Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Geological and Geographical...
 Chronological Periods of the Lesser...
 Sites in the Grenadines
 Sites on St. Vincent
 Petroglyphs and Ceramic Nomenc...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover


Archaeological Investigations on St. Vincent and the Grenadines West Indies
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/CA01200017/00001
 Material Information
Title: Archaeological Investigations on St. Vincent and the Grenadines West Indies
Series Title: Report - The William L. Bryant Foundation, American Studies ; 8
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Bullen, Ripley P.
Bullek, Adelaide K.
Publisher: Bryant Foundation, 1972
Publication Date: 1972
Subjects / Keywords: Caribbean
Indians of the West Indies
Saint Vincent
Antiquities -- Grenadines
General Note: Bibliography: p. 168-170
Funding: Digitized with funding from the Digital Library of the Caribbean grant awarded by TICFIA.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Central Florida Libraries ( SOBEK page | external link )
Holding Location: University of Central Florida ( SOBEK page | external link )
Rights Management: All rights to images are held by the respective holding institution. This image is posted publicly for non-profit educational uses, excluding printed publication. For permission to reproduce images and/or for copyright information contact Special Collections & University Archives, University of Central Florida Libraries, Orlando, FL 32816 phone (407) 823-2576, email: speccoll@mail.ucf.edu
Resource Identifier: F2106.B8
System ID: CA01200017:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    List of Illustrations
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Geological and Geographical Background
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Chronological Periods of the Lesser Antilles
        Page 16
    Sites in the Grenadines
        Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Union Island
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
    Sites on St. Vincent
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
        New Sandy Bay
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
        Mt. Pleasant
            Page 76
            Page 77
        Indian Bay
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
        Arnos Vale Swamp
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
        Kingstown Post Office
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
        Camden Park
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
        Buccament West
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
        Lot 14
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
    Petroglyphs and Ceramic Nomenclature
        Page 136
        Pearls Series
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
        Lavoutte Series
            Page 141
        Simon Series
            Page 142
            Page 143
        Separately Defined Types
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
        Caliviny Series
            Page 149
            Page 150
        Suazey Series
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
        No Series
            Page 154
            Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Back Matter
        Page 178
    Back Cover
        Page 179
Full Text


Report Number Eight

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American Studies
Report Number Eight




Ripley P. and Adelaide K. Bullen



Foreword ii
Introduction .
Geological and Geographical Background 5
Chronological Periods of the Lesser Antilles 9
Sites in the Grenadines 10
(arriacou . 11
Union Island . 18
layreau 30
(annouan .. 31
Mystique 34
Petit Nevis and Isle il Quatre 34
Baliceaux 35
Bequia 43
Sites on St. Vincent 47
Fitz-Hughs 51
Queensbury .. 54
Stubbs .. 59
New Sandy Bay .. 66
MNt. Pleasant .. .. 69
Indian Bay 71
Arnos Vale Swanip .. .. 74
Kingstown Post Office 87
Camden Park 98
Buccament West 103
L.ot 1 118
Petroglyphs 129
Ceramic Nomenclature .. 129
Pearls Series . 130
Lavoutte Series ... 134
Simon Series 135
Separately Defined Types 137
Caliviny Series 142
Suazey Series .. 144
No Series . 147
Conclusions .. 149
References Cited 168


On the arrival of the Europeans, they found St. Vincent popu-
lated by Caribs; in fact reportedly it was the most densely
populated island. The island was named Hairoun, Land of the
Blessed, and it will be interesting to discover which of the migrant
Cairib groups provided such a definition of this country.
The Grenadines form a natural bridge between Grenada and
St. Vincent, and it seems rather strange thtthese islands have
only casually been investigated, in the past, by professional archae-
ologists. This deficiency has now been rectified by Adelaide K. and
Ripley P. Bullen who have made a thorough survey. I am sure
this study will go a long way in elucidating tile story of thle north-
ward migration of our early settlers.
The study of ceramic and other materials that have been
identified tells the story of the physical aspects of life in the past.
There still remain outstanding questions that invite speculation,
such as the reasons that motivated people to move up these islands
in succeeding waves. It is hoped that in the not too distant future
these factors would be brought to light by further studies.

James F. Mitchell, B.Sc., D.I.C.T.A., M.I. Biol.
Premier, Minister of Agriculture, Trade
and Grenadines Affairs
Kingston, St. Vincent, W. 1.

Stone head from Kingstown Harbor, St. Vincent vi
Plate I. Artifacts front Carriaeou, the Grenadines 15
Plate II. Troumassee Decorated Cylinders, Union Island 21
Plates III-VII. Artifacts from Chatham Mlidden,
Union Island 22-26
Plate VIII. Pottery fIrom Aliayrea and Bequia 31
Plate IX. Site and deposits at Balnana Bay, Baliceaux 37
Plate X. Pottery from Banana Bay, Baliceaux 12
Plate XI. Specimens from St. Vincent and tlie (reniadines +1
Plate XII. St. Vincent scenery and stone tools 50
Plate XIII. Bank of Greathead River, Arnos Vale 75
Plates XIV-XX. Specimens from Arnos Vale Swamp 78-81
Plate XXI. Pottery from Coconut Oil Factory Site 89
Plate XXII. Pottery Irom Arnos Vale Field and Kingston
Post Office .
Plates XXIII-XXIV. Sherds from Kingstown
Post Office site 92-93
Plates XXV-XXVI. Specimens from Queensbury site 96-97
Plate XXVII. Excavation at Buccamennt West, St. Vincent 108
Plates XXVIII-XXIX. Specimens from Buccament West 110-11
Plates XXX-XXXI. Specimens from various St. Vincent sites 111-15
Plate XXXII. Pottery from New Sandy Bay and l ot 11 119
Plate XXIII. Sherds fronm east coast sites, St. Vincent 122
Plate XXXIV. Artilacts from Indian Bas, St. Vincent 123,
Plate XXXV. Specimens from Stubbs site, St. Vincent 12(
Plate XXXVI. Specimens from Fitz-IHughs site 127
Plate XXXVII. Petroglyphs and sharpening stone 128
Plate XXXVIII. Appliqudn sherds recently found at
New Sandy Ba 162(i

Figure 1. Map of St. Vincent, the Grenadines, and Grenada 2
Figure 2. Profile, Sabazan midden, Carriaco 14
Figure 3. Polychrome design, Trouinassee Decorated Cylinder,
Union Island 27
Figure 1. Map of St. Vincent locating Amerindian sites 48
Figure 5. Profile at Fitz-Hughs site, St. Vincent 52
Figure 6. Section of road cut at Hermitage site 61
Figure 7. Outline sketch, Trounmassee Decorated Cylinder,
Amos Vale Field 87
Figure 8. Section at Test 1, Caniden Park, St. Vincent 99
Figure 9. Section at Test 11, Camden Park, St. Vincent 101
Figure 10. Profiles from test at Buccament West, St. Vincent 105
Figure 11. Sketch of south wall, Cumberland Ravine 117

Table 1. Distribution of sherds, Sabazan midden,
Carriacou 16
Table 2. Pottery from Banana Bay, Baliceaux 41
Table 3. Pottery from Fit/-Hughs site. St. Vincent 5
Table 1. Distribution of sherds, Queensbury site 56-57
Table 5. Pottery from Stubbs site, St. Vincent 60
Table 6. Pottery Irom Espagnol Point South, St. Vincent 65
Table 7. Polter\ trom \It. Pleasant, St. Vincent 70
Table 8. Pottery Irom Test B, Indian Bay, St. Vincent 72
Table 9. Pottery from Texaco Tank site, St. Vincent 7
Table 10. Pottery from Arnos Vale Swamp site 77
Table 11. Pottery from Arnos Vale Field, St. Vincent 86
Table 12. Pottery from Coconut Oil Factory site 88
Table 13. Pottery Irom Kingston Post Olit.- site 90
Table 14. Distribution of sherds, Test 1, Camden Park 100
'Tal)le 15. Distribution of sherds, Test 11, Camden Park 102
'Taille 16. Distribution of sherds, Buccament West 106-7
'Taille 17. Pottery Irolm Lot 11, St. Vincent 120
Table 18. Radiocarbon Dates. Lesser Antilles 153

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Height 21 cmn., weight 1I pounds. imladc of Nisicullar andcsite



At the time this project was initiated, early in 1969, very little
was known about the archaeology of St. Vincent and the Grena-
dines (Fig. 1). Recent and reasonably complete archaeological sur-
veys had been made of Grenada (Bullen 1964) to the south and of
Barbados (Bullen and Bullen 1968c) to the east. To the north a
fair amount of work had been done on St. Lucia (\Mi klii>iLk 1959,
Haag 1964; Bullen and Bullen 1968a, Jesse I'.1II) and on Mar-
tinique (Pinclion 1964; Petitjean Roget 19iu...lii. but nothing was
in print about the prehistory of St. Vincent since Sven Loven's 1935
English revision of his earlier (1942) fiberr die Wurzeln der tai-
nischen Kultur."
The only published basic report was J. Walter Fewkes' (1922)
account of his brief 1913-14 survey which, however, included a
description of over 3000 stone specimens from St. Vincent in the
Huckerby Collection at the Museum of the American Indian (Heye
Foundation) in New York City. Additional information, including
some site locations, will be found in the 1911 St. Vincent Hand-
book (Branch 1911). We found after our arrival on St. Vincent,
however, that a large amount of survey work had been done by
Dr. I. A. Earle Kirby and his associates in the St. Vincent Archae-
ological and Historical Society. The first report from this Society
is Kirby's (1969) well illustrated monograph on the petroglyphs
and work stones of the island. Further references to this activity
will be found on many of the subsequent pages.
Our work on Grenada, St. Lucia, and Barbados plus tests at
individual sites on Guadeloupe, Marie Galante, Martinique, and
Trinidad as well as the study of collections on Guadeloupe (Clerc
I'l, ,'. Trinidad, and at the Semninaire-College in Fort-de-France,
had delineated two major archaeological traditions for the Lesser
Antilles (\l.ittiimi and Bullen 1970). Of these the later-referred
to as the Suazey ceramic complex-we had correlated with the Is-
land Caribs (Bullen 1964: 56; Bullen and Bullen 1968b). Although


SPork Point 13 Mi
2 Pork Estate i4 Ri
3 industry East 15 Pr
4. Industry Estate 16 Gr
5 Spring Estale 17NI
6 Spring Beach 18 B
7 Spring Rocks 19 M
8 Hope Estate 20 G
9 Hope Rocks 21 T
0 FriendshipPoint 22 R
II Paget Farm 23 C
12 Gelizeou 24 V




tl! Nevis
and Bay(
north Boy
banana Ba1
rand Boy(C
off o


SaJ Sovanne
- Iz* 0o

ST. a sSW Fig I Mop of St Vincent, the Grenodines, and Grenada.

a_11 C.IVWe.terhall
all Co J n,OlU Isla ond + 3 I
l'.soP ond 5 ] '401 C[ 'C 625' 4n a -20 a40' G fe-a

I I.oin. 1. Mlp (ot St. Vincent, the (Grewiilines, and Grenada

F a n c y S,,
Sand BS ^ o

25 Mayreou Beach
26 Clifton Swamp
27 Fort H llSAINT "5
0)28 Durham
29 ChathamMidden Buca ment
S30.Chatham Pasture Cam Park r --'--3 ,o
31 Miss Pierre Arno Vale t'
;32 Belmont Pond
33 Dover 5
34 Mt Pleasant
35 Grand Bay(Car)
36 Sobozon 4 4' IA
l cood es 19- ,, c


I 4

z Ina -o-

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OCIt 5 25




hie correlation seemed excellent, we wished to locate an historic
Carib site-cither an historically docunentedl site or one producing
sixteenth or early seventeenth century European artifacts in posi-
tive association in the ground with aboriginal pottery. A suggestion
ot such an association had been found at tile Savanne Sna/cy site
on Grenada (Bullen 1961: 11-13) but further proof was desirable.
Historical research indicated that tile Island Carib (I.ovan
1935: 2) continued iln peacclul possession of St. Vincent unttil 1627,
that tile islands of St. Vincent and Dominica were by agreement
between the French and the English abandoned tile Caribs in
1660; that they continued in control until after 1672; that while
a few Negro refugees were present as early as 1646( no substantial
African mixture occurred before 1675; and that in 1735 "the in-
habitants of St. Vincent were estimated at 6,000 Negroes and 4,000
native Caribs who waged continual war against the Negroes"
(Anderson 1911 : 1t5; Taylor 1951: 18, 22; Van der Plas 1969: 4-8).
In 1763 St. Vincent became a British Crown colony without
any reservations regarding the rights of the Caribs. The arrival of
colonists resulted in a great deal of friction with the earlier resi-
dents, mostly Black Caribs, who, after battles in 1772-73, were
restricted by the Treaty of 1773 to tie northern end of the island.
north of tile Wallibou and Grand Sable Rivers (Fig. 4) as shown
on the 1773 map of the island (Shephard 1831: 30-31). From 1776
to 1783 the French controlled St. Vincent. Six years after the re-
tiirn of thie island to England and again in 1795, tile Black Caribs,
aroused I)y the French, attacked tile English. By tile middle of
1796, aided by substantial reinforcements, the British were vic-
torious andl in 1797 most ot the remaining Black Caribs, said to
have numbered 5,080, were taken to Roatan, an island off tle
coast of present day British Honduras (Anderson 1914: 46-66;
Spencer and Yard 1'.-").
Data from other islands (Jesse 1'tI.. suggested that St. Vincent
was tlie most important Carib island. In 1700 Labat, the French
missionary, wrote that St. Vincent "is tie centre of the Carib
Republic: tile place where tile savages are most InumIerous- )omi-
nica not approaching it" (Taylor 1951: 22). Clearly tile Island
Carib continued to live on St. Vincent, more or less undisturbed,
lot nearly 200 years after tile discovery of the island by Columbus
although, with tie emergence of the Negroes as at military force,
they retreated between 1719 and 1730 to the mountains and the


northern part of the windward coast (Anderson 1911: '14). Certainly,
St. Vincent was the logical place to find an historic Carib site and,
as we had not done so on St. Iucia (Bullen and Bullen 1968a:
40-41) and a Smithsonian Institution expedition had failed to do
so on Dominica (Evans 1968), the most likely island.
Our field work consisted of four types: 1) visits to sites with
collection of specimens and notations of site attributes, 2) the
digging of small stratigraphic tests at selected sites; 3) the analysis
and photographing of specimens in the extensive Kirby-Baisden
and St. Vincent Archaeological and Historical Society collections.
and 4) the photographing and study of available skeletal materials
(by A. K. Hullen). We had originally planned to do this work be-
lore and after the Third International Congress for the Study of
the Pre-Coluibian Cultures of the Lesser Antilles held in nearby
Grenada July 7-11, 1969, but the large number of sites and the
quantity of material involved necessitated our return in 1970.
In 1969 we spent from June 25 to July 3 on St. Vincent, July
13-14 on Carriacou in the Grenadines, and July 15 to August 14
on St. Vincent including a three day visit to Bequia and Baliceaux
(Fig. 1). The 1970 field session, starting April 9 and continuing to
May 28, included another trip to Bequia and Baliceaux as well as
a hard 5-day expedition to survey Union, Mayreau, and Cannouan
Islands in the Grenadines. The only sizeable Grenadine island not
visited was Mustique. Dr. Kirby subsequently filled that gap in
the survey at the kind invitation of Hon. Hugo and Mrs. Mony-
Coutts to whom our appreciation is due.
Specimens described and illustrated in this report, with the ex-
ception of those in the Torsteinson collection from Union Island,
have been left in St. Vincent. It is anticipated they will be placed
in the new museum currently being planned for the Botanical
Garden near Kingstown, St. Vincent, where they would be avail-
able for study by qualified comparative scholars. A few type speci-
mens have Ieen added to the research collections of the Florida
State \i1 iii, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, where
they are available for examination by comparative students.
'The Win. L. Bryant Foundation sponsored the I'1.!I field work.
That of 1970 was a joint enterprise of the Bryant Foundation and
the Florida State Museum, University of Florida. We are indebted
to both of these organizations as well as to innumerable people in
the Lesser Antilles. Foremost is Dr. I. A. Earle Kirby, Veterinary


S)lhi, of the Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture,
Trade and Tourism of St. Vincent. His official duties, keen sense of
observation, and deep interest in all divisions of natural history
have acquainted him with all parts of St. Vincent and most of the
Grenadines. As a guide, traveling companion, and collector of
Indian artifacts he is without a peer. His willingness to share his
knowledge and his active cooperation in many ways make this
report possible. We are also indebted to Hon. J. F. Mitchell,
Minister of Agriculture, Trade, and Tourism for the use of various
facilities in Kingstown while classifying and photographing pottery
and for courtesies extended to us on Be(quia.
Gratitude is also dufe IMr. Claude Theobalds, then Public Rela-
tions and Information OlhI i and an old friend from Grenada,
who made our lirst contacts on St. Vincent; Mrs. Iorna Allen-Small,
who extended library facilities to us; Mr. Morrison Baisden, who
has worked with Dr. Kirby at maniv of the St. Vincent sites; Mr.
and Mrs. Jack Kelley, who showed us their specimens from Bucca-
ment West; Mrs. Eileen Puinett for the loan of her Queensbury
specimens for photographic purposes; Mr. Jack Punnett for permis-
sion to excavate at Buccament West; Mr. 0. D)ouglas Brisbane for
the opportunity to study his osteological material from Indian Bay;
Mr. and Mrs. Leoin Banfield for permission to test the Indian Bay
site; Mr. and Mrs. Murray Graham, managers of tile Heron Hotel;
and Mr. Conrad Williams for expert driving and survey assistance
north of Rabacca Dry River. Mr. Ernest Laborde drove us one
Sunday to the mouth of the Wallibou River permitting us to
examine the Fitz-Hughs and Cumberland Ravine sites.
Particular mention must be made of Mr. Roessler 1). Sandrock
of Bequia who, as his contribution to science, took us to Petit Nevis,
Isle a Quatre, and twice, when the waves were not as small as they
should have been, to Baliceaux. Also on Bequia, we were guided
by Messrs. Harold Morris, Arthur Gooding, and Dudley Brown. It
was Mrs. C. E. Hughes of Grenada who whetted our appetite lor
Carriacou by showing us part of her collection from the Sabazan
site. After our arrival there, Mr. J. Linton Rigg of tile Mermaid
Tavern and Mr. amd Mrs. Edward Kent of Craigston Estate were
most cooperative.


St. Vincent (Fig. 4) is one of the volcanic islands which extend,


like a string of pearls, from tie eastern end of the Greater Antilles
almost to the northeastern corner of South America. Called the
Lesser Antilles, they form a series of stepping stones for any mi-
grants wishing to go from present day Venezuela northward. The
southern members of this chain, among whom St. Vincent is to be
tound, are called the Windward Islands because of the trade winds
which blow almost continually from the Atlantic Ocean on tile
east, across them, to tle Caribbean Sea on tile west.
About 30 miles to the northnortiheast of St. Vincent lies St.
Lucia whose Pitons can be seen from tlie northern end of St.
Vincent on pleasant days. About 60 miles to tile southwest is
Grenada, tie southernmost pearl of the Antilles. Between Grenada
and St. Vincent are the Grenadines, a string of seed pearls. They
are divided politically between tlie two larger islands with Carria-
(ou and Petit Martinique belonging to Grenada and Petit St.
Vincent, lUnion, and the more northern islands to St. Vincent (Fig.
St. Vincent, somewhat oval ill shape (Fig. .1), has a north-southI
length of 17-3/4 and a maximum east-west width of 10-3/4 miles.
It is extremely hilly w a rather precipi at itous topography (Pls. XII,
a; XXVII, a). High land, except where cut by streams and )iver
valleys, reaches tie coast. Soutriere to tile north is, at present, a
quiescent volcano Iut it exploded ill 1'II2. contemporaneously with
the eruption of Mt. Pelee on Martinique. It has also erupted on
previous occasions, both historically and pre-historically. The 1812
eruption was almost as Iad as that of 1', 2 (Shepherd 1831: 181;
Whitney 1902). With a maximum elevation of 38(i4 feet, all the
central part of the island (about four-filths of its total length) ex-
ceeds an elevation of 2000 leet (Fig. 4).
As a result of these two factors, highly central elevation and
prevalent winds Irom the east, rainfall is abundant during tile hot
Months from late spring to early fall. At that time of the year, the
trade winds pick iup moisture exi)porated Irom the hot surface of
thle Atlantic Oceanl to o111 clo uds which, when they are cooled
by their ascent of tile central part of St. Vincent, lose their moisture
as rain. This abundant but seasonal rain lihas greatly eroded the
land and formed many rivers and small streams leading from the
mountains o tile coast. Some of these, Ipaticularly tile Buccament,
York (Fig. 4, 36-77), and Greathead Rivers, have extensive, nearly
level, outwash fans which presently are being trenched by stream

(GOl.O(;V 7

action. Most, however, are rather small in si/e so that Indian sites,
while very common, are usually limited in area.
Long beaches are not characteristic of St. Vincent. Nevertheless,
along the east coast from the mouth of the Colonarie River (Fig. 4)
northward for about a mile is a sandy stretch. However, this strip
is very narrow andl the area extremely dry, almost a desert. Further
north, from the (Grand Sable River northward to the first river
north of Georgetowni is another good )beach. 'To the west and
northwest ol Georgetown is good fairly flat agricultural land. This
was the center of the late eighteenth century Black Carib occupa-
tion (Fig. 4).
Further north is the Rabacca l)r\ River which has an extremely
broad headwaters area on tile side of Soufriere M.ountain where
more rain occurs than in any other part of tile island (Fig. 4). This
stream has a wide flood plain and stream bed near its mouth
which is usually easily ftrdable Iby automobiles but it can become
a raging torrent in a matter ol hours. After extreme rains it lma
be several days before cars can again be driven north of George-
town. This change, from small to large in hours, is typical of most
stlreias on St. Vincent during thlie rainy season because of the
concentrations of Iain ill tie hills, tle presence of relatively large
headwater-drainage areas, and rapid runoff.
ilhe soils of tlhe island, because of their volcanic origin, are
rich in minerals and very good for agriculture although they tend
to be a little heavy for easy cultivation, except on tlie cast coast
where winds have added sand. Soils are predominantly volcanic
ash 'which ctoveredl tile island after each eruption of Soufriere. The
ailloult of ash which falls on any one place depends on its distance
from tile volcano and tile direction of wind at the time. After the
1902 eruption, depths of ash varied from 2 inches in Kingston at
the extreme southern end of the island to 3 feet along the west
coast north of Clhateaubelairi (Whitney 1902: 157, 180). All plants
and animals north of the Richmond and Byera Rivers were killed
(Fig. 1). We are advised that crops can be grown in this ash as soon
as it cools off but that water (rain) and fertilizers are needed.
Successive layers of ash deposits are typical of St. Vincent and
may be seen in various places where they have been cut through
by streams. One prominent place is along the nortl side of the
Rabacca Dry River where the bank approaches 30 feet in height.
At least three lavers, each several feet in thickness, can be seen.


They have weathered or leached to a different color indicating
their relative times of deposition. That the geological processes
outlined here have continued over a long period of time is shown
by a radiocarbon date of 1940 B.C. (Sample .\ l.4-1, Crane and
Griffin 1959: 175) for a log from a volcanic mudflow deposit in tile
bank of the Rabacca Dry River some : ',I feet from the ocean (Fig.
4, southeast of 411).
The archaeology of St. Vincent must be understood and inter-
preted in respect to its recent geological history. There has occurred
a series of volcanic actions, each of which has deposited varying
amounts of ash with which are frequently mixed small concretions
and rounded rocks of pebble and small boulder size. After each
eruption, rains come which erode the ash and wash much of it
away to form thick deposits in middle river valleys, sometimes
tl,..-ill- them, and on outwash plains. Artifacts, if present on old
surfaces or in midden deposits are buried or carried downhill with
other material and redeposited. Sometimes the resultant overburden
is extraordinarily thick and, surprisingly, often found in the hills.
An outstanding example of this process may be seen along the
8- to 9-foot high west bank of the Greathead River at Arnos Vale
(Fig. 4, 30). Views of this bank show three extremely thick layers
separated in spots by fanglomerate (Pl. XIII). The natural forces
involved must have been enormous to move boulders of the si/e
shown in tie pictures. At this part of the site, artifacts, radiocarbon
dated to A.D. 410, are found only in the dark zone shown immedi-
ately at or just above water level. In another area of this large
level flood plain, specimens (of a different time period) are found
between depths of 1 and 3 feet. Obviously, they arrived in place
sone time after tle pottery found in the lower level.
Like St. Vincent, tile Grenadines are volcanic in origin but,
unlike her, they contain no recently active volcano. Like her, again,
they have a very rugged terrain, but the altitudes of their hills are
very nominal, seldom exceeding 700 and never reaching 900 feet
except on C(arriacou, by far the largest of the Grenadines. Hence,
while the trade winds blow gloriously, condensation is at a mini-
mum and active streams virtually unknown except during the
height of the rainy season. For most of the year, these islands are
very dry. As a result Anerindian sites are not buried under large
quantities of overburden. Each island of any size contains one or
more good sand beaches. The larger ones have, or until recently


had, salt ponds and mangrove swamps. Animal life, as on St.
Vincent, is rare but marine food resources are abundant. The
Grenadines are satisfactory for a short stay but their small size and
scarcity of water make them undesirable for permanent occupation.
This is reflected in their archaeology as large sites were only found
on Carriacou, the largest and best endowed of the Grenadines.
Bequia has many more sites but those on Carriacoit cover much
larger areas.


In the following sections data from various sites in the Grena-
dines atnd on St. Vincent will be presented. It seems desirable, be-
cause of the large number involved, to have a short discussion of
the archaeological implications of each site after its presentation.
The concluding section will contain a summary of these data and
discuss comparisons with other islands. In order that the reader
can follow the presentation and recognize period terminologies.
hle scheme used is included here. Definitions of pottery types will
Ie found after the sections on survey data and before the general
discussions and conclusions.
The first known entry of man into the Lesser Antilles occurred
shortly before the time of Christ. Archaeology strongly suggests
that he came by boat from northeastern Venezuela or Trinidad
and, after reaching Grenada, gradually worked his way up the
Grenadines, St. Vincent, St. Lucia and the other islands of the
Lesser Antilles to reach Puerto Rico before A.D. 120 (Rouse 19. -
Rouse anid Cruxent 1963: 122). le brought with him agriculture-
at least the cultivation of manioc as evidenced by griddles used
to cook cassava cakes-and a well-developed ceramic tradition
which is referred to in Venezuela as Saladoid after Saladero, the
type site on the Orinoco River (Rouse and Cruxent 1963: 112-22).
While the early pottery of the islands shows many resemblances
to that found in Venezuela, it also seems to present significant
differences. For this reason we call the earliest ceramic period of
the Lesser Antilles, "Insular Saladoid" (Mlattioni and Bullen 1970).
Among other characteristics, Insular Saladoid ceramics include fine
sand-tempered, narrow-line incised crosshatching, certain white-on-
red painting, incised-modeled button-shaped rim lugs and similar
rim adornos, inverted bell-shaped red-painted containers, and a
little coarser utility ware having wide handles which are frequently


embellished with small peg-like added pieces of clay (Bullen 1961
Pls. 1-10). Specific type names and definitions will be found in the
section on ceramic typology. Any time the word "Pearls" is
used in ceramic nomenclature, it refers to pottery as found in this
early period.
During succeeding generations, various changes occurred in the
pottery of the Iesser Antilles. Vessels had thicker walls, contained
coarser temper, and were made into different shapes. Use of the
word lilli.'i" signifies these differences. Decoration also varied
and was more complicated. After this ceramiic apogee, which we
refer to as the "Modified Saladoid" period, a degeneration and
simplification seems to have occurred. lThis final stage of the Sala-
doid tradition is called "Terminal Saladoid" (Mattioni and Bullen
1970). 'IThis sequence, whiile evident, is poorly documented.
Around A.1). 1000 red painting and certain rim modifications
became emphasized while the remaining Saladoid traits drastically
declined in popularity. lThe new ceramic complex includes casuela-
shaped vessels with curvilinear but fairly simple designs applied
in black and red paint on outer rim surfaces, sometimes on the
inside of open bowls. T''his pottery belongs to what is called the
"Caliviny series." Shortly, around A.D. 1200, many vessels are much
poorer in construction with rather rough surfaces which are some-
times scratched. Rims bear finger or fingernail indentations while
griddles and sometimes vessels are supplied with feet to raise them
over cooking fires. These feet supersede annular support rings
previously in use. Some vessels are extremely large and thick
walled. IlHuman face representations, when present, emphasize noses
and eyebrows. lThis complex we refer to as "Suiaey" and it is the
one we have correlated with late prehistoric and early historic occu-
pation by the Island Caribs (Bullen and Bullen 1970). Suar/ey and
Caliviny pottery are frequently loud intermingled.


As shown in Figure 1, the Grenadines extend from Grenada
northward to St. Vincent. In J ully of 1969, we flew to Carriacou Iron
Grenada, went by, taxi to the Mermaid Tavern, rented a car and
driver, and proceeded to visit the three locally-well known sites:
over, rand Ba, Grand and Sabazan. We looked over all likely spots
on the northern and eastern parts of the island but did not, as
our time was limited, examine the terrain to the southwest around


Tyrell Bay. This area, particularly that called "Oyster Bay Swamp,"
should be examined.

Carriacou Sites

Dover (Fig. 1, 33). The Dover site, covering some 5 acres, is situated
near a salt flat on the north side of an ephemeral stream between
the small settlement of the same name and the southern part of
Watering Bay on the eastern or windward side of Carriacou. All of
the site is less than a quarter mile from the sea towards which its
nearly level surface gently slopes. Cultivation has occurred for a
long time but when we were there, during the dry season, it only
supplied space grazing for a few cows. Small fragments of broken
pottery littered the surface while larger ones were to be found on
the surface and eroded sides of the dry stream bed.
Our surface collection, limited to definitive sherds, includes one
or two examples each of Pearls Plain, Pearls red-painted, Pearls
white painted (white-on-red); Simon Plain, Simon red-painted,
Simon White Painted, Simon Neck Decorated, a unique red-painted
and incised sherd with traces of black paint on the outside, Caliviny
Plain, Sta/ey Scratched, Suazey Finger Indented, and Suazey red-
painted. Clearly two periods are represented; one is an early Sala-
doid phase with Pearls and Simon pottery types, the other the
Suazey complex including some pottery of the Caliviny series. It
was noted in the field tlat the earlier pottery was more prevalent
towards the sea and the later Sua/ey complex sherds more abundant
towards the west.
Miss Elizabeth C(arnichael, Assistant Keeper of Ethnology at
the British Museum, London, before attending the Third Inter-
national Congress for the Study of the Pre-Columbian Cultures of
tlhe Lesser Antilles held in Grenada in 1969, visited Carriacou,
photographed the collection at Madonna House, and made a small
stratigraphic test in the western part of the Dover site. She very
kindly let us see specimens from this test while they were being
washed in Grenada. We did not systematically classify her collec-
tion but it obviously represented an admixture of Suazey and
Caliviny ceramics with tlhe latter forming approximately 75 per
cent of the total sherd count. Subjectively this ratio seemed con-
stant from the surface downward to tile base of the cultural de-
posit at about 30 inches below the present surface of the site.
This test agrees with the horizontal distribution mentioned


above. It also indicates occupancy of the western part of the Dover
site by Amerindians using pottery of the Caliviny and Suazey series
for a substantial length of time. The percentage of Caliviny pottery
is much higher than is usually the case.

Mt. Pleasant Point (Fig. 1, 34). Mt. Pleasant Point juts into the sea
about midway along the east coast of Carriacou. This is an ex-
tremely dry region where surface erosion is taking place at a rapid
rate. At the first point north of Mt. Pleasant Fort we found thick
crude pottery, including Suazey Scratched, and conch (Strombus
gigas) shells eroding from the soil near the cliff edge. This only
occurred in one place where the deposit had been protected by a
small mass of cactuses and other bushes. Practically all of the site
had eroded away before our arrival. We collected a total of 28
Sua/ey Plain, 1 red painted, and 4 thin sherds.
This situation is typical of many locations we have visited on
the windward sides of Grenada and St. Lucia where sites producing
thick pottery of the Suazey series are in the last stages of erosion
by sea and wind.

Grand Bay (Fig. 1, 35). Grand Bay is the southernmost bay on tie
east coast of Carriacou. Occupational debris stretches for nearly
a half mile along the middle of the southern part of the bay a
little south of the Grand Bay settlement. Here erosion by the sea
has left a steeply sloping beach at the head of which is a buried
mildden from which large conch shells and sherds are eroding.
To the west are two small ephemeral stream beds. The site extends
up the gently rising land along these stream beds for a fair dis-
tance. This is the largest site we have seen in the Lesser Antilles
and may cover as much as ten acres.
Midden material is found in heavy black-brown dirt which lies
over lighter colored, archaeologically sterile, clay. We found SuaZey
and Caliviny ceramics in various faces down to depths of 12 to 32
inches, as the case might be. More Sua/ey Finger Indented rims (P1.
I, b-d) were noted than for any other site we have surveyed. Thin,
smooth, Caliviny red-painted sherds (PI. 1, f) seemed in places to
concentrate at the base of the cultural deposit inmnediately on top
of the clay. A unique excised sherd (Pl. I, c) and several examples
of Suazey Footed Griddles (PI. I, g) were also collected. An inter-
esting loom weight (PI. I, a) in the shape of an animal was found
by Miss Susan K. Bollinger of Miami at a depth of approximately
2 feet. Similar weights have been found at other Suazey complex


sites (Bullen 1964: 21-22). Otherwise our collection included: a
fragment of a greenstone ax, part of a shell dipper or tool; 27
Suazey Finger Indented, 12 Scratched, 3 red-painted, 7 Plain, 6
Footed Griddle, 1 Im,,II Tripod Bowl; 3 Caliviny Polychrome,
11 red-painted, 5 Plain; and 5 Simon-like sherds of which 2 were
red painted and 3 plain.
The situation at Grand Bay seems similar to that at Dover ex-
cept that the ratio of Suazey to Caliviny ceramics was reversed. At
Grand Bay there were many more Suazey than Caliviny sherds and
a ~. 1..-- .1;1 that the latter concentrated near the bottom of the
site. This would imply, if our seriation is right, that Grand Bay
was occupied more recently, on the average, than the western part
of the Dover site. It should also be noted that virtually no pottery
of the Pearls or Simon series came from Grand Bay. It was not
occupied dmiing the earlier Saladoid periods.
Sabazani (Fig. I, 36). This site, bordering the eastern half of Little
Breteche Bay on the southern shore of Carriacou, represents another
very large Amerindian village. Like Dover, it was occupied during
more than one archaeological period.
At the extreme eastern end of tile site is a small midden presently
being badly eroded by the sea. We found an exposed vertical face,
over 20 feet in length, consisting of a dark brown sloping midden
deposit 24 to 30 inches thick, which rested on apparently sterile
yellow-brown clay and was overlaid by a more recent slope deposit
of gray dirt and rocks (Fig. 2). Sticking out from the side of the
midden were Modified Saladoid period sherds. From the talus
slope at tie base of tile face and fronl sand immediately to the
west, we collected tile following sherds: 1 Suazey Finger Indented,
1 Scratched, 5 Plain, 3 footed and 4 other griddle fragments; 1
Caliviny Plain; 1 Simon Wide Handled (peg-topped), 6 red-painted,
10 plain; and 1 each of Pearls Rimn I it.: d, red-painted, and Plain.
This midden will be discussed further after the description of the
rest of the site.
The midden mentioned above was "wedged" between a high
spur of the adjacent hill and a very narrow pebble beach. Pro-
ceeding westerly, we encountered thle familiar salt pond near which
were land crab holes, sometimes with sherds in the dug out dirt.
To the west across the road, tie land opened up to present a
large area, perhaps 4 acres in extent, beside an ephemeral stream
and behind part of the salt pond.



3" S1utoce -Groy dirt and rocks
iCrushed limestone
0- ___i~ 5i ,-iOF1ee Dark brown 15.
Upperholfof madden -- / occupation zone
L o w e r h a lf o f m id d e n y el- -w -c a
| \ yellow brown clay
-3- lumps

I :.... 2. Protile, Sali);iz;ill midden, Cairiacou.

)ur collections fromll tlis area north of the road-including the
surface, crab hole dirt, aniid bank of the ephemeral stream-included
6 Suazey Finger Indented, 11 Scratiched, 1 slant-back lhuman-hlead
rim adorno (Pl. I, i), 2 red-painted, 3 Plain; 2 griddle and griddle
leg fragments; 1 Simon White Painted, 5 red-painted, 1 Rim I i-_,J ,1.
1 Wide Handled (peg-topped), 1 Plain; 1 Pearls red-painted, 1
Plain, and part of a clay support ring.
Returning the next morning to the midden at the east end of
the Sahazan site, we cleaned the face and drew a measured profile
as shown in Figure 2. We then excavated aboutt a loot thick "slice
of this face collecting specimens by overburdenn," "upper hall of
midden," "lower half of midden," and underlying "yellow clay."
The vertical distributions of the different pottery types from this
test are given in Table I and some are illustrated in tile lower
part of Plate 1.
Of the illustrated sherds, two, a Suazey Plain and a poor ex-
ample of St. Lucia Zoned Incised (Pl. I, j, n), came from the over-
burden. The upper part of the midden zone produced one of the
Caliviny Polychrome sherds, a Simon Black-and-Red specimen, a
nice example of Arnos Vale Incised, and a rather ornate Simon
Wide Handled (Pl. I, k, m, p, t). From the lower part of the
midden came the shell bead, part of a Vase Mario, an Arnos Vale
Zoned specimen, an engraved sherd, and the very nice highly
polished Pearls Side Handled example portraying a stylized human
lace with black paint rubbed into incised rectangular lines around
the mouth and ear orifices (Pl. 1, h. q, r, o, s). A mano or muller
also came from the lower part of the midden.
The average depths of sherds shown in Table I strongly sup-



oe f.

0 5 10 15



1 r

- t*,' *



q -:P

r -


a^"-' ..--
W __ -, T


Plate I. Artifacts lion Caniiaiconi, the (.ieniadincs.
a, clav looin weight; Ib-dl Suia/ey Finger Indctled: r, uniquce excised; f. Calixiny
red-painted; and -. Su~a/cy ]Footed (Griddle, all lioin Randnd Bay; Ih, Olivella
shell I)e ad; i, handle, SuaieN pa)stc; j. S;ialey Plain: k-1, Caliviny 1'olychrolme; it,
Simon llackk-and-Rcd I'ainted; 1, St. Lucia Zoned Incised; o, lnil(que engraved;
p, Arnos Vale Incised; qj. Vase Mario; r, Arlnos Vale Zoned; s. uniquiie. Pearls
Side HfandIled; ,. Simon Wide Handled: and 1i. PIearls Rim Lugged, all from
Sabazan. (a, collection Susan K. Iollonge, Miami; lioin photograph b)N B. J.







Table 1

Over- Upper half Lower half Yellow
burden mlidden midden clay


Suna/ey series

Calivinv series
Modified Saladnid
St. Lucia Zoned Inc.
Simon Zone 'ainted
Simon Neck Decorated
Simon White Painted
Simon misc. incised
Simon red-painted
Simon Rim Lugged
Simon Rim Adorned
Simon Wide Handled
Simon Plain
I nsular Saladoid
Pearls Polychrome
Pearls White Painted
Pearls misc. incised
Iearls red-painted
Pearls Rim Lugged
Pearls Plain





(19.5) (13.9)

7 7
(22.2) (51.1)
1 1

7 65







( ((i.7) 21 (11.7) 1 (2.5)

36 180 157 4 377

P1lercentages per stratigraphic zone. bOne contains shell temper. ,One deco-
rated with an animal head, one peg-topped. 'One peg-topped.

port the chronological arrangement presented earlier. Sherds of
the Pearls series were the deepest and, therefore, presumably, the
earliest. Next came those of the Simon series, while Caliviny and
Suazey pottery had the shallowest vertical distribution. This is well
brought out by the percentage figures for each zone. In sloping
cultural deposits of this nature, subject to slope wash, there is apt
to be an overlapping or admixture where different zones meet each
other. If we had divided our levels more finely, the separation be-
tween the Modified Saladoid and more recent periods would un-




I 28

1 135



1 7
1 36(

doubtedly have been movie evident.
During excavation, charcoal lumps were found in places marked
x" on the profile (Fig. 2). These were collected and subsequently
subjected to a radiocarbon determination by Radiocarbon, Ltd.,
of Spring Valley, New York. The resultant (late (Sample RL-29)
was 940 100 years B.P. or about A.I). 1010. Judging from the
location of this sample in the profile-approximately at the base
of the top quarter of the midden deposit-it should apply to a
closing phase of the Modified Saladoid period or, quite possibly,
to the introduction or development of Caliviny ceramics.
In the research collections of the Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, are a three-pointed stone and
eight sherds catalogued from Carriacou but without any site
designation. It is likely they came from the Sabazan Midden. Five
of these specimens (cat. nos. 231254/263/258/257/261) are illus-
trated in Plate XI (a- ). The others are a 1.5-inch diameter
handle (lor a griddle?) with a human face modeled on its end, a
hollow back Pearl's type adorno, a Caliviny Polychrome sherd,
and a St. Vincent Black Zoned sherd. Excellent drawing of rather
spectacular ado rnos and other sherds from Carriacou will be found
in Fewkes 1922 (Pls. 62-68) report.
Before leaving Carriacou, a comment should be made on the
large illustrated Caliviny Polychrome sherd (Pl. I, 1) from the
northern part of the Sabazan site. This sherd has traits beyond
the range of variation previously found in the type "Caliviny Poly-
chrome." Walls are thicker and the paste sandier and more com-
pact, but the great difference lies in its shape and the presence of
an applied wide handle which is peg-topped. Red paint on the top
of the handle and the method of applying the black paint permit
its classification as Caliviny Polychrome but it is definitely a mixed
or "transitional" specimen exhibiting traits of two different time
periods. Without the typically Caliviny Polychrome paint appli-
cation it would be classified as a minor variant of Simon Wide
Handled, peg-topped variety.
We have been unable to find in collections or illustrations of
Venezuelan pottery any close similarities with or logical ante-
cedents for Caliviny Polychrome vessels. The sherd from Sabazan
seems to indicate that the Caliviny Polychrome type of decoration
originated during a very late phase of the Saladoid continuum in
the Lesser Antilles and is an indigenous development. Perhaps it



represents the application of a new style of painting to an older
form. A suggestion of such a situation was also found at Caliviny
Island off the coast of Grenada (Bullen and Bullen 1968b: 35).
Mention should also be made of the large areas involved in
the Dover, Grand Bay, and Sabaian sites. At least subjectively, they
are larger in area than any other sites we have visited in the Lessei

Union Island Sites

Union is the first sizeable island north of C(ari;cou. a la1 15,
1970, Dr. Kirby and the authors flew from St. Vincent to Pi rine
Island where we were taken by small boat to Clifton Harbour,
Union Island. There we established our headquarters at the Clifton
Beach Guest House for the survey of Union, Mayreau, and Can-l
Inotian Islands (Fig. 1). The next morning we went by jeep to
the foot of the hills northwest of Ashton. From there we climbed
over the 400-foot high pass through the n1-.i1 500- to 750T-oot
hills which isolate Chatham Bay from the rest of Unlion Island.
Other sites on tile island we were able to reach by eas\ walks from
Clifton Harbour.

Chatham Bay Sites (Fig. 1, 29-30). At Chatham Bay, on the western
side of Union Island, rather level clayey land extends for a half
mile between two headlands. The southern part of this stretch is
bordered by a sand beach while towards the north is an old salt
flat. At the extreme southern end is a small stream which, except
in very dry times, supl)lies drinking water. During tile Modified
Saladoid period, Amerindians lived near tile southern end of the
level land and, presumably, cultivated land to lie north of their
In tile southern area are two very small and low sand humpsp"
or mounded areas between which is a low but extensive rise of the
clayey land. The lmaxilmum elevation of these areas is perhaps three
feet above the surrounding land. The more northern rise is tlhe
highest. Immediately adjacent to the beach, it resembles a sanm
dune except that it contained many small boulder-size rocks. As fat
as we could ascertain it is archaeologically sterile.
The intermediate area we designated the Chathan Pasture site
(Fig. I, 30). It extends about 250 feet north-south parallel to the
bay and about 100 feet west-east from the sandy strip at tile shore


to and slightly up the steel) hill to the east. This is clearly the main
midden area and the elevation undoubtedly a result of aboriginal
occupation. Small, badly fragmented, sherds were common on the
surface but we only collected larger, identifiable specimens. Our
sample, including those secured by Kirby in 1969, consists of the
following: 1 Suazey Finger Indented, 7 Scratched, 2 red-painted, and
60 Plain (some rather thick); 1 Caliviny Polychrome and 1 Painted
Plate; 2 Vase Mario, 1 Arnos Vale Zoned, 10 Simon White Painted,
43 red-painted, 3 Rim I r .- 'l, 7 Wide Handled, 5 miscellaneous
incised, and 91 Plain; 1 Wide Handled and 1 red-painted of the
Pearl series, and 17 griddle fi agents plus a hanmmerstone and a
shell celt. One of the wide handles is peg-topped and another has
a raised ridge across it. Two of the griddle rim sherds have curving
incised lines on their upper surfaces a little inside and parallel to
their lips.
South of the Chatham Pasture site, and separated from it by
an apparently sterile area 30 or 410 feet across, is tile second "hunp"
which we are calling the Chatham u Midden (Fig. 1, 29). Capt.
Gu;llnar Torsteiison of the yacht "Betty Joan" exhibited speci-
mens from this area at the Second International Congress for the
Study of Pre-Columbian Cultures of the Lesser Antilles at its meet-
ing in Barbados in 1967. Torsteinson dug a trench, approximately
10 by 20 feet, and unearthed a large quantity of beautifully deco-
rated pottery as well as support rings, shell celts, other worked
shell, and a liammerstone which we have illustrated in Plates II-VI.
Our work, to be mentioned shortly, indicates this midden repre-
sents a closed site and that all the illustrated specimens belong to
one limited time period. Of particular interest are the large por-
tions of T'iroumassee )Decorated Cylinders shown in Plate II. The
large number and wide range of variation is surprising for such a
small area.
The western end of the Chatham Mlidden, at the edge of the
beach, has been eroded by the sea. Kirby found about 50 sherds
there in 1969 but it does not seen likely it extended much further
in that direction. His 1969 collection included 2 Vase Mario, 1 Si-
mon Neck Decorated, I Tronmassee IDecorated Cytlinder; I Simon
1\ Iln Painted, 13 red-painted, 1 Wide Handled (peg-topped), and
21 Plain sherds; 1 Pearls miscellaneous incised, 5 White Painted, and
2 Plain, plus 3 griddle sherds and several worn branches of coral.
We made several tests at, alnd short distances east of, the eastern


edge of Torsteinson's trench but found only sterile dirt. Nor was
anything to be founl along the southern edge of his trench. To the
north we were more successful as the midden extended 8-10 feet
beyond the edge of his trench in that direction.
There our small test, 2.5 by 4I feet in area, revealed a 5-inch
thick superior /one ol sand and occasional rocks overlying a second
zone, also 5 inches thick, composed of sand, shells (Stromlbus giga.s
and I.ivona Pica plus an Olivclla sp. and a Murex sp.), pottery, and
an occasional branch of coral. Below was sterile, fairly compact,
yellow-brown sand. Torsteinson (personal communications) said
this stratification closely duplicated his findings. Sherds from both
excavations were heavily encrusted with deposits of calcium carblo-
nate. The white centers of the "holes" at the top edge of our
Trouimassce Decorated Cylinder and on some other sherds (Pl. VII,
n, g-h) are unremoved remnants of this material.
Sherds from our test included: 12 Trouimassee Decorated Cyl-
inder, 2 Arnos Vale Zoned, 2 Arnos Vale Incised, 1 Queensbury
Interior Incised; 2 Simon White Painted, 5 Neck Decorated (with
black interior paint), 20 red-painted (some were also incised), I
Rim I ii.~ l. 4 Wide Handled, and 30 Plain; 1 Pearls White
Painted, 3 red-painted, 1 Rim Lugged, 2 Rim Adorned (hollow
backed), and 6 Plain sherds as well as 3 griddle fragments, part
of a support ring, and a shell celt. The quantity ol pottery was
relatively high and must have been about the same per unit of
volume as that found by Torsteinson. While fewer ceramic types
are represented (PI. VII), enough duplicate those in Torsteinson's
collection to document that we were excavating the same cultural
Of special interest is thie partially restored Trourmass'e Deco-
rated Cylinder (P1. VII, a-b). As the decoration on the side of this
specimen does not show to good advantage in the illustration, we
have sketched it in Figure 3. The arrangement of the colors is the
same as that used in decoration of Torsteinson's specimens (Pl. II,
e). The small "holes" shown at the edge of part of the upper rim
in Plate VII do not represent decoration but pinches made before
the addition of an extra strip of clay. Apparently, insufficient
material had been supplied when the top was modeled and this
method was used in an attempt to make the joint between the old
and new material stronger. Subsequently, on St. Vincent, we saw
further examples of the use of this technique in the manufacture


b ^: ^ fji ^ ^



0 5 10 15

r-.~w ~r~
~E~rw~ ~2~- *t ~~IC
k ~-
.*, ~

I'late II. lTrounlaIss('c 1)c(o ;rat(e Cylinders (incomplete) from Chatham
M\idden. 1 ion Islalld. ITorsteinson (Collection.






a c- d

^^^^^~~* Y" ''** (^^^wBBl



^ i



'. sin


0 5 10 15


Plate III. Miscellaneous sherds from Chatham Midden, Union Island,
Torsteinson Collection.
a-b, Pearls Cross Hatched; c, incised red-painted; d, St. Lucia Zonetd In(ised;
C, uniiquei tdouilel row of pap;illae; f-g. St. Lucia I I .ri Incised: h-j, Ar-os \'ale
Incised; h-o, Simon Wide Handled: pf-v. Sinmon White Painted.


5 to

c M.

Plate IV. Painted, modeled, and incised pottery from Chatham Nlidden, Union
Island, Torsteinson Collection.
a, Simon Neck Decorated; b, ceremonial vessel stand; c, e, Simon Rim Adorned;
d,. Pearls red-painted; f-h, Simon Rim I.ugged; i. Simon flanged; j, Diamant
Hammock Shaped.




a b c



5 10 15 cm.

Pllte V. Miscellaneous sherds, Cathathan Midden, Torsteinson Collection.
tenonled Iragment; i-0 L:I(voutle (7 lupport Rings.




inuiiid or grinding Slle.

this midden deposit and all its contents.
o a

O 5 m

Plate VI. Shell anti stone artifacts, Clutha nth idhlden. T'orstcinson Collection.
lhi1anoe t Rrnlill(ing soInlce.
or repair of clot specimens.
\Ve kept a Si1om)b1.) gigas, shell fiom thie C(lhtlhan lilidden for

110 years B.P. or aboue A.D. 480. As showt above, the Chatham

seems reasonable, therefore, to assie thai this date applies to
this midlen detlosit ail Ill its contents.
Tei contelns of the Chatham liilten form a cultural complex
which, o course, is typical of orly one short time period in a
changing cultural (onttillnuull. We would expect sites earlier or later
in this contillnllll to exhibit significant ceramic difflerences if the
variations in time were sunficiently great. Thlie dtlecorated cylindes,
or inlcenlse I)ur1ners as they ae somletillmes called (Jesse 19(68: 33),
formt a compllicated antl rather unique tLait complex suitable as
an "torizon Style" or time marker. whereverr found, we would

2(i ST

V19~&t~i ~ 'Ettai


u ? 5 *-

I~ U-----


Z- -


.---'f-i iir'mr"~


0 5 10


Pllate VII. Specimens from Chatham Midden. Bullen-Kirby Collection.
a-b, Trolnmass(ie Decorated (Cindler; c. Simon Rim Adorned; d, f, Simon Neck
I)ecolated; e, Simon 11anged; g, Simon \ide Handled; It. h, Arnos Vale Zoned;
i, fragment, I.avoutte Suplport Ring; j. incised rdl-painted; /, shell celt.

expect their date of manufacture to approximate A.D. I .
The large size of the sherds and the relatively great quantity
of fragments of Troumass6e Decorated Cylinders at the Chatham
Midden need explanation. Certainly this was not the main occupa-




1 3.... P3. ol)chrome design from side of Trounmassec Decorated Cylinder,
(Chathain Midden test, Union Islamd.

tional irca of tihe site or sherds would have been more trampled
and, hence, smaller in si/e. The Strombus gigoas and Livona pica
shells suggest a midden deposit but other food remains such as
fish and turtle bones were not found. It seems likely this area was
cither the site of a ceremonial structure- possibly a men's house-
where ritual vessels were kept or it was a manufacturing location
where pottery was made. In either case the shells would be remains
of meals brought to this location from the nearby main site. We
did not find any charcoal or burnt areas so that firing of vessels-
if this was a place where they were made-nmust have occurred else-
where, perhaps only a short distance away. The extremely large
number of Troumassee Iecorated Cylinder fragments does seem
to suggest that this might he the source of such objects from which
they were distributed by trade or other means to other islands.

Fort Hill (Fig. 1, 27). The next morning we surveyed the extreme
eastern point of Union Island at and south of Point Lookout where
both the view from our guest house and the map suggested we
might find a site. No sherds were found there but along the way
on the southern slope of Fort IHill to the north of the Clinton
Yacht Club eight Amerindian sherds were discovered. Badly eroded
they seemed to represent 6 plain, 1 red-painted, and a possible
fragment of a Troulmassee Decorated Cylinder all of the Simon
series. Occupation during lthe \hI.llhlilI Saladoid period may be

Belmont Pond (Fig. 1, 32). Next we covered the level land west of


Fort Hill and the long sand bar which extends to the west and cuts
off Belmont Salt Pond from salt water. A little west of the middle
part of this bar, we found a large previously cultivated field
presently being turned over by land crabs. The site is southeast
of a coconut groove, which proved to be archacologically sterile,
and southwest of Mr. E. G. Adam's beach cottage.
Our collection consisted of 2 Suazey Finger Indented, 4 Scratched,
and 21 Plain; 4 Caliviny red-painted, and 4 Caliviny or Simon Plain;
2 Simon red-painted, I griddle sherd with a thick inward slanting
lip, and 6 other griddle fragments as well as several worn branches
of coral. A small investigation at one of the cral) holes indicated
the top of the cultural deposit to be only i inches below the
present surface. This site is located on geologically recent land
and the pottery, primarily a mixture of Caliviny and Suazey cer-
amics, indicates a relatively late occupation, alter A.). 1000 (Table
18), in agreement with the geological situation.

Clifton Swamp (Fig. 1, 26). On our way back from Behnlmont Pond
for lunch, and again the next day, we crossed the level, slightly
swampy, land behind Clifton Harbour. There we noted several
nondescript plain sherds. Apparently, Amerindians had lived on
the landward side of this swampy area.

Durham (Fig. 1, 2S). In the afternoon, we walked along the shore
road to Aslhton to survey that area and, in Asihton, to make arrange-
ments for transportation to Mayreau. We examined all likely loca-
tions, paying particular attention to the extensive salt flat south-
east of Ashton, but in only one place did we find evidence of
Amerindian occupation.
About halfway between Clifton atnd A\slton, shortly to tie
east of the salt flat, a small stream flows southward to the sea. Its
banks are under intensive cultivation; drainage and irrigation
ditches have been dug in various places. Careful search produced 1
Pearls Plain, 2 eroded Simon Plain, and a griddle fragment. Cer-
tainly no large site was ever located here.
Miss Pierrc) (Fig. 1, 31). From Ashton we proceeded northwar-d,
climbed over the hill, and went to an old abandoned plantation
on tile north shore, well west of the Belmont Pond location pre-
viously mentioned. Int the rather extensive fields at Miss Pierre,
we found pottery scattered over a 2- to 3-acre area, a little distance
back from the present shoreline.


We collected 2 Suazey Finger Indented, 4 Scratched, 4 red-
painted, and 79 Plain; 2 Caliviny Polychrome, 7 red-painted, and
7 Plain; 2 Simon Rim Modified (1 sub-type I and the other sub-
type 5), 2 Wide Handled (one peg-topped), 1 Side I I d. .i d. 1 Rim
Lugged, 15 red-painted, 6 miscellaneous incised, and 110 Plain;
1 Pearls Side I Ii._.dl, 1 Inner Rim Incised, and 6 Plain sherds.
Also present were 4 jasper chips and 19 griddle fragments of which
I had a large rim extending nearly 2 inches upward and bearing
red paint oi its inner side.
Occupation occurred during a closing phase of the Saladoid
period and subsequent Caliviny-Suazey times. The land at Miss
Pierre is geologically older than that at Belmont Pond and, in
agreement, produced some earlier pottery.

Frigate Island. By letter of February 7, 1971, Janet Wall of Man-
chester, Vermont, reported the finding ol a fair amount of pottery
on a sand spit extending from Frigate Island northward. This
island is located one mile due south of Ashiton, and about a half
mile from the nearest part of Union Island. Frigate Island is very
small, .25 miles long, and very precipitous, reaching an elevation
of 253 feet. In Amerindian times it must have been larger, prob-
ably on the north side, while, since occupancy, winds and currents
have transported sand and pottery from their original location to
the spit oi the north side.
Mrs. Wall enclosed with her letter 4 water eroded sherds: I
Suazey Scratched, 2 Suazey Finger Indented (1 also scratched), and
the stem end of a "nostril bowl." The last with 2 parallel stems,
1 cm. outside diameter and 1.5 cmi. long, duplicates exactly the
tube portion of a complete bowl found at the Savanne Suazey site
on Grenada (Billen 19641: PI. XXII, 2). Spacing of the "stems"
(2.5 cm. between hole centers) is the same as for the Grenada
specimen. Another is known for Caliviny Island off the south coast
of Grenada (Bullen and Bullen 19(68b: Fig. 3, j). The authors have
seen 2 similar bowls in Puerto Rico collections and one in the Iom-
inican Republic. Thiis rather unique trait indicates contempor-
aneity of Frigate Island occupation with that of Savanne Suazey on
Grenada and suggests that isolated family groups may have occupied
small islands in a manner that is true today. Frigate Island may well
have been a temporary fishing station but the quantity of pottery
sIt'..-_,i more than such a brief occupation.


Mayrca, Island Sites

Mayrcau Beach (Fig. 1, 25). Going by small boat to the pier at
Mayreau, we walked southward along the sandy beach about a
quarter mile to a fairly large aboriginal site. It extended from the
west shore nearly a hundred yards to the inland side of a salt pond
on the east shore of the island. As a result of ult ivation and
erosion, sherds and shells were scattered over 3-4 acres. Suazey
series pottery was more common near the beach and Simon sherds
near the salt pond but some of each were found in both areas.
Our total collection included 10 Suazey Finger Indented (2
with long indents), 10 Scratched, 15 red-painted, 1 Pedestal Bowl,
I footed support ring (Pl. VIII, j), and 13 Plain; I Caliviny Poly-
chrome, 15 red-painted, 2 Rim Modified (1 subtype 2, Pl. VIII, r;
the other subtype 5), and 5 Plain; 1 St. Ltucia Zoned Incised, 1
Simon White Painted, 1 Black-and-Red Painted, 1 Neck Iecorated
(PI. VIII, i), I Rim 1 ,,.. 1 (PI. VIII, e), 2 unique li n t, ,. 1 or
horned, 6 red-painted, 1 incised, 1 Wide Handled, and 6 plain;
4 Pearls red-painted, and 5 Plain sherds plus 6 griddle fragments.
Also present were a hamme stone, a petaloid stone celt, many worn
branches of coral, and some fragments of turtle bones. These speci-
mens (Fig. VIII, a-j) represent a Suazey-Caliviny ceramic period
with some pottery trom tle Modified Saladoid period. This site
has been cultivated for a long time and, near the salt pond, land
crabs have been very busy. These activitieave vee v s. se tiits e probably mixed
the products of two periods on the present surface.
It is interesting to note that tle double horned handle (Pl.
VIII, c) can be duplicated in the Virgin Islands (Bullen 1I,'-, Pl.
III, f) while similar handles are also known for Puerto Rico (Rouse
1952: Pl. 3, K).

Windward Carenagc (Fig. 1, 21). Leaving Mayreau Long Beach, we
returned to the pier and checked the high grassy plateau situated
to the north of that feature. Finding no pottery terry t e, we climbed
to the top of the hill where MIayreau village is located and then
examined the Windward Carenage on the northeast side of the
island. There we were rewarded with 4 Suazey Plain and 2 Simon
Plain sherds. Obviously, the Amerindian site there was small and
not very long-lived.





1 50 15
c m.

*. i<:'

5't ..c

Plate VIII. Pottery front MIlarel and le(lquia, tile Grenadines.
a, Suazey Finger Indented; b, Caliviny I'olvcIhione; r, Calivinv Rim Modified;
d, f, h, Simon White Painted; e. Simon Rim I Lugged; g, St. Lucia Zoned Incised;
i, Simon Neck Decorated, and j, Suazey Support Ring, all from Long Beach,
Mayreau; k-m, Suazey Finger Indented from point between Industry and Spring
Estates, Bequia.

Cannoian Island Sites
Carenage (Fig. 1, 23). Going to Cannouan the next morning on
the mail boat, we climbed the high hill to the northeast of the
town to visit some recently discovered ruins which proved to be
Colonial in date. We did not continue northward to Carenage
Bay as Kirby had been there before and had secured the following
sizeable collection: 14 Suazey Finger Indented, 26 Scratched, 7 red-





painted, 1 Wide Handled, 1 support ring, and 14 Plains; 3 Arnos
Vale Zoned, 1 St. Vincent Black Zoned, 1 Simon \\ i o Painted,
10 red-painted, 2 Side I itI-.-, 1. 1 Rim Adorned (hollow back), 5
miscellaneous incised, and 259 Plain; I Pearls White Painted, 1
Pearls red-painted; and 13 griddle sherds as well as a Stroilmb
gigas celt blank.

Randnd Bay, Camnouan (Fig. 1, 20). Returning southward we left
the road at the extreme t northern end of Grand Bay. In the north
central part of tlie level land adjoining this bay, are several culti-
vated fields covering approximately 3 acres. Not only were sherds
scattered over the snrlace but here and there were piles of shells,
mostly Stronib u. gigai.f and large sherds put there }by farmers to
clear their fields.
Ve collected 2108 sherds divided as follows: 2 Mlicoud 'Tripod
Bowl, 10 Suai/e Finger Indented (2 with long indents), 20
Scratched (1 with flat inslanting lip), 2 Rim Modified (1 subtype I
and the otleri slitype 3), 1 (ide handled, 1 Wide lHandled, and
34 Plain; 23 Sua/ey (Griddles, 12 other griddle sherds including 1
with a very heavy rim (unllen 1966: tVpe E); 7 Caliviny Polychrome,
7 red-painted, and 13 Plain; 9 1 latt IHandled (some peg-topped) I
Arnos Vale Zoned, 1 Arnos Vale Incised, 2 Simon Black Paint'e i
Zone Painted, I Black-and-WVhite Painted, 34 red-painted, 3 miis-
cellaneous incised, 1 Rim li,.--i ,l. 5 \Wide tHandled, 1 Pedestal Bowl.
and 15 Plain: 1 Pearls Rim Adorned, and 1 Pearls ied-painted.
Also noted were a lhanmllersltone, a mlano or grinding stone, Stlotil-
b/,s giga.s blanks, 3 shell celts, and numerous worn branches of coral.
Both tlie modified Saladoid and the Suna/ey-Caliviny periods
we represented. The miixture of artifacts from these periods is
undoubtedly the result of extensive cultivation. It is evident that
this location formed a desirable habitation site during both periods.

T'alfic (Fig. 1, 21). Proceeding further southwest, over Kate lall
and beyond the salt pond south of Nen's Bay, we came to a long
sand spit connecting 'alhe Hlill with lossy Hlill. 'I The only culti-
vated field on this spit produced I Vase Mario, 1 Simon Side
I t_.-.1 1 red-painted, 16 Plain and 2 griddles: I Pearls Cross
lHatched, 2 red-painted, and 14 Plain sherds.
I 'his inventory, although small in number of specimens, is
radically diltelent irom any listed earlier in that all tie sherds are
relatively old typologically. Our notes indicate that the Pearls Cross


Hatched, a type previously unrecorded in this study, was a good
example of that type. It is presumed to be one of the types brought
to the Lesser Antilles by the first ceramic migrants from South
America. Side-1 i,,- I containers are also typical of early ceramic
times while we will present data later I-_.I, in i that the Vase
Mario type is relatively early during the next or Modified Saladoid
period. The large number of Pearls Plain sherds is also suggestive
of antiquity.
This site was probably only used for a short time as a camp
by the first settlers as they progressed northward along the Iesser
Antilles. 'This may have occurred around the time of Christ.

Ruinici (n (Fig. 1, 22). havingg IT. n, we went to Rumereng Bay
on the southern side of Caninouian Island. Level cultivated land
along the bay is fairly wide and extends for over half a mile in
an east-west direction but we weie able to find Amerindian sheds
in only one small location approximately in the middle of these
fields. here we found a total of I Sua/ey Plain specimens.
CannouIan is a ver\ narrow and, hence, rather dry island. The
only place will an adequate water-collecting area in the hills is
the Carentag e (Fig. 1. 23). The next best location is Grand Bay
where potable water can probably be found under the sand on
top of salt water. Both present and aboriginal settlement locations
reflect this situation.
\ork oin (C;nnouanl completed our survey o thle southern
(Grenadines. lence, after returning byI small boat to Union, we
packed and, the next morning, were taken to 'Prne Island from
which we returned to St. Vincent by air.

Thie iortlici n Grenadines are approached easily Iromi the
north using Bequia as headquarters (Fig. 1). This we did in 1969,
surveying Bequia, Petit Nevis, Isle ia Quatre, and Baliceaux. We
returned with Kirby in 1970. completed lithe survey of Bequia and
revisited Baliceaux to check the very important site at Banana
Ba\. Mr. Roessler 1). Sandrock of Bequia very kindly took us both
times to Baliceaux, a difficult landing. The Bullens did not
visit \Mustiquie, the furthest south of the northern Grenadines.
Kirby made a special trip there late in 1970 and the data pre
sented below has been supplied by him.


Mustique Island Sites

Rosemary (Fig. 1, 19 a-b). Sherds are to be found on the southern
side of Rosemary Point at the extreme northwestern part of
Mystique. Their distribution extends a short distance southward
beside Rosemary Beach. About a thousand feet further south, at
the bend in the Cheltenham road and north of the salt pond, is
another concentration.
A collection made about two years ago and sent to the St.
Vincent Archaeological and Historical Society came from Rosemary.
It included: 1 Suazey Finger Indented, 1 Footed Griddle, and 13
Plain sherds; 4 Arnos Vale Zoned, 1 Simon Rim Modified (sub-
type 1), and 46 Plain sherds; I Pearls Rim Lugged, 4 red-painted,
and 4 Plain sherds; plus 6 griddle fragments and a spindle whorl
of Simon paste. Kirby's 1970 collection included: 7 Suazey Finger
Indented (1 with a double row), 7 Footed Griddle, and 13 Plain
sherds; 7 Caliviny red-painted and 13 Plain sherds; 1 Trounmassee
Decorated Cylinder, 1 Arnos Vale Incised, 2 miscellaneous incised,
3 unique rims (1 with, in places, an outward turned and widened
flat lip bearing deeply incised lines), and 20 Simon I'l.,n sherds.
This site is presumedly the source of the adorno illustrated as
"f" in Plate XI. It (Cat. no. 252792) is listed as from Mustique
in the research collections of the Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution.

Paster Point (Fig. 1, 19 c). Kirby found 7 plain Amerindian sherds
at this point which juts out into the sea at the northern end of
Paster Bay. He also noted some Simon Plain sherds on the northern
slope of the Windmill Tower prominence.
Paster and Tower do not seem very important. The main site
at Rosemary is beside the best bay of Mustique at a place where
good level land is available near a salt flat and salt pond. As at
other places, surface remains include pottery of both the Modified
Saladoid and Suazey-Caliviny periods.

Petit Nevis and Isle at Quatre

The first time Mr. Sandrock tried to take us to Baliceaux from
Bequia, the seas were too high. On the way back we stopped at
the whaling station on Petit Nevis, examined the nearby terrain,
and climbed to the top where there was some gently sloping grass-


No ,i..-ill of Amerindian occupation was found on the
high land but northeast of the whaling station, where the land
begins to slope upwards (Fig. 1, 15), we found 30 sherds. Three
were rim fragments of cassava griddles, one bore an incised line,
1 was flanged, and 25 were plain. Erosion of their surfaces made
cultural identification difficult. One sherd contained quartz and
some ferromagnesian mineral as temper. The others were very
similar to Suazey Plain but their paste diflered front that typical
of Suazey ceramics in that it contained black and white sand as
well as grit as temper. This pottery may represent a temporary
Black Carib campsite, occupied while they were waiting to be
taken to Roalan near HIonduras in 1797.
Leaving Petit Nevis, we went to Isle t Quatre and climbed
the steep pathl from the small gravel beach to the 225-foot high
saddle where the one family on the island lived. Along the north
side of the saddle, we found a sherd of Suazey Scratched, 5 eroded
sherds that might have originally been either SuaCey or Simon Plain,
and 3 sherds of thick, hard, undecorated pottery. The last we be-
lieve to be indigenous pottery of the early colonial period. Here-
after, it will be referred to as I', .,i t Ware." This site may
represent a Black Carib camp of the late eighteenth century.
In reply to our inquiries, the local people directed us down a
path to the southwest. Following it we came to a narrow beach
behind a coral reef along tlhe side of the large unnamed bay on
the south shore of Isle t Quatre. No evidence of Amerindians was
found. Returning to the saddle and the people there, we found,
after a little more conversation, that they had misunderstood and
should have directed us to Grand Bay on the eastern side of the
island, where Amerindian pottery is said to have been found (Fig.
1, 16). This site is best approached from a different landing and
it had to be omitted by us. There is also a possibility that occupa-
tional debris might be found east of the mangroves on Lagoon
Bay on the southeast shore of Isle ai Quatre.

Baliceaux Island Sites

The sea being much calmer, we visited Baliceaux the next day.
On this, our 1969 visit, we first went ashore by small boat at
Landing Bay, climbed over the saddle, and looked along the
southern shore of North Bay where we had been informed that
pottery would be found. This area (Fig. 1, 17), previously under


cultivation, was then in heavy grass and no sllerds could be found.
However, near the eastern point presumably on part of the same
site, we collected 19 S y Plain, S c10 Simon Plain, and 13 griddle
sherds, a fragment of a stone celt, and a piece of old glass. It is
assurledl this collection represents tle Sua/ey time Iperiod. It prob-
ably does not relate to the 179!7 occupation when Black (Caribs are
supposed to have been uiiariered on Baliceaux awaiting transporta-
tion to Roatan.
On our way back to Landing Bay, we investigated thie cultivated
fields on the saddle where the present inhabitants live. This dis-
dlosed modern ceramic fragments including glass plus a few sherds
of what we are calling Peasant Ware. In tile gardens at Landing
Bay, we found only recent material plus a lew sherds of Peasant
\Ware. As i .> -. i earlier, this lPeasan;t W\Vae ima indicate that
Black Caribs camped here in 1797.
Boarding the boat, we coasted northward along the shot to
Banana Bay (Fig. 1, IS) where we went ashore by tender. The
Narrow Ibeach is composed of pebbles a'ld ends at its landward side
with a (i- to 8-lool vertical lace in the side of which an ;\1rilndian
hell rmiddcen is ex(dent (Pl. IX, a-b). 'he vertical lace is the result
of erosion by the sea. I.and behind lie beach slopes upwards and
quickly becomes narrower lor perhaps ,300 leet alter which the
slope becomes rather sleep. T1horn bushes land other xerophltic
plants lorii the onli ground (over at the site. Near tie middle o!
llie hand belhind thie bha, ani eplheeral sireali has (lit a deep and
twisting channel. This location is extreiiely dir and tile drainage
area extremely small, not over 5"00 feet in diai;etei. It ilay have
taken hurricane rains to produce the deep anld tairly narrow
gully which cuts through thle middle of the site.
We niatle at collection (listed in Table 2) 'fromi the eroded face,
tle talus at tile foot ol this lace. and lthe sides of tile dry stream
near the beach. We also noted a burial which was eroding out of
a pit in the southern part of the lace (PI. IX, c), dug an exitremelt
small hole about 10 leet in froni the late, collected a S/riombiu gig,.(s
shell for radio(iarbon dating, anld measured the thickness of the
midden in one or two places.
The Imidden deposit was LiirlI level but sloped upwards to-
wards both its northern and southern ends. To the north it almost
reached the surface in one place. While mieasurellelnts varied some-
whatl the profile near the center consisted of 5 inches of sterile

,III, 1 .1

Fir :M

PT: 5~

: k-


''' i~
~.~"" ""

b :'~


'.. s^

I'latie I. Site and dcposils at lananai Ba. Bialieaux.
a. \ic1 ofl sit' hIII sca; b. midtlcn slunilp Imoi pit Iclding dowi :nw la( liomi iilded'n: dl. bridal pairtiallk xcavated.

~fi~ F-
J~i~ ~Y

e?. ~ ;-
'1L, i


*~ .y
,; -~.
17( '~


b*c-)b ;"I'

7 7- 4-- -,c


clay overlying a 12-inch thick midden consisting of shells, pottery,
broken rocks, and a fairly high percentage of clay. Our small inland
test confirmed these measurements. The midden might be called
"loose" as compared with "compact" and suggested a relatively
short time period with the deposition of a large amount of clayey
dirt during occupation and( the accumulation of the midden. Be-
low was at least 5 feet of a clayev sterile deposit.
I)Due to the lateness of the day and an obviously approaching
storm, we were able to be at Banana Bay less than an hour in 1969.
In 1970, we went directly to Banana Bay-omitting Landing Bay-
and were able to spend 21/ hours at the site. Compared with 1'II'i,
we noted very little evidence of additional erosion. Sherds were
not present at the base of the exposed face and the burial to the
south (P1. IX, c-d) was still present.
With the additional time, we determined that the midden did
reach the surface at its extreme northern edge and sherds were
found there at a depth of 2 inches. Near the middle of the side
in a small lens of sand and pebbles, at a depth of 2 feet, was a
white-and-red zoned sherd of Simon paste. This depth was greater
than the base of the midden and the white-and-red sherd must have
been deposited before the start of the occupation which resulted
in the midden. We also made a large ceramic collection (Table 2),
went a considerable distance inland, carefully collected another
Strornbus gigas shell for radiocarbon dating, and excavated the
exposed burial.
We found no evidence of occupation at any great distance in-
land. On the surface near the vertical face we found the bottom
of an old glass bottle. The shell for dating was taken from the
very top of the midden and should date terminal occupation. The
burial had slumped from a narrow burial pit leading downward
from the base of the midden at a point where the overburden was
12 inches thick and the midden itself 8 inches thick (P1. IX, c-d).
The pit was 10 inches across where exposed and had a flattish
bottom 24 inches below the base of the midden. Its walls were
surprisingly straight.
We have gone into considerable detail about the Banana Bay
site on Baliceaux because of its historical importance and because
it is one of the few sites in the area previously investigated. J.
Walter Fewkes' (1922: 89-90) account, citing Sheppard (1831) for
local history, of his 1912-13 investigations at Banana Bay follows:


After the Carib war in St. Vincent, the most hostile of
these Carib Indians, called the Black Carib, were removed
from St. Vincent to a small island, Balliceaux, from which
they were later transported to Ruatan Island, off the coast of
Honduras. Their Balliceaux settlement, now abandoned, was
situated on the lee side at a place called Banana Bay, and is
marked by walls of a well near the mouth of an arroyo.
Tliese walls are European in origin and resemble those found
elsewhere in the West Indies. The cemetery of the Carib
settlement was easily found, and from it several Carib skulls
andl some fragments of pottery were obtained. It extends
along the beach a few feet al)ove high-watermiark, and is
small, the burials being shallow.
A general study of the mound at Banana Bay in Balli-
ceaux indicates that the midden was not inhabited for a
great length of time, and there is every evidence that it is
comparatively modern. lThe layer of soil which contains arti-
ficial objects is not more than a loot thick: the sea has washed
into the bank under the midden along the shore, exposing
one or more skulls and a few skeletons, some of which were
removed by the author. These skeletons were interred in the
contracted or "embryonic" position and were accompanied
by broken pottery, shells, and fragments of charcoal and
ashes, but no whole jars were found. The place is now un-
inhabited and< overgrown with manzanillo and other Ibsh.es,
but none of the trees show marks of great age. The author's
excavations verily the historical and legendary account that
Balliceaux was inhabited by aborigines and that the Black
Carib probably lived at Banana Bay after the Carib war in
St. Vincent.

Before discussing our collections from Banana Bay and our
conclusions about them, which differ from those above, we should
mention that our description of the site agrees witl that of Fewkes.
The arroyo is certainly present and, undoubtedly, the face of the
site has eroded backward a substantial distance since Fewkes' visit
57 years ago.
Referring to the Carib removal, Anderson (1914: 66-67) writes
that on June 21, 1796, "The Governor issued Proclamation declar-
ing martial law at an end. At a general meeting of the inhabitants
attended by the Governor, it was decided that Balliceaux (a
corruption of beloiseaux) [Shephard 1831: 163 says "petit 1'isle
oiseaux"] should be appropriated for temporary reception of the
Carils, Mltr. Campbell the proprietor cheerfully agreed." And on
June 26th, "The number [of Black Caribs] surrendered were


5,080 men, women, and children." Also Feb. 25, 1797, H.M.S.
"Experiment, Captain Barrett, arrived rom Manrtinique with trans-
ports to convey them to Rotten. 'hey embarked from Beqjia."
Combiining Fewkes' statement with that of Anderson gives the
impression that 5,080 people were quartered on Baliceaux for over
6 months. This is hardly possible considering the small size of the
island and its limitations as a provider ol food. Shephard (193'1:
163-72) sets the record straight.
He writes that the July 13, 1796( Colonial Assembly picked
Baliceaux as a temporary refuge for the Black Carib "where they
would be supplied with a sufficient cuanitity of provisions and
water for their support ." And on September 20, 280 Black
Caribs were conductedd to Calliaqua, and afterwards transported
to Baliceaux." That September was spent by the local Rangers
in rounding iup others by surrender, fighting, surprise, and capture.
Thle total was 5,080 men, women, and children who "were supplied
with provisions by the Colony and on the 25th of February, 1797"
II.R.M ship, the Experiment arrived. "They [the Black Caribs]
were embarked from leqcuia, where tie transports lay, and on the
I thl of lMarch sailed for their destination" Roatan.
It seems clear from the above that only a small percentage of
the 5,080 Black Caribs were quartered on Baliceaux and that all
of them, after their surrender or capture, were supplied with pro-
visions. The historic accounts do not require the Banana Ba\
midden to represent a 1796 Black Carilb occupation. Both archae-
ology and radiocarbon dates delmonstate such not to be the case.
Examination of Table 2 indicates ani admixture of Suazey and
Caliviny potteries. This is the same admixture we flotnd on Carria-
cou, at Mliss Pierre on Union, and the western part of the Mayreau
Beach site. It has also been found 0on St. Iucia (Bullen and Bullen
l'IiI to the north and Grenada (Bullen 1964) to the south. At
the Savainn Suazev site on (;renada (Bullen 1961: 12) as at Banana
Bay, Spanish olive jar shercds were also present but in no place has
this admixture been associated with late eighteenth century arti-
facts. Nor do radiocarbon dates support the thesis that Banana
Bay was occupied as late as 1796.
The Strombust giga. shell from our 1969 visit was dated (Sample
RL-27) at 720 +- 100 years B.P. or about .\.1). 1230. The similar
shell, carefully selected in 1970 to supply a Iterminus ad q(j tc date
(Sample RL-71), indicates the midden was probably abandoned


Table 2

Type 1969 Coll. 1970 Coll. Tolals

Spanish olive jar 1 I
Suazey series (5l.3) (9.1t )
Finger Indented 5 1 i
Scratched 8 I' 12
red-painted 11 13 24
rim-handled, wide I I
Rim Modilied, s-1, I I
Pedestal Bowl 1
Footed Griddle 2 5 7
Plain 28 14 72
Caliviny series (36.8) (27.8)
Polychrome )f 7 1H
red-painted 22 16 38
misc. incised I 1
Plain 7 8 15
suppoil ring 1I
griddle sherds 7 11 18
Modified Saladoid (3.3)
St. I.ucia Zoned Incised I I
Simon Rim Adorned Ig I
Lavoutte Belted I I
Pearls Plain I I

l otals 103 115 218

Temper is fine while sand and grit up to 't inch across. h All have long
shallow indents and scratched surfaces, one is also red-painted. One has in-
ward slanting lip. I'las l watched surface. eRed-painted. fOne has a flat handle.
lHas hollow hack.

530 -+ 110 B.P. or around A.). 1420.
As indicated in Table 2, only -1 sherds relate to the Modified
Saladoid period. All of these were eroded, as was the case of the
one fromn below the midden, and they must Ile considered evidence
of a very br iel camp of that early period. The others form a mix-
ture of Suazey and Caliviny sherds with an approximate ratio ol
2 to 1, as was the case lor the uppermost zone at Sabazan on
Carriacou (Table 1).
Typical specimens from the site are illustrated in Plate X. The
Caliviny Polychrome sherds (PI. X, a, k-rn) have black paint in
various lines similar to those ifom Carriacoul (P1. I, k-l). Both
groups differ from those lound at Caliviny Island and the Savanne



4- '


0 5 10 I1

,.v- &I
~t(B R4

I'late X. Potter from Itanana Bay, Halitcaux.
a. Cali\inv Rim Modified, subtype 3. with black paint on handle and lip; I,
Snazcy Scratched; c-d, Snatev Plain; e-g, Stazey Finger Indented (f, long indent
variety); h, Calitiny Plain with ring base; i, unique white-on-red painted; j,
Caliviny (;ri dlel; k-mt, (;Cali\inv I'olvhIrome; n. Suazcv Footed (.riddle.

Suazey site on Grenada in this respect and in the lack of a typical
casuela shape with red and black geometric designs between the
bend in the wall and the lip (Bullen 1964: P1. 28).
Other specimens from Banana Bay include a Strombus gigas
shell adze, an adze blank and a grooved limestone (?) net weight.




It is 7 by 3-1/2 by 2 inches in size and has a 1/4 by 1/4 inch groove
around its mid section.

Bequia Island Sites

Fewkes (1922: 89) mentions Bequia (Fig. 1) as an island with
"several kitchen middens from which various forms of stone im-
plements, fragments of pottery, and other objects have been added
to the Heye collection. These were mostly purchased from natives
and are like those of St. Vincent." Apparently, he did no archae-
ological work on Bequia although he must have stayed there while
he visited Baliceaux. We surveyed part of Bequia in 1969 and
completed it in 1970, examining all likely places except the shore
of Lower Bay.
The eastern shore of Bequia has 4 large bays at which are
located the Park, Industry, Spring, and Hope Estates. Level lands
at these estates have been cultivated for over 100 years and have
produced large amounts of Amerindian pottery and stone tools.
Some of this material we saw but most of it has become dissipated
over the years. In some cases we were able to locate the sites; in
others, such as Industry, we could not because of the present ground
cover. Usually sites in these fertile outwash valleys are located a
fair distance in from the bay, are situated beside the stream chan-
nels, and produce pottery of the Modified Saladoid period. Suazey
pottery, when present, is apt to be nearer the sea.

Park Point (Fig. 1, 1). About 450 feet cast of Park Bay, at an
elevation of about 60 feet, is a grassy field that slopes towards the
southeast. Its eastern part shows substantial erosion from salt spray,
wind, and rain. Here we found 1 Suazey Scratched, 3 red-painted,
and 19 Plain sherds; a griddle sherd, a Simon White Painted sherd;
and 7 thin plain sherds that might be Peasant Ware. Also present
were a few sherds of English Delft, blue feather-edged "China,"
and brown-glazed earthenware.
The aboriginal sherds suggest a late Carib occupation while
the English pottery 'I,-4 i.-t a time period around 1800. The asso-
ciation may be fortuitous. The geographical attributes of the site
are the same as those producing Suazey ceramics on both St. Lucia
and Grenada.

Park Estate (Fig. 1, 2). We found a Stuaey Finger Indented (long
indents), 1 red-painted, and( 15 eroded plain sherds near the north



..It', ; '.- '- : -I*
1^ ''" A, bwt~

Plate XI. Specimens from St. Vincent and the (;en adines at Smiilihsonian
Institution, Washington.
a-c- thlree-poilted stone l and Simon adornos I'rom (: inacou; f, a;(dornos frolll
Mustique: o-i. Stia/c Efftigy Vessel and unique sl erds hiom Biablou, St. Vincent.

iend ol the coconut grove at tlie Park Estate. In Port Elizabeth,
Bequia, Arthur R. Gooding kindly arranged foi us to see a small



collection from this estate at his sister's, Mrs. Dawson Wallace. It
included Suazey Finger Indented, a Suazey Footed Griddle, a body
stamp, and a loom weight-both of Suazey paste-as well as Pearls
Rim Lugged and Simon Rim Adorned (hollow back) sherds.

Industry East (Fig. 1, 3). At the northeastern edge of Industry Bay,
we found a few eroded sherds.

Industry Estate (Fig. 1, 4). We did not locate the main site at this
estate but at the manager's house we were shown part of Mr.
Sidney Macintosh's collection which included a large footed griddle,
a Caliviny Polychrome vessel with a human face, double-horned,
rim adorno, and a Pearls Adorned fragment. Subsequently, we
were shown several examples of Suazey Finger Indented, Scratched,
and Plain sherds from this site as well as a few remnants of Simon
Neck Decorated and miscellaneous incised containers.
In the St. Vincent Archaeological and Historical Society's collec-
tions are 4 Suazey Finger Indented slierds (Pl. VIII, k-m) cata-
logued from the point between Industry and Spring Bays. lThe
location, both from the map and on the ground, is a logical site
for a small Suazey period (Carib) occupation. We found no sherds
during our extremely brief visit but an extensive growth of bushes
made surveying almost impossible. Kirby also found a few Simon
red-painted incised and flanged sherds on this point.
Spring Estate (Fig. 1, 5). We did not locate an inland site on this
estate but were advised there are some sherds on exhibit at the
Spring Hotel.
Spring Beach (Fig. 1, 6). In a dune area ilunediately adjacent to
the beach and about midway along Spring Bay we found a few
plain sherds.
Spring Rocks (Fig. 1, 7). A little south of the northern end of the
beach at Spring Estate are many large boulders of which 3 exhibit
a total of 7 long grooves where stone axes have been sharpened.
Hope Estate (Fig. 1, 8). In the stream bank about 200 yards from
the beach, we found a few eroded sherds about 5 feet below the
present surface. At some time in the past, they had probably been
transported by stream action from an Amerindian site further
west. They had fine temper and apparently belonged to the Pearls
We saw 18 other sherds from the Hope Estate. They included


4 Simon White Painted, 1 Simon Neck Decorated, 1 Simon Zone
Painted, 1 Simon red, white and yellow painted, 1 large "O"-shaped
peg-topped handle, 2 griddle, and 8 red-painted, incised, and plain
Simon Series pottery.

Hope Rocks (Fig. 1, 9). Near the southern end of Hope Bay, at the
waters edge, are some large rocks some of which have circular de-
pressions about 5 inches in diameter. They appear to be mortar
holes in which grain or some other material has been ground.

Friendship Bay. This large and well protected bay on the south
shore of Bequia has more level land than any of the bays mentioned
above. Nevertheless, we were unable to find any indication of
Amerindian occupation nor were we told of specimens coming
from Friendship Estate. Possibly this land may be an old filled in
salt pond.
Friendship Point (Fig. 1, 10). A sloping point of land bounds
Friendship Bay on the southwest. Here, at an elevation of over 25
feet, we found 2 Suazey red-painted and 7 Plain sherds in the grass
between present day houses. The situation, like that between
Industry and Spring Bays, is like those on St. Lucia and Grenada
where Suazey ceramics have been found on high bluffs beside the
eroding Atlantic Ocean.
Paget Farm (Fig. 1, 11). At the eastern end of Paget Farm near the
present primary school, we found a lot of pottery, both modern
and aboriginal. Included were 1 Suazey Finger Indented, 1 red-
painted, and 4 Plain sherds; 1 Savanne Plain; 3 Caliviny red-
painted and I Plain; and 2 Simon red-painted sherds.
Gelizeau (Fig. 1, 12). In corn fields at the west end of Paget Farm,
south of Gelizeau hill, we found 15 sherds in two small areas.
Apparently two small habitation units were represented. Surface
erosion made sherd identification difficult but the sherds probably
were Suazey Plain typologically. Further southwest, along Adams
Bay, we did not find any Amerindian material.
Mitchell (Fig. 1, 13). On the cast shore of Admiralty Bay, inmmedi-
ately south of Port Elizabeth, in front of and southwest of the
Frangipani Hotel, a lot of Amerindian pottery has been found.
The collection at the hotel includes excellent examples of Suazey
Finger Indented and Footed Griddles. On the slightly higher land
to the southwest of the hotel, we found Suazey Plain slherds and a


red-painted Pearls type adorno of Simon paste. Apparently wave
action has almost completely eroded away the Mitchell site.

Richmond (Fig. 1, 14). About a quarter mile further southwest and
behind the Sunny Caribbee (Bequia Beach) Hotel, we found sherds
in a small area about 150 feet across. The ceramic fragments were
very small but could be allocated to the Modified Saladoid period.
Important ceramic types were Arnos Vale Incised, Simon and
Pearls White Painted, Simon Zone Painted, Simon Flanged, and
Simon Rim Lugged. This area probably represents the location of
a one family residence.
Mrs. McKenzie has a large collection from the Richmond area
(i.e. both the Mitchell and Richmond sites), including the adjacent
parts of the beach. Too numerous to classify, it included solid and
hollow back Simon adornos, wide handles mounted by simplified
bird heads, Vase Mlario and Arnos Vale Zoned, Arnos Vale Incised,
and other Simon, Caliviny, and Stazey types. Mrs. McKenzie was
positive that all the Stuazy sherds came from the edge of the
beach and not inland.

The distribution of recorded Ameriindian sites on St. Vincent
is presented in Figure 4 by Arabic numbers while the locations of
important petroglyphs is indicated by capital letters. As mentioned
in the introduction, we worked on St. Vincent twice in 1969 and
for a longer time in 1970. For case of presentation we will follow
the numerical sequence indicated on the mlap (Fig. 4) although
it bears no relationship to any chronological ordering of the sites
or to the sequence of investigation.
In 1969 Kirby published a virtually complete catalog of the
petroglyphs and stationary work stones (mortars and grinding or
sharpening rocks) of St. Vincent. From his photograph collection,
we have illustrated the justly famous Layou petroglyph, an ex-
cellent example of a sharpening and grinding stone, and the wall
carvings at Lower Buccament Cave in Plate XXXVII.
The large sharpening and grinding stones are located near
large Amerindian sites and it seems a logical assumption that they
were used by the occupants of the nearby sites. The cultural allo-
cation of petroglyphs presents difficulties. Except at Lower Bucca-
ment Cave, tand that is a two component site, there does not seem


IL Fancy

0 1 2 3 25 24

Figure 4. Map of St. Vincent locating Indian sites listed on next page.
1-59, habitation sites; A-I, petroglyph locations.




A Layou River
B Indian Bay Point
C- Barrouallie
D Yambou 2
E Yambou 3 and 5

F Petit Bordel
G Yambou 1
H Buccament Cave
I Colonarie

Habitation or Occupation Sites

1 Overland Old Road
2 Fitz-Hughs
3 Swatt
4 Big Gut Water Tank
5 Queensbury
6 McMillan
7 Govermlent House
8 Stubbs
9 Hermitage
10 Sans Souci
11 Fancy
12 Fancy Fields
13 Owia
14 Espagnol Point North
15 Espagnol Point South
16 New Sandy Bay
17 Colonarie
18 Peanut Field, North Union
19 Carilb Piece, North Union
20 South Union
21 Grant's Bay
22 Spring
23 Mt. Pleasant
24 Sharp's Bay
25 Golf (Couirse
26 Careenage
27 Young's Island
28 Indian Bay
29 Texaco Tank
30 Aros Vale Swamp

- Arnos Vale Field
- Coconut Oil Factory
-Police Work Shop
-Kingstown Post Office
Red Cross Hut
Camden Park
- Flour Mill
- Buccament West
- Buccament East
- North Mt. Wynn Bay
- Barrouallie
- Cumberland Ravine
- Trouinaka Bay
Lot 14
-Evesham School
Owia Bay No. 1
Owia Bay No. 2
Owia Bay No. 3
-Petit Bordel
Windsor Forest
Quashie Point
Grand Sable
- Biabou
- Rutland Vale
- Brighton
- Carapan
- Questelles School
- Copeland



e t
0 5 10 15



Plate XII. St. Vincent scenery and stone tools.
a, rugged t. |.. II.1' in west central part; b-h, stone cells, axes, andi chisel from
cultivated fields near Fancy; i, miniature ax from upper Buccanment River Vallec.
to be any positive method of correlating these petroglyphs with
specific occupation sites. However, their distribution, intricate de-
sign, and general excellence of workmanship strongly suggests a
phase of the Saladoid tradition, possibly Modified Saladoid, as
opposed to the later Suazey time period.
Overland Old Road (Fig. 1, 1). Located on a small plateau on the
north side of the Overland River a short distance in from the
ocean, this site, which originally covered about three-quarters of





an acre, has produced some Pearls and Simon series pottery.
Fitz-Hughs (Fig. 4, 2). In 1970 a new school was built across tile
road front Fitz-Hughs, a small settlement about a half mile east
of Chateaubelair. The site, which covers about 5 acres, is situated
on a small irregular parcel of land at an elevation of over 100 feet
and about 100 yards from Chateaubelair Bay. Immediately to the
northeast is the bank of the Fitz-Hughs River. Kirby collected
pottery and other artifacts (luring and after bulldozer operations.
Subsequently we visited the site, recorded the profile, and secured
additional sherds. At that time a large portable inetate or bringing
stone was also found.
Investigation of the exposed bank behind the school resulted
in the profile presented in Figure 5. We could not determine the
original ground surface at this point but it was several feet above
the present one which we used for our depth measurement. Ob-
viously, this site had been buried by at least one-more likely two
or three-volcanic eruptions plus additional material added by
slope wash.
As shown in Table 3, Fitz-Hughs is virtually a pure Suazey-
Caliviny complex site. Kirby in his collecting was able to allocate
some of his sherds to an upper zone (Fig. 5, x-x) while most of
them came from the lower zone. In the table sherds of questionable
provenience have been included as if from the lower /one.
Dillerences in Suazey ceramics between the upper and lower
zones are not evident but it should be noted that all Caliviny
sherds came from the lower level. Also present in the collection,
but not recorded in Table 3, were a few sherds of peasant ware,
a lead musket ball, a whlie clay pipe stem, a sherd from a Spanish
olive jar, a sherd spindle whorl, hammerstones, inanos, and chips
of quartz and of green jasper. These specimens are not placed
stratigrapliically but there seems to be a chance the Spanish olive
jar sherds may have come from the upper zone. The other historic
items are later and undoubtedly came from the higher overburden.
Suazey sherds from Fitz-IIughs tend to be soft, thick, and made
of a coarse, poorly mixed paste. Thickness varies from 0.6 to 2.5
cm. with a mode greater than 1 cm. Plain sherds suggest very large,
straight sided cauldrons with thick heavy rims or lips (P1. XXXVI,
j) and, frequently, dragged surfaces. An interesting novelty were
two sherds (Pl. XXXVI, m-n) exhibiting a laminated or double
structure. Apparently, two flat slabs of clay had been fired or,


Several feet of
0 Present

volcanic ash


Fine block dirt

3 Yellowish

Volcanic ash
a X X X -- Sherds

5- Mixed granular material
Fine granular- Sherds
6- Water laid
Fine dust

7- Water la id

Figure 5. Profile at Fitz-Hughs site, St. Vincent.

perhaps, sutidried and then pressed together and fired. Each part
was .9 cm. thick. Both examples came from griddles.
A sample of the Suazey pottery plus a few of the Modified
Saladoid sherds are illustrated in Plate XXXVI. The exaggerated
eyebrows and pierced ears of the first two sherds are typical Suazey


Table 3

Upper Lower

Iy pologp

Uppe Lowet

Suazey series (
Loom weight
Finger Indented:
long marks
single row
double row
support ring
Rim Modified, s-t. 1
Rim Modified, s-t. 2
Effigy Vessel
Footed Griddle
Cali\iny series
Pedestal Boowl

62.5) (86.0) Terminal Saladoid
1 Barbados Incised Rim

2 37
10 72
4 55
79a 929

Modified Saladoid (1.8)
Simon White Painted
Simon Zone Painted
Simon Black and
Red Zoned
Simon red-ipainted 7
Simon Rim Lugged
Soulfriere Incised I
Simon Plain
Insular Saladoid
Pearls White Painted
Pearls Side L.gged






168 1341

griddle sherds, body 55

S' wo are double (1'1. XXXVI, m-n). l'One is also incised.

period ceramic features. The flat "top" on the first one is reminis-
cent of the "hat" of the Lavoutte, St. Lucia, figurine (Bullen and
Bullen 1970: Fig. 4, a) which also had pierced cars. The double
rows of finger prints on lips are similar to but larger than those
we found in the Grenadines.
One pit, leading downward from the lower occupation zone,
contained 4 Stuaey Plain sherds, charcoal, and sand. This charcoal
was radiocarbon dated (Sample RL-74) at 930 -L 110 B.P. or about
A.D. 1020. This date is over 200 years earlier than the earliest
Bananan Bay date from Baliceaux, suggesting the Fitz-Hughs site
to be the earlier of the two. It is practically the same as the date
from Sabazan on Carriacou which we feel dates the very end of
the preceding Terminal Saladoid period.

Swatt (Fig. 4, 3). Here, in the small river valley south of Swatt
Hill, a nice Simon Adorned and other Simon series sherds were
found during the construction of a dirt road. The river drains into
the Chateaubelair River and, eventually, Chateaubelair Bay some
2 miles away.

I ypology


Big Gut Water Tank (Fig. 4, 4). In the winter of 196ti-69 workmen
while excavating for a water tank uncovered over 12 skeletons, a
small amount of pottery, and a cache of stone axes of various types
in a high bank overlooking a brook ill west central St. Vincent.
This site only covered a small area, perhaps a quarter acre or less
in extent, but interestingly was at an altitude of about 1000 feet
above sea level. More or less level land suitable for agriculture
is not present in the immediate region.
By the time Kirby arrived at the scene, the axes had become
dispersed and most of the bones and lottery broken or partially
covered by the cement foundations. No white-painted pottery,
adornos, or finger indented rims were reported by the workers or
found by Kirby and us on a subsequent visit. We found 2 thick
Snazey Plain, 1 Suazey red-painted, 2 Simon Plain, and 2 un-
identifiable thick but well made smooth surfaced sherds. The small
si/e of the site and lack of an obvious midden deposit, plus the
fact that burials are not commonly found in large habitation sites
on St. Vincent, suggests tle possibility that small secluded locations
in the hills may have been used for burials.

Qucen.lbiiry (Fig. ., 5). This site is situated in and near the bank
of a small stream tributary to the Buccanment River in the Queens-
bury district of southwest-central St. Vincent. It is located, 2 miles
inland from Buccament Bay, at an altitude of about 300 feet. Here
the stream is deeply entrenched and in one place has cut a narrow
channel through 7 feet of previously deposited alluvial fill con-
taining Amerindian pottery.
An approximately 8- by 10-foot block of this fill was excavated
in 1965 by members of the St. Vincent Archaeological and I historical
Society including Morrison Baisden, Parnell Calmpbell, S. S. Camlp-
bell, D. Harold, Miss B. Heddle, Jan Horne, Earle Kirby, 0. Peters,
Mrs. I. Small, Cecile Smith, and Mr. and Mrs. Boyd Wettlaufer of
California. The face of the excavated block showed several pockets
of coarse water-deposited material and three, slightly sloping, lines
called by the excavators "ash lines." Sherds, at least the large ones,
tended to l)e at the bottoms of the small coarse sand and gravel
deposits. Pottery was also removed from the basal parts of a similar
deposit on the opposite bank and other sherds were found there
by us in 1970. As they duplicated those in the test block, they have
been disregarded in this presentation. Ceramics (classified by us)


from the excavation are presented by arbitrary excavation levels
in Table 4. Specimens were also collected from a nearby cultivated
field a little up stream from the alluvial deposit site just mentioned.
Plates XXV and XXVI illustrate specimens from the site in-
cluding three magnificent adornos (PI. XXV, a-c) and a much-
used portable sharpening stone (P1. XVI, d). These adornos are
from the Punnett collection and we appreciate Mrs. Eileen Pun-
nett's permission to examine the site and the loan of these speci-
mens for photographic purposes. Other specimens from the field,
in the Punnett collection, include 2 stone "hatchets' shaped like
North American Indian trade axes (one has a pecked halting
groove), 4 Hatt Concave Handled, 3 Simon Rim Adorned, 2 Rim
Lugged, 2 Wide H handled (both peg-topped), 1 "O"-type handle,
a thick tabular handle (?) exhibiting excised areas, and a large
Simon poiuing spout. In the Society's surface collection are 1 Sua/ey
Scratched, 1 red-painted, 3 Plain, 1 Footed (,riddle, 2 other griddle
sherds; 3 Hatt Concave Handled, 1 Queensbury Interior Incised,
2 Simon tabular handled, 3 Flanged, 6 red-painted, 2 incised and
red-painted, 1 Plain; a Pearls paste pouring spout and a Pearls
miscellaneous incised sherd. It is evident that the field was occupied
during the Suazey-Caliviny and the Modified Saladoid periods.
The Queensbury excavation gives us the longest single strati-
graphic sequence so far for the Lesser Antilles. Examination of
Table 4 indicates Pearls ceramics to concentrate near the bottom,
Modified Saladoid sherds extremely plentiful in middle depthss ('I-
62 inches) and, at the top, historical material and a tew sherds of
the Suazey-Caliviny complex. The only seriously disturbing occur-
ence is the Suazey Footed Griddle recorded for the lowest zone.
It is known that footed griddles occur in Martinique (Petitjean
Roget 1':I,-,. 132-33) before other Suazey series pottery but they
should not be associated with Pearls series ceramics as .Ii.;s_.i,-l
by Table 4. Probably this one sherd should be disregarded and
considered to be an error in cataloging or excavation. Possibly
it was in an unnoted animal burrow!
That these various pottery types are arranged in their expected
sequential arrangement after redeposition needs some explanation.
Kirby feels that the present stream channel cut off a bend in the
stream and, in the process, cut through the excavated deposit. The
latter, then, represents a slope wash accumulation from the practi-
cally adjacent occupation site previously mentioned, where the

I able 4

Depths in inches
o-18 2 -225 28-35 35:'- I1 1 1i. '.. -, -

(lass, stoneware, etc.
Sua/eN-Caliviny series
Suazey Plain
Suazey Footed (riddle
Caliviny red-painted
Caliviny 'Plain

Modified Saladoid
St. Lucia ownedd Ifncised
A.\ros Vale Zoned
Vase Mario
\Amios Vale Inciised
(Quensbury Intised
(Grande Anse Intelrioi
I ncised
SI. Vinccent Black /Zoned
Hatt Concave Handled
Sinion While Painted
Sinion Zone Painted
Simon Neck Decorated
Simon black-painted


(51.S) (89.3) (87.'5 .8).s) (74.3) (85.8) (82.0) (78.0)

4 2 1 I 2 1
I3 57 2
3 3 2
2 2 6 2 1

1 I
6 2 6
3 6 1
3 6 1

I pologs

63-67 68-72



(HI.5) (71.5)

3 2
3 1

28 ,

67 *
1 I


Simon rid-)aillted
Simon incised and
Simon W'ide Handled
Simon Plain
L.avoutteI Plain

i 7 12 29 19 35i

1 32

2li 25

6 12 33 16i6

3 9 ( 8 23 5I 1 58
2a 2" 1' !1
37 1(5 13 227 132 2;8 69 78 869

Insular Saladoid (4.1)
'earls Cross Ilalched
'earls Adorned
Iearls White IPainlted
Pearls red-, white, and tan-painledt
Pearls red-painted
I'calls incised and red-painted
Pearls Rin I hugged
I'arls Side ILggedl
Pearls Wide Handled
'earls Ringed Bowl
Pearls Incised Bowl
Pearls Plain 3
griddle sherds 2

4 7 13
3 2
1 1 2

I 2

4 5 17 22 21 22
1 3 2 13 10

73 47 94 236 19)5 342 207

3 1 4
1 I 1 1 418
3 10 9 ?
1 92

I I ><
I 3

5 10 13 125
1 2 12 51

.15 112 179 1530

,One peg-topped) Ontec boat-slhaped. 'One horizontal peg-topped, one peg-topped, one with formalized bird head lug.
"I'eg-topped support ring.

(8.5) (i.l) (9.7) (18.4) (12.3) (14.0) (17.8) (1(i.l) (21.8)

I otals


same ceramics are found. This cultivated field is crowned a little
distance from the stream and slopes quite obviously to the edge
of the stream bank. Slope wash, abetted by tropical storms and a
tendency of the inhabitants to dispose of broken vessels in a down-
hill direction, could easily have built up the 7-foot thick deposit
in an abandoned stream channel. Such a process accounts for all
the observed facts.
Unfortunately, the method of accumulation of the excavated
materials was not such as to give us fine chronological differences
within the Modified Saladoid period. The major changes, how-
ever, are noteworthy (Table 4). The relative per cent of Sua/ey-
Caliviny sherds drops from 38 to 2 from the first to the third level.
That of the Modified Saladoid series starts at 55 per cent in the
first, jumps to 89 per cent in the second, decreases slightly to 81
per cent in the ninth level and then drops to 72 per cent in the
tenth level. The Pearls series, on the other hand, gradually rises
from 8 per cent in the third to 18 per cent in the ninth level and
ends at 22 per cent in the lowest level. These differences, of course,
have statistical significance.

McMillan (Fig. 4, 6). At this site on a tributary of the Yambo River
at an elevation of about 1300 feet were found 12 sherds of a flanged
vessel having walls 8 imm. thick. The vessel, with a gray core, was
black on the outside and brownish on the inside. Traces of red
paint were found on the tops of the flange. Surfaces exhibited sole
scratching but these were probably incidental to finishing opera-
tions. This pottery undoubtedly represents Peasant Ware, quite
possibly made by Black Caribs.
(;ovcrnment House (Fig. 4, 7). This site is located in the hills
about a mile north of Kingstown. While at an altitude of about
500 feet, it is near a branch of the Kingstown North River. The
following sherds were collected there some time ago: 2 Snazey
Finger Indented, 8 Scratched, 7 red-painted, 2 Footed Griddle, 119
Plain; 1 Caliviny Polychrome, 2 Plain; 1 fragment of a footed
vessel or griddle over which black painted bands had been added;
1 Simon Plain; and 38 griddle sherds.
This collection clearly relates to the Suazey-Caliviny complex.
The footed item, with black paint is similar to one mentioned
earlier for the Sabazan site on Carriacou (Pl. 1, 1). These sherds
suggest that the Caliviny type of painted decoration represents,
at least in part, Lesser Antillean development.

S'I uBBs

Stubbs (Fig. 8). Bulldozer operations for the construction of a
school on the northeast side of Kings Hill west of Stubbs revealed
a fair-sized site adjacent to a deeply indented small stream flowing
easterly into Stubbs Bay. The site covers 2 to 3 acres of a fairly
level terrace. Over a low saddle to the west is a good spring and
also good arable land. The Indians, however, lived to the east of
the saddle where, at an altitude of about 450 feet, trade winds
were available.
The site proper consisted of a dark brown sandy zone about
16 inches thick which, before ',iilll,.'ini. was covered by clayey
volcanic ash. Below was sterile, finer and more compact clayey-
ash. In the exposed section we could see two Amerindian pits
leading downward from the occupation zone. At the time of our
visit no artifacts except red and yellow jasper chips were to be seen.
A large ceramic collection, secured by Kirby dIuring several
visits to the site, is presented in Table 5. Those recorded under
"zones" were taken from the sides of bulldloer cuts. From the
ceramic analysis Stubbs is a two component site with pottery of
the Suaicy-Caliviny complex overlying that of the Modified Sala-
doid period. Sherds of the earlier period found in the higher zones
are red-painted or plain, which are difficult of allocation. All the
definitive early sherds, except one, from the walls were found in
the lower zone while no Suazey sherd is shown for that zone.
Additional specimens include two perforated circular sherds,
presumedly spindle whorls, and two sherds used as potter) smoother
to scrape the sides of vessels during manufacture. Several Caliviny
Polychrome sherds, still exhibiting traces of paint above their
shoulders (Pl. XXXV, c-f), came from the base of a pit exposed
by the bulldozer and containing tle remaining parts of a human
Some artifacts Irom the Stubbs site are of considerable interest.
Included are many manos or upper grinding stones, a small chip-
ping hammer, a faceted hammerstone (Pl. XXXV, u, upper left),
a few axe fragments, 2 brown jasper cores (PI. XXXV, g, lower
corners), some large jasper chips about 5 by 5 cmi. in size (P1.
XXXV, g, upper right corner), about 50 red, yellow, black, and
whitish jasper chips (P1. XXXV, g, center), and I stone axes in
various stages of manufacture (P1. XXXV, a-d). One (P1. XXXV,
a) is completely pecked to shape and ready for grinding while the
others are chipped to size and differentially pecked. These axes and


Table 5

Upper Middle


Iower collection

Suarey series (35.
decorated rin handle"
Finger Indented:
long marks
single row, ordinary
Rim Modified, s-t. 2
Wide Handled
Micoud Tripod Bowl
Footed Griddle

support ring
griddle sherds, body

Calivinv series (5.
red and black paint

Modified Saladoid ( 5.
St. I.ucia Zoned Incised
Simon While Painted
Simon Zone Painted
Simon Neck Decorated
Simon red-painted
Troumanssee Decorated Cylinder
miscellaneous incised
Simon flanged, T-shaped
Simon Rim Lugged
Simon Rim Adorned
rim handled
Simon Plain

Insular Saladoid
Pearls Cross Hatched
Pearls White Painted
Pearls red-painted
Miscellaneous incised
Pearls Plain



0) ((W0.4)
1 1

I 4h
1 6 4
1 1 66
10 13
4 43 345
1 1 2
1 29 2c 163

0) (2.0) (12.3)
1 22
1 1 41

.0 7.7.9) 88..O) (31.8)

6 27
2 8


1 4 20 148
';.0) 11.9)

I 16


20 101 41 1185 1345

aWide, flat, triangular rim point, appliqclud face, heavy brow ridges. ,One
has flat inslanting lip. ('One is red-painted. One has shiny black interior paint.



the pecking hammers show that stone axes \were made at the Stubbs
site. Allocation to cultural period from data at this site is difficult
to impossible. However, as such axes have never as yet been found
in Modified or Insular Saladoid deposits, we feel they should be
associated with the Caliviny-Suazev pottery and, hence, would be
late Arawak or early Carib temporally.

Hermitage (Fig. 4, 9). This site is located in west central St. Vincent
near a tributary of the Cumberland River at an altitude of about
1200 feet. Here sherds were found at the foot of a road cut as
shown in Figure 6. A few small rocks were also present but no
midden material. This would o --."It our work was (lone at the
edge of a site or that the sherds had been washed into their in siit
location a long time ago.


The profile of the road cut represents at least one if not two
volcanic ash depositional and erosional cycles. Our collection of
pottery has been classified as 5 Suazey Plain, 5 Suazey-like plain,
1 Scratched, 3 red-painted; part of a pedestal bowl support, 6 thick,
badly eroded, Suazey or Simon Plain, 1 Caliviny Polychrome, and
3 griddle sherds. These sherds suggest an early part of the Caliviny-
Suazey continuum. Certainly Amerindians were present at a time
when the physiographic features were considerably different than
at present.

Salns Sou'i (Fig. 4, 10). This small site on thle south side of the


river near its mouth has produced pottery of the Suazey series.
Distribution of sherds ,I ...d a small settlement about a half
acre in size 1, l1.i-i ni_. presumedly, to the Island Caribs.

Fancy (Fig. 4, 11). The "Carib" cemetery, mentioned by Fewkes
(1922: 91) at the small settlement of Fancy in the extreme northern
end of St. Vincent, has been only recently abandoned. It is, of
course, historic in date. From it, Kirby collected large fragments
of Peasant Ware which are thick (.8 to 1.2 cm.), tempered with
coarse sand and occasional small whitish particles (soft to the
fingernail), black to brown in color, and well burnished, although
burnishing marks have not been removed. Examples have folded,
incurving lips, straight vertical necks, and globular bodies. Some
have appliqued, upward curving handles which are strong and
very well made. These vessels are similar to those of the Suazey
series but are harder, well fired, and made of a well mixed paste.
We are not certain whether these Peasant Ware sherds came from
the midden mentioned by Fewkes or not.
The St. Vincent Archaeological and Historical Society has a
sherd collection from the fields behind and up strealn from the
cemetery. It includes the following ceramic types: 2 Suazey Finger
Indented (double row), 3 Scratched, 89 Plain; 4 Caliviny Poly-
chrome, 3 Plain; 2 St. Lucia Zoned Incised, 2 Vase Mario, 15
Simon Zone Painted, 3 Neck Decorated, 1 Pedestal Bowl, 7 Flanged,
1 Side Lugged, 4 miscellaneous incised, 4 incised and red-painted,
37 red-painted, 1 support ring, 111 Plain, and 2 thin footed griddles.
These specimens, predominantly referring to Simon ceramics
with an overlay of Suazey pottery, probably represent the buried
site Fewkes (1922: 91) reports between the estate house and the
cemetery. According to Kirby this site extends some 100 yards from
the manager's house downstream.

Fancy Fields (Fig. 4, 12). South of the town and along the banks
of the next river to the east are cultivated fields. Seven of the stone
celts, axes, and chisel-like tools illustrated in Plate XII came from
these fields. This situation-ax-like tools found at inland fields not
having any other evidence of aboriginal use or occupation (no
mlidden accumulation)--is typical of many of the islands in the
Lesser Antilles (Barbotin 1970: 41). Presumedly, such tools were
taken inland for agricultural purposes, such as clearing the land,
and lost or abandoned after use. Perhaps they were cached for


future use and never reclaimed by their original owner. Possibly
dugout canoes were nearly finished at inland locations to reduce
their weight before being taken to the shore villages.

Owia (Fig. 4, 13). A bold and ii ...1 point of land extends to the
northeast of the little town of Owia in northeastern St. Vincent.
We collected pottery from two locations on this point. The first
is on the extreme eastern end, a good hundred feet above the
adjacent ocean and small beach. There we found the following
sherds: 1 Suazey Finger Indented (double row), 3 Scratched, 4 red-
painted, 1 Footed Griddle, 32 Plain; 1 Caliviny red-painted, (i
Plain; 3 griddle body sherds, 1 St. Lucia Zoned Incised; 1 Simon
Flanged, 2 miscellaneous incised, 2 red-painted, 1 unique peg dec-
orated tabular handle; and 8 plain.
The other location is near a new school, particularly in small
ditches dug incidental to the construction of this building, near
the highest part of the point at an elevation of over 200 feet. Here
we found 5 Suazey Finger Indented (1 with a double row and 2
with long indents), 5 Scratched, 2 Scratched and red-painted, 6 red-
painted, 2 Footed Griddles, 4 other griddle sherds; 3 Caliviny
Polychrome, 2 red-painted; 1 Simon Black-and-Red Painted, and
2 red-painted and incised sherds.
In the St. Vincent Archaeological and Historical Society's col-
lections are many sherds and a few Livonia pica shells, secured
subsequent to our visit by Kirby and Baisden, from Owia marked
"up hill from school." It seems likely that this area a little higher
than that of the school, represents the center of the site. This
collection consists of: 1 Savanne Plain, 23 Suazey Finger Indented
(7 single, 12 double row, 4 long indents), 14 Scratched, 1 Rim
Modified (Subtype 5), 5 red-painted, 77 Plain; 11 Caliviny Poly-
chrome, 15 red-painted, 1 Pedestal Bowl, 22 Plain; 2 Simon tl Inii
Painted, 1 Zone Painted, 1 Neck Decorated, 1 Black-and-Red
Painted, 10 red-painted, 8 incised and red-painted, 7 miscellaneous
incised, 1 zigzag incised, 1 Wide Handled (p,,.-.I.,I"l 'i 70 Plain;
1 St. Vincent Black Lined; 1 Pearls White Painted, Rim LIt-_.i miscellaneous incised, and 4 Plain sherds.
Data from both localities indicate a two period site, occupation
by makers of Modified Saladoid pottery and, later, by people with
a Suazey-Caliviny ceramic complex. Of the six Suazey series speci-
mens illustrated in Plate XXXIII, the fifth duplicates in all features


except teeth the head of the Lavoutte figurine from St. Lucia
(Bullen and Bullen 1970: Fig. 10, a) including the incised lines
fiom nose to ears.

Espagnol Point North (Fig. 4, 14). This point, like that near Owia,
is rugged, over 200 feet in elevation, and juts out northeasterly in-
to the ocean. The Ixpint is divided by a small stream bed into a
northern and a southern part. In the northern part we found 21
sherds divided as follows: 1 Savanne Plain, 3 Suazey red-painted, 1
Suazey Footed Griddle, 5 other griddle sherds, 11 Suazey Plain,
1 Simon Rim L.ugged, and 2 Simon red-painted sherds. The
relatively large number of Sua/ey series pottery footnotes the fact
that such sites-high land on the windward coast overlooking the
ocean-are prime locations for deposits of Suazey pottery.

Espagnol Point South (Fig. 1, 15). At the top of the southern part
of this point, east of the road, is a large cultivated field sloping
downward to both the northeast and the south. Towards the north-
east there is a drop to a somewhat lower terrace. During our visit
we collected from the top of the lower terrace a total of 21 sherds
of the Suazey-Caliviny series including Suazey Scratched and Cali-
viny Polychrome plus 8 plain or red-painted sherds ol Simon paste
and a rim adorno resembling the head of a dog.
We marked this place as a desirable one in which to make a
test but on our retIurn at a later date found it had Ieen planted
in sweet potatoes in the ileanwhile. However, we were permitted
to do some digging between the planted rows. We made 3 small
tests, one on the lower terrace at the place 1: -.-.-.I ,I above, one
on the higher terrace slightly above the drop or break in the field.
and a third on the south slope much nearer the road where plant-
ing had indicated a concentration of pottery. The results in all
cases were essentially the same: there were about 12 inches of good
blackish dirt below the bottom of the troughs between tle rows,
but slierds were rare and there was no suggestion at all of a
midden or occupation floor. The only possible detail worth re-
cordinlg was that ill the third test a Suazey Finger Indented sherd
was near lie surface wlile thin, better made pottery was present
at greater depths. These inadequate results were disappointing.
(Ou collection, made during the second trip, and that of the St.
Vincent Archaeological and Historical Society, is detailed in
Table 6.


Table 6

Area St. Vincent
Typology Nortlheaste n Southern Arch. and Hist.

Suazey series (32.0) (31.4) (55.7)
Finger Indented
single row 2 1 6
double row 1 I
Scratched 9 6 13
red-painted 24 11 21
red-painted foot 1 1
with lug ol side I I
Foo(ted (riddle 3
Plain 50 32 101
Caliviin series (21.2) (22.5) (29.2)
IPolychrome 10 9 14
red-painted 29 7 33
Plain 10 22 28
Simon series (27.7) (31.3) (3.5)
Flanged I
Pedestal IBon I 1 1
red-painted 20 14 .
Plain 54 38 3
Peal Is series (10.9) (3.6)
red-painled 2 3
Plain 1 3
unique excised 1
griddle body sherds 50 19 30

Ioatls 27.5 169 259

In considering the above table, it should I)e remembered that
in plain or red-painted pottery the differences between the various
series are one of temper size, thickness of walls, and surface finish.
A few examples will be found as "g, j" in Plate XXXIII. Except for
the Simon Flanged sherd, most of the other excavated sherds,
classified as of the Simon or Pearls series might, with a little forc-
ing and allowance for particularly good workmanship be subsumed
under the Caliviny caption. The percentages indicate the two
areas to represent the same occupation. Probably there were several
Carib huts with their surrounding midden deposits scattered over
this field. Unfortunately cultivation has removed the possibility
of doing very significant work at this site.


New Sandy Bay (Fig. 4, 16). At New Sandy Bay along the north-
east coast of St. Vincent there is a steel) eroded bank separating
the higher land by the road from the lower or beach area. A
drainage ditch has been dug down this bank while construction
near the road has resulted in an accumulation of dirt and debris
at the crest of the eroded bank.
A great deal of pottery has been found associated with these
disturbances and at the foot of the bank. Samples are illustrated
in the upper half of Plate XXXI. Totals from several collections
are included in the following list: 17 Suazey Finger Indented (12
single, 4 double, 1 long indent), 26 scratched, 9 red painted, 2
Rim Modified (1 type 2, 1 type 3), 1 boat-shaped, 4 Footed
Griddle, 166 Plain; 4 Caliviny Polychirone, 7 red-painted; 1 St.
Lucia Flange Incised, 5 Simon Neck Decorated, 13 led-painted, 3
incised and red-painted, 9 miscellaneous incised, 33 Plain; and 24
griddle sherds.
The Suazey series sherds from New Sandy Bay are particularly
thick. Not included in the above table are some unique sherds
exhibiting appliqued features not noted elsewhere. The most re-
markable-clearly of Suazey paste and surface finish-is illustrated
at the top of I'l I. XXXII. An exceptionally small vessel, it is
only 6 inches in diameter. These appliqud features probably be-
long in the Sua/ey ceramic horizon-plerhaps when it was being
evolved into Peasant Ware-bult we have insufficient data on which
to base a classification.
1)Dr. Kirby, mid-1972, advises that other applihqud slherds have
recently been found at the foot of the bank at New Sandy Bay
and in an eroded bank near Madame )ukes adjacent to Camden
Park. Interesting examples from New Sand By ay have been in-
cluded as Plate XXXVIII. Some of them apparently were in situ
below the material which fell or was pushed down the bank. tHe
states that at the other site similar sherds were stratigraphically
below pottery of the Suazey series. The Suazey slherds were in the
top of a sandy deposit which underlay soil. Below was an old,
modified, narrow sand zone which overlay another sandy deposit in
the top of which were found the sherds similar to those in Plate
XXXVIII. These sherds resemble various specimens illustrated by
Rouse (1952: Figs. 3, 4, and 7) for the Ostiones, Santa Elena, and
Esperanza styles of Puerto Rico.


Colonarie (Fig. 4, 17). This is a small eroded site at the south end
of the Windward Highway at the northeast edge of Colonarie.
Here we found 21 sherds (1 Suazey Scratched, 4 red-painted, 12
Plain; 1 Caliviny Plain; 2 Simon incised and red-painted, and I
Black-and-Red-Painted). Again the dominant occupation seems to
be that of makers of Suazey series pottery.

Peanut Field, North Union (Fig. 4, 18). This field is about an
eighth of a mile north of the mouth of the Union River. It has
produced Modified Saladoid period sherd s as per the following
list: 2 Barbados Flange Incised, 5 St. Lucia Zoned Incised, 1 St.
Vincent Black Zoned, 1 Grande Anse Interior Incised; 7 Simon
Zone Painted, 7 Neck Decorated, 25 red-painted, 4 incised and
red-painted, 14 miscellaneous incised, I Rim ii .... 43 Plain;
6 Pearls \hite Painted, 3 red-painted, 1 Riim Iugged, 1 Side
Lugged, and 22 Plain.
Carib Piece, North U'nioon (Fig. 4, 19). This field, a little south of
the Peanut Field, is on the north side of the river at its first I)end.
The collection consists of the following: 1 Suazey Scratched; 1
Barbados Incised Rim; I Simon Neck Decorated, 34l red-painted,
11 incised and red-pained t, 3 miscellaneous incised, 1 Flanged, 1
Side LIi,.. 1, 85 Plain; 1 Pearls Cross Hatched, 1 Inner Rim Incised.
1 Adorned (concave back), 18 red-painted, 1 incised and red-painted,
1 Ringed Bowl, 22 Plain, 28 griddle sherds, and a spindle whorl
of Pearls paste.
As at the preceding Peanut Field site, the major occupation
occurred during the Modified Saladoid period.

South lIUion (Fig. 4, 20). This site is located on the south side of
the Union River near where it joins the sea. Here specimens are
found 4 to 5 feet below the present surface where they are being
exposed by erosion of the river bank. They are in a complicated
geological situation with, apparently, evidence of three periods of
deposition and stream cutting. Some sherds were found 2 to 3 feet
deep in the lower or 4-foot terrace. Our collection included a
fragment of a ground stone tool, 2 Grande Anse Interior Incised
sherds and one each of Arnos Vale Incised, Simon red-painted,
Simon White Painted, and Pearls White Painted. Their deep
provenience agrees with that of similar pottery at the Arnos Vale
Swamp site indicating that the physiography of St. Vincent was con-
siderably different 1500 years ago, during the Modified Saladoid


The St. Vincent Archaeological and Historical Society has two
collections from this site. The first, which agrees temporally with
the above except for its first item, consists of 7 Suazey Plain, 1 red-
painted, 1 Footed Griddle; 1 Caliviny Polychrome; 1 St. Lucia
Zoned Incised; 7 Simon White Painted, 11 Zone Painted, 2 Black-
and-Red Painted, 2 Neck Decorated, 32 red-painted, 1 incised and
red-painted, 9 miscellaneous incised, 2 Rim Modified, 3 Ringed
Bowls, 74 Plain; 1 Pearls White Painted, 1 Inner Rim Incised, 2
Rim Lugged, 5 red-painted, 8 Plain; and 11 griddle sherds.
The other collection is marked from the rear of the South
Union site. While small it indicates an entirely different emphasis.
Included are a mano, 3 griddle sherds and 14 Suazey Plain plus
10 Simon Plain. The difference between the two plain types was
very slight. Those called Suazey Plain were heavy with walls 13 to
15 mm. thick, a brick red color, well fired with hard surfaces which
exhibited very fine scratches. Typologically this pottery might be
said to represent Suazey ceramics being developed into Peasant
Ware. Whatever the interpretation, this collection represents an
entirely different ceramic entity than do the other collections from
this site.
(raitl's Bay (Fig. 4, 21). This number lias been used lor three sites
on or near Grant's Bay which will be referred to as 21-A, B, and C.
Site 21-A or Macariacaw Point is located in the eastern part of a
higl hill near the base of the point and overlooking the bay. There
we found 29 sherds of the Simon series (1 Simon Zone Painted,
5 red-painted, 17 Plain, 6i griddle) and 1 Caliviny Plain indicating
occupancy during a middle ceramic period.
Site 21-B, on the northside of Grant's Bay has supplied a pecked
stone and an axe fragment plus 1 Peasant Ware; 3 Sna/ey Plain:
1 Simon Zone Painted, I red-painted, 4 incised and red-painted,
12 Plain; 1 Pearls Cross Hatched, 4 red-painted, 3 Rim Lugged.
1 Ringed Bowl, 6 griddle slerds, and 1 fine paste sherd with an
appliquld hand on its side.
Site 21-C, on the south side of Grant's Bay, is apparently uiich
smaller. Thle collection from there consisted of only a hammer-
stone, 1 Simon red-painted, 3 Simon Plain, and 3 griddle sherds.
It seems likely these three sites are related and that the domin-
ant occupation occurred very early during the Modified Saladoid


Spring (Fig. 4, 22). This site is situated in the high bank or second
terrace of a river a little north of Spring. The location is on the
north side of the river a little west of the coastal road. Sherds
were eroding from the face of the bank between depths of 6 and
12 inches. It was not clear whether a small midden was present or
whether the pottery had been redeposited by water action. We
collected 1 Suazey red-painted, 3 Plain; I Caliviny Polychrome, 3
red-painted, 3 Plain; 1 Simon White Painted, 2 red-painted, 1
Wide Handled, I griddle, and 14 Plain sherds. Caliviny and Simon
pottery dominate this collection.

Mt. Pleasant (Fig. 4, 23). This site, situated on a low headland on
the southeastern shore, has been almost completely eroded away
1b the sea. Site attributes are identical to those found at Suazev-
Caliviny complex sites on the eastern sides of Grenada and St.
Liucia. There is also present in the tidal zone immediately south
of the site several grooved rocks used as sharpening stones.
In June 1969 we visited the site and made a surface collection
Iroml the eroded area which included a piece of iron (Pl. XXX, m)
exactly the same as several found at the Savanne Sua/ey site on
Grenada (Bullen 1961: 23, 12) where the same ceramic complex
was also found. In August of tie same year, we returned with
Earle Kirby to make a stratigraphic test. Our test, made in tile
small remaining portion of the site, started as a 5- by 5-foot square
but excessive rain prevented our completing more than half of
the test square. The profile consisted of heavy sod and sterile
brown sandy loam down to a depth of 10 inches where we en-
countered tie top of thle blackish clayey culture-bearing zone. This
/one was 6 inches thick and rested on sterile yellow-brown clayey
\lost sherds from this zone represented large thick Suazey
series vessels with heavy thickened rims. Some combined the flat
inslanting lip of the Caliviny series with the scratched exterior
surface of tile Sua/ey series. Only a very few sherds were thin with
well smoothed surfaces. Temlper was grit with white, black, and
sometimes reddish inclusions. As is usually tile case, temper of
Caliviny pottery was finer than that of Sua/ey sherds. Typical
sherds are illustrated in Plate XXX (a-n).
Table 7 lists excavated sherds in tile first column while the
second combines poster l secured from the eroded area during both


Table 7

Typology Midden Eroded Area

Suazey series (74.3) ( .3)
Finger Indented 3 1
Scratched 8 2
Wide Handled 2
Micoud Tripod Bowl 1
Pedestal Bowl, red-painted 3
red-painted 10 11
incised and red-painted
Footed Griddle 2
Plain 122 14
support ring
griddle sherds, body 31
Caliviny series 10A.) (5.4)
Polv chrome 1
red-painted 8 1
griddle, red-painted 4 1
Plain 8
miscellaneous incised 2

I 'oatIs 203 37

visits. Not included are two spindle whorls found in the midden.
This inventory is extremely close to that for other Suaiey-Caliviny
complex sites both as to content and percentages. This indicates
occupation by the same cultural group whom we believe are the
Island Caribs.

Sharpc's Bay (Fig. 4, 21). At this location, south of the Breakers
Hotel, a very high and steep bank is being eroded by the sea. This
erosion has eaten into a nmidden deposit situated slightly below the
present turf. The midden contains thick, coarse, pottery of the
Suazey series and may be related to the Golf Course site.

Golf Course (Fig. 4, 25). On high level land between the Careenage
and the sea, sherds have been found in the fields and along the
road where erosion has occurred. We were able to find only 1
griddle and 3 Suazey Plain sherds.

Careenage (Fig. 4, 26). At the southern end of the Careenage on
the eastern side of Calliaqua Bay is a small site barely above the
present level of the sea. It is covered by slope wash deposits but,


to judge from a drainage ditch dug across it, has no substantial
midden deposit although clam, Bnsycon, and shells are present.
Our ceramic inventory combined with that of the St. Vincent
Archaeological and Historical Society totals: 5 Suazey Finger In-
dented, 4 Scratched, 3 red-painted, 24 Plain; 1 St. I'ucia Zoned
Incised; 2 Simon W\ lii Painted, 1 red-painted, 21 Plain; 1 unique
plain, and a griddle sherd. W\liilh occupied during more than one
archaeological period, most of the pottery relates to a Suazey period
or Carib occupation.

Young's Island (Fig. 4, 27). In the garden at the eastern end of
the Young's Island development we found eight sherds (1 Suazey
Scratched, 1 Footed Griddle, 4 Plain, and 2 Simon Plain) and a
few scraps of shell. Apparently Carib Indians at one time lived
in that location.

Indian iBay (Fig. 4, 28). Beside the quarter mile long and narrow
beach at Indian Bay are several places where sherds, shells, and
midden refuse are eroding from the adjacent bank. The local hotel
collection from there includes a Spanish olive jar shed and an
example of Suazey Scratched as well as a red jasper chip, 2 Simon
White Painted, 1 Neck Decorated, 3 red-painted, 4t miscellaneous
incised, I Ringed Bowl, and 10 Plain sherds. The 0. Douglas Bri-
bane collection, on exhibit at his store in Kingstown, contains
Suazey Finger Indented, Scratched, red-painted, Footed Griddle,
Plain, and Caliviny Polychrome sherds. Two occupations, perhaps
not in the same identical location, are indicated.
Our first visit to this site in 1969 delineated a western area
where we found 2 Savanne Plain, 2 Suazey Scratched, 2 red-painted,
5 Plain; 3 Caliviny red-painted; and 2 Simon Plain sherds, and an
eastern portion where we collected a Suazey Finger Indented, a
Plain; a Simon White Painted, and 2 Plain sherds. Note should
be made of the Spanish olive jar sherd in the hotel's collection
and the Savanne Plain sherds in our collection as both indicate a
post-Colunmbian time period.
Returning to the site with Dr. Kirby, we made a small test in
each area. Both revealed a buried cultural zone, 4 to 7 inches thick,
with a 6- to 8-inch overburden. All 20 excavated sherds (from both
tests) were assignable to the Modified Saladoid period on the basis
of paste and the one decorated sherd which was typologically
Simon Rim t.In.- 1. It was clear from this work that practically


all of the site had eroded into the bay and that profitable archae-
ology could not be done in that part of Indian Bay.
Later, during the winter of 1969-70 when an opportunity pre-
sented itself, Dr. Kirby revisited the site and made two more
stratigraphic tests at another location much further to the east
than those mentioned above. His Test A produced 71 sherds of
which 55 belonged to the Suazey and 13 to the Caliviny series with
only 3 assignable to the Simon and Pearls series. Sherds from his
Test B were classified by us in 1970 and appear here in Table 8.
Not included in that table are the base of a loom weight, half of a
spindle whorl, and several stone manos from the lower level a.
well as some coral manioc shredders from the upper level. Also
present in the general collection were three shell celts and what
appears to be a coral pendant (P1. XXXIV, m-o, q).

Fable 8

lower Upper General
Typology level le el collection iTotals

Suiaey series (56.3) (47.7) (50.0)
Finger Indented
single row (ordinary) 4 1
.lInIg marks 4 1 5
Scratched 24 2 12 38
red-painted I 5 6
Footed (Giddle 3 I 4
unique appliqud bowl 3 3
Plain 125 7 32 I (i4
Calivinv series (29.3) (33.1) (15.7)
Polvyhrome 18 5 3 2(
red-painted 53 10 63
Plain 14 2 3 19
Saladoid (5.5) (14.3) (27.5)
Simon red-painted 1 ( 7
Simon Plain 15 1 22 38
Pearls red-painted I I
Pearls Plain 1 1
Griddle sherds 26a 1 i 33

Totals 290 21 101 412

,One has pancake type rin.

The upper and lower levels of Test B, which seems to have


penetrated a central portion of the site, do not represent separate
strata but refer to arbitrary upper and lower parts of the midden.
As indicated in the table there seems to be no significant change
with depth in the relative popularity of the pottery types repre-
sented. The Simon iand Pearls sherds listed may represent better
made examples of the Caliviny series or the presence in the neigh-
borhood of a light occupation during the Modified Saladoid period.
IThe Suazey-Caliviny ceramic complex from Indian Bay (P1.
XXXIV, a-1) is the same as that we have noted previously at vari-
ous sites inl 1liii ,. on St. Vincent, the Fitz-HIughs, Stubbs, and Mt.
Pleasant sites. Some of the Suaiey Plain sherds were thick and
heavy (P1. XXXIV, a, e-f) as mentioned for the other sites. The
examples of Caliviny Polychrome at Indian Bay (Pl. XXXIV, i-l)
follow the classic definition (Bullen 1964: 49 and Pl. XVIII).
The stratigraphic situation at Indian Bay was simple in that a
rather rich mildden, about 8 inches thick, was covered by a thin
sterile zone of roots and recently accumulated sandy loam. Inter-
estingly, in Test B the midden rested on a 7-inch thick strata of
broken Livonia Pica shells which enclosed some smoothed coral
branches (manioc shredders), 2 pieces of ground shell (Strombus
gigas), a clam shell, and a few fragments of conch shell but no
sherds. Over 20 of the broken Livonia pica shells exhibited ground
or worked (chipped) edges and a repetitive shape (PI. XXXIV, p).
They might have been made for pottery scrapers or, possibly, as
small spoons.
Some of these Livonia Pira shells from the deposit below the
midden proper were radiocarbon dated (Sample RL-'2) to 370 -+-
110 years B.P. or about A.). I ".. This is by far the most recent
radiocarbon date for the Lesser Antilles and, if it approaches reality,
demonstrates the extension of the Suazey-Caliviny ceramic complex
into a post-1500 time period. It would seem to confirm the cor-
relation that the makers of this pottery were tile Island Caribs
found on these islands by Columbus.

Texaco Tank (Fig. 4, 29). Construction at this site near the eastern
side of Greathead Bay revealed Amerindian occupational debris.
The St. Vincent Archaeological and Historical Society's collection
from this location is given in Table 9. Not included is a sherd of
Pearls paste used as a pottery scraper.
As is frequently the case with niulticomponent sites on St.



Suazey series
1I ,2. I Indented
Modified Saladoid
Vase Mario
Arnos Vale Zoned
Arnos Vale Incised
Sl. Vincent Black Zoned
Hatt Concave Handled
Simon series
Simon White Painted
Simon Neck Decorated
Simon red-painted
Sinion incised and red painted
Simon miscellaneous incised
Simon Rim Adorned (hollow)
Simon Rim I '1. .1
Simon Wide Handled
Simon Pedestal Bowl
Simon Plain

Table 9

(3.3) Insular Saladoid
1 learls series
4 Pearls White lainted
11 Pearls red-painted lip
Pearls red-painted
79.0) Pearls incised and red-painted
4 Pearls Cross Iatched
19 Pearls Rim Lugged
3 Pearls Wide Handled
2 Pearls Ringed Bowl
I Pearls Plain
73.0) griddle h(Ibod sherlds
12 griddle rinm sher ds





Tolal 1(il
aOne has 3 pegs on top.
I\Vhite on red painting, holes in
basal ring.

Vincent, occupation started during a late phase of the Insular
Saladoid period but was much heavier during the Modified Sala-
doid times and reoccupation occurred during the period of Carib
ascendancy. Typological similarity inl ceramics with the Arnos Vale
Swamp site suggests partial contemporaneity. Perhaps some of the
inhabitants of the latter site moved to the Texaco Tank site when
floods and riverine deposition made the Arnos Vale Swamp site

Arnos Vale Swamp (Fig. 4, 30). At Arnos Vale the Greathead River
has produced a large, approximately level, field beside the bay of
the same name. Part of this field is the site of the present airport
while the present entrenched channel of the river is further to the
southeast. The field and the adjacent slightly higher land has been
occupied by Amerindians for a very long time. Presently five sites
are recognized as part of the Arnos Vale archaeological complex.
We will discuss here the "Swamp" site which is presumed to be the
oldest but it must he remembered that the Texaco Tank and
Coconut Oil Factory sites which border the field may be just as old.
Pictures of tile northwest bank of tile Greathead River will
be found in Plate XIII. Tihe site itself-that is the zone in which

1T* &'-4~

~41 -r~

Plate XIIl. Views of west bank of G;rcathcad River, Amnos Vale, St. Vincent.
Specimens clfro s 11 A V\ale Swamp site, dated A.D. 110, (aime from dark zone
at 1and1 jt laboe walerl. Ri\er flows, north to south. Iho ni lower light ito
upper left.


1* .

~ ~nE~
B. c


~ _"''- ~-~i;



pottery and other Amerindian artifacts are found-is tihe dark zone
at the base of the bank. This is clearly observable in thle upper
two pictures. The elevation of the surface of the river varies with
rainfall. At the time the picture was taken the base of tile artifact
bearing zone was only a little below the surface of the water. As is
evident from the pictures, it is buried by some 8 feet of layered
water deposited materials. Two or three volcanic and erosional
cycles may be represented by this overburden.
It is presumed the basal black zone represents a swamp deposit,
hence the name of the site. Pottery from this deposit is illustrated
in Plates XIV-XX and listed in Table 10. Many of tile sherds are
large and some, such as the Arnos Vale Zoned vessel found by
Ashley Kirby (P1. XV, c), are complete except for the bottom. It
is clear these materials were not "rolled" any great distance by the
river. Rather it suggests there was a large site nearby (and now
covered by the riverine deposits) from which broken vessels and
other specimens were discarded by tossing them into the nearby
swamp water. Over a period of time they were covered 1)y sand
brought down by the river (plus some sand blown inland from
the nearby beach) and sIubsetquently both the site and the dump
were covered by tle thick mantles sliownl in Plate XIII. Occasion-
ally a sherd is found in the lighter colored material immediately
above the black swampy zone. This is considered the result ol
slope wash from a faces of the parent site.
While we do not know how long it took for the overburden at
the Arnos Vale Swamp site to have accumulated, it seems a logical
assumption that the earliest deposits over the black cultural zone
forced the abandonment of this site. An idea of tile date is given
by radiocarbon analysis of a large lump of charcoal lound in situ
in the black cultural zone. The date (Sample RL-75) is 1540 -
110 years B.P. or about A.I). 410. We have no way of knowing
whether this date applies to the beginning, middle, or end of the
period of occupation at the Arnos Vale Swamp site, but this date
should apply approximately to most of the pottery listed on Table
An idea of the quantity of pottery found at the Arnos Vale
Swamp site may be secured from Table 10 but an appraisal of the
range of decoration and form present can only be made from an
examination of Plates XIV-XX. Our only explanation for the in-
clusion of Suazey and Caliviny pottery in the collection is that it


Table 10

Suazey series (0.4)
Finger Indented 2
Finger Indented, wide indents 1
Scratched 6
Footed Griddle I
Plain 7
Caliviny series (0.3)
red-painted 1
Rim Modilied. s.-t. 1 1
Plain 10
Modified Saladoid (82.8)
Barlados Incised Rim 3
St. Lucia Zoned Incised 14
Vase Mario 13
Arnos Vale Zoned 137
Arnos Vale Incised I
Queensblry Incised 7
St. Vincent Black Zoned 5t8
St. Vincent Black Filled 10
Hatt Concave Handled 9
Grande Anse Interior Incised 3
I.ouvelte Belted 6
compnartienltal vessel 1
Simon series (77.0)
Simon White Painted 343
Simon Neck Decorated 70
Simon Zlone l'ainted 244
Simon Black-and-Red Painted 1
Simon black-painted 6
Simon red-painted 872
Simon incised and red-painted 53
Simon miscellaneous incised 21
Simon Rim Adorned 71)
Simon Rim Lugged 45
Simon side lugged 9
Simon Flanged 13'

Sinion Pedestal Bowl 4
Simon red-painted leg,
Simon paste 1
Simon double (superimposed)
handle 1
Simon Wide Handled (no
top peg) 31
Sinon Wide Handled, peg-
topped 10
Simon Plain 1912

large pouring spout 1
suppt)ort ring 611ilh ligs
Support stand 4
Insular Saladoid
Pearls series (10.1)
Pearls White Painted 38
Pearls Polvchrone 4
Pearls black and red painted 1
I'earls Rim Adorned 7t
Pearls Rim Lugged 6
Pearls Side Lugged 1
Pearls red-painted lip 10
Pearls red-painted 153
Pearls incised and red-painted 57
'earls miscellaneous incised 6
'earls Incised Bowl 31
Pearls Cross Hatched 3
Pcalls Inner Rim Incised 1
Pearls Lip Incised 1
Pearls bottle neck 3
Pearls Plain 158
Griddle riims 123'
Griddle body sherds 190

Total 4733

Some also have black filled lies. ,hTwo are hollow backed. 'Two hase
black lip, yellow neck, and white sides. "A\ll hollow backed. 'One incised on
upper surface.

must have fallen down from higher zones where such pottery has
been found in other parts of the site. Not included in Table 10
is the humerus of a whale.
About the only significant omission from the list of \Modlil-J
Saladoid ceramics is that of the Troumass6e Decorated Cylinder.
Its presence at Chatham Bay, Union Island, with a radiocarbon
date of A.). 480 and its absence at the Arnos Vale Swamp site with



0 5 to 15

Ilate XIV. Bidch-onlc poltter from .iAos Vale Swanmp site.
(I. d-f. Sitnon White P'aintd siilubtype 3; 1), V'ase Malrio r, Amos Vale Zoned.

a radiocarbon date of A.). *11(0 anid ;t Bulccamellt VWest with a date
of A.D. 280, suggest this cylinder to be relatively late in the Modi-
fied Saladoid period. The specimen from Kingstown Post Office
site with a date of A.D. 160 might argue otherwise but the reader
should remember that the Kingstown Post Office specimen is listed


0 5 '0

9 .ykl

"- B ,,



1, Lite X V. Cerelliolloial p~ottery from A r\lnos \ Vale swallip site.
SpeIrml Iwhalle idflp Id C ;p s.i ose missinCg); r, Arlo Va le %o ld\ l lC 1
expanded d design from r .

. \

I) -V






i 4,pJ

0 5 10 15

ni\-B \^V^^^B^
< ij --' *

I V 111"1 1'1 \111~~1 1) 1

S I~ Il 11 I~ 1. 11l11 1.11\111 ( \ 111

-I----~hr*- -~1


0 5 10 15

I'Lit c XV~IL B lack pa intcd potty Iv ( -1 X I om\i os Vale Sw~ampj site..
(1-1, St. ViII(entl Itl:(k /otted: r, Arno's Va le Ititiseil; (1i 1. St. NI mii Zonied
licii iei: j-k. St. Vincent llla(k I ineil.


a b c d

e .,




o 5 10 15
I --- ,,

Plate XVIII. Painted and incised sherds from A.rnos Vale Swamp site.
a, Pearls white-on-red crosshatched (painted); b. Pearls (Croses Ilatclied (incised);
c, punittated face; dr, unique incised lug; e. sherd disc; f-g, i. I-m, incised and
while painted; h. excised and white painted; j-h. n-q, incised and red-painted;
r. .rnos Vale Incised.

in the locatedt" column. In this connection it is interesting to
note that Kirby (letter of Nov. 23, '1'"11. found a T'roiuliass'e
Decorated Cylinder at the Arnos Vale Field site (to be discussed




ecj& r

k Ih

1 1 p q

Plate XIX. Miscellaneous specimens from Arnos Vale Swampl site.
a-c., )-I Simon Rim Adorned; d(1 Arnos Vale Incised; c, side and Iba(k view ol
deer (?) bone; f. stone bead; g-o, Pearls Rim Adorned; v, modeled d incised foot.

below) situated at a depth substantially above the Arnos Vale
Swamp site but in the same flood plain.




1, ,


,"- I,

0 to1 15
c M.

Plate X\. Modeled~ )ottIcil fIoiii Arnos, Vale Sw~amp site.
a, IDiamaniii taidin~otk Shaiped; 1), hoiii h~andled;( c wide, pegIolpl)d, rim handle,
I a'ohile l'lajil but shows~' handle iltatlici to Nes'.el): j, Simno White Pa:intedl
Icsc Stand: k o (llt IC Side Spout Iedl

Th le Arno."t Valet Swaiittp (ceraait inviiXentory inldiralc cS I Ilipatioll
Stdl tilig (ItO itig 01 it tile end( of Insutlatr Sal1ado(id tiDlCeS Nith thec
dtlltinatiijtl p t of 1W t tll 1Xocuptioni occurring in tile Mlodifie Sall-


doid period around ;nd Ibefore A.D. 400. Most of the same pottery
types are found at the earlier Kingstown Post Office and Buccament
West sites indicating a fairly early development of the complex
we refer to as Modified Saladoid.
Arnos V'ale Field (Fig. 4, 31). During our 1970 stay in St. Vincent
bulldozer clearing and excavation operations were started in the
wide level area south of the air strip and west of the southernmost
part of tle Greathead River. Here ditches were dug for pipes and
drainage and a fair si/ed hole created, all preliminary to the con-
struction of a new playing field. The St. Vincent Archaeological
and Historical Society's collection from this area is given in Table
11. IThe most interesting specimen is a Ihuman torso (P1. XXII, b).
Non-ceramic artifacts include worked coral, flat grinding stones,
Sirohmbus gigas. cell blanks, and a large worked flake. The flake
is ol andesite, about 7.5 inches in length, and triangular in cross
section. A few chips have been removed along one edge while the
other has been pecked, .I,:_-liin a "backed blade." -lie chipped
edge shows extensive use wear. This tool is unique for St. Vincent
and hints at unknown (iboney or preceramic people.
In the extreme western part, immediately behind the present
sand dunes, scraping operations had piled up sand in which some
Modified Saladoid pottery was found. Also in this locality but
usually a little to one side were found thick, crude, Suazey Plain
pottery which had a slightly yellow surface color (PI. XXII, d-c).
Thlie main part of the Field site, however, was at a substantial
distance back from the dunes. Here some sherds were found on the
bulldozed surlace while in the ditches and other holes patches of
midden deposits and sometimes broken human bones were ob-
served. Examination of these bones in situ slowed them not to
represent articulated interments but rather scattered bones broken
before they arrived in the exact locations in which we found them.
Kirby continued to watch developments at the Arnos Vale
Field site alter we left. Hlls letter of Feb. 27, 1971 advised that
Simon series pottery concentrated in the slightly higher central
part of the field where it was in part disturbed by the bulldozer
while a mixture of Simon and Pearls series ceramics were found
at lower depths. The two zones were separated by 7 to 9 inches of
sterile soil. Tlle lower zone was much the richer and larger of the
two and included much midden debris-fish jaws, shell Iragments,
broken bones and a bead-and the human bones mentioned above.



Suazcy series
Finger Indented:
single row
double row
Footed Griddle
Caliviny series

Modified Saladoid
Barbados Incised Rilm
St. I.ncia Zoned Incised
Vase Mario
Arios Vale Zoned
Arnos Vale Incised
Queensbury Incised
SI. Vincent Black Zoned
(rande Anse Interior Incised
Halt Con('cae Handled
Simlonl series
Simon W\hite Painted
Simon Zone Painted
Simonl Neck Decorated
Simon red-painted

Table 11







Simon incised and red-painted 27
Simon miscellaneous incised 2
Simon Wide Handled 7'
Simon flange with edge notches I
Simion Plain 76i
Insular Saladoid
Pearls series (21.4)
Pearls While Painted 13
I'earls red-painted 37
I'ealls incised and led-painted 10
Pearls Inner Rim Incised 9
'ea rls iip Incised I
'ear Is miscellaneous incised 2
I'earls Ritm Lugged 10
P'ea ils Side tlugged 2
'Pearls Wide Hlandled 3'i
Pearls tablillar handle with
I'earls Ringed Bowl 3
Pearls pouring spoll I
P'a Ils Plain 10
griddle rims 22
griddle body sherds 21
Tol als 421

aFron foot of sand done at extreme western edge of field, not included in
i ...i ,I 1. IOne has button type rim lugs. 'i i.... .i I.. ., one peg-topped.

These deposits were present in tile sides of the drain a consider-
able distance towards the bay and produced hundreds of sherds
in addition to those listed in Table 11.
Probably the most important items in this later collection are
the parts of the Troumass6e Decorated Cylinder illustrated in
Figure 7. It was in the higher Simon /one, 9 inches above the
lower level. As mentioned above, the presence of this cylinder in
the higher /one and its absence in the lower /one oi in the ex-
tensive collection from the Arnos Vale Swamp part of this area
argues in favor ot this pottery type being a relatively late develop-
ment in the Modified Saladoid conlltilllnuui.
A comparison of the ceramic inventories from the Arnos Vale
Swamp and Arnos Vale Field sites suggests a close cultural identity
during the Saladoid ceramic continuum. Indeed, it may I)e sug-
gested that the material from the lower lone at the Field site is
contemplorareous with that front the Swamp site. It may be that


r 'v --- -=

5 in.

I 9 in. I
Figure 7. Outline of red-paintcd (purplish red) Trounmassece Decorated C lindcr
from iArnos Vale Field site, St. Vincent.

the lower level at the Field site was an island or point of land
beside a swamp or marsh area and that the specimens discarded
by throwing into the swamp were from this higher land to the
west of what has been designated the swamp area. Excavations be-
tween the two areas would presumedly clarify this (question. In
the meanwhile the main Arnos Vale site appears to be very large,
certainly one of the largest known lor the Lesser Antilles.

Coconut Oil Factory (Fig. 4, 32). This site, beside a small flowing
stream, is located on slightly higher land at the northern edge of
the airfield at Arnos Vale. It may represent a i l i6" of the main
Amnos Vale Swamp site or a place of refuge from there in times
of flood.
The St. Vincent Archaeological and Historical Society's collec-
tion, listed in Table 12, is consistent with either theory except for
the small amount of late pottery which indicates a minor occupa-
tion during the Suazey-Caliviny period. Not included in Table 12
are a fragment of a mano, a pecking hammer, and 1 sherds used
as pottery scrapers. Important sherds are illustrated in Plate XXI.

Police Workshop (Fig. 4, 33). In April of 1971, a 4-6 foot deep
ditch was dug between the Police Workshop and the western side
of the Arnos Vale airport runway. It revealed a buried swamp-like
deposit at the upper or inland end similar to that at the Arnos
Vale Swamp site. Similarly also, this swamp-like deposit contained
large Simon series sherds and a vessel complete, except for the
bottom, which closely resembles the one illustrated in Plate XV.

Kingstown Post Office (Fig. 4, 34). The city of Kingstown occupies


IaIale 12

Suazey series
with notched appliqued strip
Modlified Saladoid
Vase Mario
Arnos Vale Zoned
Arnos Vale Incised
St. Vincent Black Zoned
St. 1.ucia Zoned Incised
Queensbury Incised
Bariados Incised Rim
Hatt ( oncave Handled
Simon series
Simon White Painted
Simon Zone Painted
Simon Neck Decorated




Simon Black-and-White Painted 3
Simon red-painted 642
Simon incised and red-painted 28
Simon miscellaneous incised 18
Simon Rim Lugged 5
Simon Pedestal Bowl 1
Simon unique flat handle a1d
Simon Plain 781
Simon Wide Handled 111b

large spoiut
support ring
Insular Saladoid
Pearls series
Pearls White Painted
Pearls red-painted
Pearls incised and red-painted
Pearls Cross Hatched
'earls Inner Rim Incised
Pearls miscellaneous incised
Pearls Rim Adorned
Pearls Rim Lugged
'earls Side Lugged
Pearls Wide Handled
Pearls Plain

Griddle rim sherds
Griddle body sherds

)One has rim lugs. bTwo have two lugs and burnished black paint. 'Is red-
painted and has a broad-line incised face. dOne has rimi lugs.

a narrow strip ol land about two blocks wide beside the large bay
in southwest St. Vincent. Immediately to the north and east the
land rises steeply to the adjacent hills. In 1968-69 construction be-
hind the post office uncovered rich Amerindian deposits several
leet below the surface. Actual depths depended on how far the
workers had cut into the bank.
Kirby investigated this site and found in the wall two distinct
cultural deposits separated by a zone of sterile volcanic tuff nearly
18 inches thick. The whole complex occupied a vertical face be-
tween depths of approximately 2 and 4 feet. He collected sherds
under four designations: 1, upper zone; 2, lower zone; 3, material
from one side which lie thought came from the lower zone; and 4,
unlocated material found before the two levels were identified, or
given him by workers.
This collection has been classified and presented as Table 13






ae.i~ ~96k

n 0
Pr d


9 1# 0 'p

I'Iate \XI. Potteiv from (ownut Oil a( rorv site.
a-b1. iIJI(fIic d(l(I.Iatte fhla lhani(cs; c z, k, Peaills Innet Rini licisedl; j, 11Itficju
L inedi: /1. wide ilcmCIiset i11i-otgli white paint; q, Liax0IIIIc S11ippmn Rinig; ?-, '.
Siuon Rim Womc dn ii;. /, Siitmon Rimt Lutggedl: 14-z, Hatt Cof(icaI C IJandled;.x;
ei' Is Si de S Lt ic gged ; z. shierd s(rIapcr.

using Kirbv's c ollecting~ units. Key speiiniens will be found( in
Plautes XXIJ-XXI\V. Not included ]in Table Vi arue three Stiazey



Table 13.

I apology

Ipper lower Probably Unlo-
/one zone lower catcd


Modified Saladoid (81.I5)
Soufriire Incised
S(. Lucia t i '... Incised
St. I.ucia /..... I Incised
Barbados Incised Rim
Vase Mario (Pl. XXI, o-p))
\rnos Vale Incised (Pl. XXII, t)
TIronumassce Decorated Cylinder (I'l. XXIII, 1))
Grande Anse Interior Incised (Pl. XXII,a-e)
unique ..i I. ,0 .I- incised" (Pl. XXII, f)
unique incised tabular handle (Il.
XXII, h) 1
griddle sherds 23

Simon White Painted (I'l. XXIII, j-k)
Simon Z/one Painted
Simon Neck Decorated (Pl. XXII, v)
Simon cld-painted
Simon itnised and red-painted
Simon black-painted
Simon paste, while-filled incision
Simon Flanged
Simon Adorned
SiImon Rim Lugged
Simon Side Lugged
Simon Wide Handled ('1l. XXII,x-y)
Simon R ;..1 Bowl
Simon incised stand
Simon Plain

Insular Saladoid (
Pearls (ross Hatched
(I'. XXIII, m, o, iw)
Pearls Iolychrome
Pearls White Painted (P1. XXI, q-r)
Pearls red-painted
Pearls incised and red-painted
Pearls Inner Rim Incised (PI.
XXIII, 'earls Lip Incised
Pearls Rim .ugged (Pl. XXII, g, iw)
Pearls Rim Adorned
Pearls Side I ,L'.I ,
l'earls Wide Handled
Pearls Ringed Bowls (Pl. XXIII, aa)
Pearls side spouted
Pearls Plain


(i0.0) (71.5) (6fi.9)


S 10 31il

4 27-

1 (ia
1 21

18 (6i
II 9


2 2 8 9
1 3
2 1 2 3
2 2 1
2 1 2 201-
63 12 -17 -71

0.8) (31.6) (12.8) (25.1)

1 1 4
1 8 75,
10 16 15 345f
7 4 26



12 1 14 15

314 95 234





aOne has vertical zigzag incision similar to PI. XXIII, q. lOne is in-
cised, one peg-topped. C'One is decorated. dOne has a Pearls type rim lug.
,,One has vertical zigzag incision. fOne with paint limited to lip. sPeg-topped.



0 1.0
---i- -- 'aBb:;;jq "

I'lat XXII. I'Pottcr' hromi Arnos Vale Field and Kingstown Post Office.
a, Sal[ibus lnuiscd; b). f cmale ltoso; (. flanged rini with ('tt lip; d, Sia tcy l'lain;
and e, Calivinv IPolyhromie. all roin Arnos Vale Field; f, Suazey Finger In-
dented; g. SNuate Rim Modified; hi. unique. incised psceudo-side-lugged; i, Sinon
Rim Luggcd; j-h, Pearls Side I 1i',l'- -1,1 wide incision through red or white
paint; o-p. Vase Mario; q-r, 1', ... \ .. Painted; s, v, Pearls Inner Rim Incised;
1, 'Froiumass(ec l))eiated (:liinder (?); w, Pearls Cross Hatched; and .,. unique
engiraedI, all t rom Kingstown Post Office.



' laKLl
1 ^"^^^^


, ..

4ti; -~

r 1t

NK~ ,L

<'*^.8 ?
^ F-

I'late XXIll. Shelicds fhom Kingstown Post Office site, St. Vincent.
a-c'. (; Minde A\nise Interior Intised; f, unique. negative incised; g. u'. Pl'e:ils Rim
l.ugged; h-j, 1. incised and red or white painted; k-m. wide ini'sed through
white paint: 0o- u, V. ase Mario; 1. .\inos Vale Zoncd: i', ill(qu1i.', l ii hlnd!c:
nia. Simon Plain: bb. leal imprint on g riddle bases.

-' gg

4 --


* -.





.. ... **
i:W.' T
,i ..^ *V *
f ^*

' t. '



a b

9 qJ
Sjiil-ifr --


AP -

T^. -Di

A. ''

i -' tVk

0 5 10 15


Plate XXIV. Pottery from Kingstown Post Office site.
a-e. g. Vase M\llio; J. h-i, I'ealls White Painted; j-k, Simon \While Painted; I, y.
1'earls RinI lagged; in. w-x. Pearls (loss Hatched; n, q-r. P'earls Inner
Rim Incised ; /p. Ilroumassde )Decoated Clinder (?); s. I'Pearls Rim Adorned;
1. I. a~outte Wide llHndled; I incised and red painted: v'. unique applicquil
handle; aa. I'earls Ringetd Bowl; bb, disl with thick liin. Simon paste, a-v. from
upper; w-bb, from lower vone.

A' t