In 1982, the
program was _
extended to include all
small livestock, as the "t -
potential of the Virgin e'" ow
Islands White hair sheep \" J V ,,
gained prominence. A
computer database for the ",E ,, ,
Left: Extension agent Sue Lakos with .. ow ','
Senepol at Annaly Farm on St. Croix. ." -. '.








herds on St. Croix was initiated to give large operations more control over
theirherdsforinventory. Small livestock specialist Mr. Ray Hill was employed
in 1982-1983 to assist with the development of the small livestock program.
In March of 1984, Nana Kofi Boateng, was hired as Extension specialist
in small livestock. He developed specific programs for the production and
management of sheep and goats, poultry and swine. During this period an
average of one workshop per species per month was organized for local
farmers to assist them with breeding, parasite control, pasture management
and general livestock management. The beef performance testing program
was also expanded through the use of computerized records. Mr. Allan
Schuster, the dairy Extension assistant, transferred to the AES sheep
research program, and Mr. Phillip Ruiz was employed asthe dairy assistant.
In 1986, the program was consolidated and a new Extension agent for
beef, Ms. Sue Lakos, was employed. In the same year, the Breeders
Exchange Program was initiated. This program was designed to assist
farmers in preventing inbreeding and also putting more value on their
breeding stock for sale. Through this program, shipments of animals were
madeto other Caribbean islands and the mainland. Also, we started assisting
poultry farmers by importing day-old chicks to replenish their enterprises. A
new cattle scale and milk meters were also acquired to facilitate more
accurate records in beef and dairy production.


Extension assistant Edgar Austrie with chickens, 1991.


In 1988, Dr. Padda commissioned an ad-hoc committee to increase milk
production. A feasibility study was conducted on the use of artificial
insemination and embryo transplant in dairy herds. A joint program with
American Senepol Limited helped in the collection of beef embryo for
experimentation. During this year, Mr. Edgar Austrie joined the livestock
program as dairy assistant.
From 1989 to 1991, after Hurricane Hugo, the livestock program staff
provided assistance to beef and diary farmers in herd inventory and
reconstruction. We developed new plans for corrals and working facilities for
beef, dairy, and swine producers for replacement of destroyed facilities.
In 1990, rabbit and chicken projects for schools were initiated on both St.
Thomas and St. Croix, in conjunction with the 4-H program. The program was
expanded with the importation of breeding stock from the U.S. mainland.
In 1992, rebuilding continues with emphasis on updating the computer
records for enhancement of the beef testing program. We are looking
forward to growing as the livestock industry develops in the territory. There
has been a sudden increase in swine and poultry production enterprises, and
we have responded by placing more emphasis in this area. We also plan to
expand the youth and livestock school projects.
The Land-Grant Programs have hada long-term association with Senepol breeders, as illustrated
by this 1987 presentation of the International Senepol Symposium Proceedings by Hans
Lawaetz, President of the SenepolAssociation (left) and Dr. Padda (center) to then UVI Executive
Vice President Orville Kean.


Sens'/, I


4L1


'ii
N


/










HISTORY OF THE 4-H PROGRAM


Kofi Boateng, Acting Program Leader


The 4-H Program in the Virgin Islands started in 1950 on the island of
St. Croix at the Slob elementary school. The 4-H Program started as part of
the school curriculum, according to Mrs. Enid Meyers, then a teacher at the
school. It was a country school, attended mostly by the children of sugarcane
cutters, and 4-H was the only after-school activity. Children and teachers
had the opportunity to involve themselves in gardening, handicrafts and
cooking. The children had their own gardens and cooked their own food with
the produce from the gardens. They also had a livestock program where
sheep, goats and cattle were raised by the students. Competitions were held
and awards were presented.
In 1962, the 4-H program was extended to the private schools and the
community, starting with the local housing projects. Clubs were established
in DeChabert, Kennedy and Jackson Terrace, and other neighborhoods. In
the housing projects, the program concentrated on foods and nutrition, arts
and crafts, sewing and sports. In neighborhoods such as Mon Bijou and
Glynn, 4-H concentrated in sewing and gardening projects.
Robert Lindstrom, hired in 1973, was the first full-time youth agent.
When he arrived, there were only about 60 youth involved in 4-H. Traditional
clubs were on St. Croix only. St.Thomas had sewing clubs, and there was
nothing on St. John. He went into the
school system and housing projects to From our scrapbook, circa 1965
spread the word about 4-H, and W t 4H C
immediately got 300-400 students What s 4-H Club Wo
involved. By Amy B. Mackay
involve Since September is the month we orfanfze
Another big effort was the Summer lo,~ub ,'ho t "bc hool, of the Vrla .nd
work is the youth phase of the Agricultural Ex
Program. He credits Julia Pankey for .' 1iSer te pror nu s~of e Ai the r
.priment Arricu re. Membership is opn to a
providing invaluable assistance on orgir: b-tween the of0nd9. To b
a 4--H member, a by or girl fill nout an enroll
card He or she may then start a vork project. i
getting the program going. Collectively, and,' T's are developed through exhi
demonstrations, and other club sc ivl ie. Boys
the staffs of CES/AES came up with the g. onrge nto a club, el.ct thuf o wn off
and 'learn by doing under the guidance of a I
curriculum, and participants were given leader. Thn. attendmeetinR. and take Dart in
programs. y also participate in other 4-H at
awards for participation. strat" judging g ehibis, ad f toh sd
of 4-H Ctub Work dcpends largely on how pare
The next year, he expanded the e ct le.e and oter resource people "e
program to St. Thomas and the following Gtudo.d C-.,Club aed favorable p aren't
tvtude and intlsg t a nd mo ctlve parents cooperate
year to St. John. He flew to St. Thomas Bh;"id .,'.? '".a from 4--H club wk a
and St. John every Tuesday. The Natioal 4-H lub emblem is the four-
clover with the letter "H" on each iw.f. The four


Triumph at the 1992 Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair, St. Croix.


represe t the four fold d-v,-lopmenL of HEAD,
HEART. HANDS and Hr ALTH. The National Club
Motto it, "Make the BRt Btter." ad the National
club colors. Green and White The grcen of the 4-H
Insign'a symbolizes nature's mot common color in the
grrat out of-door, and is aso emblematic of youth.
life. and growth.


rk,

4-H
, we
4 H
ten-
Ex-
nny
ome

Bn,

ent,
at d
oers.
club
tivi-
hess

at
ion.
hen
leaf
H's







Another effort involved Mr. Stacy Lloyd, the owner of Island Dairy, who
donated calves each year to the program for projects. Mr. Lindstrom also
started container gardening with free seeds from Burpee and other major
seed companies and started a woodworking project with donated pieces of
mahogany from the St. Croix Leap mahogany project.
Although Mr. Lindstrom left CVI in 1975, and eventually became a
member of National 4-H Council staff in Washington, D.C., his involvement
with the program has remained strong.
In the later part of the 1970's, 4-H programming concentrated on
agricultural irrigation and school beautification projects. The Frangipani 4-H
Club received a nationally-sponsored community beautification grant from
the Reader's Digest Foundation. A stone wall was built with a mahogany
plaque with the name of the community and the 4-H emblem on it.
One of the most significant contributions 4-H made to the community
and the St. Croix campus was the development of the UVI Snack Bar. Mrs.
Primrose Joseph, then the president of the 4-H Volunteer Leaders Council,
was asked by the 4-H volunteers to represent them at the snack bar to help
raise funds. This continued for years and helped fund 4-H program activities
until 1982 when it was turned over to a private concern.
In March of 1980, Dr. Padda appointed Mr. Alan Oliver program leader.
Mr. Oliver brought with him extensive experience, having worked with the 4-H
programs in Washington, D.C. and New York. Paramount in Mr. Oliver's
programming efforts was the development of a healthy "triangle" identity -
being a resident of the Virgin Islands as well as becoming a member of the
Caribbean region and the United States. Another noteworthy accomplishment
was the first Caribbean Youth Conference, held in 1980, and attended by 60
delegates representing several neighboring Caribbean islands/nations.
In the latter part of 1980, Miss Zoraida Jacobs was appointed the
first 4-H Youth Specialist. Sarah Dahl also joined the 4-H program as an
Extension Agent in 1982. At this time, the Virgin Islands forged a cooperative
relationship with Michigan 4-H. Three 4-H members and a staff member
visited Michigan's annual 4-H Exploration Days in 1983. The annual 4-H
Summer Day Camp also offered specific learning tracks for the first time,
including a "learn to swim" program, theatre and the Teen Apprenticeship
Program. The latter provided teens with on-the-job training and skills such
as resume writing, interview techniques and exploring careers.
In 1984, a second Extension Agent, Mr. Shelton Shulterbrandt, joined
the staff. The program reached its peak in 1985, with clubs, membership and
4-H projects at an all-time high. In November of that year, the program
sponsored "Caribbean Youth in the Year 2001", and nearly 150 youth
delegates representing almost all the islands in the Caribbean participated.
Keynote speakerwas Dr. Ezra Naughton, Director of Minority Research and


Teaching Programs, USDA, and a Frederiksted native.
In 1986, due to severe budget constraints, the need arose for 4-H to
directly canvass the business community to raise funds for our annual 4-H
Summer Day Camp Program, resulting in a very limited camp. This year
marked the 15th anniversary of the 4-H Summer Day Camp Program in the
Virgin Islands.
In 1987, an ancient African game of strategy was reintroduced through
the 4-H program. This game, Oware, was shared in the schools, clubs and
communities. A play-off competition was held at the annual Agriculture and
Food Fair.
Mr. Darwin King was appointed the new 4-H Youth Specialist in 1988.
Miss Zoraida Jacobs left her post as 4-H Program Leaderto retum to school.
In 1989, Mrs. Josephine Petersen-Springerwas appointed Acting Program
Leader and served as joint program leader for Home Economics and 4-H.
Recognizing the need to incorporate livestock projects for smaller animals,
the 4-H rabbit project was introduced the same year.
In 1990, the first 4-H Livestock "Explo" was launched, offering 4-H
projects featuring nearly all livestock species and enrolling 32 members its
first year. Mr. Joseph Fulgence was appointed new 4-H Youth Specialist, and
since October, 1991, Mr. Kofi Boateng has been Acting Program Leader.

Ms. Zoraida Jacobs (third from left) and 4-H staff discuss bush tea display in 1981.
.'i; i"'! "








ST. THOMAS/ST. JOHN DISTRICT,
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE

Dr. Louis E. Petersen, District Supervisor

Today, Dr. Michael Ivie is professor and curator in the Department of
Entomology at Montana State University in Bozeman. But in 1978 he was a
young man with a bachelors degree looking for his first real job when he
became the first CVI-CES agriculture/natural resources agent on St. Thomas.
He and home economics agent Cynthia Yobs were the entire staff.
During his two years on St. Thomas, he says he "got control" over New
House, CES headquarters, including putting in landscaping, enclosing the
porch and illegally digging a parking area. He started the soils laboratory and
a photography lab, built up the CES library, and wrote a regular newspaper
column called "The Limin' Gardener," which covered home gardening
concerns about pest control, soil fertility and the like. He eventually established
an office on St. John.
Most importantly for his clientele, he set up demonstration plots and
began researching and providing information for the people of St. Thomas.
Most of the information from St. Croix had been available to them, he said,
but they had not been making use of it or it was not appropriate for the
different growing conditions of the island, which, for example, has a much
more acid soil than St. Croix.
There was also little information on variety selection for St. Thomas. He
recalls asking St. Croix CES horticulturist John Gerber to help set up a
demonstration plot on improved sweet potato varieties. People were skeptical
about changing from their favorite types, he said, but a comparison of the
harvest, where new varieties produced mounds more of potatoes than the old
ones, spoke volumes.
He also worked hard to provide information on organic gardening to an
interested, but largely urban and inexperienced group of Rastafarians on St.
Thomas.
Carlos Robles, who later became St. Thomas Extension agent, worked
for Ivie one summer as an undergraduate intern.
Ivie left St. Thomas in 1980 to pursue graduate studies at Ohio State
University. Interesting enough, his graduate career took direction from a
casual suggestion made to him during his CES interview. Dr. Padda
suggested that while he was on St. Thomas, Ivie might want to catalog the
insects of the Virgin Islands.
Sixteen years later, in 1992, Dr. Ivie is preparing for press a 1,500-page
book on the beetles of the Virgin Islands, a volume with 40 authors from as


far away as Poland and Australia. When he got to St. Thomas, some 250
kinds of beetles had been identified in the Virgin Islands. That number is now
over 900, including one he named strongylium paddai, in honor of that
suggestion made back in 1978.
These days, the natural resources program on St. Thomas/St. John has
established a diagnostic herbarium that houses dried and mounted specimens
representing over 1,000 plant species. These specimens represent the
natural flora of the U. S. Virgin Islands. This collection has been of great
academic value to environmental specialists and university and secondary
school students, from the Virgin Islands and neighboring Caribbean islands.
The program has also been participating in conservation activities, such as
the creation of an environmental trail and restoration efforts in the Alphonso
Nelthropp Arboretum at Magens Bay.
Strong professional ties have been developed between the Environment
Studies Program of the Department of Education and the natural resources
program staff in promoting environmental awareness and observing annual
events such as Coast Week and Earth Day. A series of campus maps and
plants lists, featuring over 200 plant species on both the St. Croix and St.
Thomas campuses of UVI, have also come out ofthis program. Collaborative
efforts are continuing with the Virgin Islands Resource Management
Cooperative and Island Resources Foundation on an inventory of the
vegetation on St. John.
St. Thomas/St. John home economics has been active since 1972.
Specialized efforts include individualized assistance to clients, which has
greatly increased participation, and networking with agencies like the
Department of Human Services, The Answer Program, the Food Stamp
Office and the Women, Infant and Children Program.
The agriculture program's demonstration garden is still located next to
the St. Thomas office, and it continues to be a source of information for
students and the public. The soil, water and plant diagnostic laboratory is an
important service offered not just to farmers and home gardeners in the U.S.
Virgin Islands, but also to clients from St. Kitts, Dominica and Tortola.
The program works closely with such groups as the Department of
Education, the St. Thomas St. John Chamber of Commerce and the
Neighborhood Support Group.
John Matuszak replaced Michael Ivie as Extension Agent in 1980, and
served as Coordinator 1981-1986. Ellen Craft was Extension Specialist -
Agronomy between 1985-1987, and Extension District Supervisor, 1987-
1991. Dr. Louis E. Petersen became District Supervisor at that time.








THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
AGRICULTURE AND FOOD FAIRS

Pride in local food products and production has long been a part of the
Virgin Islands character. Any public or family event is an occasion to share
special recipes, and growers are always proud of their best fruits and
vegetables.
CES photo archives have photographs going back for years, showing, for
example, canned goods proudly displayed at the 1958 Christmas Food Festival
Fair. The Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair, an annual St. Croix event co-
sponsored by the Virgin Islands Department of Economic Development and
Agriculture and UVI-AES and CES, grew out of that tradition.
Since 1971 (except in 1990, after the hurricane), the fair has been a
showcase for local foods and the bounty of the island's agricultural harvest.
Farmers, food vendors and craftspeople display and sell their offerings. Children
compete in three-legged races and groom their carefully-tended livestock.
Mocko jumbies and quadrille dancers remind fairgoerers of their roots, while
reggae bands and calypsonians speak of the present.
Included in what has become a three-day extravaganza of sounds, tastes
and colors are educational displays, from groups as diverse as the agriculturists
on Tortola, elementary schoolchildren, and the St. Croix Environmental
Association. UVI Land-Grant staff are very active at these fairs, as each program
prepares an educational display forthe public, often highlighting recent research
results. Staff members work throughout the fair, passing out material and
answering questions.
For nearly every year, a bulletin of articles on foods, nutrition and agriculture
issues has been produced and distributed to the public as part of the fair. The
majority of these articles each year are written by AES and CES staff. In 1991,
UVI-CES published a collection of nearly 100 of the articles from past food fair
books, a 500-page compendium of research-based material on local soils, water,
fruits, field crops, animal husbandry, fisheries, foods and nutrition, edited by Dr.
Padda.
The St. Croix fair has become a major event, drawing more than 25,000
Virgin Islanders and visitors in 1992. Since 1980, the event has expanded to St.
Thomas, where the St. Thomas/St. John Agriculture and Food Fair is held in
November. It is sponsored by UVI-CES with support from the agricultural
community, and it is held on the grounds of the Reichhold Center on the St.
Thomas UVI campus.
Top: Governor Cyril E. King (center) and familylook overFoodFair produce with Dr. Padda (right)
and Mrs. Olivia Henry (left). Bottom: Governor Juan Luis (center) and Miss St. Croix cut ribbon
at Food Fair with dignataries including V.I. Delegate Ron DeLugo (farright) and Senator Lilliana
Belardo de O'Neil (far left).








UVI-AES AND
THE CARIBBEAN BASIN ADMINISTRATIVE GROUP

by Dean F. Davis, CBAG Program Manager,
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Shortly afterthe University of the Virgin Islands was designated a Land-
Grant Institution, the U. S. Department of Agriculture began a program of
research in Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture at a very modest level of
funding. The focal points for the research were the "U. S. Institutions in the
Caribbean and Pacific Basins."
Since the U. S. Virgin Islands were the deepest penetration of the United
States into the Caribbean, the new Agriculture Experiment Station at the
University of the Virgin Islands became a participant in the new program. The
Caribbean Basin Administrative Group (CBAG) was formed to administratively
oversee the research program, and Dr. Darshan Padda, as AES Director,
was named a member of CBAG. Later, CBAG selected Dr. Padda as its
chairman.
As might be expected from the environment of the Virgin Islands, the
research initially funded by CBAG at the UVI Experiment Station was
concerned with irrigation water management for selected tropical crops,
followed by a study on water use management for small farming systems.
Added to this effort was research on establishment of forages for Virgin
Islands animal production.
From 1986 through 1991, CBAG funded Dr. Stephan Wildeus in studies
of Virgin Islands White (St. Croix) hair sheep, a major interest to Virgin
Islands agriculture. Included were studies on the reproductive potential of the
breed, on parasitic gastroenteritis in the breed and on diet supplementation
requirements for sheep grazing on native pastures. All of these studies have
been very productive and have produced information of vital interest to
Virgin Island agriculture.
Since 1989, CBAG has funded research on the culture potential of
selected Caribbean marine finfish at the UVI Experiment Station. Although
this work was hampered by Hurricane Hugo, the studies have begun to
identify some promising opportunities that could lead to commercialization.
Currently, CBAG-sponsored research at the Experiment Station includes
techniques for using plant growth regulators in the production of ornamental
root crops by Dr. Ramcharan, the role of urea in improving forage feeding of
farm animals by Dr. Adjei, development of a closed system of vegetable
production in a tank culture system of tilapia by Dr. Rakocy, and vegetable
production in a new system known widely as "alley cropping" by Dr. Palada.


As the UVI Agricultural Experiment Station has grown in facilities and
staff, so has the special program in Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture in
the U. S. Department ofAgriculture. From its meager beginning, the program
has been recognized for its efficiency and productivity and has become a
major research activity. With the environment of the Virgin Islands being so
representative of the Caribbean Basin, the UVI Agricultural Experiment
Station is visualized as the "living laboratory" fortropical agriculture and is
considered a vital link in the program of research in tropical agriculture
sponsored by the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
As we look back 20 years to remember the early work at the UVI-AES,
we look with great pride at the five current research projects valued at nearly
a quarter of a million dollars annually, and we can visualize the continued
important role the Experiment Station will play in the future in the CBAG-
sponsored agricultural research. We congratulate AES on its first 20 years,
and we look forward to an even greater future marked by the development
of agricultural production systems that are highly specialized for the unique
Virgin Island environment that is representative of the environment of much
of the Caribbean Basin.


1990 CBAG meeting on St. Thomas.






.NY Ti.MAS 1D



f \








UVI AND
THE CARIBBEAN FOOD CROPS SOCIETY

The Caribbean Food Crops Society (CFCS), founded in 1963, has a
non-profit membership of some 350 research, extension and teaching
scientists from 35 Caribbean countries, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico,
and the U.S. mainland. Official languages of the organization are the four
major language groups of the Caribbean: English, French, Dutch and
Spanish.
CFCS aims are to advance Caribbean food production, processing and
distribution, and to facilitate information exchange through coordination of
research efforts and development of cooperative programs. This effort has
been facilitated by participation of the University of the Virgin Islands AES
and CES; University of Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture; Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, and USDA Agriculture Research Service.
CFCS also seeks to improve levels of nutrition and standards of living in the
Caribbean.
The group meets annually in a different location each year, and the
membership present technical papers that are published in a proceedings.
CFCS members take the opportunity of the annual meeting to learn more
aboutthe host country through tours and discussions, and use theircombined
expertise to assist agriculturists and food distribution specialists in that
region cope with specific problems or challenges.
Annual meetings have been held, for example, in the Virgin Islands,
Dominican Republic, Guyana, Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad-Tobago,
Guadeloupe, Martinique, Suriname, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, St. Lucia,
Antigua. The 1993 meeting is scheduled for Martinique, and Cuba hopes to
host the 1994 meeting.
UVI has been involved from the beginning, as St. Croix hosted the first-
ever annual CFCS meeting in 1963, and again in 1972. The listing of Land-
Grant publications atthe end of this bookwill attest to the participation of AES
and CES staff in CFCS over the years. St. Croix also hosted the 20th annual
meeting, in 1984, under the presidency of Dr. Padda. Patrick N. Williams,
then Commissioner of Agriculture and now chair of UVI's Board of Trustees,
was CFCS vice-president. Robert Webb, Walter Knausenberger and Lisa
Yntema edited the resulting proceedings, on the theme of "Small Farm
Systems in the Caribbean."
Since 1987, Dr. Padda has been chairman of the Board of Directors of
CFCS, and in 1992, with the appointment of Kofi Boateng as secretary and
Clarice C. Clarke as assistant secretary, the secretariat is located on St.
Croix.


S ,,..7 ,
c .i .,
Top: Dr. Padda being congratulated as incoming president of CFCS, by outgoing president Dr.
Alejandro Ayala at the 1983 meeting in Puerto Rico. Bottom: CFCS opening ceremonies in
Guadeloupe in 1989. Dr. Padda serves as chair.











UVI Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service Publications 1972-1992


Adjei, M.B. 1991. Silage production from grass-legume
systems in the Caribbean. Proceedings of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society, Roseau, Dominica
27:171-183.

Adjei, M.B. 1991. Tan tan an open treasure of the
Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin 5:37-39.

Adjei, M.B., A. Sotomayor-Rios and D.M. Bates. 1991.
Production of sorghum silage from alley cropping
systems in the Caribbean. AgronomyAbstracts 58.

Adjei, M.B. 1992. Forage conservation for improved
livestock production in the Virgin Islands. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 6:26-28.

Adjei, M.B. 1992. The control ofcasha (Acacia spp.) on
native pastures. Proceedings of the Caribbean
Food Crops Society, Santo Domingo, Dominican
Republic 28. (in press).

Adjei, M.B., K. Albrecht and C.L. Wildeus. 1992.
Performance of Desmanthus virgatus accessions
in the Caribbean. Proceedings of the International
Grassland Congress. (in press).


Allison, M.J., H.M. Cook, A.C. Hammond, W.R. Getz
and S. Wildeus. 1990. Test for dihydroxypuridine-
degrading rumen bacteriafrom animals in the U.S.,
Haiti and the Virgin Islands. Proceedings of the
Third International Symposium on Poisonous Plants.
(abstract).

Anderson, R.M., W.C. Foote, S. Wildeus, R.C. Evans
and B.G. England. 1991. Endocrinologyand related
aspects of the post partum period in St. Croix hair
sheep. Proceedings of the Hair Sheep Research
Symposium. S. Wildeus, ed. Agricultural
Experiment Station, University of the Virgin Islands,
338-342.

Andrews, B. 1976. Your first vegetable garden in the
Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 22-23.

Bailey, D.S., J.A. Hargreaves and J.E. Rakocy. 1989.
Enterprise budget analysis for three stocking
densities of caged Florida red tilapia. Proceedings
of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute. (in
press).


Dr. Myron Johnsrud (far right) and dignitaries plant a baobab tree on the St. Croix campus to honor the
75th anniversary of the Extension Service in 1989.


Benz, R. 1978. Report on Virgin Islands Agricultural
Development Study Conducted June 14-16, 1978.
Cooperative Extension Service, College oftheVirgin
Islands, 56 pp.

Blake, M.Y. 1979. Clothing forthe elderly. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 53-54.

Bland, R.G. 1983. Evaluation of insecticides to control
turnip aphids and cabbage loopers on cabbage.
Insecticide and Acaricide Tests 8:95.

Bland, R.G., A.E. Hegab and W.I. Knausenberger.
1983. Insecticides and miticides to control mites,
fall armyworm and corn earworm in sweet corn.
Insecticide and Acaricide Tests 8:108-109.

Bland, R.G. 1984. A new species of Ichneumonidae
from Diaphania hyalinata (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)
in the Caribbean. Annals of the Entomology Society
of America 77(1):29-31.

Bland, R.G. and W.I. Knausenberger. 1984. Parasites
and predators of insect pests on cantaloupe and
asparagus beans, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. Proceedings
of the Caribbean Food Crops Society, St. Croix,
U.S. Virgin Islands 20:56-60.

Boateng, K.A. 1985. Poultry for the small family in the
Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 31-33.

Boateng, K.A. and D.L. Farrar. 1985. Better pastures:
the answer to forage shortages. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 49-50.

Boateng, K.A. 1986. The egg and you. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 1:31-32.

Boateng, K.A. 1987. Horses of the world: the Arabian.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
2:41-42.

Boateng, K.A. 1987. Small animals for small farms in
the Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin 2:23-24.

Boateng, K.A. 1988. Dairy goat production in the Virgin
Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin 3:31-33.

Boateng, K.A. and S.A. Lakos. 1988. "On-farm" beef
and dairy performance testing programs in the
Virgin Islands. Proceedings of the Caribbean Food
Crops Society, Ocho Rios, Jamaica 24:93-98.


Boateng, K.A. 1989. Raising pigs in the Virgin Islands.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
4:33-34.

Boateng, K.A. 1991. Poultry for the Small Family in the
Virgin Islands. Cooperative Extension Service Small
Livestock Factsheet No. 1, University of the Virgin
Islands, 2 pp.

Boateng, K.A. 1991. Raising Pigs in the Virgin Islands.
Cooperative Extension Service Small Livestock
Factsheet No. 2, University of the Virgin Islands, 2
PP.

Boateng,K.A. 1991. DairyGoat Production in the Virgin
Islands. Cooperative Extension Service Small
Livestock Factsheet No. 3, University of the Virgin
Islands, 2 pp.

Boateng, K.A. 1991. Raising Rabbits in the Virgin
Islands. Cooperative Extension Service Small
Livestock Factsheet No. 4, University of the Virgin
Islands, 2 pp.

Boateng,K.A. 1991. Raising rabbits in theVirgin Islands.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
5:55-57.

Boateng, K.A. 1992. Raising dairy calves for beef in the
Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin 6:52-53.

Boateng, K.A., and S.A Lakos. 1992. Careers in the
animal sciences. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin 6:55-57.


Brown, D. 1989. Endangered plantsofthe Virgin Islands:
a growing concern. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin 4:41-43.

Brown, D. 1992. Islands in transition. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 6:8-10.

Brown, F. and M.W. Michaud. 1986. Production and
marketing of goats and sheep in the U.S. Virgin
Islands. Proceedings ofthe Caribbean Food Crops
Society, Castries, St. Lucia 22:316. (abstract).

Busch, R.L. 1978. Freshwateraquaculture: a possibility
forthe U.S. Virgin Islands. Virgin IslandsAgriculture
and Food Fair Bulletin, 61-64.

Busch, R.L. 1979. A prospectus for cage culture of
freshwater fish in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 41-44.









Busch, R.L. 1980. Marketing tilapia in the Virgin Islands.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
17-19.

Butts, W.T.,H.D. Hupp,M. Kogerand R.L.West. 1984.
Comparison of preweaning and postweaning traits
of Senepol x Angus and Brahman x Angus calves.
Journal of Animal Science 59:47-48. (abstract).

Butts, W.T., J.R. McCurely, H.D. Hupp and M. Koger.
1984. Comparison of cow and progeny traits
Senepol x Angus and Brahman x Angus cows.
Journal of Animal Science 59A:47.

Cahoon, G.A. and D.S. Padda. 1977. Prospects for
Growing Grapes in the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Agricultural Experiment Station Report No. 1,
College of the Virgin Islands, 18 pp.

Caines, R. 1992. Good news: nutrition can help you
prevent cancer risks. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin 6:46-47.

Canoy, M.J. 1986. Closed system agriculture for the
small farmer. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin 1:27-29.

Canoy, K. 1987. What is VIERS? Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 2:51.

Canoy, K. 1988.Youth education: ecosystems studies
at VIERS. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin 3:23-24.

Chichester, E. 1987. Prevention is better than cure.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
2:31-32.

Clarke, C.C. 1991. Making a difference in family life.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
5:11-12.

Clarke, C.C. 1992. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair: historical perspective. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 6:5-6.

Collingwood, C.D., S.M.A.Crossman and A.A. Navarro.
1989. Effect of black plastic mulch on cucumber
yields, water use and economic returns.
Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society,
Guadeloupe, French West Indies 25:211-216.

Collingwood, C.D., S.M.A. Crossman and A.A. Navarro.
1991. Response of selected herbs to improved
production practices. Proceedings ofthe Caribbean
Food Crops Society, Roseau, Dominica 27:159-
164.


Collingwood, C.D., S.MA. Crossman and M.C. Palada.
1992. Tomato germplasm evaluation for growth
and productivity in the Virgin Islands. Proceedings
of the Caribbean Food Crops Society, Santo
Domingo, Dominican Republic 28. (in press).

Conje, A.J. and D.S. Padda. 1976. Sorghum in the
Virgin Islands. Farmers Bulletin No. 2, Agricultural
Experiment Station, Universityof the Virgin Islands,
15 pp.

Conje, A.J. 1977. Virgin Islands Grain and Forage
Sorghum Performance Trials in 1976-1977.
Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin
No. 1, College of the Virgin Islands.

Conje, A.J. 1977. Getting the most out ofyourfertilizer.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
33.

Conje, A.J. 1978. Virgin Islands Grain and Forage
Sorghum Performance Trials 1977-1978.
Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin
No. 2, College of the Virgin Islands, 8 pp.


Conje, A.J. 1978. Relationships of planting dates,
precipitation, photoperiodsand cultivarsto sorghum
production in a semi-arid tropical Caribbean
environment. Sorghum Newsletter No. 21,
Agricultural Experiment Station, College of the
Virgin Islands, 121.

Conje, A.J. 1978. Weed control studies in sorghum.
Sorghum Newsletter No. 21, Agricultural
Experiment Station, College of the Virgin Islands,
119.

Conje, A.J. 1978. Progress in Sorghum research in the
Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 21-23.

Conje, A.J. 1978. Evaluation of grain and forage
sorghum cultivars in the Virgin Islands. Sorghum
Newsletter No. 21, Agricultural Experiment Station,
College of the Virgin Islands, 121.

Conje, A.J. 1978. Midge and bird damage of temperate
grainsorghum hybridsgrown in atropicalCaribbean
island. Sorghum Newsletter No. 21, Agricultural
Experiment Station, College of the Virgin Islands,
121-122.


Dr. Padda, Governor Ralph Paiewonsky, Board of Trustees chair, and Louis Shulterbrant meet in 1981 to
coordinate President Richards' inauguration, the Youth Conference and Homecoming.


Conje, A.J. 1979. Sorghum production and research in
the Virgin Islands. Mem. International Sorghum
Meeting, University of BuenosAires, Argentina, 12-
13.

Conje, A.J. 1979. Tantan (Leucaena leucocephela):
An underexploited crop plant with promising
economic valuefortheVirgin Islands.Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 39-40.

Coulston, M.L. 1989. Environmental monitoring in the
Salt River Submarine Canyon, St. Croix. Island
Perspectives, Agricultural Experiment Station,
University of the Virgin Islands 3:26-29.

Coulston, M.L. 1991.Seagrass meadows: pasturelands
of the sea. Virgin IslandsAgriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin 5:59-60.

Courtney, C.H. and S. Wildeus. 1990. Seasonal
transmission of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep
on St. Croix. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of
the American Association of Veterinary
Parasitologists. San Antonio, Texas.

Courtney, C.H. and S. Wildeus. 1991. Seasonal
transmission of gastrointestinal nematodesof sheep
on St. Croix. Proceedings of the Hair Sheep
Research Symposium. S.Wildeus, ed.Agricultural
Experiment Station, Universityofthe Virgin Islands,
357-362.

Courtney, C.H. 1992. Epidemiology of parasitic
gastroenteritis of sheep on St. Croix. Proceedings
of the American Association of Veterinary
Parasitologists 37:53.

Craft, E. 1986. Getting the feel of your soil. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 1:17-21.

Craft, E. 1987. The miracle of soil organic matter.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
2:27-29.

Craft, E. 1988. Contouring: going around the hill.Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 3:9-10.

Craft, E. 1989. Methods to kill soil pests. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 4:59-60.
Craft E. 1991. Making Your Own Soil Mix. Cooperative
Extension Service Container Gardening Leaflet
No. 1, University of the Virgin Islands, 2 pp.

Crossman, S.M.A. and C.D. Collingwood. 1991. Effect
of varying levels of applied nitrogen in thyme
production. Proceedings of the Caribbean Food
Crops Society, Roseau, Dominica 27:165-170.










Crossman, S.M.A. 1992. Status of sweet potato weevil
problems in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Proceedings of
the International Conference on Sweet Potato Pest
Management, Miami, Florida. (in press).

Crossman,S.M.A., M.C. Palada and C.D. Collingwood.
1992. Yield evaluation of sweet potato cultivars in
the U.S. Virgin Islands. Proceedings of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society, Santo Domingo,
Dominican Republic 28. (in press).

Dahl-Smith,S. and C.C. Clarke. 1991. Bea4-H Member
Today. Cooperative Extension Service, University
of the Virgin Islands.

Davis, K.O. 1984. Economic scouting. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 57.

Davis, K.O. 1985. Controlling cucumber pests. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 65-66.

Davis, K.O. 1991. The importance ofrangeland to man.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
5:27-28.

Davis, K.O. 1991. Poinsettia: the symbol of Christmas.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
5:61-62.

Davis, K.O. 1992. Virgin Islands pesticide applicator
training program. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin 6:49.

Dhillon, P.S. and R.L. Park. 1974. Profitability of Dairy
Farming in St. Croix, U.S.Virgin Islands.Agricultural
Experiment Station, College of the Virgin Islands,
13 pp.

Dillingham, E.W. 1980. Sheltering your crops from
wind. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin, 47-48.

Dillingham, E.W. 1980. Growing Citrus. Cooperative
Extension Service Gardeners Factsheet No. 22,
College of the Virgin Islands, 4 pp.

Dillingham, E.W. 1981. Research on papaya decline.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
85.

Dominique, F. 1989. Effects of foreign trade and
economic development on agriculture in the U.S.
Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin 4:13-15.

Dominique, F. 1989. Improving agricultural marketing
in the U.S.V.I. Island Perspectives, Agricultural
Experiment Station, Universityof the Virgin Islands
3:17-19.


Evans, R.C., W.C. Foote and S. Wildeus. 1991.
Environmental effects on parameters of
reproduction in St. Croix hair sheep. Proceedings
of the Hair Sheep Research Symposium. S.
Wildeus, ed. Agricultural Experiment Station,
University of the Virgin Islands, 321-327.

Evans, R.C., S. Wildeus, W.C. Foote and R.M.
Anderson. 1991. Aspects of puberal development
in St. Croix hair sheep. Proceedings of the Hair
Sheep Research Symposium. S. Wildeus, ed.
Agricultural Experiment Station, University of the
Virgin Islands, 291-299.

Farrar, D.L. and L.G. Reed,Jr. 1977. Pesticide control
in the Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin, 41.

Farrar, D.L. 1986. Pesticide safety and use. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 1:39-40.

Ferwerda, F. and C. Ramcharan. 1989. Citrus
germplasm evaluation under Virgin Islands
conditions. Island Perspectives, Agricultural
Experiment Station, University ofthe Virgin Islands
3:11-12.

Fitzwater, W.D. and L.G. Reed,Jr. 1975. Commercial
Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.
Cooperative Extension Service, College of the Virgin
Islands, 28 pp.

Fitzwater, W.D. and R. Renes. 1975. Commercial
Pesticides Applicator Manual: Industrial,
Institutional, Structural and Health Related.
Cooperative Extension Service, College ofthe Virgin
Islands, 20 pp.

Fitzwater, W.D., D.F. Williams and B. Lawaetz. 1975.
Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual:
Agriculture-Animal. Cooperative Extension Service,
College of the Virgin Islands.

Fitzwater, W.D., E.D. Harris and D.S. Padda. 1976.
Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual:
Research and Demonstration. Cooperative
Extension Service, College of the Virgin Islands, 8
pp.

Fitzwater, W.D., E.D. Harris and D.S. Padda. 1981.
Pest and pesticide management in the U.S. Virgin
Islands. In: Pest and Pesticide Management in the
Caribbean. Caribbean Agricultural Research and
Development Institute, Bridgetown, Barbados
3:193-198.


Fleming, C.B. 1987. Epilogue: early states ofthe breed:
the farmers' perspective. Proceedings of the
International SenepolCattle Research Symposium.
S. Wildeus, ed. Agricultural Experiment Station,
University of the Virgin Islands, 135-138.

Fleming, C.B. and P.J. Michaud. 1988. Leatherback
Turtles: Season of Survival. Cooperative Extension
Service Natural Resources Factsheet No. 1,
University of the Virgin Islands, 6 pp.

Fugle, J.R. 1987. Fertilityexamination in male livestock.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
2:25-26.

Garcia, K. 1978. Learning About Our Virgin Islands Tax
System. Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin
No. 2, College of the Virgin Islands, 16 pp.

George, C. 1982. The use of tropical fruit trees in the
home landscape. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin, 35-37.

George, C. 1982. Growing Mesples (Sapodillas).
Cooperative Extension Service Gardeners
Factsheet No. 24, College of the Virgin Islands, 2
PP.


George, C., ed. 1983. V.I. Farmer newsletter.
Cooperative Extension Service, College ofthe Virgin
Islands 1(1-3).

George, C. 1984. Selecting a suitable farm site. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 17-19.

George, C. and G.Morris. 1984. Sorrel Production and
Marketing in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Cooperative
Extension Bulletin No. 5, College of the Virgin
Islands, 13 pp.

George, C. 1985. Planning the development of a fruit
orchard. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin, 11-15.

George, C. 1986. Reasons for low fruit yields in the
Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin 1:35-36.

George, C., and S. Smith. 1988. Herbs. Cooperative
Extension Service, University of the Virgin Islands.
4 pp.

George, C. 1989. An integrated systems approach to
farming in the Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 4:7-8.


Head table, including (from far right) Dr. Kean, Governor Alexander Farrelly and Dr. Padda, at the
conference for Economic Development and the Food System in the U.S. Caribbean, St. Croix, 1991.










George, C. 1992. Virgin Islands Home Lawns.
Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. 9,
University of the Virgin Islands, 7 pp.

George, C. 1992. Sustainable agriculture: implications
for Virgin Islands crop farmers. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 6:35-37.

Gerber, J.M. 1979. Transplanting Vegetable Crops.
Cooperative Extension Service Gardeners
Factsheet No. 4, College of the Virgin Islands, 2 pp.

Gerber, J.M. 1979. Non-disease Tomato Disorders:
Blossom-end Rot, Cracking, Leaf-roll, Blossom-
drop. Cooperative Extension Service Gardeners
Factsheet No. 9, College of the Virgin Islands. 1 p.

Gerber, J.M. 1979. Growing Spinach in the Virgin
Islands. Cooperative Extension Service Gardeners
Factsheet No. 10, College of the Virgin Islands, 2
PP.

Gerber, J.M. 1979. Controlling Nematodes in the
Vegetable Garden. Cooperative Extension Service
Gardeners Factsheet No. 11, College of the Virgin
Islands, 2 pp.


Gerber,J.M. 1979. Fertilizing Your Garden forOptimum
Yields. Cooperative Extension Service Gardeners
Factsheet No. 16, College of the Virgin Islands, 4
PP.

Gerber, J.M. 1979. Organic Gardening: Soil Fertility.
Cooperative Extension Service Gardeners
Factsheet No. 18, College of the Virgin Islands, 2
PP.

Gerber, J.M. 1979. The potential for commercial
vegetable production in the Virgin Islands. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 23-25.

Gerber, J.M. 1979. Vegetable Planting and Harvest
Guide. Cooperative Extension Service Gardeners
Factsheet No. 1, College of the Virgin Islands, 2 pp.

Gerber, J.M. 1979. Seeding Vegetable Crops.
Cooperative Extension Service Gardeners
Factsheet No. 2, College of the Virgin Islands, 2 pp.

Gerber, J.M. 1979. Growing Vegetable Slips.
Cooperative Extension Service Gardeners
Factsheet No. 3, College of the Virgin Islands, 2 pp.

Gerber, J.M. 1979. Staking and Training Tomato Plants.
Cooperative Extension Service Gardeners
Factsheet No. 7, College of the Virgin Islands, 2 pp.


From far right, Governor Melvin H. Evans, Attorney Edith Bornn, and Governor Ralph Paiewonsky.


Gerber, J.M. 1979. Mulch foryour Garden. Cooperative
Extension Service Gardeners Factsheet No. 5,
College of the Virgin Islands, 2 pp.

Gerber, J.M. 1979. Howto PrepareYourOwnCompost.
Cooperative Extension Service Gardeners
Factsheet No. 6, College ofthe Virgin Islands, 4 pp.

Gerber, J.M. 1979. Controlling Tomato Insects and
Diseases. Cooperative Extension Service
Gardeners Factsheet No. 8, College of the Virgin
Islands, 1 p.

Gerber, J.M. 1980. Watering crops by drip irrigation.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
41-46.

Gibson, C.D. and H.D. Hupp. 1984. Integrated dairy
management for the Caribbean. Proceedings of
the Caribbean Food Crops Society, St. Croix, U.S.
Virgin Islands 20:115-117. (abstract).

Gonzalez, A. and C. Ramcharan. 1986. Improving and
expanding local banana production: the promotion
and propagation of tissue culture. Virgin Islands
Perspective: Agricultural Research Notes,
Agricultural Experiment Station, University of the
Virgin Islands 1:6-9.

Gonzalez, A. 1986. Plantain: a healthy yielder in the
Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin 1:37.

Gonzalez, A. 1987. Herbicides in fruit crops. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 2:13-14.

Green,K.E. 1985. Marketing tilapia:innovation research
considerations and an analysis of new product
diffusion and adoption. Proceedings of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society, St. Augustine,
Trinidad 21:227-231.

Green, K.E. 1986. A case review of local research.
Virgin Islands Perspective: Agricultural Research
Notes, Agricultural Experiment Station, University
of the Virgin Islands 1:10-13.

Green, K.E., K.A. Boateng and F. Brown. 1986.
Perspectives from a pilot study of farm production,
marketing services and agricultural systems in the
Eastern Caribbean. Proceedings of the Caribbean
Food Crops Society, Castries, St. Lucia 22:24-31.

Green K.E., K.A. Boateng and F. Brown. 1986. Project
Report on Selected Cases of Farm Production/
Marketing Services and Systems in the Eastern
Caribbean. Eastern Caribbean Center, University
of the Virgin Islands, 18 pp.


Green, K.E. 1987. Experiment Station research and
the local farm operator. Virgin Islands Agriculture
and Food Fair Bulletin 2:13-14.

Greiner, E.C., G.I. Garris, K. Thompson, W.I.
Knausenberger, J. Roach and E.P.J. Gibbs. 1984.
Preliminary studies on the Cullcoides spp.
associated with ruminants in the Caribbean. Journal
of Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2:389-399.

Hackett, M. 1981. Waterquality and agriculture. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 73-76.

Hammond, A.C. and S. Wildeus. 1991. Performance
of St. Croix lambs fed chopped tropical forage and
supplemented with coconut meal and(or)fish meal.
Journal of Animal Science 69:509. (abstract).

Hammond, A.C. and S. Wildeus. 1991. Protein
supplements for hair sheep fed a tropical grass
based diet. Proceedings of the Hair Sheep
Research Symposium. S.Wildeus, ed.Agricultural
Experiment Station, Universityof the Virgin Islands,
228-235.

Hargreaves, JA. 1984. Some perspectives on the role
of aquaculture in the development of small farm
systems forthe eastern Caribbean. Proceedings of
the Caribbean Food Crops Society, St. Croix, U.S.
Virgin Islands 20:137-143.

Hargreaves, JA. 1984. Integrating fish culture with
other farming activities. Virgin Islands Agriculture
and Food Fair Bulletin, 11-14.

Hargreaves, JA. 1985. A simple demand feeder for
cage culture. New Alchemy Quarterly 19:5-6.

Hargreaves, JA. and J.E. Rakocy. 1985. Rain water
harvesting for agriculture use. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 19-21.

Hargreaves, J.A. 1987. Feeding practices for caged
bluetilapia.Virgin Islands Perspective: Agricultural
Research Notes, Agricultural Experiment Station,
University of the Virgin Islands 2(2):34-39.

Hargreaves, JA., J.E. Rakocy and A. Nair. 1988. An
evaluation of fixed and demandfeeding regimesfor
cage culture of Oreochromrsauwus. In:The Second
Intemational Symposium on Tilapia inAquaculture.
R.S.V. Pullin, T. Bhukaswan, K. Tonguthai and J.L.
Mclean, eds. ICLARM Proceedings 15, Dept. of
Fisheries, Bangkok, Thailand, and International
Centerfor Living Aquatic Resources Management,
Manila, Philippines, 335-339.

Hargreaves, JA. 1989. Cage culture research in the
U.S.Virgin Islands.Alternative AquacultureNetwork
8(3):1-3.










Hargreaves, J.A. 1989. The Virgin Islands longline
fishery. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin 4:35-36.

Hargreaves, J.A., J.E. Rakocy and D.S. Bailey. 1989.
Effects of diffused aeration on growth, feed
conversion and production of Florida red tilapia in
cages. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
20(1):42A.

Hargreaves, J.A., J.E. Rakocy, D.S. Bailey and D.J.
Miller. 1989. An evaluation of three cage designs
and two tilapias for mariculture. Proceedings of the
Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 42.

Hargreaves, J.A. 1990. Cage culture research in the
U.S. Virgin Islands: salinity tolerance of tilapia.
Alternative Aquaculture Network 9(1):5-6.

Hargreaves, J.A., J.E. Rakocy and D.S. Bailey. 1991.
Effects of diffused aeration and stocking density on
growth, feed conversion and production of Florida
redtilapia in cages.Joumal oftheWorld Aquaculture
Society 22(1):24-29.


Hargreaves, JA. and D.E. Alston, eds. 1991. Status
and Potential of Aquaculture in the Caribbean.
Advances in World Aquaculture 5, The World
Aquaculture Society, 274 pp.

Hegab, A.E. 1981. Recommendations on pasture
management. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 45-46.

Henderson, M.R. 1972. The Virgin Islands Extension
Service. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin, 23.

Henderson, M.R. 1975. Developing our community
resources. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 44.

Henry, O.H. 1978. Native Recipes. Cooperative
Extension Service, College of the Virgin Islands, 55
pp. Reprinted in 1985.

Henry, O.H. 1978. Sorghum as food. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 25-27.

Henry, O.H. 1978. The papaya and its uses. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 41-44.


Southern Region Extension Directors and Administrators Meeting on St. Thomas, 1991.


Henry, O.H. 1979. Tea leaves of St. Croix. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 21-22.

Henry, O.H. 1985. Breads. Cooperative Extension
Service Bulletin No. 10, College ofthe Virgin Islands,
24 pp. Reprinted in 1992.
Henry, O.H. and C.C. Clarke. 1988. Tea leaves of St.
Croix. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin 3:47-50.

Holder, H. 1984. Acacia: a pain in the pasture. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 37-38.

Holder, H. 1984. Hibiscus pests. St.Thomas/St.John
Agriculture Fair Bulletin, 11-12.

Holder, H. 1984. Coconut fruit mites. St.Thomas/
St.John Agriculture Fair Bulletin, 41.

Holder, H. and W.I. Knausenberger. 1984. The banana
borerand its control.St.Thomas/St.John Agriculture
Fair Bulletin, 19-20.

Holder, H. and W.I. Knausenberger. 1984. The Banana
Root Borer and its Control. Cooperative Extension
Service Integrated Pest Management Factsheet
No. 1, College of the Virgin Islands, 2 pp.

Hupp, H.D. 1978. The continuing development of the
Senepol cattle. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 49-51.

Hupp, H.D. and J.P. Fontenot. 1978. Principles of
general ruminant nutrition. Virgin IslandsAgriculture
and Food Fair Bulletin, 55-57.

Hupp, H.D. 1978. Senepol Cattle History and
Development. College of the Virgin Islands, 11 pp.
Reprinted in 1981.

Hupp, H.D. and D.L. Deller. 1979. Sheep and goat
production in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 36-38.

Hupp, H.D. 1980. Agriculture curriculum at C.V.I. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 20-21.

Hupp, H.D. 1982. Milk A bargain at any price. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 11-13.

Hupp, H.D. and W.B. Janes. 1983. Carcass and
organoleptic characteristics of bulls on various
nutritional levels and lengthsof timeonfeed. Journal
of Animal Science 57A:29. (abstract).

Hupp, H.D. 1983. Virgin Islands on-the-farm
performance test program. Journal of Animal
Science 57A:29. (abstract).


Hupp, H.D. and D.L. Deller. 1983. Virgin Islands White
Hair Sheep. Hair Sheep of Western Africa and the
Americas. H.A. Fitzhugh and G.E. Bradford, eds.
Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 171-175.

Hupp, H.D. 1984. Virgin Islands Beef Cattle
Improvement Handbook No. 2. Cooperative
Extension Service, College ofthe Virgin Islands, 32
Pp.

Hupp, H.D. 1987. Milk Production of Senepol Cattle
under Virgin IslandsConditions. Senepol Cattle. S.
Wildeus, ed. University of the Virgin Islands, 25-30.

Hupp, H.D. and A.R. Williams. 1987. Development and
Genetic History of the Senepol Cattle. Senepol
Cattle. S. Wildeus, ed. University of the Virgin
Islands, 9-13.

Hupp, H.D. and D.W. Wright. 1987. Growth
performance and carcass characteristics of
Senepol bulls under Virgin Islands conditions.
Senepol Cattle. S. Wildeus, ed. University of the
Virgin Islands, 97-103.

Ingram, D.L. and C. Ramcharan. 1985. Field
performance of tissue-cultured Giant Cavendish
banana (Musa AAA, Group) underdifferentfertilizer,
nematicideandplantingtreatments inSt.Croix,V.I.
Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society,
St. Augustine, Trinidad 21:40-43.

Ingram, D.L. and C. Ramcharan. 1985. Effects of
supraoptimal root temperature on banana, ixora,
dracaena and citrus. Proceedings ofthe Caribbean
Food Crops Society, St. Augustine, Trinidad 21:44-
47.

Ingram, D.L., C. Ramcharan and T.A. Nell. 1985.
Response of banana, ixora, citrus and dracaena to
elevated root temperatures. Hortscience 21:254-
256.

Ingram, D.L. and C. Ramcharan. 1986.'Grande Naine'
banana and Dracaenamarginata 'Tricolor' root cell
membrane heat tolerance. Fruits 43(1):29-33.

Ingram, D.L., R.R. Webb, C. Ramcharan and A.C.
Petersen. 1987. Heat stress of container-grown
tropical fruit and ornamental plants. Proceedings
of the Caribbean Food Crops Society, St. Johns,
Antigua 25. (in press).

Ivie, M.A. 1979. ASimple Home Drip Irrigation System.
Cooperative Extension Service Gardeners
Factsheet No. 20, College of the Virgin Islands, 2
PP.










Ivie, M.A. and W.I. Knausenberger. 1979. Organic
Gardening: Pest Control. Cooperative Extension
Service Gardeners Factsheet No. 19, College of
the Virgin Islands, 4 pp.

Ivie, M.A. 1980. Cockroach control in ourhomes. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 53-55.

Jacobs, Z.E. 1985. 4-H and agriculture youth garden
program: seeds for agriculture in the V.I. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 73.

Jacobs, Z.E. 1985. Oware (wahree), African game for
old and young. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 79-80.

Janes, B. 1980. Selecting and handling meats for the
home. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin, 61-62.

Jensen, F.E. and R.L. Park. 1974. Profitability of Hog
Production in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.
Agricultural Experiment Station Report No. 6,
College of the Virgin Islands, 14 pp.

Jensen, F.E. and R.L. Park. 1974. Profitabilityof Poultry
Production in St. Croix, U.S.V.I. Agricultural
Experiment Station Report No. 5, College of the
Virgin Islands.

Johnson, C. 1988. Take the bite out ofyourfood budget
through shopping practices. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 3:35.

Keularts, J. 1991. Tree borers.Virgin Islands Agriculture
and Food Fair Bulletin 5:49-50.

Keularts, J. 1992. Pest control in organic food
production. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin 6:50-51.

Knausenberger, W.I. 1981. Coping with sand flies in
the Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin, 33-36.

Knausenberger, W.I. and R.D. Cooper. 1982. The
frangipani worm: take it or leave it? Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 45-47.

Knausenberger, W.I. 1984. "Wormy" mangoes and
West Indian fruit flies: the connection. St.Thomas/
St.John Agriculture Fair Bulletin, 43-47.

Knausenberger, W.I. 1984. Cowitch does more than
itch (cows). Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 21-24.

Knausenberger, W.I. 1984. JackSpaniard wasps. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 23-29.


Knausenberger, W.I. and H. Holder. 1985. The who,
what, whereand whyof stinging ants. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 37-39.

Knausenberger, WI. 1986. Dodder: the golden strangler
vine. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin 1:49-52.

Knausenberger, W.I., ed. 1988. Low Input Farming
Techniques: A Third World Alternative:
Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society,
Ocho Rios, Jamaica 24, 319 pp.

Krishna, J.H. and R.H. Ruskin. 1991. Water research
for the Virgin Islands community. Virgin. Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 5:35-36.

Lakos, SA. 1987. "Who are you?" Identifying your
livestock. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin 2:35-37.

Lawaetz, H. 1972. History of Senepol cattle on St.
Croix. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin, 4-5.

Lenhart, N.M. 1989. Fat in the fast food lane. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 4:29-30.

Lenhart, N.M. 1989. The Heart of the Pumpkin.
Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin No. 6,
University of the Virgin Islands, 74 pp.

Lewis, L. 1977. Sweet potato: a good food. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 45-46.

Lindow, S. and R.R. Webb. 1983. Quantification of
foliar plant disease symptoms by micro computer-
digitized video image analysis. Phylopath 73:811.
(abstract).

Lindstrom, R. 1974. Virgin Islands 4-H youth program.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
45-46.

Lindstrom, R. 1975. Youth can make it happen (with
your help). Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin, 39-40.

Lindstrom, R. 1976. Landscaping in the Virgin Islands.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
17-18.

Locasio, S.J.,G.A. Clark,A.A. Cszinszky,C.D. Stanley,
S.M.Olson,F. Rhoads,A.G. Smajstrala,G.Vellidis,
R.D. Edling, H.Y. Hanna, M.G. Goyal, S.M.A.
Crossman and A.A. Navarro. 1992. Water and
Nutrient Requirements for Drip-lrrigated Vegetables
in Humid Regions. Southern Cooperative Series
Bulletin 363. 17 pp.


Losordo, T.M., M.P. Masser and J.E. Rakocy. 1992.
Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production
Systems: An Overview of Critical Considerations.
Southern Region Aquaculture Center, Delta Branch
Experiment Station, Stoneville, Mississippi. 8 pp.

Losordo, T.M., J.E. Rakocy and M.P. Masser. 1992.
Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production
Systems: Component Options. Southern Region
Aquaculture Center, Delta Branch Experiment
Station, Stoneville, Mississippi. 12 pp.

Masser, M.P., J.E. Rakocy and T.M. Losordo. 1992.
Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production
Systems: Management of Recirculating Systems.
Southern Region Aquaculture Center, Delta Branch
Experiment Station, Stoneville, Mississippi. 12 pp.

Matuszak, J.M. 1980. Possibilitiesfor the winged bean.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
63.

Matuszak, J.M. 1981. Energy.Virgin Islands Agriculture
and Food Fair Bulletin, 99.

Matuszak, J.M. 1984. Native and introduced legumes
in the Virgin Islands. Proceedings of the Caribbean
Food Crops Society, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
20:206-207.


Matuszak, J.M. 1984. St. Thomas will keep on growing.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
53-54.

Matuszak, J.M. 1984. Terracing in '84: building soil and
feeding families. St.Thomas/St.John Agriculture
Fair Bulletin, 7-8.

McElroy, J.L. 1978. Agricultural potential in the U.S.
Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 15-20.

McElroy, J.L. 1979. Agricultural policy in a scarce and
fragile environment. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin, 17-20.

McElroy, J.L. 1981. Rural renaissance in the U.S.
Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 17-23.

McElroy, J.L. 1985.Agriculture inthe U.S. Virgin Islands
during the last 50 years. Virgin Islands Agriculture
and Food Fair Bulletin, 9-16.

McGinty, A.S. and J.E. Rakocy. 1989. Cage Culture of
Tilapia. Southern Region Aquaculture Center
Publication No. 281, Delta Branch Experiment
Station, Stoneville, Mississippi. 4 pp.


CES Senior Series volunteers in 1992, including staffmembers Mrs. Josephine Petersen-Springer, Miss
Fern Callwood, Mrs. Dorothy Gibbs, Mrs. Ramonita Caines and Mrs. Evannie Jeremiah.









Mclean, W.P. 1981. The singing mosquitoes. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 59-60.

McMillan, J.P. 1979. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a much
misunderstood problem. Virgin Islands Agriculture
and Food Fair Bulletin, 49-50.

McMillan,J.P. 1981. Somecurrent researchapproaches
to Ciguatera fish poisoning. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 37-39.

McMillan, J.P., PA. Hoffman and R.H. Granade. 1986.
Gambierdiscus toxicus from the Caribbean: a
source of toxins involved in Ciguatera. Marine
Fisheries Review 48:48-52.

McMillan, J.P. 1987. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the
Eastern Caribbean. Virgin Islands Perspective:
Agricultural Research Notes, Agricultural
Experiment Station, University of the Virgin Islands
2:12-15.

Michaud, M.W. 1986. Research on improved pastures
in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Proceedings of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society, Castries, St. Lucia
22:270-275.

Michaud, M.W. 1986. The establishment of improved
pastures in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Proceedings of
a Workshop on Pasture Research and Development
in the Eastern Caribbean. R.T. Paterson, ed.
Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development
Institute, St. John's, Antigua, 118-127.

Michaud, M.W. 1986. Pasture establishment in the
Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin 1:23.

Michaud, M.W. and P.J. Michaud. 1987. The forage
situation on St. Croix. In: Conferencia Sobre
Produccion, Manjeo y Utilizacion de Pastros y
Forrajes. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayaguez,
P.R., 97-111.

Michaud, M.W. and P.J. Michaud. 1987. Composition
and production of native pastures in the U.S. Virgin
Islands. Agronomy Abstracts.

Michaud, M.W. and P.J. Michaud. 1987. Yield and yield
prediction of guinea grass pastures. Proceedings
of the Caribbean Food Crops Society, Castries, St.
Lucia 22:45-50.

Michaud, M.W. and P.J. Michaud. 1987. Naturally-
occurring legumes in the pastures of St. Croix.
Virgin Islands Perspective: Agricultural Research
Notes, Agricultural Experiment Station, University
of the Virgin Islands 2:7-11.


Michaud, M.W., Y. Soto de Rosa, W.D. Pitman and
A.E. Kretschmer. 1988. The assessment oftropical
forage legumes in the Caribbean. Agronomy
Abstracts 58-59.

Michaud, M.W., C.L. Wildeus and W.D. Pitman. 1989.
Desmanthus germplasm responses to clipping at
St. Croix. Agronomy Abstracts 55.

Michaud, P.J. 1986. Area Report on Native Pastures
Research and Development in the U.S. Virgin
Islands. Proceedings of the Workshop on Pasture
Research and Development in the Eastern
Caribbean, 109-117.

Michaud, P.J. 1986. A rare tree on St. Croix: the
baobab. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin 1:33-34.

Michaud, P.J. and M.W. Michaud. 1986. Composition
and management studies of native pastures in the
U.S. Virgin Islands. Proceedings of the Caribbean
Food Crops Society, Castries, St. Lucia 22:247-
253.

Michaud, P.J. 1987. Guinea grass in the Virgin Islands.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
2:47-48.


Michaud, P.J. and M.W. Michaud. 1987. Effect of
cutting height on guinea grass (Panicum maximum)
regrowth. Agronomy Abstracts 117. (abstract).

Michaud, P.J. and M.W. Michaud. 1989. Regrowth
after land clearing. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin 4:11.

Mills, F. 1977. The relationship between sunshine,
moisture and crop production in the Virgin Islands.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
35-36.

Mills, F. 1979. Public evidencefora vigorous agricultural
program. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin, 9-11.

Mills, F. 1981. Comparative considerations between
United States and Caribbean farming systems.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
13-15.

Mills, F. 1984. The decline of agriculture and the
projection of the number of farms in the U.S. Virgin
Islands. Proceedings ofthe Caribbean Food Crops
Society, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands 20:23-29.


CES Associate Director Mr. Kwame Garcia (left) presents Dr. Padda with his tax publication, 1981.


Moore, J.E., K.H. Quesenberry and M.W. Michaud.
1987. Forage-Livestock Research Needs for the
Caribbean Basin. Caribbean BasinAdvisoryGroup,
Gainesville, Florida.

Morris, G. and R. Macedon. 1984. Essentials for Farm
Management. Cooperative Extension Service Farm
Management Factsheet No. 1, College of the Virgin
Islands.
Morris,G.and R.Macedon. 1985.Depreciation Methods.
Cooperative Extension Service Farm Management
Factsheet No. 2, University of the Virgin Islands.

Morris, G. and R. Macedon. 1986. Cash FlowStatement.
Cooperative Extension Service Farm Management
Factsheet No. 3, University of the Virgin Islands.

Morris, G. and R. Macedon. 1986. Financial
Performance Ratios. Cooperative Extension
Service Farm Management Factsheet No. 4,
University of the Virgin Islands.

Mullins, T. and R.W. Bohall. 1974. Fruits and
Vegetables: Production and Consumption
Potentials and Marketing Problems in the U.S.
Virgin Islands. Agricultural Experiment Station
Report No. 2, College of the Virgin Islands.

Munoz, A.E., S. Farinas, M.W. Michaud and W.D.
Pitman. 1989. Evaluation of Desmanthus
germplasm in the western Llanos of Venezuela.
Agronomy Abstracts 56.

Nair, A. 1981. Fish culture and hydroponics in the
Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 87-88.

Nair, A. 1984. Water quality management for fish
culture in the Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 49-50.

Nair, A., J.E. Rakocy and J.A. Hargreaves. 1985.
Water quality characteristics of a closed
recirculating systemfortilapia culture and vegetable
hydroponics. Proceedings of the Second
International Conference on Warm Water
Aquaculture Finfish. Day R., T.L. Richards, eds.
Laie, Hawaii, 223-254.

Navarro, AA. 1980. Some Tips on Saving Vegetable
Seedsforthe Home Garden.Cooperative Extension
Service Gardeners Factsheet No. 23, College of
the Virgin Islands, 2 pp.

Navarro, AA. 1981. A look at the remarkable cassava.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
27-30.

Navarro, A.A. 1982. Some interesting tropical
vegetables. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 27-31.









Navarro, A.A. 1982. Summary of Vegetable Crops
Research: 1980-1981. Agricultural Experiment
Station, College of the Virgin Islands, 42 pp.

Navarro,A.A.and D.S. Padda. 1983. Effects of sulphur,
phosphorus and nitrogen application on the growth
and yield of sweet potatoes grown on Fredensborg
clayloam. TheJournal ofAgricultureoftheUniversity
of Puerto Rico 67(2):109-110.

Navarro, A.A. 1987. Determination of the minimum
irrigation requirements of tomatoes. Virgin Islands
Perspective: Agricultural Research Notes,
Agricultural Experiment Station, University of the
Virgin Islands 2(2):24-27.

Navarro, A.A. 1987. The U.S. Virgin Islands and
American Samoa: viewed by an agriculturalist.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
2:15-17.

Navarro, A.A. 1989. Water: a key to agricultural
productivity. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin 4:17-18.

Navarro, AA. and J. Newman. 1989. Two drip irrigation
rates and two emitter placements on tomato
production. The Journal of Agriculture of the
University of Puerto Rico 73(1):23-29.


Nelson, W. 1976. Projects for augmenting agricultural
water in theVirgin Islands. Virgin IslandsAgriculture
and Food Fair Bulletin, 44-48.

O'Donnell, J.J. 1992. Agroforestry: an option for Virgin
Islands agriculture. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin 6:23-25.

O'Donnell, J.J. and M.B. Adjei. 1992. Symbiotic
effectiveness of inoculated and indigenous rhibozia
with six Leucana varieties. AgronomyAbstracts. (in
press).

O'Reilly, R.G.,Jr. 1988. Tropical bonsai.Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 3:13-14.

O'Reilly, R.G.,Jr. 1989. Lignum vitae. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 4:23-24.

Oakes, A.J. and J.O. Butcher. 1970. Poisonous and
Injurious Plants of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Cooperative Extension Service, College oftheVirgin
Islands. Reprint of 1962 Misc. Publication No. 882
of the Agricultural Research Service, 97 pp.
Reprinted in 1981.

Oliver, A.S. 1981. Caring and sharing with animals: the
4-H way. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin, 91-92.


UVI President Arthur Richards stands by as Dr. Padda (center) is awarded the 1987 International Honor
Award from OICD-USDA.


Oliver, A.S. and C. Smith. 1982. Island hopping with 4-
H: do rabbits have a future in the virgin Islands?
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
79-80.

Ott, B., M. Riewe, R. Dietrich and R. Kay. 1974. Grain
Sorghum and Forage: Production and Utilization
Potential inSt.Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Agricultural
Experiment Station Report No. 1, College of the
Virgin Islands, 19 pp.

Padda, D.S. 1975. Okra: A Beloved Virgin. Agricultural
Experiment Station Farmers Bulletin No. 1, College
of the Virgin Islands, 12 pp.

Padda, D.S. 1975. Strategy of food crops production in
the Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin, 15-17.

Padda, D.S. 1976. Tropical farming: a privilege or a
handicap. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin, 11-12.

Padda, D.S. 1977. Promoting local food production in
the U.S. Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture
and Food Fair Bulletin, 11-12.

Padda, D.S. 1978. Agricultural development in the
Virgin Islands through intermediate technology.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
12-14.

Padda, D.S. 1979. Developing a viable agriculture
industry in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 13-16.

Padda, D.S. 1980. Agricultural researchand education
programs at the College of the Virgin Islands. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 15-16.

Padda, D.S. 1981. Agricultural potentials and
constraints in the Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 9-10.

Padda, D.S. 1982. Working together for islanders:
College of the Virgin Islands Land-Grant Programs.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 9.

Padda, D.S. 1982.Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension
Service: A Modelfor Technology Transfer Systems
in the Caribbean. Cooperative Extension Service
Bulletin No. 3, College of the Virgin Islands.

Padda, D.S. 1984. Innovative technologies for
enhancing food production capabilities in the
Caribbean. Proceedings of the Caribbean Food
Crops Society, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands 20:3-
7.


Padda, D.S. andW.I. Knausenberger. 1984. Caribbean
Food Crops Society: homecoming meeting on St.
Croix. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin, 9-10.

Padda, D.S. and A.E. Hegab. 1985. Sorghum
Production for Grain, Silage and Forage in the
Virgin Islands. Agricultural Experiment Station,
College of the Virgin Islands, 5 pp.

Padda, D.S. 1985. Partnership in Eastern Caribbean
development. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 7-8.

Padda, D.S. 1986. Complexities of agricultural
development in the Caribbean. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 1:9-10.

Padda, D.S. 1987. Development of Senepol Cattle: a
collaborative research story. Proceedings of the
International Senepol Research Symposium. S.
Wildeus, ed. Agricultural Experiment Station,
University of the Virgin Islands, 1-4.

Padda, D.S. 1988. Senepol research symposium: a
team effort on V.I. cattle. Virgin Islands Agriculture
and Food Fair Bulletin 3:1-2.

Padda, D.S. 1989. From programs to issues: new
directions in agricultural research and extension.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
4:14.

Padda, D.S. 1991. Hurricane damage and recovery:
the storyofUVI Land-Grant Programs. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 5:1-4.

Padda, D.S., ed. 1991. Selected Essays on Food and
Agriculture in the Virgin Islands. Cooperative
Extension Service, University of the Virgin Islands,
515 pp.

Padda, D.S. 1991. The Cooperative Extension System:
a vehicle to meet educational challenges.
Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society,
Roseau, Dominica 27:29-36.

Padda, D.S. 1992. UVI Land-Grant Programs: helping
Virgin Islanders cope with change. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 6:1-3.

Padda, D.S. 1992. Twentieth anniversary of UVI as a
Land-Grant institution. Virgin Islands Agriculture
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Painter, A. 1979. Energy extension work in the Virgin
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Palada, M.C. 1992. Alley cropping: an improved
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Palada, M.C., S.M.A. Crossman and C.D. Collingwood.
1992. Effect of pigeonpea hedgerows on soil water
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the Caribbean Food Crops Society, Santo Domingo,
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Palada, M.C., S.M.A. Crossman and C.D. Collingwood.
1992. Effect of organic and synthetic mulches on
water use and yield of drip irrigated basil.
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Palada, M.C., B.T. Kang and S.L. Claassen. 1992.
Effect of alleycropping with leucana peucocephala
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Agroforestry Systems 19:139-147.

Park, W.L. and R.L. Park. 1974. Profitability of Beef
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Agricultural Experiment Station Report No. 3,
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Park, W.L. and R.L. Park. 1974. Potential Returns from
Goat and Sheep Enterprises in the U.S. Virgin
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Peebles, R.W. 1979. Soil water. Virgin Islands
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Peters, M. 1991. Home management works. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 5:13.

Petersen, A.C. 1987. Yield results of vegetablevarietal
evaluation trials in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Virgin
Islands Perspective: Agricultural Research Notes,
Agricultural Experiment Station, University of the
Virgin Islands 2:16-18.

Petersen, A.C. 1987. The University of the Virgin
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Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
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Phelps, R.P., W.M. Cole and T. Katz. 1992. Effect of
fluoxymesterone on sex ratio and growth of Nile
tilapia, Oreochromisniloticus(L.).Aquaculture and
Fisheries Management 23:405-410.

Pitman, W.D. and M.B. Adjei. 1990. Desmanthus:
Agronomic characteristics, germplasm resources
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Puerto Rico 26:672-677.


Postell,A.J. 1977. Nutritionaland economic advantages
of using local fruits and vegetables. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 17-19.

Ragster, L.E. and S.O. Heyliger. 1991. The role of
plants in medicine in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 5:15-22.

Rakocy, J.E. 1981. The importance of dissolved oxygen
in fish culture. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 41-43.

Rakocy, J.E. 1982. Wanted: aquaculturists. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 19-21.

Rakocy, J.E. 1983. Research on closed recirculating
systems in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Rodale's Network
Winter:5.

Rakocy, J.E. 1984. Aquaculture research in the U.S.
Virgin Islands. Rodale's Network Newsletter. Rodale
Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania Winter:2-3.

Rakocy, J.E., J.A. Hargreaves and A. Nair. 1984. A
rainwater catchment system for agricultural water
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15.

Rakocy, J.E. 1984. A recirculating system for tilapia
culture and vegetable hydroponics. Proceedings of
the Auburn Symposium on Fisheries and
Aquaculture. R.O. Smitherman and D. Tave, eds.
Auburn University, Alabama, 103-114.

Rakocy, J.E. 1984. Fish farming: a new enterprise for
the Caribbean. Caribbean Digest 4:42-44.

Rakocy, J.E.and A. Nair. 1984. Tilapiafryandfingerling
production in small tanks. Proceedings of the
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Virgin Islands 20:236-242.

Rakocy, J.E. 1985. Breeding tilapia in hapas.Alternative
Aquaculture Network Newsletter. Alternative
Aquaculture Association, Breinigsville,
Pennsylvania Fall:2-4.

Rakocy, J.E., A. Nair and J.A. Hargreaves. 1986. Final
Reportof Regional Hatch ProjectS-168:Warmwater
Aquaculture. Agricultural Experiment Station,
University of the Virgin Islands. 22 pp.

Rakocy, J.E. 1986. Tank culture of tilapia in the Virgin
Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
Bulletin, 41-43.


Rakocy, J.E. 1986. Circular culture tanks: a design
alternative. Alternative Aquaculture Network
Newsletter. Alternative Aquaculture Association,
Breinigsville, Pennsylvania Spring:4-6.

Rakocy, J.E. and J.A. Hargreaves. 1986. Assessment
of Aquaculture in the Eastern Caribbean: a Pilot
Study ofAntigua, Barbados, Dominica, Monserrat,
St. Lucia and St. Vincent. Eastern Caribbean Center,
University of the Virgin Islands, 31 pp.

Rakocy, J.E. 1986. Water use plan for aquaculture in
the Virgin Islands. Proceedings of the Third
Caribbean Islands Water Resources Congress. F.
Quinones, A.V. Sanchez and H.H. Smith, eds. St.
Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, 13-16.

Rakocy, J.E. and A. Nair. 1987. Integrating fish culture
and vegetable hydroponics: problems and
prospects. Virgin Islands Perspective: Agricultural
Research Notes, Agricultural Experiment Station,
University of the Virgin Islands 2:19-23.

Rakocy, J.E. 1989. Aquaculture production systems.
Proceedings oftheVirgin IslandsWater Resources
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Islands, 41-46.

Rakocy, J.E. 1989. Vegetable hydroponics and fish
culture: a productive interface. World Aquaculture
20(3):42-47.


Rakocy, J.E. 1989. Tank culture oftilapia. In: Southern
Regional Aquaculture Center Publication No. 282.
Delta Branch Experiment Station, Stoneville,
Mississippi. 4 pp.

Rakocy, J.E. 1989. Hydroponic lettuce production in a
recirculating fish culture system. Island
Perspectives, Agricultural Experiment Station,
University of the Virgin Islands 3:4-10.

Rakocy, J.E. 1989. Mariculture potential in the
Caribbean. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin 4:37-38.

Rakocy, J.E., J.A. Hargreaves and D.S. Bailey. 1989.
Effects of hydroponic vegetable production on water
quality in a closed recirculating system. Journal of
the World Aquaculture Society 20(1):64A.

Rakocy, J.E. and A.S. McGinty. 1989. Pond Culture of
Tilapia. In: Southern Regional Aquaculture Center
Publication No. 280. Delta Branch Experiment
Station, Stoneville, Mississippi. 4 pp.

Rakocy, J.E., A. Nair and D.S. Bailey. 1989.
Performance of cage-cultured Tilapia nilotica, T.
aurea, and three varieties of red tilapia. Journal of
the World Aquaculture Society 20(1):64A.


Mr. David Farrar conducting a pesticide applicator workshop circa 1982.










Rakocy, J.E. 1991. Low-input sustainable agriculture
research in the U.S. Caribbean. Proceedings of a
Regional Conference on Economic Development
and the Food System in the U.S. Caribbean.
Southem Rural Development Center Publication
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Rakocy, J.E., J.A. Hargreaves and D.S. Bailey. 1991.
Comparative water quality dynamics in a
recirculating system with solids removal and fixed-
film or algal biofiltration. Journal of the World
Aquaculture Society 20(3):49A.

Rakocy, J.E. 1991. Feasibility of using vegetable
hydroponics to treat aquaculture effluents.
Proceedings of the National Livestock, Poultry and
Aquaculture Waste Management Workshop.
Kansas City, Missouri, 347-350.

Rakocy, J.E. 1992. Shrimp culture: a potential industry
forthe Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin 6:41-45.

Rakocy, J.E., W.M. Cole, D.S. Bailey and A.M. Rangel.
1992. The effect of phytoplankton on water quality
and tilapia production in a closed recirculating
system with solids removal and fixed-film
biofiltration. Journal of the World Aquaculture
Society. (abstract, in press).

Rakocy, J.E., T.M. Losordo and M.P. Masser. 1992.
Recirculating aquaculture production systems:
integrated fish and plant culture. Southern Region
Aquaculture Center, Delta Branch Experiment
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Ramcharan, C. 1979. Propagation of Fruit and
Ornamental Plants by Layering. Cooperative
Extension Service Gardeners Factsheet No. 13,
College of the Virgin Islands, 4 pp.

Ramcharan, C. 1979. Vegetable Variety Trials for
1978. Agricultural Experiment Station, College of
the Virgin Islands, 48 pp.

Ramcharan, C. 1979. Propagation of Fruit and
Ornamental Plants by Cutting. Cooperative
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Ramcharan, C. 1980. Virgin Islands Tomato, Pepper
and Eggplant Variety Trials in 1978-1979.
Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin
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Ramcharan, C. 1980. Growing Mangoes. Cooperative
Extension Service Gardeners Factsheet No. 21,
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Ramcharan, C. 1980. Bougainvilleas: a thorny bush or
a beautiful flowering vine. Virgin IslandsAgriculture
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Ramcharan, C. 1980. Pigeon peas: a rewarding crop.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
25-28.

Ramcharan, C. and J.M. Gerber. 1981. Crushed fruit
shells of West Indian Mahogany (Swietenia
mahogany Jacq.) as a potential potting media
constituent. The Journal of Agriculture of the
University of Puerto Rico 65(4):374-379.

Ramcharan, C., A.A. Navarro and E.W. Dillingham.
1981. St. Croix papaya decline disease: the effects
ofsulfurand soil fumigation with methyl bromideon
mart soils. Hortscience 16:438.

Ramcharan, C. 1981. Weed control in the garden.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
81-83.

Ramcharan, C. 1982. Chemical fertilizers are
expensive: use them efficiently. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 39-41.


Ramcharan, C. and W.I. Knausenberger. 1982.
Nematicide/fertilizer trials on Giant Cavendish
banana in the Virgin Islands. International Banana
Nutrition Newsletter 4:25-26.

Ramcharan, C.andG. Morris. 1982. Potential ofcassava
as a windbreak and cash crop with Cavendish
banana receiving varying levels ofnematicides and
fertilizers. Hortscience 17(2):266.

Ramcharan,C. and G. Morris. 1982. Potentialofcassava
utilized as a windbreak and cash crop with
Cavendish banana receiving varying levels of
nematicides and fertilizers. Proceedings of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society, Barbados 18:17-
25.

Ramcharan, C. 1983. Tissue Culture and its application
to the propagation of banana and plantain. Virgin
Islands Farmers Newsletter, December.

Ramcharan,C. 1983. Studies on hardening-offmethods
and starter containers for Giant Cavendish banana
explants shipped into St. Croix. Proceedings of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society, Mayaguez, Puerto
Rico 19:89-96.


Mr. Dale Morton, St. Thomas Extension agent, conducting soil analysis.


L~: -


Ramcharan, C. and W.I. Knausenberger. 1983. A
preliminary evaluation of field-planted Maricongo
and Dwarf Plantain grown from explants, using
nematicides, standard cultivation and fertilizer
practices. Proceedings ofthe Caribbean Food Crops
Society, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 19:155-164.

Ramcharan, C., C. George and G. Morris. 1983.
Avocado Production and Marketing. Cooperative
Extension Service Bulletin No. 4, College of the
Virgin Islands.

Ramcharan, C. 1984. Ornamental horticulture: the
missing link. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 31-34.

Ramcharan, C. and J.M. Gerber. 1984. Wet season
tomato varieties for St. Croix, U.S.V.I. The Journal
of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico
68:253-258.

Ramcharan, C. and A. Gonzalez. 1984. Yield,
agronomic characteristics and variabilityof 'Regular
Maricongo'and 'Dwarfplantains'(Musa ABB) using
tissue-cultured plantlets in St. Croix, U.S.V.I.
Proceedingsof theCaribbean Food Crops Society,
St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands 20:243-244.

Ramcharan, C. 1989. Some nutritional facts about
tropical fruits and vegetables. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 4:53-54.

Ramcharan, C. 1989. Temperature build-up and control
measures in container-grown plants in the Virgin
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Experiment Station, University of the Virgin Islands
3:20-23.

Ramcharan, C. 1991. Have you thanked a tree today?
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
5:43-44.

Ramcharan, C. 1992. A low cost chemigator for the
irrigation of fruit crops. Proceedings of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society Santo Domingo,
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Robles, C. 1984. "0 ye of little faith". Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 47.

Robles, C. 1984. Organic farming and gardening: a
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Robles, C. 1989. Landscaping. Virgin Islands
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Sands, F. 1974. Some implications of the Land Grant
status of the College of the Virgin Islands. Virgin
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Sands, F. 1974. Feasibility studies on various
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Sands, F. 1975. Future outlookforanimal food sources
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Food Fair Bulletin, 19-21.

Shulterbrandt, S. 1985. Why pigeon raising in the
Virgin Islands? Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 57-58.

Shulterbrandt, S. 1986. Teacher, why are we studying
agriculture?". Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin 1:47-48.

Sides, P.D. 1977. 4-H leads the way. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 25.

Sides, P.D. 1978. Through a child'seyes. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 65-66.

Smith, C. 1985. Box garden farming. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 67-69.

Smith, C. 1992. Benefitsfromacombinedfamilyfarming
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Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 6:38-39.


Smith, H.H. 1987. Hillside catchments: water supply
alternative. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin 2:19-20.

Somberg, S.I. 1976. Virgin Islands Forestry Research:
A Problem Analysis. Agricultural Experiment Station
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St. Aimee, D. 1975. Possibilities of fresh water fish
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Stammer, R.W. 1974. Marketing Potential forLivestock
Products in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Agricultural
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Virgin Islands, 30 pp.

Stearman, K. 1982. Diagnosing your soil problems.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin,
63-65.

Stearman, K. 1983. Testing Soil for Better Yields (Part
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Factsheet No. 25, College of the Virgin Islands, 2
PP.


Dr. Walter Knausenberger diagnosing tomato diseases circa 1982.


Stearman, K. 1983. Interpreting Your Soil Testing
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Gardeners Factsheet No. 26, College of the Virgin
Islands, 2 pp.

Stearman, K. 1984. Soil fertility on St. Croix: problems
and solutions. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food
Fair Bulletin, 27-28.

Stearman, K. 1984. Soil management problems and
solutions. St.Thomas/St.John Agriculture Fair
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Stergios, B. 1978. Practical hints for potential grape
vineyard establishment in the Virgin Islands. Virgin
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Sterns, R.K., ed. 1992. University of the Virgin Islands
Research and Land-Grant Affairs (brochure),
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Taylor,M.G. 1992. Stormwaterrunoff: a diffusedisaster.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
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Terry, M. 1984. Kids go "buggie" on St. Croix. Virgin
Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 29-30.

Terry, M. and W.I. Knausenberger. 1982. Pest Control
for Home Vegetable Gardens in the Virgin Islands.
Cooperative Extension Service Miscellaneous
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PP.

Terry-Purdy, M. 1984. Island Insects: Handbook for
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Thomas, T.A. and W.I. Knausenberger. 1988. Living
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Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 3:43-46.

Thomas, T.A. 1989. Guavaberry pleasures. Virgin
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Thomas, T.A. 1991. Injurious plants. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 5:23-25.

Thomas, T.A. 1992. Two local plants used for medicinal
purposes. Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair
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Thomson, N.K. 1980. Dairying on St. Croix. Virgin
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Traugott, K.T. 1989. Puberty in livestock. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 4:31-32.


Ulsamer, D. 1988. Creating with calabash. Virgin
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Ulsamer, D. 1989. Broom-making with wild tyre palm.
Virgin Islands Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin
4:47.

Watten, B.J. 1979. Freshwater shrimp. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin, 45-47.

Watten, B.J. 1980. A new approach to backyard fish
and tomato production. Virgin Islands Agriculture
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Watten, B.J. and R.L. Busch. 1984. Tropical production
of tilapia (Sarotherodon aurea) and tomatoes
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283.

Wauer, R.H. 1988. Virgin Islands Birdlife: Getting to
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Extension Service, University of the Virgin Islands,
in conjunction with the U.S. National Park Service,
35 pp.

Webb, R.R. 1983. Variations in response of 24 papaya
varieties infected with bacterial canker.
Phytopathology 73:811. (abstract).

Webb, R.R. 1984. Epidemiologyand control of bacterial
canker of papaya caused by an Erwina species in
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Webb, R.R. 1984. Epidemiologyand control of bacterial
canker of papaya caused by an Erwina species in
St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Proceedings of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society, St. Croix, U.S.
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Webb, R.R., W.I. Knausenberger and L.D. Yntema,
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Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society,
St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands 20, 330 pp.

Webb, R.R. 1985. Control of damping-off of cucumber
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Webb, R.R. 1985. Epidemiologyand control of bacterial
canker of papaya caused by an Etwlna species in
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309.

Webb, R.R. 1985. In vitro inhabitation of the pasture
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Webb, R.R. 1986. Improved disease management in
papaya orchards utilizing resistant varieties and
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Research Notes, Agricultural Experiment Station,
University of the Virgin Islands 1:2-5.

Webb, R.R. 1986. Computerized Listing of
Organizations and Individuals Involved in
Agricultural Research and Development in the
Eastern Caribbean. Agricultural Experiment Station,
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Webb, R.R. and M.J. Davis. 1986. The unreliability of
the latex-flow test for the diagnosis of bunchy-top,
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Wildeus, C.L. 1987. Alfalfa production in the U.S.
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Agricultural Research Notes, Agricultural
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Wildeus, C.L., M.W. Michaud and S. Wildeus. 1989.
Yield of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) cultivars at
three cutting frequencies in the Virgin Islands.
Proceedings of the Caribbean Food Crops Society,
Guadeloupe, French West Indies 25:217-224.

Wildeus, C.L., M.W. Michaud, S. Wildeus and W.D
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the Annual Meeting of the American Society for
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Wildeus,C.L.,M.B.Adjeiand S.Wildeus. 1991. Potential
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Wildeus, C.L., M.W. Michaud and S. Wildeus. 1991.
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Wildeus, C.L., M.B. Adjei and S. Wildeus. 1992.
Response of hair sheep fed silage produced from
various cropping systems. Proceedings of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society, Santo Domingo,
Dominican Republic 28. (in press).

Wildeus, S. 1986. Reproductive characteristics of
Senepol cattle on St. Croix. Virgin Islands
Perspective: Agricultural Research Notes,
Agricultural Experiment Station, University of the
Virgin Islands 1:14-19.


Wildeus, S. and D.W. Wright. 1986. Growth rates and
age at first calving in Senepol x Charolais cross
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Wildeus, S. and D.W. Wright. 1987. Growth and Age
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Wildeus, S. 1987. Performance of Senepol Cows at
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Wildeus, S. 1987. Growth and reproductive
characteristics in flock ofV.I. White (St. Croix) hair
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University of the Virgin Islands 2:2-6.

Wildeus, S, ed. 1987. Senepol Cattle: Proceedings of
the International Senepol Research Symposium.
Agricultural Experiment Station, University of the
Virgin Islands, 138 pp.

Wildeus, S. 1987. Bull fertility on St. Croix: effects of
breed, age and season. Virgin Islands Perspective:
Agricultural Research Notes, Agricultural
Experiment Station, University of the Virgin Islands
2:28-33.

Wildeus, S., J.R. Fugle and D.W. Wright. 1987. Scrotal
circumference, testis size and sperm production in
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.Wildeus S. and J.R. Fugle. 1987. Reproductive
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Virgin Islands, 31-38.

Wildeus, S. and K.T. Traugott. 1987. The White Hair
sheep of St. Croix. Virgin Islands Agriculture and
Food Fair Bulletin 2:21-22.

Wildeus, S., K.T. Traugott and J.R. Fugle. 1988. Age
of puberty in ewe and ram lambs of the St. Croix
breed under native tropical conditions. Journal of
Animal Science 66A:448. (abstract).

Wildeus, S. 1988. Pasture composition and quality of
pastures at the Sheep Research Facility during the
dry season. Second Annual Sheep Field Day,
Agricultural Experiment Station, University of the
Virgin Islands, 7-10.

Wildeus, S. 1988. Effects of pre-breeding
supplementation on the reproductive performance
of Virgin Islands White (St. Croix) ewes. Second
Annual Sheep Field Day, Agricultural Experiment
Station, University of the Virgin Islands, 11-15.


Wildeus, S. 1988. Growth and carcass characteristics
of weaned lambs supplemented with corn or
coconut meal. Second Annual Sheep Field Day,
Agricultural Experiment Station, University of the
Virgin Islands, 16-20.

Wildeus, S. 1988. Performance of Barbados Blackbelly
andVirgin IslandsWhitesheepon St. Croix. Second
Annual Sheep Field Day, Agricultural Experiment
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Wildeus, S. 1988. Puberal development inVirgin Islands
White (St. Croix) ewe and ram lambs. Second
Annual Sheep Field Day, Agricultural Experiment
Station, University of the Virgin Islands, 2-6.

Wildeus, S. 1988. Rapporteur's report: Animal and
livestock systems. Proceedings of the Workshop
on Alternative Agricultural Enterprises for the
Caribbean and Pacific Basin. D.L. Ingram, ed.
CBAG, PBAG and IFAS, University of Florida,
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Wildeus,S.,J.R. Fugle andK.TTraugott. 1988. Effects
of breed, age and season on bull reproductive
function undertropical conditions. Journal of Animal
Science 66A:83. (abstract).

Wildeus, S., K.T. Traugott, C.L. Wildeus and L.R.
McDowell. 1988. Growth and lambing performance
of hair sheep grazing native tropical pastures during
the dry season on St. Croix. Proceedings of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society, Ocho Rios, Jamaica
24:109-113.

Wildeus, S. and C.L. Wildeus. 1989. Production
potential of buffelgrass pastures in the V.I. Island
Perspectives, Agricultural Experiment Station,
University of the Virgin Islands 3:24-25.

Wildeus, S., J.R. Fugle and K.T. Traugott. 1989. Age,
body weight and scrotal circumference at puberty
in Senepol bulls at two locations on St. Croix.
Journal of Animal Science 67:439. (abstract).

Wildeus, S. 1989. Barbados Blackbelly Sheep in the
Caribbean. In:Colored Sheep and Wool: Exploring
their Beauty and Function. K. Erskine, ed. Black
Sheep Press, Ashland, Oregon, 37-42.

Wildeus, S. 1989. Reproductive performance of hair
sheep ewes following pre-breeding
supplementation. Island Perspectives, Agricultural
Experiment Station, University ofthe Virgin Islands
3:13-16.


Wildeus, S., K.T.TraugottandJ.R. Fugle. 1989. Effects
of pre-breeding supplementation on body weight
and reproductive characteristics in multiparous
and nulliparous St. Croix ewes. Proceedings of the
Southern Section of the American Society of Animal
Scientists 64. (abstract).

Wildeus, S., K.T. Traugott and J.R. Fugle. 1990. Effect
of creep feeding on lamb growth and postpartum
interval in hair sheep grazing tropical pasture.
Journal of Animal Science 68:492. (abstract).

Wildeus, S.and C.H.Courtney. 1990. Seasonal parasite
burden and performance of hair sheep ewes under
two levels of management in the semi-arid tropics.
Joumal of Animal Science 68:260-261 (abstract).

Wildeus, S, ed. 1991. Proceedings of the Hair Sheep
Research Symposium. Agricultural Experiment
Station University of the Virgin Islands, 362 pp.

Wildeus,S.,A.MaciulisandW.C.Foote. 1991.Lambing
performance of St. Croix hair sheep in two different
climatic environments. Proceedings Hair Sheep
Research Symposium. S.Wildeus,ed.Agricultural
Experiment Station, Universityof the Virgin Islands,
142-152.

Wildeus, S., A. Maciulis, W.C. Foote, K.T. Traugott
and R.C. Evans. 1991. Lambing performance of St.
Croix hair sheep ewes maintained in the dry lot
under tropical and temperate climatic conditions.
Joumal of Animal Science 69:52-53. (abstract).

Wildeus, S., L.R. McDowell and J.R. Fugle. 1991.
Season and location effects on serum and liver
mineral concentrations of Senepol cattle on St.
Croix. Tropical Animal Health and Production. (in
press).

Wildeus, S., A. Maciulisand W.C. Foote. 1991.Lambing
performance of St. Croix hairsheep in twodifferent
climatic environments. Proceedings Hair Sheep
Research Symposium. S. Wildeus, ed. Agricultural
Experiment Station, University of the Virgin Islands,
142-152.

Wildeus, S., A. Maciulis, W.C. Foote, K.T. Traugott
and R.C. Evans. 1991. Lambing performanceof St.
Croix hair sheep ewes maintained in the dry lot
under tropical and temperate climatic conditions.
Journal of Animal Science 69:52-53. (abstract).

Wildeus, S. 1991. Advances in hormone treatments
affecting reproduction in livestock. Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair Bulletin 5:51-53.







A IIT HIl
3 3138 00205 7684


Wildeus, S., R.C. Evans, W.C. Foote, K.T. Traugott
and A. Maciulis. 1991. Incidence of estrus and
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Wildeus, S., W.C. Foote and R.C. Evans. 1991.
Characteristics ofthe post partum interval in the St.
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69:448. (abstract).

Wildeus, S. and J.R. Fugle. 1991. Effect of
supplementation on growth and carcass
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Research Symposium. S. Wildeus, ed.Agricultural
Experiment Station, University of theVirgin Islands,
243-251.

Wildeus, S. and J.R. Fugle. 1991. Effects of
supplementation and castration on growth and
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69:470. (abstract).

Wildeus, S. 1992. Age-related changes in scrotal
circumference, testis size and sperm reserves in
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Animal Reproduction Science. (in press).

Wildeus, S. 1992. Effects of parity and season on the
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(abstract).

Wildeus, S., J.R. Collins and M.L. Gray. 1992.
Comparative ewe performance of Virgin Island
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Wildeus, S. and C.H. Courtney. 1992. Influence of
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Wildeus, S., L.R. McDowell and J.R. Fugle. 1992.
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Wright, D.W. 1986. Growth and carcasscharacteristics
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Credits:

Special thanks go to Dr. Lawrence C. Wanlass for his
cooperation and reminiscences; to Dr. Bill Ott for his rem-
iniscences and slides; to Mr. Dean F. Davis for his history
of CBAG; to Dr. James E. Halpin, Mr. RobertLindstrom, and
Mr. David Farrar for their contributions.

Thanks also to Ms. Raquel Santiago-Silver, Dr. Jim
Rakocy, Mrs. Helen Dookhan, Mr. Donald Bailey and Ms.
Joni Rae Collins.

Scanned illustrations:

9 Article, The West End News, Sept. 28, 1953
9 Headline, The Daily News, Aug. 21, 1967
10 Recreation of CVI news release, June 8, 1972
10 Headline, The St. Croix Avis, June 9, 1972
10 Detail from Public Law 92-318, Higher Education Act
of 1972, p. 115.
10 Cover of CVI-AES' first published feasibility study.
23 1992 Letterto Mr. Don Baileyof the AES Aquaculture
Program, from Miss Jinnie Richards, fifth grader at St.
Croix's Good Hope School, after a tour of the program.
31 Extension articles by Mr. Morris Henderson and Mrs.
Amy McKay, The St. Croix Avis, Sept. 17, 1962.
38 Article, The St. Croix Avis, June 24, 1977.
38 4-H article by Mrs. Amy McKay, source unknown (UVI
scrapbook), c. 1965.

While some photo credits are unknown, credit can be
given as follows:


Stephan Wildeus
Clarice C. Clarke
Miles Raymond
Bill Ott
Carrol B. Fleming
James Rakocy
Robin Sterns
Martin Adjei
Chris Ramcharan
Wolf Schietke
Dale Morton
Kofi Boateng
Liz Wilson


1, 16, 17
8, 26, 32, 33, 36, 38, 42, 44, 48, 49
11
13
13,30,43
14, 18, 21, 22, 23
18,25
20
26
29
32
37
50


Also, thanks go to past editors Liz Wilson, Clara Lewis,
and Carrol B. Fleming; Public information Specialist Clarice
C. Clarke; and Extension Administrative Assistant Christine
Henry and those who preceded her, for creating and main-
tainingthe printand photo historical archive of the UVI Land-
Grant Program.




















































1992
University of the Virgin Islands
Land-Grant Programs, Communications Unit




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