<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Dedication
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 I. Outward Bound
 II. On Shipboard
 III. Strolls in St. Thomas
 IV. A Night of Romance in...
 V. Santa Cruz, An Island of...
 VI. A Field-Day in St. Kitt's
 VII. Ensemble
 VIII. Antigua - An Outing in the...
 IX. Martinique, A French Miniature...
 X. St. Lucia, A Former Gibraltar...
 XI. Barbadoes, An English Colony...
 XII. A Glimpse of Grenada
 XIII. Trinidad - First Glimpse...
 XIV. Trinidad - Wanderings About...
 XV. Trinidad, A Miniature...
 XVI. Curacao, The Holland of the...
 XVII. La Guayra - First Scenes...
 XVIII. Macuto, The Newport...
 XIX. Caracas, A Capital in the...
 XX. Caracas - Reflections on the...
 XXI. Railroading in Venezuela
 XXII. Valencia and Puerto Cabello...
 XXIII. Lake Maracaibo to the Orinoco...
 XXIV. The Disputed Territory
 XXV. Dreams of the Future
 Back Matter
 Back Cover


DLOC UCF UFLAC



With the trade-winds; a jaunt in Venezuela and the West Indies
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/CA01200006/00001
 Material Information
Title: With the trade-winds; a jaunt in Venezuela and the West Indies
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Morris, Ira Nelson
The William L. Bryant Foundation - West Indies Collection ( Contributor )
Publisher: New York, G. P. Putnam
Publication Date: 1897
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Caribbean
Spatial Coverage: Caribbean
 Notes
Funding: Digitized with funding from the Digital Library of the Caribbean grant awarded by TICFIA.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Central Florida Libraries ( SOBEK page | external link )
Holding Location: University of Central Florida ( SOBEK page | external link )
Rights Management: All rights to images are held by the respective holding institution. This image is posted publicly for non-profit educational uses, excluding printed publication. For permission to reproduce images and/or for copyright information contact Special Collections & University Archives, University of Central Florida Libraries, Orlando, FL 32816 phone (407) 823-2576, email: speccoll@mail.ucf.edu
Resource Identifier: lc - F2313.M87
System ID: CA01200006:00001

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
        Front Matter 5
        Front Matter 6
        Front Matter 7
        Front Matter 8
        Front Matter 9
        Front Matter 10
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Dedication
        Dedication 1
        Dedication 2
    Preface
        Preface 1
        Preface 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Table of Contents 3
        Table of Contents 4
        Table of Contents 5
        Table of Contents 6
    I. Outward Bound
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    II. On Shipboard
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 8A
    III. Strolls in St. Thomas
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    IV. A Night of Romance in the Indies
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    V. Santa Cruz, An Island of Plantations
        Page 20
        Page 20A
        Page 20B
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    VI. A Field-Day in St. Kitt's
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30A
        Page 30B
        Page 31
        Page 32
    VII. Ensemble
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    VIII. Antigua - An Outing in the Mountains
        Page 36
        Page 36A
        Page 36B
        Page 37
        Page 38
    IX. Martinique, A French Miniature in the Tropics
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 42A
        Page 42B
        Page 43
        Page 44
    X. St. Lucia, A Former Gibraltar of the West Indies
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 50A
        Page 50B
        Page 51
    XI. Barbadoes, An English Colony up to Date
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 54A
        Page 54B
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    XII. A Glimpse of Grenada
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    XIII. Trinidad - First Glimpses
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 64A
        Page 64B
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    XIV. Trinidad - Wanderings About Port Au Spain
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 72A
        Page 72B
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    XV. Trinidad, A Miniature of Hindustan
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 82A
        Page 82B
        Page 83
        Page 84
    XVI. Curacao, The Holland of the Southern Seas
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 86A
        Page 86B
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    XVII. La Guayra - First Scenes in Venezuela
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    XVIII. Macuto, The Newport of Venezuela
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    XIX. Caracas, A Capital in the Venezuelan Andes
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 106A
        Page 106B
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 112A
        Page 112B
    XX. Caracas - Reflections on the Past and Present
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    XXI. Railroading in Venezuela
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 124A
        Page 124B
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    XXII. Valencia and Puerto Cabello - from the Mountains to the Sea
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    XXIII. Lake Maracaibo to the Orinoco - Along the Spanish Main
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 146A
        Page 146B
        Page 147
    XXIV. The Disputed Territory
        Page 148
        Page 148A
        Page 148B
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    XXV. Dreams of the Future
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    Back Matter
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    Back Cover
        Page 164
Full Text





The
William L. Bryant
Foundation
Torcidfa


West Indies' 5
South
America
West Indies
Collection I











t





































































AUTHOR IN INTERIOR TRAVELLING COSTUME,
VENEZUELA.
Frontispiece.


I~Lgl!












With the Trade-Winds


A Jaunt In Venezuela and
the West Indies



By
IRP NELSON MORRIS




"The benefit of travel comes not from the distance
traversed, nor from the scenes reflected on the retina,
but from the intellectual stimulus thus awakened,
and the amount of thought and reading which re-
sults therefrom. ... Expansion, growth, broader
experience and wider charity, these are the fruits of
that real travel which is of the mind."
J. L. STODDARD




G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
New York and London
I 97


L ,.'R
7 '. .

WE I






























COPYRIGHT, 1896
BY
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
Entered at Stationers' Hall, London

















Zbe ftnfickrbochke prees, 1cw o.rk

























DEDICATED
TO MY BELOVED FAMILY
AND TO MY FRIEND AND TRAVELLING
COMPANION
THE MARQUIS OF MONTELO


















PREFATORY


T HE desire to impart to my readers
some elementary knowledge of a
South American region of which but
little has ever been written in the Eng-
lish tongue, has led to this small volume.
It gives a desultory account of what I
saw and heard, together with personal
experiences during a recent winter tour
among the West India Islands and in
Venezuela.
I wish to express my grateful thanks
to my kind friend, the Marquis Mon-
telo, whose companionship contributed
so much to fill the tour with profitable
knowledge as well as with interest and
pleasure.
IRA NELSON MORRIS.
CHICAGO, 1896.




















CONTENTS

PAGE
I.-OUTWARD BOUND I
II.-ON SHIPBOARD 5
III.-STROLLS IN ST. THOMAS 9
IV.-A NIGHT OF ROMANCE IN THE
INDIES I5
V.-SANTA CRUZ, AN ISLAND OF
PLANTATIONS 20
VI.-A FIELD-DAY IN ST. KITT'S .26
VII.-ENSEMBLE 33
VIII.-ANTIGUA-AN OUTING IN THE
MOUNTAINS 36
IX.-MARTINIQUE, A FRENCH MIN-
IATURE IN THE TROPICS. 39
X.-ST. LUCIA, A FORMER GIBRAL-
TAR OF THE WEST INDIES 45
XI.-BARBADOES, AN ENGLISH COL-
ONY UP TO DATE 52
XII.-A GLIMPSE OF GRENADA .
vii









Viii CONTENTS
PAGE
XIII.-TRINIDAD-FIRST GLIMPSES 65
XIV.-TRINIDAD-WANDERINGS ABOUT
PORT AU SPAIN 71
XV.-TRINIDAD, A MINIATURE OF
HINDUSTAN .78
XVI.-CURAAO, THE HOLLAND OF
THE SOUTHERN SEAS 85
XVII.-LA GUAYRA-FIRST SCENES IN
VENEZUELA 90
XVIII.-MACUTO, THE NEWPORT OF
VENEZUELA 97
XIX.-CARACAS, A CAPITAL IN THE
VENEZUELAN ANDES 103
XX.-CARACAS-REFLECTIONS ON THE
PAST AND PRESENT 3
XXI.-RAILROADING IN VENEZUELA 123
XXII.-VALENCIA AND PUERTO CABELLO
-FROM THE MOUNTAINS TO
THE SEA 13
XXIII.-LAKE MARACAIBO TO THE ORI-
NOCO-ALONG THE SPANISH
MAIN 140
XXIV.-THE DISPUTED TERRITORY 148
XXV.-DREAMS OF THE FUTURE 154

















ILLUSTRATIONS


AUTHOR IN INTERIOR TRAVELLING COS-
TUME, VENEZUELA Frontisiee
TO FACE
PAGE
CHARLOTTE AMALIA, CAPITAL OF ST.
THOMAS. 8

A PLANTATION HOUSE, SANTA CRUZ 20

CAVALRY IN ST. KITT'S 30
IN THE MARKET-PLACE, ST. JOHN'S,
ANTIGUA 36

A FRENCH CREOLE, MARTINIQUE. 42

A BELLE OF ST. LUCIA 50

TRAFALGAR SQUARE, BARBADOES 54

PUBLIC SQUARE, PORT AU SPAIN, TRINI-
DAD. .... 66

COOLIE BARBERS, TRINIDAD 72

HINDU RELIGIOUS CEREMONY, TRINIDAD 82

ix










X ILLUSTRATIONS TO FACE
PAGE
A TROPICAL ISLAND SCENE 86

CARACAS, VENEZUELA-GENERAL VIEW. 106

PRESIDENT CRESPO, OF VENEZUELA 112

RAILROADING IN VENEZUELA 124

CARIB INDIANS, ORINOCO DISTRICT, VEN-
EZUELA 144

A TROPICAL FOREST, VENEZUELA. 146

AMONG THE BAMBOOS, VENEZUELA 148





















WITH THE TRADE-WINDS

















I.

OUTWARD BOUND

ON a very cold day in December I
stood on the deck of the steamer
Madiana as she slowly pushed her way
through the ice toward the Narrows
below New York.
After leaving the luxurious Waldorf
to face the biting cold winds and ac-
commodate one's self to the surround-
ings which the steamer affords, I must
say I did not wonder at my friends
asking how I could choose to take such
an out-of-the-way sort of trip. Not
that the Madiana is an uncomfortable
boat, for that would be doing it an in-
justice, but I anticipated a second Ma-
jestic or Teutonic, and in this I was
disappointed.









2 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

At half-past five the familiar gong
one hears on shipboard announced din-
ner. My place was at the right of our
good captain, Mr. Fraser. Next to me
sat Mr. Maynard, of New York, while
opposite sat Count Bismarck, of Ger-
many, one of the younger generation
of that celebrated name. It was not
long before the captain and the gentle-
man whom hereafter I shall call our
friend Maynard began a conversation
which at once showed how well both
were acquainted with the places we
were leaving home comforts to visit,
and how much profit might be derived
from their companionship.
Our captain, a short, stout fellow, was
the typical sea-dog. His appearance
would answer to the description of the
hero in almost any sea-faring romance.
It was now Friday, and he informed
us it would be Tuesday evening of the
next week before we should reach St.
Thomas, our first stopping-place, and









OUTWARD BOUND


only one island of twelve that we were
going to visit on our way to Venezuela,
before the boat would again turn toward
the cold north.
At first some of the ladies looked a
little "home-sick," but as time ad-
vanced the salon assumed a cheerful
aspect, and we began to notice our
companions for the next few weeks.
Acquaintance is soon made at sea; and
by the fourth day out, partly through
good jokes, but mainly through our
amiable captain, everybody knew every-
body, and the best of fellowship pre-
vailed. About the third day people
began discarding their winter garments,
and on the fourth I strolled about in
tennis flannels and a straw hat.
One evening after dinner, as I walked
the deck in a dreamy mood, thinking of
the far-away countries I was about to
visit, I observed a charming girl of about
twenty seated comfortably on a steamer
lounge; this fair maiden, with the









4 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

moon's soft rays about her, added new
lustre to the surroundings. The smoke
from my pipe circled in graceful wreaths,
drawing me into a state of reminis-
cence, and soon my thoughts wan-
dered into strange lands, carrying with
them fanciful pictures of what a south-
ward trip might be in the company of
one so gracious, who should share my
travels and my experiences. Such were
my first dreams in the tropics ; and a
few nights later I was happy to find
them not evanescent, like the smoke
from my pipe, and blown away forever,
but reappearing in all their beauty in
actual life.

















ON SHIPBOARD


THE Tropics breed romance. Some-
thing in the air seems to stimulate
one to adventure and awaken that spirit
of sentiment which burns dimly in all
of us.
Imagine coasting the luxuriant islands
of the Indies with a mellow moon to
cast the shadows of another world
across your mind and to awaken the
fondest dreams of youth into reality
It was on such a night as this that we
sat on the aft deck telling stories of ad-
venture. All were listening to a bit of
the early life and struggles of the Indies,
which the captain related somewhat as
follows :









6 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

From the time when Columbus first
landed on Salvador, and the wealth and
beauty of the islands were reported
abroad, it was not very long before
other adventurous Europeans discovered
many other islands in the neighborhood,
equally beautiful and even larger than
that which Columbus found. Some of
the expeditions sent over from Europe
were for military glory and the gain of
new territory; some were parties ar-
rayed by rich and venturesome nobles
in England, France, and other countries.
It was by means of these expeditions
that the great groups of islands known
to us as the Indies fell into the hands
of European nations.
Not to say," continued the captain,
" that you are to understand each expe-
dition coming over had only to plant a
flag and the island was theirs; no, in-
deed They first had to fight and
conquer the native Indians or Caribs.
Then they were constantly fighting








ON SHIPBOARD


among themselves as to who first dis-
covered the place and whether it should
belong to France, Spain, England, or
some other country that was sending
out expeditions at the time.
It was no easy matter to take away
the islands from the Indians. The
Caribs were a powerful people, supposed
to have crossed over from South Amer-
ica. The conquest of a people like this
on their own territory and knowing
every inch of the ground was no easy
task.
"Many are the cruel stories told of
fights and hardships endured by these
gentlemen, who left their native homes
in search of gold and glory.
"Well, as now I hear the coxswain
strike four bells, I must go and prepare
for an early rise, for by to-morrow even-
ing if all is smooth sailing, I mean to
drop anchor in St. Thomas, our first
stopping-place."
I did not care to follow the example








8 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

of the rest of the party by saying
good-night, but arm in arm with my
fair companion, whom I met in a
very romantic way,-as my dream itself
had indicated-we strolled the deck
until the night-watch was relieved, for
it was one of those beautiful nights on
the sea when the faint silvery bell struck
by the sailor on the bridge expresses
no idea as regards time. Surrounded
by such scenes and amid such circum-
stances time is measured only by one's
impulses and emotions.





























CHARLOTTE AMALIA, CAPITAL OF ST. THOMAS.


~---`u~rec~s- -.'~L~l ~ ~P1L ~-~
r .h; y r
t-Y 5
O ""
~L~LL~I~
















STROLLS IN ST. THOMAS

T was growing dark. One by one
the silver stars peeped out of the
blue firmament, and the great moon
silently cast her silver rays upon the
dark waters. In the quiet and peace of
this summer night there stretched be-
fore us the beautiful harbor of the small
Danish island of St. Thomas.
Off in the background, reaching half
way up the mountain side, like mill-
ions of fireflies, rested the capital and
only city, Charlotte Amalia.
On entering the bay we noticed a
German man-of-war at anchor, quietly
riding the waves. A little farther on
we saw two French cruisers and a Span-









10 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

ish gunboat. These men-of-war, repre-
senting the great nations of the world,
seemed to add importance to the island,
and we were told that prior to the last
twenty years, before Barbadoes rose into
such popularity, this small island of
Denmark's was the chief coaling station
and outfitting place for those boats of
the world which found themselves in
need in Southern waters.
A few more turns of the screw and
we were anchored about a mile away
from a sort of pier running into the
water. Leaning over the rail of the
Madiana I beheld a scene of commotion
and excitement. About a hundred small
rough boats manned by strong negroes
of the island were crowding around the
hull of our great boat, looking as though
any moment they might be crushed like
egg-shells. This being a regular occur-
rence at each port we visited, and as it
was a striking feature of the trip, I
shall describe our experience with these
fellows.









STROLLS IN ST. THOMAS


These negroes are wonderfully well
built; it is a pity that they so shun
work. Labor, except what is an abso-
lute necessity, is, in their eyes, useless
and degrading. Many of them gain
their only living by owning a clumsy
boat similar to the many which I have
described around our steamer. With
these they carry passengers to and from
the shore when a steamer is in harbor,
and during the many other days they
are engaged in unloading and carrying
freight from sailing vessels and other
freight boats. Their cries and shouts
to passengers on the steamer, persuad-
ing the latter to take boat to shore, are
much worse than any with which I have
ever been besieged by the army of cab-
men at the Grand Central Station in
New York. The sight of these fellows
fighting and pushing one another about
in their boats, made one think what a
fine foot-ball team they would make to
oppose our Yale eleven.
Col. Maynard and I did not take din-









12 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

ner aboard ship, preferring a stroll on
land, and a visit to one of the hotels,
situated on high cliffs overlooking the
sea. On arriving ashore we seemed to
amuse the negroes in a high degree.
These simple-minded people are indeed
very easily amused, but let me remark
that there is this difference between the
negro of the West Indies and his brother
of the States : the former has learned
that his position is not like that of the
educated white man, therefore he does
not presume to place himself on the
same footing.
It is needless to say how much we
enjoyed our first dinner in the Indies.
Not alone was the food delicious, but
it was a rare pleasure to sit on an open
verandah overlooking the sea, while be-
hind us rose the great volcanic moun-
tains.
After dinner we did the town. One
can usually gain an adequate idea of a
town in one of these islands by walking










STROLLS IN ST. THOMAS


down the main business street and ob-
serving the people, the shops, and the
houses. The negroes are always jolly
and laughing : this is the only side of
life they know : if they have sufficient
food for mere existence they are satis-
fied. In these hot climates clothing is
dispensable.
The houses and shops are for the
most part built in one story, and are
constructed chiefly of a soft native
stone. The poorest houses are framed
by poles and then covered over with
palm leaves stuck together with mud,
which quickly hardens in this hot cli-
mate.
The few foreign residents, who form
the representative and best element in
all the Islands, have their homes on the
outskirts of the town, or back among
the hills, where they enjoy the breeze
of the trade-winds and a cleanliness not
to be found in the towns themselves.
In the general market-place loud-








14 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

voiced negroes, both men and women,
offered their vegetables and wares for
sale. The fruits which grow so luxuri-
antly on the Islands are most tempt-
ing, even though handled by the dusky
maid of Africa.
Some of the large stores and ware-
houses in the town are kept by foreign-
ers who, anxious for the advantage of
trade, endure the hot climate of the
island. In the shops one can find most
articles of manufacture from both the
United States and Europe.
We spent two days in St. Thomas,
driving about the island, and seeing
many queer things.
Just as the twilight fell we were again
rowed to the Madiana. All was quiet
save for the plaintive voices of the ne-
groes singing on the shore, which the
wind wafted to us across the water.
With the melody echoing in the dis-
tance we drifted out to the open sea on
our way to Santa Cruz.


















A NIGHT OF ROMANCE IN THE INDIES

" AVE you a guitar ?" whispered my
Fair companion as we mounted
the steps from the salon.
Our boat was dreamily skirting the
shore of the beautiful island of Tortola.
The silver rays of the moon reflected
on the waters below a miniature of
mountains clothed in rich tropical ver-
dure.
There was nothing to mar the quiet
of the scene. The rippling waves played
a soft accompaniment to the sweet voice
of my friend.. We were lazily reclining
on some rugs in the stern of the boat.
Lulled by the sweet voice of my com-
panion, and the faint murmuring of the
guitar, I felt that I must invent a story
15









I6 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

for the occasion-one full of romance
and adventure.
I related how during the last century,
while England and Spain were engaged
in bitter war, a sweet and noble girl of
Devonshire was kidnapped by some
Spanish brigands after a severe fight in
the village. She was taken aboard ship
with other captives to be borne to the
West Indies to serve as slaves or be
treated as heretics in some miserable
monastery. Among those engaged in
the affray and left seriously wounded
was the lover of this girl,-a hand-
some, manly fellow, about twenty-eight
years old. Though thinking himself
about to die, the hero made an oath
that if he should by any possibility sur-
vive, he would avenge himself on those
who had wrecked his happiness, and
spend the rest of his days in seeking her
who was dearest on earth to him, thus
proving that honor is the foundation of
an Englishman's code.








A ROMANTIC EVENING


Perched on the high cliffs whose rocks
are washed by the blue sea, rests the
Spanish monastery of Santa Juanita.
The silver bell pealed forth the hour of
midnight. Before the altar in prayer
knelt a woman whose thoughts were
bent on her home in Devonshire, far
across the sea.
Half a league from the island, quietly
riding the waves, rocked the ship of some
English buccaneers on whose deck, if
the moon were bright enough, could be
observed armed men preparing for a
land attack. Impatiently pacing the
deck, clad in a military cloak, with
sabre and pistols, was a young officer-
no other, indeed, than the hero of the
brigand fight in the small seaport town
of Devonshire.
The boat carried no lights: all was
quiet as death. The plan of action
which the party adopted was to gain
the shore, quickly surprise the Spanish
guards, take the town and capture the
3









r8 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

monastery, reported to contain fabulous
wealth, and-above all-some English
souls.
But things did not turn out so fortu-
nately. The Spanish soldiers, hidden
by thick underbrush on shore, quietly
awaited their victims, and the handful
of brave English fellows were soon
overpowered. Many were killed, and
in the quiet and peace of the night
the Spaniards dragged the wounded to
the cloister to be cared for by the
Sisters.
The woman who knelt at prayer earlier
in the evening was now stooping over a
dying man. The faint rays of a quaint
lamp burning before a shrine cast a dim
shadow on the stony floor. The melan-
choly tones of the old bell came like
rays of hope to the ears of an English
soldier dying for the love and honor of
his sweetheart.
Having brought my story to a close, I
awoke from my dreams. My friend was









A ROMANTIC EVENING 19

playing a soft plaintive air: from off in
the distance, like a far-away echo, came
the deep voice of the sailor on lookout,
" Twelve o'clock, and all's well."

















SANTA CRUZ, AN ISLAND OF
PLANTATIONS

SREACHED deck the next morning
just as the sun poised itself over
the distant hills. Santa Cruz, like St.
Thomas, belongs to Denmark. It is not,
however, so mountainous, and the peo-
ple find more opportunity here for agri-
culture than on the other island. The
town itself is small, and much the same
in general character as Charlotte Amalia.
I had accepted an invitation from Mr.
Maynard to visit a large sugar planta-
tion in which he is interested. After a
light breakfast, we were rowed ashore to
the company's office. There we met
Col. Blackwood, who is interested in the

















A PLANTATION HOUSE, SANTA CRUZ.


I
B ,i












AN ISLAND OF PLANTATIONS 21

estates on the island. We were soon
being driven by a swift team of West
Indian ponies over smooth hard roads
toward the plantation. The country
through which we passed was well-
cultivated.
After travelling some hours between
rows of stately palms and through a
rich country, we noticed in the distance
a mansion of the old colonial days built
imposingly on a great hill. Towards
this we made our way. Here was the
headquarters of the estate.
In better days when West Indian
sugar was a more profitable article and
before the sugar bounty on the conti-
nent was known, there existed many
other rich plantations similar to this,
both here and on the other islands. But
in recent times affairs are in a sad state
in all the Indies. This is due primarily
to the decrease in value of sugar, which
is the article of most importance in the
islands. Since the fall of the sugar in-








22 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

dustry, the people find it hard to obtain
a means of subsistence. Small wonder
that most of the old European families
of high birth have within the last century
drifted away from this region, and that
now there remain only the fast decaying
estates, with their mansions, to testify
of once glorious times. It is a touch-
ing sight.
We lunched at the estate, where I met
Mrs. Blackwood and her niece, both
from Boston. It is charming to experi-
ence the true hospitality which the peo-
ple of these lands always seem so happy
to extend to strangers on their shore.
Charles Kingsley spoke the truth when
he said that the West Indian hospitality
and politeness are traits which the peo-
ple of the continent might well imitate.
The luncheon itself was a typical one.
It consisted of fruit of all kinds, in-
cluding mangoes, plantains, bread-fruit,
guavas, and other varieties which I had
not seen since my journey a few years








AN ISLAND OF PLANTATIONS 23

before through Mexico, and also of
several delicious Indian foods of a light
and dainty character.
After luncheon we visited the sugar
factory. This great article of com-
merce appears to a stranger to be made
in a very simple and easy manner, while
only by one who understands the trade
and the principles of sugar, can the
truly intricate and difficult character of
the process be realized.
In a few words, the sugar-cane is
brought in great carts to the factory,
where it is crushed between gigantic
rollers. The juice thus obtained runs
into great vats, where it stands for clar-
ifying. It is then treated with steam to
a degree of ripeness, and afterwards
allowed slowly to crystallize. These
crystals form the brown sugar, which is
sent in great cakes to the market, usually
the United States, for refining. That
which does not crystallize becomes what
we know as crude molasses, and is









24 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

again put through the same process as
the juice from the sugar; that which
still remains passes into stills for the
manufacture of rum.
Of rum, also a very important article
of trade in the Indies, it is needless to
say that in former times, when this
liquor was more popular, the West
Indian was known to be the best.
After a very interesting hour spent at
the factory we returned to the house,
where we spent the rest of the day on
the cool verandas. After dinner, which
our excellent hostess presided over in a
charming manner, we strolled about the
parks under the great trees. But it was
now growing late, and as the moon had
already risen some hours, we were
obliged to bid our kind friends fare-
well.
There is a peculiar pathos in the part-
ing from such brief acquaintances who
have been very kind to us and whom
perhaps we shall never see again. That









AN ISLAND OF PLANTATIONS 25

night, as we drove back to the coast,
threading our way through great forests,
the moon throwing dark shadows across
our path, I was unusually sensitive to
emotion.
















A FIELD-DAY IN ST. KITT'S

THE next morning I was awakened
from my slumbers by the roar of
a cannon, followed by other reports
whose echoes were driven back by the
great mountains rising from the water's
edge.
As everything so far had been quiet
and peaceful during our voyage, and as
in these dreamy lands I had no antici-
pations pertaining to war of any sort, I
was naturally somewhat startled.
Thrusting my head out the port-hole,
I noted a few leagues from us several
men-of-war at anchor. A little time
afterwards I went on deck, just as the
reveille was wafted within our hearing









A FIELD-DAY IN ST. KITT'S 27

from an English man-of-war to our
starboard, and with my glass was able
to observe on the English boats the
sailors taking their muskets and prepar-
ing for early morning inspection and
drill.
Count Bismarck had asked me to go
aboard the warship Blake for breakfast,
having letters to the captain, whom he
expected to meet in these waters. As
we rowed alongside the ironclad, the
mouths of the great cannon looked
grimly towards us, in sharp contrast
with the very cordial reception we re-
ceived after boarding the English ves-
sel. Our cards were carried to the
officer of the deck, who at once directed
them to be sent to the captain.
It had always been one of my great
pleasures to make acquaintance with
the captains of vessels. Something
about their very sea-faring life breeds a
frank politeness giving them the quali-
ties of the true gentleman, although








28 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

often somewhat hidden under a cloak
of brusque sea manners.
We were fortunate enough to see the
marines drawn up in line for drill, and
interested at the manner in which they
did justice to their colors.
It is hard to realize that one of these
ships is almost a city in itself. Each
man has his own little home and his
daily duties. There is a market-place
where are stored foods of all kinds, and
adjacent to this the place where live-
stock is kept for consumption. Farther
down the gangway we found in the work-
shop men busily engaged in the manu-
facturing of new implements and the
repairing of the old.
We also saw the tailor-shop and linen
outfit, where clothes were in process of
making and old ones being mended.
Here also was the boot and shoe repair-
ing shop. A blue and white sign at-
tracted our attention to the barber-
shop. In coming back by another









A FIELD-DAY IN ST. KITT'S 29

street we passed through the great
kitchen of the cruiser, where food is
cooked for the small city, and the hos-
pital where the sick are kept.
We spent a good part of the morning
aboard the Blake ; nor could we make
a graceful retreat without accepting an
invitation from the captain for dinner,
to be followed by a military ball on
deck, given in honor of the governor.
Programmes were distributed about
the Madiana, telling us there were to be
athletic games given by the officers and
sailors of the British squadron on the
grounds in Basseterre, the principal
town of the island, off which we were
anchored.
During noon-time we wandered about
the streets visiting all the places of in-
terest to strangers. This was the first
English island we had yet touched on
our voyage, and it surprised us to find
how typically English everything was.
However tropical the surroundings









30 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

might be, yet we found everywhere the
well-equipped, neat English house, with
its tennis-court and cricket set on the
lawn.
In the afternoon we noticed happy
people at their five o'clock teas or en-
gaging in athletic games, just as at
Southampton and Brighton. To be sure,
only a very small per cent. of the inhabi-
tants are English, but wherever an Eng-
lishman wanders he brings with him his
own ideas, customs, and mannerisms.
To me the English nation appears not
only one of great enterprise, but ranks
first as a people that civilized the world.
Pleasant fountains shaded by grace-
ful palms or mangoes, marked the inter-
section of many of the streets, and
numerous little parks were scattered
here and there throughout the city.
The streets were well-paved and clean ;
and the houses, though small, have a
neat and sanitary appearance.
About four o'clock we turned our

































CAVALRY IN ST. KITTS

CAVALRY IN ST. KITT'S.











A FIELD-DAY IN ST. KITT'S 31

steps in the direction of the athletic
games.
While these games are not different
in themselves from the ordinary tourna-
ments of athletics that we have in Amer-
ica, there is here added to them the
romantic interest of being given by ma-
rines and officers of far-away England.
In the background loom up the great
mountains; before us, beyond gently
sloping meadows and plains, the ocean
rolls in the distance.
The field was lined with carriages
and vehicles of all kinds, filled with
pretty girls arrayed in striking costumes
for this gala occasion of the week.
Here, through some English folk to
whom I had cards of introduction, I
made some very pleasant acquaint-
ances.
We sat in one of the carriages with a
bevy of fair English ladies, and amidst
the shouts and laughter and confusion
of the throng, thoroughly enjoyed our-








32 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

selves. Popcorn, peanuts, lemonade,
sandwiches, soda and the like were all
in good form, and to say that we spent
a pleasant afternoon would hardly do
justice to our appreciation.














VII.


ENSEMBLE

THE Marine Band is playing a dreamy
southern air. We are aboard the
English warship Blake. In the dis-
tance, glistening in the moon, the palms
sigh. Imagine the romance of a mili-
tary ball in the tropics !
We were anchored only a short dis-
tance from Her Majesty's island of St.
Kitt's. The mountains rise from the
bosom of the ocean clad in a mantle of
rich tropical vegetation.
"Ah Count," I say, as the moon
appearing from a cloud brings this
grant panorama to view, "if there is
any 4sark of true life in a man, this
would surely kindle it into nobility "









34 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES
Thereupon my friend answers, "Why
ponder upon such serious thoughts
when your friend, yonder pretty Ameri-
can girl, awaits you for this waltz ?"
I am soon gliding away in the dance
with one of the sweetest girls. We are
on the British West India ship, whose
deck, garnished by pretty women and
handsome officers in full military dress,
presents a scene not likely to be for-
gotten. I am very proud, for well I
know my fair friend is the chief attrac-
tion of those brave English eyes.
What a night Shall I ever forget
it ? Threading our way among the danc-
ers we at last find ourselves in the bow
of this mighty ship, under two great
cannon (England's pride). Neither of
us speak. We thus sit musing some
time, till, faintly wafted by the gentle
breeze, the peal of the old cathedral
bell comes to us. In such times people
find in one another that which is most
pleasing on earth-feelings in com-








ENSEMBLE 35

mon; and these, when based upon
character and the more noble qualities
of man, indeed bring one a little nearer
to true friendship.












VIII.


ANTIGUA-AN OUTING IN THE
MOUNTAINS

A FEW hours after returning from
the ball, we weighed anchor, and
the engines of our boat throbbed once
more as we headed again southward on
our way to new lands.
Needless to say, I slept the sleep of
the happy, and never waked in a more
contented mood than I did the next
morning. Our graceful ship is on her
way towards a dark shadow in the dis-
tance, which the captain tells us is
Antigua.
It was towards noon when we reached
the harbor and our boat once more came
to anchor. We were to spend the rest
of Saturday and Sunday in Antigua.
36

















IN THE MARKET-PLACE, ST. JOHNS, ANTIGUA.


r
r;d












AN OUTING IN THE MOUNTAINS 37

Next morning Mr. Austin, a young
Englishman with whom I had become
quite intimate, and I, decided to take a
forty-five mile drive around the island.
The road passed through dense forests
and jungles, where there was hardly
enough light at mid-day to read a news-
paper; then again climbed the moun-
tain side or lay along the smooth sandy
beach of the seashore. On the way we
saw the city reservoir built by the colo-
nial inhabitants. Here were great piles
of masonry in which much skill in civil
engineering was displayed. I noticed
on steel plates the names of English
constructionists and engineers. From
this point, which is situated some twelve
miles distant in the mountains, run a
system of pipes to the city, by which
cool refreshing water of the very best
kind, derived from the mountain springs
and streams, is always obtainable.
Towards evening, as we were still
some distance from the town, we saw a








38 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES
neat white church situated at the side
of the mountain, from which came
strains of sweet music. We looked at
one another without saying a word, tied
our horses to a tree, entered and took
a seat in the midst of the little negro
congregation. I was particularly im-
pressed by the sincerity of devotion
with which these people worshipped; I
learned there to respect the negro more
than I had ever before thought it possible
for me to do.














IX.

MARTINIQUE, A FRENCH MINIATURE IN
THE TROPICS

IF a great searchlight could be levelled
at Martinique, it would unfold to
the observer a vivid picture like that of
gay Paris. Although the rays of life are
somewhat diminished in coming such a
distance as from France to the West
Indies, nevertheless their nature is the
same.
Strolling up from the quays whither
we had rowed in small boats, we were
at once amused and interested. A
smile appeared simultaneously on the
faces of all of us, the sign on a large
yellow placard struck our gaze, an-
nouncing that a grand ballet was to be







40 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

enacted by the famous X- of Paris
that evening, followed by a French ball.
We had hardly anticipated such amuse-
ment in these romantic lands of the
South.
As we went about some of our party
attempted to exercise their knowledge
of the French tongue, although without
much success in understanding or in
being understood, for the reason that
these people have not a pure speech
but a mixture of French and negro
patois, similar to the Gumbo dialect
of New Orleans, which is quite incom-
prehensible to ordinary ears.
The striking feature of St. Pierre,
the largest and principal city of Mar-
tinique, is, as I have said, its distinc-
tively French associations. Were it
not for an occasional orange tree, or
some other tropical plant, we could
easily imagine ourselves in one of the
smaller towns of France. Here one
reads French names above the shops,









LITTLE FRANCE IN THE TROPICS 41

and finds at the intersections of the
streets an occasional statue erected to
the memory of some noted Frenchman.
The island of Martinique being very
mountainous, the city should have the
very best of sanitary equipment, yet
what we consider the necessary condi-
tions for health are quite unknown
there. The gutters, supplied with fresh
and cold water from the streams of the
mountains, rush down the sides of the
streets, and were it not for these the
death-rate at Martinique would be still
greater than it now is.
The architecture of the houses is
decidedly European, though tending-
rather towards the light and dainty or-
der than the solid and substantial, repre-
senting, like many French people, beauty
while it lasts, but quick decay.
In St. Pierre are pretty parks with an
occasional murmuring fountain; also
here and there a marble or bronze statue
hid by thick foliage. In the quiet of








42 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

the evenings hither come the beautiful
French Creoles; and many a pretty lit-
tle romance takes place here, ushered
in by a guitar serenade.
One statue brings back reminiscences
of the older days of the French empire.
It represents the patient Josephine,
Empress of the French. Martinique
is her birthplace, and here the simple,
beautiful Creole lived her younger days
and received her first education.
But we could not linger too long
about these pleasant spots, for we had
engaged a voiture to drive us to the
botanical gardens and thence to a little
town situated some distance from St.
Pierre, high up in the mountains.
The botanical gardens of Martinique
are known all over the world. Aside
from those of Trinidad they are con-
sidered the finest in existence. Taking
into consideration the nature and adap-
tation of the surroundings, I consider
the gardens of Martinique even grander,
as a whole, than those of Trinidad.


















4


A FRENCH CREOLE, MARTINIQUE.


/
.I

I











LITTLE FRANCE IN THE TROPICS 43

To attempt to describe our walks
through the old parks would be a fail-
ure, for I could not do justice to the
sentiments which were aroused in me
on beholding growing in their natural
simplicity, side by side, the orange,
citron, fig, guava, and many other fruits,
in great luxuriance. Bamboo grows
here in profusion ; also wild and dainty
orchids of all kinds clinging to the
rocks and the bark of the trees.
Added to these wonders of growing
nature, were great cataracts leaping
from the near mountains. All this
beauty and grandeur was sufficient to
inspire the soul of any man.
After returning to our hotel and rest-
ing, we enjoyed an excellent dinner
prepared in good style by a French
chef. Even to the fact of wine ap-
pearing on the table free of charge,
everything showed the customs of the
French transplanted to the island.
Later on in the evening, we found
our way through gayly lighted streets,








44 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES
which appeared like a diminished re-
flection of the Rue de Rivoli, to the
Opera House, where, as previously re-
marked, we had observed a notice to
the effect that a ballet and masked ball
would take place that night. The ballet
was good; the French ballet is always
good, comparatively speaking. The
energy and spirit wit qich this people
enter into everythi isbo well known
to comment upon. The ball, I shall
leave to my readers' imagination ; suffice
it to say that it was similar to any mid-
winter masked ball given at the Madi-
son Square in New York City.

















ST. LUCIA, A FORMER GIBRALTAR OF
THE WEST INDIES

O other small island in the West
Indies has been the scene of
more contention between European
powers than St. Lucia.
Speaking of the striking appearance
of this rough, volcanic island, and of
its convenient situation for military
purposes, a recent writer adds: What
wonder that two mighty nations con-
tended for the possession of St. Lucia,
as the Greeks and Trojans waged war
for the guardianship of fair Helen of
old ?"
In x605 the first attempt was made
at colonization, when the English ship
45








46 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

Olive Blossom landed some sixty col-
onists, who planted the flag of St.
George and occupied the island in
the name of England. From this time
until the capitulation of the French
at Fort Morne Fortune, in 1803, there
was an almost ceaseless strife for the
sovereignty of the island. The fol-
lowing extract, taken from a letter
written by Admiral Rodney in 1772
to the Earl of Sandwich, shows,the
importance with which St. Lucia was
regarded: "I had lately the honor
to present to your Lordship a copy of
a letter I thought it my duty to send
to the King's Minister pointing
out the great consequence of retaining
some of the conquered islands, partic-
ularly Martinique or St. Lucia; and
though at that time I preferred the
retention of Martinique, I am now
fully convinced that St. Lucia is of more
consequence to Britain Either
of these islands in the hands of Great









A FORMER GIBRALTAR OF THE INDIES 47

Britain must, while she remains a great
maritime power, make her sovereign of
the West Indies."
Such is a very brief outline of some
of the past events. To-day there re-
main but the fast crumbling forts and
barracks as a testimony to this once
important military strong-hold.
The old mountain barracks are far
more healthful than if along the coast ;
the matter of climate being one of the
most important things England has to
study in choosing her tropical loca-
tions. Thus at Aden on the Red Sea,
reported to be one of the hottest places
on the globe, it is necessary for the
Government to relieve the soldiers
every few months by sending fresh
recruits thither from other tropical
countries where they have been accus-
tomed to serve.
Great dredging machines, similar to
those used in Panama, were sent over
to deepen the waters of the harbor, so








48 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

that now steamers of the largest draught
can land immediately at the side of
the pier. This is something unknown
to almost all the Islands and harbors
of South America.
St. Lucia has also been made one of
the coaling stations of England. It was
with great interest that I watched a
large German merchant steamer being
coaled in this remote section of the
world. The manner in which they
coal these boats is unique. From 75
to 150 negroes, both men and women,
are supplied with rough baskets of one
or two bushels capacity, which they are
compelled to carry on their heads. It
is very hard work, and on inquiry I
ascertained that these poor wretches
are only paid at the rate of a few cents
an hour.
St. Lucia seemed to me one of the
loveliest of the West India islands.
While I was sitting here on deck one
evening, our boat being fastened along-









A FORMER GIBRALTAR OF THE INDIES 49

side the pier, familiar airs of religious
music were wafted thither by the
breeze. On inquiry I learned that
the Salvation Army had reached its
helping hand even to these poor lands.
Later, seated in the Salvation Army
Hall, amongst a hundred or so of the
meanest and poorest kind of people,
I faintly realized the real good a few
persons of sincere purpose may accom-
plish, though all odds are against them.
St. Lucia is a typical southern island.
Its mountains, clad with great tropical
forests and jungles, are the home of
many wild animals. Here the English
sportsman finds his joy and excitement
in hunting the fleet deer, while for still
more exciting game, he may hunt the
leopard and wild-cat up in the mount-
ains.
Castries, the principal city, off which
we were anchored, presented a very
pretty sight, the older part being nestled
at the base of the mountains, while the







50 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

newer life seemed to be entwining
itself about the sides of the great pre-
cipice.
Towards evening the great cables
which had been holding the Madiana
to the pier were loosened and we drifted
once again into the open harbor. We
had been given a farewell by the in-
habitants of the town who came down
to the wharf, the negroes, gaudily
dressed, looking like parrots in crim-
sons, blues, and greens.
A little later we were passing the
Pitous, two great volcanic mountains
rising perpendicularly from the water
to a height of about three thousand feet.
The sea about these cliffs is so deep that
a steamer could pass touching the very
sides of the precipice itself.
A story is told of four English sailors,
who, having heard that these mount-
ains were insurmountable, made oath
among themselves that they would try
to accomplish the feat. Their friends























































A BELLE OF ST. LUCIA.











A FORMER GIBRALTAR OF THE INDIES 51

from a boat in the distance watched
them anxiously through glasses. When
half-way up one of them was seen to
drop, but the three others went on. A
few hundred feet higher a second
dropped, and afterwards a third. The
last one had almost reached the summit
when he also fell. No account of what
had befallen them ever reached the
ship. They are supposed to have been
bitten by the fer de lance, the deadliest
snake in St. Lucia and perhaps in the
world.
















BARBADOES, AN ENGLISH COLONY UP
TO DATE

ALL was bustle and commotion on
board the Madiana on the morn-
ing of January 12th, for we were soon
to arrive at Barbadoes, which was her
last stopping-place before she turned
her bow again toward the North. Many
of the passengers intended returning to
New York again by the Madiana;
others, like myself, decided to part
with the boat, and associations which
had become so endeared, and strike out
for new regions.
It was with much feeling that I bade
adieu to our good captain, Mr. Fraser,
and to the passengers who had been
with us thus far on the cruise.









AN ENGLISH COLONY UP TO DATE 53

Barbadoes is very much unlike the
other islands we have visited in being
not of the volcanic order but of a coral
formation, thus presenting a level ap-
pearance. It is about the size of the
Isle of Wight, and has a population of
about I8o,ooo, by far the greater part
blacks.
On arriving at Barbadoes I was at
once driven to the Marine Hotel,
whither I had sent my luggage. The
Marine is a fine old hostelry built of
rough stone, a few miles from the town
facing the sea. Here one can always
find the cool breezes of the ocean and
the cleanliness of a well-kept inn. In
this vicinity are many of the better
houses of the capital and principal city
of Barbadoes, Bridgetown. Tramways
run from the business part of the town
to this locality, a distance of about
three miles. At the hotel I afterwards
met a few Americans as well as some
Britons. People seek this island for its









54 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

salubrious climate and its pleasant sur-
roundings.
Barbadoes having been occupied by
the British for some two hundred years,
has a distinctively modern English ap-
pearance; there is considerable wealth
there, for the ancestors of many of its
old English families owned plantations
and slaves.
The parade grounds or Savannah of
the military quarters present a lively
scene in the morning and evening, and
thither I strolled about five o'clock in
the evening with a certain charming
passenger of the Madiana, who has been
closely associated with many of my
experiences in the islands. That she
should be popular everywhere is indeed
no wonder. She is a typical American
girl: bright, vivacious, experienced, and,
above all, sincere. It is this kind of
girl that has made the American wo-
man appear as the ideal woman in the
hearts not only of Americans, but also





K amML I,. J


TRAFALGAR SQUARE, BARBADOES.













AN ENGLISH COLONY UP TO DATE 55

of the stolid and easy-going Briton, the
gay and vivacious Frenchman, and the
more romantic and sentimental Span-
iard.
The soldiers performing their usual
evening dress drill, presented a fine
view on the field. The infantry per-
formed their evolutions, directed by
officers in gay costumes, while farther
off in the distance the cavalry bore
down upon an imaginary enemy, and
the artillery brought up the rear.
At our first dinner on the island,
among other things on the bill of fare
I noticed flying fish, and as these were
considered a great delicacy, I felt that
I certainly must try them. They taste
very much like the sole of England.
The fish itself is of the same genus as
the flying fish we meet in crossing the
northern Atlantic, but of a much smaller
species.
The next day I took a long drive with
the Count about this section. We drove









56 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

past the Government prison and the
labor-house, not caring to visit either,
as I had been through institutions of a
similar nature. Suffice it to say, that
the Government institutions are here
well cared for. The governor, appointed
by the Home Government, is an able
man and well qualified for those duties
of trust and importance placed upon
him by the Queen. There is an assem-
bly which makes the laws and which
somewhat corresponds to our Senate
and House of Representatives. A chief
justice presides over the judicial de-
partment, and there are other judges on
the bench. The police are well trained,
being under the supervision of a Chief
of Police, an important personage of
the island.
In driving we passed many planta-
tions and rich fields of sugar, rice, and
other tropical products. After seeing
as much of the country as we had leis-
ure for, we returned to Bridgetown and








AN ENGLISH COLONY UP TO DATE 57

did some shopping. The shops are very
much like those in England and on a
grand scale. They have a few large
department stores where one can find
anything from a hat-pin to an anchor.
We visited the famous Ice-house and
drank the local popular drink, the swiz-
zle. The Ice-house, so called because
the luxury of ice is there obtained, is
common to all the West Indian islands
and is a sort of hotel with caf6 and
restaurant attached. Here the better
elements of the people usually meet and
lead that indolent existence common to
the South. The swizzle, which is the
characteristic drink of the Islands, is a
sort of cocktail, which after being con-
cocted is made to ferment by the use of
a stick with prongs on the end called a
swizzle-stick. It is a mild and cooling
drink, in which both the ladies and
gentlemen of the South indulge.
That evening I was invited out to
dinner by some English friends to whom








58 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

I had letters. Their estate, situated a
little distance from town on an emi-
nence, affords a fine specimen of
colonial architecture, refinement, and
wealth. High stone walls encircle the
grounds; fountains give an air of life,
while in the rear is a park of great trees.
The house is built of rough stone : the
rooms are commodious and comforta-
ble. A great entrance hall into which
open the rooms, is finished in hard wood,
and contains many relics of antiquity,
such as helmets, swords, fire-arms, etc.
All the rooms contain large fireplaces,
for even in this climate the evenings
are cool and damp.
After dinner our host, a good story-
teller and a man who has had many
adventures and experiences, related in
an interesting way phases of the life of
former days in the Indies and on the
Spanish Main.
I must not leave Barbadoes without
impressing upon my readers the impor-







AN ENGLISH COLONY UP TO DATE 59

tance and significance of this island
and especially of the city-Bridgetown.
This is the centre of trade for all the
Islands and the port of the Royal Mail
line between England and the Islands
and the mainland of South America, as
well as that of the Hamburg-American
steamers, of other European lines, the
Quebec Steamship Co., and the boats
plying between South America and
New York. It is in fact the New York
of the Indies. The city itself is com-
posed of substantial shops and ware-
houses. The streets are well paved and
illuminated by electricity. Here one
finds all the modern conveniences and
comforts of life. The docks always
present a busy scene where one may
gain an idea of the commercial impor-
tance of the place.
A few days later I boarded the Royal
Mail Steamship Solent, which was to
carry us over our route to Venezuela
by way of the islands of Grenada, Trin-








60 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

idad, and Curagoa; three countries
promising much of interest.
It is towards five o'clock in the even-
ing when the Solent slowly steams out
of the harbor of Barbadoes. I wave a
little silk flag with the stars and stripes
to our fair companion, who has added
so much to the pleasure and interest of
this trip and has also endeared herself
very greatly to our memory. She is to
remain here for some time and enjoy
with her father the delightful place, and
towards spring is to return once again
to her friends and home in the North.














XII.

A GLIMPSE OF GRENADA

THE Solent is one of those sharp,
well-fitted steel cruisers which are
so often seen flying the British flag in
foreign waters. She is scarcely of three
thousand tons, and is said to be the
ideal model of the Royal Mail Line.
The rooms, though not situated on the
upper deck as were those of the Madi-
ana, yet are large and comfortable and
the table is excellent.
In the evening the captain, the doc-
tor, the purser, and the other officers of
the boat appear in full dress. Their
example is also followed by the passen-
gers on the boat.
But although so superior to the Ma-








62 VENEZUELA AND WEST INDIES

diana in respect of discipline and ser-
vice, I still bear the fondest recollections
of the pleasures of that good home-like
ship which brought us to Barbadoes.
We had a night of smooth sailing.
About four o'clock the next afternoon,
after coasting the shores of Grenada
for some hours, we turned a point of
land and entered the almost perfectly
land-locked harbor of the principal
city-St. George.
On approaching, the first thing we
noticed was a fort built of heavy stone,
overlooking the town and the harbor.
It seems to be an Englishman's joy
to tug and climb whenever an oppor-
tunity presents itself. I was soon
on my way ashore with four young
English fellows from London. The
first thing we did on landing was to
scale the heights from below and try to
gain access to the fort. After an hour's
hard work we reached the gate and were
accosted by a sleepy sentry. We sent








A GLIMPSE OF GRENADA


our cards to the commandant of the
fort, and in a few minutes one of the
lieutenants was showing us about the
place.
There is nothing remarkable about
the fort. It is a crumbling mass of
stone, and the few old rusty cannon lying
about could probably not be used even
in case of an emergency. The garrison
consists of a handful of old crippled
men, mostly negroes, and when later I
saw them on drill I thought I had never
known a poorer show of soldiers who
wore the British uniform.
Indeed, there was but little life any-
where to be seen on this island. The
citizens of the town lay about in a dole-
ful mood, as if they had forgotten all
about such a thing as energy. In former
years, before the negro gained so much
control over affairs, and when many
white people lived on the island, things
were prosperous; the cane-fields were
well cultivated and brought in hand-