<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 I. Official List
 II. Geography
 III. Communication
 IV. Hotels and Lodging Houses
 V. Agriculture
 VI. Fisheries
 VII. Articled Pupils in Farming...
 VIII. Manufactures and IX....
 X. Post Office and Telegrams
 XI. Fiscal
 XII. Law and Police
 XIII. Educaton
 XIV. Religion
 XV. History
 XVI. Constitution
 XVII. Military and Naval and XVIII....
 XIX. Newspapers, Periodicals
 XX. Sports and Pastims
 XXI. Dependences of Jamaica
 Back Matter
 Back Cover


DLOC UCF UFLAC



Jamaica in 1896
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 Material Information
Title: Jamaica in 1896
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: The William L. Bryant Foundation - West Indies Collection ( Contributor )
Publisher: Kingston, Jamaica: The Institute, 1896
Publication Date: 1896
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Caribbean
Spatial Coverage: Caribbean
 Notes
Funding: Digitized with funding from the Digital Library of the Caribbean grant awarded by TICFIA.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Central Florida Libraries ( SOBEK page | external link )
Holding Location: University of Central Florida ( SOBEK page | external link )
Rights Management: All rights to images are held by the respective holding institution. This image is posted publicly for non-profit educational uses, excluding printed publication. For permission to reproduce images and/or for copyright information contact Special Collections & University Archives, University of Central Florida Libraries, Orlando, FL 32816 phone (407) 823-2576, email: speccoll@mail.ucf.edu
Resource Identifier: lc - F1896 .J35 1896
System ID: CA01200005:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Preface
        Page 13
    Table of Contents
        Page 14
        Page 15
    I. Official List
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    II. Geography
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    III. Communication
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    IV. Hotels and Lodging Houses
        Page 30
        Page 31
    V. Agriculture
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    VI. Fisheries
        Page 54
    VII. Articled Pupils in Farming and Planting
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    VIII. Manufactures and IX. Hygiene
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    X. Post Office and Telegrams
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    XI. Fiscal
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    XII. Law and Police
        Page 87
    XIII. Educaton
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    XIV. Religion
        Page 91
    XV. History
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    XVI. Constitution
        Page 95
    XVII. Military and Naval and XVIII. Institutions
        Page 96
        Page 97
    XIX. Newspapers, Periodicals
        Page 98
    XX. Sports and Pastims
        Page 99
        Page 100
    XXI. Dependences of Jamaica
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Back Matter
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Back Cover
        Page 109
Full Text











Jamaica in 1896








William L. Bryant


Foundation
FTorida


West Indies.
South
America


West Indies
Collection
I - --I


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AM























-' FREE


LIBRARY !-


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MAP OF
THE ISLAND OF


PREPARED FOR
J3AMAICA IN 1896
SScale f sta MiBBI e 30
&a. a 20 -2





r : 7 l---e -t e i o
_I0
IE ____ __ .1. -- ___ --77-fr 30


h ,MONTEGO BAY_ .- MpAoAP O OF
.C07 *..^tBs I^lla -^ n'pIhuvI I-B*'<* T L(JIJ -''^'" I-'4 THE ISLAND OF
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'..'.rnlllpe + I hIt Trk 7Ir J.A.IA1 CAD
HA HAN 0 VE R ", ST J A EMS --- BROWNSTOWN i PREPARED FOR
E -- --J pJ PREPARED FOR
Dolphr s T int "ELAWNEY E R .. "JAMAICA IN 1896"
S"/ C -il z .. n r prn I H A B \ nr I a d Scale n Statute Mie.
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C NOTE-ToaT Ae scI N hset anh0e
P t fcs0 j aea2h2'a



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C3 If-I2391
.Mare ts....... ...... ..-.-. A Tx NT
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_?a//__________constucted._____----- \ ___,,_,_,,, "_-,,_ ,_ "__ "__-_ / / _______ _,.,_ _.-
1 \ I "^ \ O w l ',.
A C T' F_, Ihs arf1 r 31,63


tric eical Offi ces ,. /- EA
0 0itr. Cu Stations 0iB |0 ', or' ,u iI '
akes. .. .. ... X ; l d
Disuio'n of Parishes .P'", -'O
Principal Eletations thus A Ie e -.,



Ports at which Coastal Ste er l l.Pea----- call BAY "






. .. .


30









~-- -----





/.v-7'17' f7'E OF .JMAICA.


JAMAICA IN 1896.

A HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION FOR INTENDING
PFTTI.El.I: AND OTII'HS


KINGSTON: JAMAICA.
INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA, DATE TRCE HALL.
AGENTS IN LONDON-H. SOTHERAtN & Co., 140 STRAND, W.C., AND 28 PICCADILLY, W.
AGENTS IN NEW YORK-G. P. PUTMAN'S SONS, 27 & 29 WEST 28RD STREET.
ALSO OF ASTON W. GARDNER & Co., HARBOUR STREET, KINGSTON, JAMAICA.
1896.













3C~i(7LL~



















CLARENDON, JAMAICA.
Temperature 920 Farh.

47 Miles from Kingston; 45 by Rail and 12 by Buggy from Clarendon Park
Railway Station. Railway Fare, 1st Class, 6/-; 2nd Class, 3/6
Buggies, 6,-, 8/- and 10/- for One and Two Persons.
----+---

Ample R oeeommoaation at tbe Institution.

TRAINED MATRON AND CIVIL SERVANTS.

_<5 LODGINGS. E
FIRST-CLASS.
One Room for i ** 4/- pep &aa ;ineluaing Bat5s.

One Room for 2 /- ,

SECOND-CLASS.

One Room for 1 2/- per daV ;neliuaing 9Batis.

One Room fop 2 1/6 ,, ,,


A fine Pleasure Boat (for the use of Visitors) is kept on
the Milk River, which at this point is, perhaps, the finest
stream in the Island.

Information as to charge for Board will be furnished by
the Matron, Mrs. E. M. DENT, Milk River P.O.


The curative properties of the Waters are not surpassed by any
other mineral bath in the world. Eminent medical men, foreign and
local, and hundreds of testimonials, from travellers and residents,
bear out this statement. For Gout, Rheumatism, Sciatica, Lumbago,
Neuralgia, Eczema and disorders of the Liver nothing better can be
recommended.
J. W. WELSH, Secretary.














PREFACE.


The present issue is a new edition of a work which appeared
last year, under the title Jamaica in 1895, a brief Handbook of
Information about Jamaica." It was compiled with a view to
giving, in a handy form, such particulars concerning the island as
might prove of interest to intending settlers and others.

It is, for the most part, an epitome of the information contained
in the Handbook of Jamaica."

As it is mainly intended to impart information to those who are
thinking of entering on an agricultural career, short notices have
been included on the various articles of cultivation in the island :
and thanks are due to those planters and penkeepers who have
kindly supplied this information.

The attention of intending settlers is especially drawn to the
Articled Pupil Scheme, particulars of which will be found at
page 36.

Any corrections or suggestions for a future edition will be
thankfully received by the Secretary of the Institute of Jamaica.
F. C.
Institute of Jamaica,
Kingston, Jamaica,
May, 1896.











CONTENTS.


MAP


.. Frontispiece.

Page.

S vI


I. OPrICIAL LIST


II. GEOGRAPHY-Position : Population: Natural Fea-
tures: Principal Elevations

III. COMMUNICATION-EXTERNAL, Passenger and
Freight Steam-ship Lines: Coastwise :
Light Houses: Ports of Clearance : IN-
TERNAL COMMUNICATION: Main Roads:
Livery Stables: Cabs: Mail-coaches:
Railway ....

IV. HOTELS AND LODGING HOUSES

V. AGRICULTURE-(a) Agriculture Life in Jamaica.
(I) Pen-keeping, (Cattle-breeding, Indian
cattle, Dairying.) (II.) Planting, Bananas,
Cacao, Cocoanuts. Coffee-planting, Coffee.-
planting in the Blue Mountains, Ginger,
Limes, Logwood, Nutmeys, Oranges, Pimento,
Ramie, Sisal Hemp, Sugar, Tea, Tobacco,
Vine Culture.) (b) Cultivation. Acreage
under cultivation. (c) Agricultural Hold-
ings. (d) Crown Lands. (e) Department
of Public Gardens and Plantations. (f)
Markets. (g) Price of Provisions. (h)
Cost of Labour .

VI. FISHERIES.

VII. ARTICLED PUPILS IN FARMING AND PLANTING ..


4

12


14

36

36


VIII. MANUFACTURES .... 50

IX. HYGIENE--(a) Boards of Health. (b) Medical Ser-
vice. (c) Hospitals. (d) Mineral Springs.
(e) Water Supply. (f) Drainage. (g) Vital
Statistics. (h) Meteorology. (i) Climate of
Jamaica. (j) Clothing 50






CONTENTS.


X. POST OFFICE AND TELEGRAMS. POSTAND MONET
OhDERS-(a) FOREIGN-(I.) Postal Union-
(II.) Mails. (III.) Book-Post-(iv.) Parcel-
Post -(v.) Money Orders-(VI) Registration.
(b) INLAND-(I) Mails-(II.) Postal Orders.
TELEGRAPH--(a) Ocean. (b) Inland. 57

XI. FISCAL.-(a) In:ernal Revenue-(I.) Land Tax-
(II.) Poor Rate-(InI.) Education Rate-(Iv.)
Licenses-(v.) Light House Dues-(vi.)
Wharfage. (b) Imports-(I.) Duties -(I.)
Exemptions from Duty -(III.) Value of Im-
ports -(rv.) Value entered for consumption.
(c) Exports -(I.) Value-(II.) Distribution.
(e.) Currency in Jamaica. (f) Banking. 60

XII. LAW AND POLICE-(I.) Courts of Judicature,
Chancery, Incumbered Estates, Divorce,
Bankruptcy and Circuit. (II.) Consta-
bulary. (III.) Prisons .. 69

XIII. EDUCATION-(a) Elementary Schools. (b.)
Training Colleges. (c ) Higher Grade
Schools. (c) Government Scholarships (d)
Cambridge Local Examination. (e) Col-
lege of Preceptors Examination. .. 70
XIV. RELIGION 73

XV. HISTORY .. 74

XVI CONSTITUTION .. .. 77
XVII, MILITARY AND NAVAL-(a) Military (b) Naval.
(c) Jamaica Militia .. 78
XVIII. INSTITUTIONS .. 78

XIX. NEWSPAPERS, PERIODICALS, &c. .. 80

XX. SPORTS AND PASTIMS--Cricket, Lawn-Tennis,
Football,P olo, Rowing, Shooting, Fishing,
Race Meetings, Natural History .. 81
XXI. DEPENDENCE OF JAMAICA-(a) The Turks and
Caicos Islands. (b) The Cayman Islands.
(c) The Morant and Pedro Cays .. 83

XXII. WORKS OF REFERENCE ON JAMAICA-General
Information, Descriptive Account, Guide,
Mineral Springs, Climate, Agriculture,
History, NMtural History .. 8














OFFICIAL LIST.


THE GOVERNOR


The Governor's Private Secretary ..
The Governor's Aide de-Camp
'The Officer Commanding the Forces
The Commodore
Colonial Secretary
Assistant Colonial Secretary
Chief Justice
Puisne Judge .

Attorney General
Assistant Attorney General

Crown Solicitor .
Registrar General
Administrator General and Trustee
in Bankruptcy
Registrar of the Supreme Court .
Deputy Keeper of Records
Registrar of Titles
Inspector General of Police
Inspector General of Prisons and
Reformatories
Protector of Immigrants
Collector General
Auditor General
Treasurer
Superintending Medical Officer
Director of Public Works
Surveyor General
Government Inspector of Railways
Postmaster
Stamp Commissioner
Superintending Inspector of Schools
Director of Public Gardens and
Plantations
Island Chemist
(Government Meteorologist
Superintendent Government i ,rt-
ing Office
Collector of Customs, Kingston .
Barbour Master, Kingston
Health Ofiqer, Port Royal


His EXOELLENCY SIR HENRY AR-
THUR BLAKE, K.C.M,G.,
F.R.G.S.
Lord George FitzGerald, B.A.
Captain George Pomeroy Colley.
Major-General, H. J. Hallowes,
Captain Herbert W. Dowding, R.N,
Hon F. Evans, C.M.G.
James Allwood.
Sir Fielding Clarke, Knt., LL.B.
Hon. E. A. Northeote, B.A.
Hon, C. F. Lumb, LL.D.
H. R. P. Schools.
S. D. Lindo.
T. B. Ougbton, LL.B.
A. W. Farquharson.
S. P. Smeeton.

P. E. Chapman.
O'Connor DeCordova,
E. B. Lync'i.
Henry F. Pouyat.

Colonel Morris J. Fawcett.

Hon. P. C. Cork
Hon. Robert Batten-
J. C. Macglashan.
H. W. Livinsston.
Hon C. B. Mosse, C.B.
Hon. V. G. Bell, CE.
W. C. Liddell.
H. Blomfield Smith, A.M.I C.E.
G. H. Pearce.
P. E Chapman.
Hon. T. Capper, B.A.
Hon. Wm Fawcett, B.Se., F.L.S.

J. J. Bowrey, F.C.S., F.I.C.
Maxwell Hall, M.A., F.R.A.S.
J. C. Ford.

C Goldie.
Charlton Thompson.
J. Neish, M D.







(VII)

OFFICIAL LIST, continued.

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.


S E-offiio Members.
H. E. The Governor, President.
Senior Military Officer.
Colonial Secretary.
Attorney-General.

Director of Public Works.
Collector- General.


Manchester
Trelawny
St. Thomas

St, James
Portland
St. Elizabeth
Clarendon
St. Catherine
Westmoreland
St. Ann
Kingston
St. Andrew
Hanover
St Mary


Ex-offiio Members.
Senior Military Officer.
Colonial Secretary.
Attorney-General.


Nominated Members.
Hon. John Pringle, M.B.
Hon. Lt.-Col. C. J. Ward, C.M.G.
Hon. T. Capper, B.A.
Hon. Deputy Surgeon-General
C. B. Mosse, C.B.
Hon. William Fawcett, B. Sc., F.L.S.
Hon. P. C. Cork.

cted Members.


.Hon. J. Thompson Palache.
.Hon. Conway Whiting.
.Hon. S. Constantine Burke,
F.R.G.S.
.. Hon. D. A Corinaldi.
Hon. David Sampson Gideon.
SHon. T. P. Leyden.
.. Hn. Robert B. Braham.
Hen. Dugald Campbell.
Hon. and Rev. H. Clarke.
Hon. Alfred Norris Dixon.
SHon. Philip Stern.
SHon. and Rev. Carey B. Berry.
Hon. DeB Spencer Heaven.
Hon. Amos DaCosta Levy.







PRIVY COUNCIL.


Nominated Members.
Hon. V. G. Bell.
Hon. Dr. Pringle.
Hon. Lt.-Col. C. J.Ward, C.M.G.







(VIII.)


OFFICIAL LIST, continued

CoUTOuEs, CHAIRMEN oF PAROCHIAL BOARDS & REIRIDEHNT MAGISTRATES OF PARISH.

Chairman of Pare-
Parish. Custos. chial Board. Resident Magistrate.
Kingston .. Hon. C.J. Ward. C.M.G. Hon. Philip Stern, E. L. Vickers.
(Mayor.)
St. Andrew ... Hon,[G. Stiebel, C.M.G. Hon. G. Stiebel, C.M.G. A. L. Vendryes.
St. Thomas ... W. A. Henderson. R. Egerton.
Portland ... P. A Moodie. J. T. Musson.
St. Mary ... Hon. John Pringle. M.B. Hon J. Pringle. R. A. Walcott.
St. Ann ... J. H. Levy. I. R. Reece.
Trelawny ... Hon. J. Wauchope L. C. Shirley. A. B. Dignum.
Fisher.
St James ... Hon. William Kerr. Samuel Hart. Maxwell Hall.


Hanover ... Rev. J. MacNee.
Westmoreland ... Hon. Wm. Ewen. J. S. Segree.
St. Elizabeth ... Hon. W. H. Coke.
Manchester ... J. P. Clark Hon. R B. Br tham.
St. Catherine ... Hon. George McUrath. D. H. Mende/.
Clarendon ... Quintin Logan


W P. Clark.
H. A. Perry.
W. W. Fisher.
J. V. Leach.
J. Allwood


FOREIGN CONSULS IN KINGSTON.


Country.

Austria-Hungary
Belgium
Chili
Columbia
Costo Rica
Denmark
Ecuador
France
German Empire
Greece
Guatemala
Hayti
Netherlands
Peru
St. Domingo
Salvador
Spain
Sweeden and Norway
United States of America
Venezuela

C 4- A ti


Consul.

William Schiller.
S. E. Pietersz.
J. Gall.
W. P. Forwood.
W. P. Forwood.
S. Soutar.
J. Gall
C. A. Malabre, C.A.
William Schiller.
Arthur George.
G. C. H. Lewis.
J. R. Chenet, C.G.
S. E. Pietersz.
A. DeCordova.
J. B. Soropure.
J J. G. Lewis.
J. M. Torroja.
S. Soutar.
Q. 0. Eckford.
J.Duff.


roUWU n3.5ULO lU JLLUUn n on on apJ rJ. 1 i. J. mmannelU y,
K.C.M.G. and E. E. Blake.
Representative of Jamaica on the
Governing Body of the Imperial
Institute, and Honorary Curator Washington Eves, C.M.G.
of the Jamaica Court.


C t i Si MFO R


.M.,







II. GEOGRAPHY.
POSTION--.lanImai- i- an island in the Caribbean Sea, situated
hltwe-n 17" 43'. ian 18 32' N. latitude, and between 760
1' 1an1 7. 211' 5W"' \V. longitude. It is 4,193 square miles
in extent. h.ljing :Ln extreme length of 144 miles, and an
extren.- v.i.irb i(t 49 miles. The latitude of Kingston is 170
.57' 41"l N il rhtr longitude is 5 hrs. 7 m. 10.65 sec. West
of (.r- -n %i. II.
Thv ilHanIil iar.--r tn Jamaica is Cuba, which is about 90 miles
dli.tan ri tIh. iiorili. Sani Domingo is 100 miles to the east; and
C'na,- I;rar.i.- .1 DNr;- inr, 1h Mosquito Territory, 400 miles southwest
of thb- w,-.t .--n ot ih.- ilind. is the nearest part of the continent of

PoPULAT.inN-ThIe i.-.piIlai..n according to the census of 1891 is as
follow- :-
Male-- i; *14'. F. Imral. -- :,543, Total 639,491, made up as follows:--
Whll.- 14,692
i'ol.ure,-i 121,955
Hlaik 488,624
Easit Indians 10,116
i.'hinit- 481
I'. :lor not stated 3,623

639,491
Th'- r. t:,l --rtimiatei I population on the 31st March, 1895, was
6S3.7 V'
'Th- isiiaril i i,.l.--r. into three counties, namely, Surrey in the
te.ai, Mlliddlr---.\ II ih r- .utre, and Cornwall in the west (which divi-
siow a;trr hoiMit-or-r -it little practical importance), which are again
..uh.ll idi.-. i t.1 [1-4 i sL rnh,-.i as follows:-


Co)UNT~r. P.A RI-I P i'1' LATION.
SP..rtl.in. 11,998
,'r-r. -,rI.un- 32,176
Surr- .-r .\n.lr.-w 37,855
I KnE.-tr.,i, 48,504
St Ma,:- 42,915
St. Ann 54,127
M dll..-..x .r ,':th,._,rin 1 65,509
t'lar nil.-i 57,105
Mau.h..--.-r 55,462
Ha;n..-,,r .2,088
~t .I:nn-t- 35,050
Coruwaill TrI-l wn\i .10,996
I Elizili,-th '2,256
I W,-inm,,rlan.1 53,450

(639,491


CHIEF TOWN.
Port Antonio
Morant Bay
Halfway-Tree
Kingston
Port Maria
St. Ann's Bay
Spanish Town
May Pen
Mandeville
Lucea
Montego Bay
Falmouth
Black River
Savanna-la-Mar


POPULATION.
1,784
656

46,542
1,492
. 1,615
S 5.019

1,171
1,595
4,803
2,517
1,154
2,952


Evter pat il ha- a tair share of sea-board, on which, with few
exzeptil,u.- i Haltwira Trr-., Spanish Town, May Pen and Mandeville),
its chi-ef town i- -ituat-d
' Inc ll..:, P..rr [; al







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


NATURAL FEATURES t--The eastern part of Jamaica is mn.iih more
elevaled than the other portions and has a different formatli.,i : cor1 I
and yellow limestones blending with the coast lime-t.in-. The
southern slopes of the hills in this part are generally en-y,. hi on
the north they descend abruptly. The north-east coast rang- which
divides the Rio Grande from the sea, usually known a, tih .John
Crow Mountains, reaches an elevation of 3,000 ft. Thli.er moun-
tains are an offshoot from the central range which, from tr bi lrpre..
sion known as the Cuna Cuna Gap, turns suddenly northward and
forms itself into this plateau.
The finest and wildest scenery in the island is to be seen on r bh n. irf h,1rn
slope of the Blue Mountains, where the Stony River and the R.K-k liver.
with numerous cataracts in their course, join the Rio Grand.l- tr- rint-r
river in Jamaica. Up one of its tributaries, the Guava Riivr. terle i. a
hot spring the temperature of which is 1329 F. This district i iinuett led.
and inhabited only by wild hogs, though it embraces some of the fine-t
coffee land in Jamaica Many of the subordinate ridges ot the rlui-
Mountains vie with the main ridge in elevation, especially th, great ridg
starting from Catherine's Pe.k and culminating at great I.-van i.ni ,1
Newton and Bellevue. Queensbury Ridge, which starts from Blu. \1ii.m
tain Peak, is another important one, passing by Arntu:l\ anl R-Ill.-
Clair, and terminating as Yallahs Hill.
On the northern side of the island, three great ridges in1: ie nion.
tioned. One extending through Portland from Blue Moiiniam Pltek.
another starting from Silver Hill dividing the Buff Bay and .'pnni.hl
rivers, and the third extending from Fox's Gap in a north..*:-at.rlI
direction through Hay Cock Hill to Dover. The only volc: ,nol remain
in the island are found on a spur from the ridge running to virI- tI.
sea at Retreat.
The Hope River almost certainly caused the tract of al:-'. ml t,,riii:
tion now called the Plain of Liguanea, which tract contiii.-- w.-.t to
Old Harbour, traversed by the Rio Cobre. This river i.hl-ntly i'a
different times traversed the plain of St. Catherine in ever\ ilir.--rtin.
One of its most ancient courses is down a line now called ',..'pt-!.hy
Gully, entering the sea at the Great Salt Pond, south of P.,rt He,-ider-
son Hill. Another very ancient course can now be traced tiri St. .Ilago
Pen, near Spanish Town (and is quite visible where the railnr : ri-.-v i
it) southerly to the Salt Island creek, which is doubtless thr .|.1 .-.ir.
of the Rio Cobre, debouching at Galleon Harbour, near 0.ll H:rbi.our
Bay. A third course which is shown on some old plans, kv-e t throiigh
the Caymanas Estates and entered the Ferry Swamp, joining thi- Fi--h
and Salt Rivers and entering the sea at Hunt's Bay. The la.t .t wh'i.
we have record is that which was changed when the new -. iur.t-" ws
cut in the year 1838 to discharge the River at Passage Fort. Hlr.- tfH
Rio Cobre is making land at its delta as rapidly as it frulnmrly did at
Hunt's Bay. Already the sea is three quarters of a mile furthi r ift than
it was in 1838, and there is no doubt that in course of tim tl he wl I- lr f
Hunt's Bay will be filled up.
St. Mary is well supplied with rivers and is consequently 1 ii up by
ridges; the highest part of this parish is the district of Ouhv' Hill,
elevation 2,000 ft.
St. Ann is nearly all white limestone; there is a curiou- bas-i near
t Abstracted from a paper read before the [rIr, iir ..1 .1 ~r ... i i. I ~i- Mr;
Thomas Harrison, Surveyor General.







GEOGRAPHY.


Moneaguit wLr.-:r- tlr Walton Lake has appeared and disappeared spas-
modicatll lu thi.- parish there are many caves and sink holes notably
the light lililes at Timuley's and the caves at Mount Plenty and Dry
Harlboir. lthe C.'aV and Yankee Rivers sink at Greenock Estate, and
are uippos...l ti run underground over 13 miles, and rise near Stewart
Town a thlie HRi, liiui.).
The Clarendon Mo,uutains consist chiefly of trap formation. This
parish flll'liihib thtr largest continuous flat in the island, measuring 132
square nill.--tra;nr-tel by the Rio Minho and Milk River. The most
prominent nm.,ulnr;Nin il Clarendon is Bull Head, generally considered the
centre of Ilii- i.lani
Tlie I'i.rnrtionn lrt Manchester is almost identical with that of St. Ann-
while liiu-mtni.- It ri-es gradually from east to west, where it attains
an elevat-li, ..t 2.AJi, ti. In this parish where yellow limestone is seen,
water ran bi- t.uiinil at no great depth; notably at Mile Gully and
Epping F.,re-i.
Trelawl.v hal. .. *.,d stretch of white limestone. The Martha Brae
River In Tielaiii, i., probably the water drained from the Cockpit
district ; it ri.'.- in tr--.6t volume at Windsor. In the south-east of this
parish i- :a rie-h hla.,k mould in the trap formation.
Thie I'..-kpt- et.-xt.n' from the southwest of Trelawny through parts
of St. -lame. an:d rlt. Elizabeth.
Thle Ili.luctiv, f,-;atre of St. Elizabeth is the extensive swamps:
probably thb- iall,.v ri,m Lacovia to the boundary of Manchester was
one_ a Ilak-.
The Sainta .'ruz. MNIintains are parallel with the Mountains of Man-
clhe.tr,. Ii1 u.ij ... Inhl,. In both cases the steel) slope is on the western
side TI.- Stita 'ril Mountains form steep cliffs, running nearer the
coast than any; otlj-r mountains in the island. [The climate is very
suitable tir iniivniid .]
Thte Bla'k Hlv-r i- navigable for 25 miles and conveys the produce of
a large til-lr! li to th l- a,
The Dulphin'i. HI-al is a useful landmark for vessels entering the
harbour- -.it bia an ha ht-Mar and Lucca
The following ar. tli- principal elevations in thlj island commencing
from the east end -


Blue MNI'intinis, avi-rae .I
Cuna I'IIna I'a,, -
Blue Muuntalli \I' tr'n I
Peak
Portland liap
Sir Johu'-! Peak highit-st
point of i.'ichlioia Plan-
Lation )
Belle Vue, '-'liu.:hi.a Plan-
tation
Arntailly I 'nup
Bagley i.iap
More's G(;p :
Content 4.iap
Newcastle Rupi,-lril
Flaimstead


2,100ft.i Silver Hill Gap
2,698 Catherine's Peak
7,423 Cold Spring Gap
Hardware Gap
5,549 Fox's Gap
Stony Hill (where main
6,100 road crosses it)
Guy's Hill
4.907 Mount Diablo, highest
point S
2,754 Mount Diablo, where
2,959 road crosses
4,945 Bull Heatu
3,251 Mandevilie
3,800 Accompong Town
3,663 Dolphin Head


3,513ft.
5,036
4,523
4,079
3,967
1,360
2,100
2,300

1,800
2.885
2,131
1,409
1.,16







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


III. COMMUNICATION.
EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION-The following line of steamships
supply communication between Jamaica, and Europe and America: -
PASSENGER.
ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKET COMPANY, (London, 18 Moorgate St. E.C.
Superintendent in Jamaica, J. Lockwood Wingate.i
Steamers leave Southampton every alternate Wednesday, getting
to Jamaica, (via Barbados) on the Friday fortnight. They leave
Jamaica for Southampton every alternate Tuesday. Fares 35, 25,
and servants ,17 10s. Return (available for twelve months) 56,
40. Servants 26 10s' Special Rates for family parties, for
children, and for schoolboys and girls. Second Class 20. Return
30. Steerage 15, for men only.
For Tours in the West Indies, varying from five weeks to four
months, to visit the principal islands and other places of interest, see
the guide obtainable at the Company's Office.
ATLAS STEAMSHIP COMPANY, LIMITED, (Liverpool, Managers. Leech,
Harrison and Forwood London, Forwood Brothers and Co.; New
York, General Agents, kim, Forwood and Kellock; Jamaica, Gene-
ral Agent. W. Peploe Forwood).
(a.) Kingston and New York Service.-A steamer leaves New York
every Saturday, getting to Jamaica on the following Friday. A
steamer leaves Kingston for New York every alternate Tuesday,
taking mails, cargo and passengers. The ship touches at Port-au-
P.ince for mails only. A steamer leaves Kingston for New York on
alternate Thursdays at 6 a.m., taking mails and passengers only.
Fares to New York -single 10. 8. 4. Return 18. 0. 0. Through
tickets issued to London, Glasgow, Liverpool, Southampton and
Hamburg, in connection with various Atlantic Lines.
(b.) Jamaica and Hayti Service. A steamer leaves Kingston every
alternate Saturday for Jeremie, Aux Cays and Jacmel, returning to
Kingston on 11th day after.
(c.) Jamaica and Central America.-A steamer leaves Kingston
every alternate Saturday for Carthagena, Savanilla and Port Limon.
THE WEST INDIA AND PACIFIC STEAMSHIP COMPANY LIMITED; (London,
St. George's House, Eastcheap; Agent in Jamaica, Arnold L. Malabre.)
Steamers leave Liverpool on Thursdays, about once a month, getting
to Jamaica, via Colon, in about 20 days. They leave Kingston about
every month getting to Liverpool via Mexican ports and New Orleans,
Fares 25. Tourists' Tickets round voyage 40 (from Liverpool
only.)
HAMBURG AMERICAN STEAM PACKET COMPANY. (Agents in Jamaica,
Finke & Co). Steamers from Hamburg to Kingston, and thence
to Port Limon and Colon.
FtEIGH'P.
In addition to the above, passengers are carried by the vessels of
the following freight lines: -
THE CARIBBEAN COMPANY, (London, Anderson, Anderson & Co., Fen-
church Avenue, E. C.; Agcet. in Kingston, Jamaica, E. G. Orrett ;
in Montego Bay, Kerr & Co I Steamers to and from London every
month-21 days passage. Fare 20.
THE CLYDE LINE, (Glasgow. Agent in Kingston, Jamaica, E. A. H.
Haggart). A steamer leaves Glasgow about once a month for







COMMUNICATION.


Jamai;ica. via Antigua and St. Kitts, and after discharging the cargo
S pr.-.-.d ti. rlt..- uiiiorts to load with Island produce, coming back
tl Kin tAiu:.L; .-aiiliiL. us a rule from thence for London and Glasgow.
The v,, age ..-e.-U iI- about 24 days, and the fare is 17 17s.
KNOTT'S PhiNi'E LINK I Agent in Kingston, Jamaica, E. A. H. Haggart.)
Steamers It-av, A.,twerp and Glasgow via Barbados, Trinidad,
\'Vn.-zu-lii'. 'nd rp'i.nish Main every four weeks (about 30 days to
Jamiuica). Fr...I New York 'to Kingston every fortnight (6 days
pa-.ige ) Fr.-iu Kingston to New Orleans, via Progresso, Vera
C'rni. aiin! Rla-np-.. every four weeks. From Kingston to Havre
an-l LonIIlniI .1; i.anish Main every four weeks. From Kingston
to Lonil,,i dir-rt :,ery four weeks From Kingston to New York
ever\ ft'ur wa'i:- .
PICK.FORi) SNL. L.A.'k'- WEST INDIA 'TF.AI.M-liil LINE, (Halifax, Canada.
A-ent in .Jaiuail... E. G. Orrett.) A steamer trades monthly be-
tweren Hall.ix. li,-rmuda, Turks Island and Kingston, leaving Hali-
x I.n t b- I.'irl ..tr a:ich month. Fares. First Class $60.00. Return
$ ll ii. S..-i.,i i'lass $40.00. Return $70.00.
CENTRAi. \M1.-.i' AN i'EAMSHIP LINE. Agents in New York, Bowring
& .'i.11-h:lalI .\.,.-it in Jamaica, P. W. Martin). From New York
r\-1 f.,rtiilrr r.. Kingston and thence to R-liz.-.Li\ iiii-tin. Porto
I '",rtI aidl Plrt H.Birrios and back to New York. Occasional steamers
fr.,mu Jdunan.i:a Ir..-c to New York
In addlit 'ii. t. ill. regular lines, there are a large number of swift
,ul I.iweirlli -tr-.luers -n-..:.., ,1 ; i hll fruit trade with America and
i'at;idu., -i.h .* -- 'lose ..t III,- I;- ., FRIUT COMPANY and KERR &
i.'u.. inmur ,t -whith carry passengers, at rates varying from $30 to
.+4.". In il,.- wiiir, r months, various companies, English, American
and I.'ainadian runl tourist steamers to Jamaica.
COA 1l'W\ISE. Tw,., lines of steamers go round the island every week,
calliii at .il! tht- Iprncipal ports. The steamer of the ATLhAS COM-
-AN' l ta -I- K r hILrio.n every Tuesday morning at 7 a.m., getting back
on the .natir'l..\. One week she goes from east to west, and the
orher fr.:iru -rt tI, east.
nTh- tll.. inii :;iia the ports called at, with the passenger Fares:-
PASSENGERS FARES FROM
E \ruWAri. HRUT E OR TO KINGSTON WESTWARD ROUTE.

C.lr. I .-. Ports. Cabin. Deck.
1 .1 s d. s. d.
4 I1 I'. Alligator Pond 0 10 0 0 4 0
4 I ,. Black River 017 6 0 5 0
.I" i Savanna la-Mar I 5 0 0 6 0
I Lucea 1 10 0 0 7 0
2 I" I Montego Bay 1 15 0 0 8 0
2 1 Falmouth 2 0 0 9 0
,. I, Dry Harbour 2 0 0 10 0
1 'I St. Ann's Bay 2 1 0 0 11 0
I 10 Port Maria 2 15 0 0 12 0
I i Annotto Bay 3 0 0 0 13 0
I I i Port Antonio : 10 00 14 0
I, i- Port Moran 3 15 4 0 15 0
I In Morant Bay 4 0 0 0 16 0

Round Tri.-- 4. The above rates include everything except






HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


liquors. Cabin rates from port to port, 6s. not including food or
berth. Deck rates from port to port: 4s. for the first port, and Is.
additional for every port after.
The steamer of the ROYAL MAIL COMPANY leaves Kingston at 7 a.m. on
every Monday returning on the Friday following, going alternately
on the eastward and the westward route. The Westward service
starts on the Monday following the arrival of the Mail Steamer form
England.
LiGHT HoUsE.--There are light houses at Morant Point, visible at 21
miles in clear weather; at Plumb Point, on the Palisadoes, visible
at about 20 miles; at Folly Point, Port Antonio, visible at 13 miles,
and at South Negril Point at the extreme west end of the island.
PORTS OF CLEARANCE.


Ports of Entry.


Kingston
Morant Bay
Port Morant
Manchioneal
Port Antonio

Annotto Bay
Port Maria
St. Ann's Bay
Dry Harbour
Falmouth
Montego Bay
Lucea
Savanna-la-Mar
Black River
Alligator Pond
Milk River
Salt River
Old Harbour


Principal Out-Bays at which Island Produce
is shipped.

SPort Royal. Cow Bay.
SYallahs.
. Holland Bay.

. Hope Bay. Buff Bay. St. M.ir.'arr-t', Bay.
Orange Bay.

Oracabessa. Rio Nuevo.
Ocho Hios. Unity Wharf. Runaway Bay.

I Rio Buen,.

Green Island, Mosquito Cove. Davis Cove.
SNegril. Bluefields.
Whitehouse. Parker's Bay. Pedro Bay.

Carlisle Bay.

. Cockpit.


INTERNAL COMMUNICATION in Jamaica is obtained by road or rail.
The main roads, which are about 1,860 miles in extent and are
under the control of the Public Works Department, encircle the
island, with several connections from north to south i, as shown in
the accompanying map.
The parochial roads are maintained by the Parochial Boards,
and measure about 1,800 miles.
Commencing at Kingston and going easterly, the main road passes
through Yallahs, Morant Bay, Bath. Manchioneal, Port Antonio,
Hope Bay and Buff Bay to Annotto Bay, where the main road, called
the Annotto Bay Junction Road, connects the northside with Kingston.
A new mail road branches off from this coast road at the 11th
Mile from Kingston and passes by Cambridge Hill, Llandewy,
Ramble, Cedar Valley, Trinityville and Serge Island to Morant Bay,
through the fertile and picturesque district, of St. Davids. A con-






COMMUNICATION.


tinuation of this interior road, from Serge Islantd down the Plantain
Garden River Valley to Bath, is now under construction.
From Annotto Bay the road passes through Port Maria. Oraca-
bessa and Rio Neuvo to Ocho Rios. where a branch of the great
road from Spanish Town, through Linstead and Moneague to St.
Ann's Bay again connects the north and south sides of the island.
From Ocho Rios the road skirts the sea, passing through St. Ann's
Bay, Dry Harbour, Rio Bueno, Duncans and Falmouth to Montego
Bay.
From Moneague the Great Interior Road commences, and passing
through Claremont, Brown's Town, Stewart Town, Clark's Town,
Falmouth and Adelphi, terminates at Montego Bay. From Clark's
Town, a branch road connects the Great Interior Road with Falmouth.
From Dry Harbour a main road, through Brown's Town, Cave
Valley and Chapelton to May Pen, again connects the north and
south side of the Island
From the Great Interior Road near Stwart's Town, a branch main
road goes southward to Ulster Spring where it connects with main
roads from the south side of the Island.
From Montego Bay another road crosses the island running past
Montpelier to the Great River at Shettlewood, whence one branch,
passing by Chester Castle and New Market, terminates at Black
River on the south side, and another branch goes to Savanna-la.Mar.
The coast road from Montego Bay extends to Lueea and Green
Island. From Lucea the road crosses the island to Savanna la-Mar,
:,nd a branch connects with Green Island.
From Savanna-la-Mar the road follows the- coast to Black River
and thence, striking inland, goes to Lacovia, whence there are two
branch roads; one, passing over Bogue Hill and through Mile Gully,
unites at Williamsfield with the other passing over Spur Tree Hill
and through Mandeville. The road then continues to Porus, Four
Paths, May Pen, Old Harbour and Spanish Town, terminating at
Kingston.
A main road goes southward from Old Harbour through Vere to
Alley, and thence through The Rest (MilK River) to join the last
mentioned main road at the Old Toll Gate in Clarendon, between
Four Paths and Porus.
There is a main road from Kingston passing the Hope Old Toll
Gate and the Hope Gardens to Gordon Town, whence it continues
as a bridle read to Newcastle, and also over Hardware Gap to Buff
Bay. A Carriage road is being constructed from the (c',,'i|r;.r..
near Gordon Town, through Irish Town and Newcastle to Hard-
ware Gap, whence it will continue down the Buff Bay River Valley
to Buff Bay. From the Hope Old Toll Gate, a branch main road
goes past King's House to Halfway Tree.
In addition to the above there are numerous branch main' roads
giving communication to all parts of the interior of the Island.
LIVEKY STABLEs-There are livery stables in all towns of any importance
A list of the principal is given in the table on pp. 13 & 14.
The general practice for long distances, and where the hirer has
the use of the buggy and horsesfor a period of twenty days, is to
charge at the rate of 1 a day. The hirer can arrange, before







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


starting on his journey, either that the Livery Stable Keeper shall in-
clude the cost of feeding the driver and horses in the charge for hire
or that he himself shall pay for it as he goes along. The rate paid
for the driver's food is usually 1/6 a day, and the cost of feeding the
horses varies according to the current price of corn and grass in the
district visited.
CABS (called omnibusses) are to be had in Kingston, Spanish Town, Old
Harbour, Porus, Linstead, Ewarton, Maudeville and Montego Bay.
The fare is 6d. within the limits of each town. Special arrange-
ments are made for distances beyond. Omnibusses can he hired in
Kingston at 3/ per hour.
The Omnihbsses Stands in Kingston are:
In the Day- King Street, near Harbour Street; Harbour Street
near East Street; Duke Street, near Harbour and Port Royal
Streets; Duke Street, near Beeston Street; and East Street, near
North Street.
At Night-King Street, near Tower Street; Harbour Street near
East Street; Church Street, near Tower Street; North Street, near
East Street.
A tram line traverses the town of Kingston and the suburbs, pay-
ment for which is made per stage by tickets, to be purchased at
the various Car Offices, and at the tobacconists, and other places, at
a charge of 2d. each.
MAIL COACHES which carry passengers run-
(i) From Ewarton to Montego Bay on Mondays, Wednesdays and
Friday, and from Montego Bay to Ewarton on the same
days. and return on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays.
(ii) Between Montego Bay and Falmouth in connection with the
Tri-weekly Post, on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays:
"onnectilg with the regular Coach which leaves Falmouth
at 5 a..m, on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays.
(iii) Between Mi.nii. .. Bay and Lucea; leaving respectively every
alternate Mouday, W\\'.-.li, -!iy and Friday.
(iv) From Williamsfield to Savanna-la-Mar on Mondays, Wednes-
days and Fridays, through Mandeville, Spur Tree, Santa
cruz, Lacovia, Middle Quarters, Black River, Whitehouse,
Blueflelds to Savanna-la-Mar; and from the latter place to
Williamsfield Railway Station on Tuesdays, Thursdays
and Saturdays.
(v) From Kingston, through Bull Bay, Yallahs, Morant Bay, Port
Morant, Bath, Plantain Garden River, Manchioneal. Priest-
man's River, to Port Antonio, on Tuesdays, Thursdays and
Saturday ; returning on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fri-
days
(vi.) From Kingston through HFalfway Tree, Stony Hill, Castleton,
to Annotto Bay on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays,
returning from Annotto Bay on the mornings of Tuesdays
Thursday and :aturdays at 3 o'clock.
The following Table gives the rates of passengers' fares between
the several Stations :-








COMMNICA rION. 9

In.) A I II ) E% \rT"T N i' M.NTLiO BAY.


Front -
I I 0

3 ---I




M)ne- g, I 1, 17 6 20/
ClarnI i r I 12'6 1/
Li. Hl 12. 7 2 10/ 12/6
St. A.n' Br I I 7 10/6



Duncn,. .... I'. II I 7/6 5/
Drn% I I '6 1 12/b 2/i
.>l m ..,,,ii, .1 ,, 12 10/
LIT I R,.., i. ; .' 176 15/
M.oniec R II, *' "' : 22 i 260,


iil I MM 1.. *. I r n'i Li I r .


rT. M...il.-. iint River.
4,
4/



S I i LLi iM-i 'Ir.L \'' LA-M At.


FrrnI -






Man.1 rill. *
nilr Tnr- III .i III


1'
.5' I
" ,


Santa i: il -
-iCi.: Vi'ri
. i.Idle ',i. rn.:r r.
Black Rirz.-r
Whitebl,....-
Bluefil.1-
Savanna I., M.


i .C -




30 35 i40; 45/
25/ 30/ i35i 40/
201 25; 30/ 35/
1716 22, 273 32/
15; 20/ 2.5 30/
12 L 17/6 2216 27/r
7DI 126 1716 22/6
5 10 15 20/
5 10, I1/
5' 1/ 8/
10 5 5/
15 8: -


Lucca.
8


. 30! 35, 0 40/
I I 25 30 35 40/
/* I., 20 ,I 2 3 i/
; 12/6 17/6 22 27/6
7/C6 126 17/6 22/6
5/ 10 15 20/
S- I 10 10/
I 0/' 5/ 10/
. .. 10 5 5/
.2 : 10 10, 5/


Fr. i
Monitg,, lH,
Flint iuc. "
Luicei







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

Iv ) KINOlT.lN AND PORT ANrTNI...


KEngs
Bull B
Yalla5
Moran
Port
B.uth
Plant
Riv
Mauct
Pniane
Pri-st
Riv.
Port I


7. -
ton m


ay ii
in lu 5
it Byi IG/ i
lorani 2i/ 1*/
O" Ip
tn (Grder,
Er 25h :
j .f i l I tPl .1/
WJiD '
,nr ffp l 1
A eron .. 4i0 ,


111
lill


2"I1
26


I








5 ',Al 61 1 I, 0l
""/ "u( !', ,,/
10/ 16/ 1' -20 i lj :.i;


16 II I4 ,. :3 [
I /,, I ', l, Ill 1,1
1; ;"/ I I / I. 1 II I"/

hI I .1 I II ir, 51
..) /' 20 I; I)/ r51


Return tickets availablee for four days to anl from Kingston, as
nnder:

Port Antomni, 14 Prie4tmau'- River .56 : Manchioneal, 48t.

Plantain Garden River. +0/ Port Moraut, 32 : Morant Bay, 24.


I .IlKIN.,sr..N %N P ANNi TT.R BAY


From T.. Kig-tn. StirL. Hill C' l/tot n Aonn.:.to Bay.

trl e 8 .11 11 .1 1 -5
S l,, i" Hh' 'I '/ Ip.
CarlIt.-n I" 6/
Annott. B.s I I l *1


Return ticket- av;adable t'fr four dlayv to and from Kingston to
Anuotto Bay, 24,.

The tollowing rggulati:on' relit with regard to all the Mail
t'oachea :-

Seats can he engaged at the Geueral Post Offi... Kingptou. or at
either of the terminal statiotn- at any time on payment ot the full
amount ot fare. At any intermediate station the proper fare a, per
table of charges must (iu the eveut of there being a vacaut seat)
be paid to the local postmaster at the time of starting. Each
pa.-senucr i- allowed to carry 2 111.. weLight or 2,000 cubic inches in
,ize, of p'r-.oniial luggage. Any excess must be paid for a., freight,
and suel excess may not exceed 1011-. in weight or 1,000 cubic
inches in size.






I COMMUNICATION. 11

RAILAY-The Railway Line runs across the island from Kingston to
Moutego Bay, a distance of 120 miles. There is a branch line,
17 miles-in length, between Spanish Town and Ewarton; and another
branch from Bog-walk to Port Antonio, 54 miles in length, is in
course of construction.
A time-table of trains is issued by the company from time to
time. At present there is but one train each way, every week-day, be-
tween Kingston and Montego Bay. The journey takes 64 hours.
There are three trains daily to and from Kingston, over part of the
line.
The fare from Kingston to Montego Bay is 15s. first class; and 8s.
third Ilass. Intermediate fares in proportion. Children under
three years of age, free: over three and under twelve, half the
ordinary fares.







IV. HOTELS AND LODGTNG HOUSES.
A LIST of the HOTELS and lodging houses, in the several parishes of
the island, is given below, with a list of livery-stable keepers
attached :-


Parish. Town.


PORTLAND-
Port Antonio <
Buff Bay
ST. THOMAS-
Bath
ST. ANDREW-
Constant Spring*
Gordon Town
KINGSTON-

Kingston*

ST. MARY-
Castleton Gardens
Annotto Bay
Port Maria
Highgate
ST. ANN-

St. Ann's Bay


Moneague

Ocho Rios
Brown's Town
Claremont
ST. CATHERINE-

Spanish Town

Linstead
Bog-Walk
Ewarton
Old Harbour
Old Harbour Bay


Hotel or Lodging House. Livery-Stable Keeper.


J. McConney; George S Boston Fruit Com-
Chevannes; Mrs. Jones; pany.
Mrs. Sampson J. J. McConney.

Miss Duffy


CONSTANT SPRING HOTEL


MYRTLE BANK HOTEL
PARK LODGE
QUEEN'S HOTEL


The Cottages
C. S. Depass
Mrs. H.Feurtado
H. P. Jones



Mary J. Watson

MONEAGUE HOTEL
Mary A, Hutchinson
Mrs. Mesquitta
Mrs. Delisser


HOTEL RIO COBRE.
Mrs. Lopez; Mrs. Mag-
nus
Rosa A. Minot
Mrs. M. Gibson
Mary Somerville
Mrs. Harrison; S. Silver
C. Llado; C. M. Silver


SH. Bolton & Son.
Duval & Co.

H. Bolton & Son.
A. Clough.
E. Y. McKenzie & Son.
DeCordova.




F. N. Prendergast
Felix A. Morris.
L. L. Fraser.
Mrs. L. J. Hamilton.
SA. N. Sutherland.
Lofthouse:A. C.Green
SC. E. Llewellyn.

Alfred Mesquitta.
J. A. Thompson & Co.
G. Helwig.

Hotel Rio Cobre,


E. DePass

a E. E. Francis.
Melhado, Bro.


Furnished Cottages, of from four rooms to eight rooms each, can be hired at
Streadwick's Marine Gardens, Kingston; and at Streadwick's Hill Gardens, near Con-
stant Spring.







IIHOELS AND LODGING HOUSES.


Parish. Town. I Hotel or Lodging House. Livery-Stable Keepers.



CLARENDON-
Chapeltou' Miss G. Smith G. McDonald.
IG. H. Abraham
M ay Pen A. Butler.


MANCHERTEiR-

Mandevlille



Poru-

HANOVER--
Lueea


WZSTMORFLAND-


Savan na l. Mar


ST. JAMES--


Montego Rcit


Montpeliei

' RLAWN--

Falmouth


BROOKS' HOTEL
I Mrs. Halliday; Mrs. Se-
, nior; Miss'Roy; Mrs.
i A. A. Alexander


Mrs. Mary McPherson;
i Mrs Maria Eastwood.


G H. Munton.
A. S. Lindo.
F. A. Hall.
F. Delephenha.
George Finlay.
SD. W. Brooks:
T. S. Manley.


MargaretCampbell; Mrs. P. Corinaldi.
Vosper; Mrs. Rogers. Talbot.


Miss A. Vaz : Miss II
Shearer; Mrs Vaz.



Miss Payne; Mrs. David
Payne; Miss A. Harri-
son; Miss Manson ;
Miss M. Price; Miss
Mowatt; Mrs. Jervis;
John Reid
I MONTPELIER HOTEL.


SMrs. Robey; Mrs. E. C.
McDonald; Miss De-
Souza ; Mrs. Jacobs.


Duncan,


J. McCreath A. J.
Munroe;John Spence
Robert Nathan
Evans & Co.; G. H.
Pearson.


C. B. Wilson ; G. L.
P Corinaldi; A.
Patterson; R. D. G.
Howard; Jacobs.




8 Delisser- D. L.
Harris; E Lindo.


E. Ferraira: Wm. John-
son.


Busses run I.: 'c ten Chapelton and May Pen.






HANDBOOIK OF INFORMATION.


Parish. Town. Hotel or Lodging Hotel. Livery-Stable Keeper.


ST. ELIZABETH-
SMrs. Cath. Allen; Mr. A. G. Levy.
SThos. Gooden; J. F. Strachan
Black River { J. F. Strachan; G. F. Alberga.
Mrs. Eustace Franklin;
( Mrs.F. G. Myers.
Santa Cruz Mrs. E. M. Bowra; James Saams
Miss Saams. C. R. Gregory.
Mrs. M. Temple
Malvern Mrs. Lawrence R. Crawford.
Newport H. A. Forde
Bayberry O. Saams.
Mountain Side J. Blake.
aovia J. S. Roden".
covia W. J. Tomlinson.
Siloah E. S. Falden
Balaclava Mrs, O'Sullivan
Balaclava ^Mrs. Gooden.

V. AGRICULTURE.
(a.) AGRICULTURAL LIFE IN JAMAICA
Of recent years much attention has been paid and considerable
impetus has been given to Agricultural life in Jamaica, which until
recently had been suffering from the effects nf the decrease in the
production of sugar of more than half a century ago. A Jamaica
Society of Agriculture was formed tn 1895; and attempts are being
made to bring to the aid of the practical agriculturist the results of
modern scientific investigation and experiment. The recent failure
of the orange crops in Florida has also given an impetus to orange
growing in Jamaica.
The following extracts, from the series of Lectures on Agriculture
delivered under the auspices of the Institute of Jamaica; from Dr.
Nicholls' Text Book of Tropical Agriculture," which obtained the
premium offered by the Government of Jamaica for the best work
on the subject; and from information kindly contributed by various
planters and others, may give some idea of the condition of agri-
cultural life in Jamaica:-
I. PEN-KEEPING includes horse, and mule breeding, cattle-breeding
and dairying, and sheep farming.
CATTLe-BREEDING-" The importance of this branch of Agriculture in
Jamaica may be gathered from the following approximate figures.
Out of a total of 657,923 acres under cultivation in this island we
find that no less than 496,909 acres are entered as being under guinea
grass and common pasture. We may I think, safely estimate that
'th of this is used for the feeding and rearing of live stock- At
the first glance we might be led to conclude that the whole 496,000





AGRICULTURE.


acres must be used for that purpose, but we know that there are
properties under cultivation which, though covered with rich common
or pimento grass, carry very few cattle, and are only kept up by the
pimento which grows upon them. Deducting therefore Mth from
the acreage under cultivation we have 372,681 acres which we may
safely say are used for grazing purposes, and, allowing four acres
per head, we conclude that there are about 93,170 head of cattle
scattered throughout the country. The Collector GeneraPs Report
for 1891-92 gives in as belonging to pens, 77,423 head over one year
old. This leaves us 16,927 to account for. We may, I think, class
10,000 of them as yearlings, and the balance, say 7,000, as being of
that age which penkeepers could not call two year old, but which
were perhaps more than yearlirgs. Valuing these 93,170 head of
cattle at 5 per head all round, we find that 465,850 is invested in
cattle on pens alone, to say nothing of the value of the land they are
raised on, which I am sure I am well within the mark in placing at
1,000,000 sterling; so that putting the two together, we have a
total of nearly a million and a half invested in cattle and the land
they live upon***. In Jamaica we have two very different and dis-
tincts markets for which we raise cattle-viz., the planter and the
butcher. The planter, requiring cattle for working purposes, must
look for an animal calculated to endure the hardships of labour. The
beast of his choice therefore will be a hardy muscular animal***.
Turning now to the breeding of cattle for butchers' purposes, we
find a wide field of different breeds to traverse. All the English
breeds of cattle, are more or less good beef-producers, and a good
many of these breeds have been imported into Jamaica from time to
time-[Shorthorns, Hereford, Devon, Aberdeen Angus and Suffolk.]
***No country in the world could be better suited for the raising
and fattening of cattle than Jamaica. No one could fail to be struck
by this, after a day or two's trip through the parishes, for all through
the country you will find hills covered with rich feeding, admirably
suited for the feeding of young steers and heifers, the exercise of
climbing the hills being beneficial to their health and growth Then
there are plenty of rich shady glades where breeding cows and their
young calves thrive so well, and on the more level lands especially,
is the luxuriant guinea grass, than which no finer natural feed
for fattening cattle has ever heen found. I say natural feed as
opposed to the artificial food, such as oil-cake, etc., which is so
largely used in the fattening of cattle in England. Of course these
artificial food-stuffs fatten cattle at a much earlier age than any grass
can do, but I question very much if any feeding can surpass our
guinea grass in making delicate, juicy beef.
Then, look at the general plan of our grazing properties. No huge
open ranches covering thousands of acres where cattle range at will
never seeing the face of man, and therefore being wild and unmana-
gable; but we find the pens ranging from say 00 to 2,000 acres,
sub-divided by stone-walls or wire fences into pastures, the guinea
grass from 20 to 60 acres, and the commons" from 60 to 150 acres
depending on the size of the property and the number of cattle feed-
on it. Of course there are large open properties to be found, but
these are not fattening pens, and it is the good fattening properties
to which I am referring. The climate also is conducive to the profit-






16 HANDBOOK OF WIORAtATIOX.

able raising and fattening of cattle. No sudden chills to check
growth and fattening; no need for h housing or folding of the stock ;
night and day they are out in the fresh pure air, eating and drinking
to their heart's contents.-Adam Roxburgh."
INDIAN CATTL E -" Of the four different breeds of humped or Zebu cattle
that have been introduced into this island, the Hissar will, for general
utility purposes, probably prove the most useful breed, as these
combine good working qualities for slow work, with the best milk-
ing qualities, in which our island cattle are as a rule deficient.
Indian cattle are noted for their hardiness of constitution: they
can subsist and keep in good condition on the lowest bite on which
creole and English bred stock would starve and die; they eat many
of the coarser grasses and shrubs that other cattle refuse, and are
very free from disease.
In times of drought they can be driven considerable distances to
water, which often is the cause of such heavy losses on pens in dry
seasons in some districts. They are able to do without shade, and
thrive in the most exposed situations under a tropical sun which
causes the hair of cattle with English blood in them to stare and
become tender to the touch, and in fact to become sunburnt; under
these conditions the hair grows in yellowish patches giving a pecu-
liarly unnatural and rough appearance to the coat. The constitution
.n such cases is weakened and the usefulness of the animals impaired
through its inability to meet the exigencies of the climate.
The Mysore cattle are doubtless poor milkers, and I should doubt
the (ugerat cattle being much better; the very qualities which
place them at the head of the working breeds of cattle are against
their giving much milk On the other hand, the Gir cattle are
famous as milkers and rival the Nellore and Hissar which are repu-
ted to be the best milkers in India. I can find no exact records of
the yield of milk from Gir cattle, and they have not been introduced
into the island sufficiently long to have their half-bred stock tried.
The Hissar cattle however have the reputationof being fine milkers;
cows of that breed when well fed giving from ten to sixteen quarts
of milk in twenty-four hours, which though not equal to the yield of
well fed English dairy cows, surpasses the yield of any cattle in this
country.
Buffaloes give from six to twelve quarts of milk in 24 hours.
This is much richer in cream than cow's milk and better for butter
making.
A half-bred Indian cow has beed recorded as giving an average
yield of over 7 quarts of milk daily for the first six months, a suffi-
ciency of milk being left for the wants of the calf. The yield for
the first month being 9 quarts daily, gradually domiunihiug to 5
quarts daily in th' six months.
I have no doubt that half-bred Hissar and Gir cows when well fed
will produce as much and raise their calves at the same time***
Indian cattle have never been valued for those flesh producing
capabilities which forin such an important feature in most of our
local breeds of cattle.
It is not to be expected that Zebu cattle will produce as good beef
as Shorthorns, Herefords, Devons and other British breeds, but
they will at any rate be as good if not better than Ihe Spanish






AGRICULTURE.


Amerr.-an cattle that are now being so largely used to supply the
Kington market.
IJudieious cross-breeding of Indian cattle with Iti- hxistiiiL' En'.lili
br.-td- that are well established throughout the lsi ,.1, wil il,,ildi.-.-
rupr.,ve the fattening qualities of the Indian stock, at the same
tim thle cross-breds will be harder and less liable to sick. ss and
dise;ai than cattle of English descent.-B. S. Gosset."
)DAlR\'IN,-" The supply of milk being so small the price remains at 4%
and id., an almost prohibitory price; it has even been said that it
1lo0.- not pay to sell at 3d; why, I have never been able to find out.
Then it has been publicly stated,that butter cannot be made to
p;a\ under 3s. a lb ; but at the time I wrote to-say that it could be
doie at much less; some butter being sold on the Northside at
Is. 9d. In England. wholesale contracts are taken at as low a figure
as lIld. a lb. all the year round. What is it then that makes our
butter so costly? Of course, if the milk is sold at 4% or 6d. it would
no:r pay to make it into butter. But with butter at 2s. a lb. the
milk will nett 2'Vd. a quart, and if the separated milk can be sold
at 1 17 d it will bring it to 4d a very good price. As I have already
stated it is only a matter of transport with due regard to the climate
Fr,,ii the great lack of skilled labour in th. island, I hope no one
will attempt starting a dairy farm who is not prepared to give it a
mo.-t .-oinstant personal attention; but with that I see no reas:)u
whl\ ths industry should not play as large a part in the prosperity
..It thi. island as it does in that or other countries. -C. A. T. Fursdon
II. PLUNTING--BANANA The banana is exported from the West Indies
in grtat quantities to the United States- Jamaica is now the centre
ef ti, banana trade of the West Indies. In LS81 the exports were
217,.11i, bunches valued by the Customs authorities, 22,665 16s. 8d.,
and in 1893 94. they had increased to 5,162, 808 bunches valued at
'47-3.257 8s. Od.
-' The banana will grow in nearly every soil, except those com-
po-ed almost wholly of sand or of calcareous matters. The
l._t ., ..il for the cultivation of the plant is a warm, well-drained;
hut rather moist, deep loam, with a good proportion of humus In
s.iih a soil, and with a favourable climate, bananas will yield enor-
mouii rrops
With proper cultivation, a good soil, and a suitable climate, the
lirst rip may be gathered in about a year from the time of plant
inzg ; and, as some plants may be backward whilst others are for-
ward in growth, bunches will be gathered at all times there-
atter."-Dr. Nicholls.
The following are a few particulars with respect to banana
oullit a.ion upon a property in Portland.
stalks per acre, 339.
(Gross sales per acre ... 27 1 3
C. st of cultivation and delivery per acre 6 18 6
Net profit ... ... 20 2 9
s. d.
Selling price per stalk .1 7%
Cost per stalk cultivation and delivery 0 4,
Net profit per stalk .. 1 2)






HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


Cultivation per acre.
Each acre was weeded, ploughed, and harrowed seven times dur-
ing the year; forked around the roots once in the year; suckered
regularly whenever the suckers shewed.
Forty acres of the cultivation have been bearing since 1886 and
are still in cultivation.
The crop in 1887-88. averaged ten six-hands to one nine-hand.
The crop for 1892-93 averaged fifteen whole bunches to one six-
hand. This has been done without the aid of manure, and shows
the result obtained by improved methods of cultivation.
The figures include cost of keeping up herd of cattle, cleaning
and fencing pastures, watchmen, headmen, salaries, general supplies
and all minor improvements.
The distance from shipping place is 1 mile on a la'el road Rain-
fall about 150 inches evenly distributed. The climate is moist and
humid. The -oil alluvial deposit from conglomerate and prophyry
formations. These figures represent about the very best results
obtained on about the best cultivated lands on the northside under
most favourable circumstances.
Have been unsuccessful with all attempts at resuscitating with
artificial manures.
Replant every five years-catch crops retard growth of bananas,
viz: peas, beans, corn. &c., &c.
Cocoa, kola and coffee grow well under banana shade and not
injurious.
Prices ruling lower, but demand for good fruit, very good and in-
creasing every year."--Henry Cork
THE CULTIVATION OF BANANAS UNDER IRRIGATION It is only recently
that the cultivation of Bananas under irrigation on the plains of St.
Catherine has been carried on to any extent.
There are now over 600 acres of bearing and established plants
and between 4 and 5 acres being planted.
The plantations have given exceptional good results and compare
most favourably with districts where no irrigation is used.
The soil is of an alluvial nature and well adopted for irrigation
purposes. The top or surface -oil is principally composed of loam
rich in vegetable matter and extends to the depth of a foot, the
2nd layer is a mixture of sand and loam, the 3rd layer, or subsoil,
is chiefly sand with a slight proportion of clay.
The oldest plantation has been in cultivation for over five years
and up to now it, has not been found necessary to either plough or
manure.
The land chosen for planting is usually virgin forest. The wood
is cut down and burned, the suckers planted 15 feet square and main
trenches are dug with small trenches leading down each row of
plants.
The lands being nearly all level with a slight fall towards the sea,
the manipulation of the water is very easy.
The amount of water required per acre is 1 cubic yards per hour
averaging a cost of 20s. per acre per annum."-Robert Hay.
UTILIZATION OF WASTE BANANAs-Machinery has recently been invented
for the conversion of bananas into various products. The prospects
of this new industry are now more hopeful, and it seems probable







AGRICULTURE.


that factories will be started in Jamaica for the utilization of bananas
that now are wasted.
Coc%'-,-"The cacao or cocoa tree must be planted in deep soil. The
hbt soil of all is that occurring in valleys and uudulpting lands,
along the banks of rivers or streams, and made by the decomposition
of volcanic rocks. It will also grow well in loams and the richer
marls, but it will not thrive in stiff heavy clays.
A warm, moist climate is necessary for the cultivation of cacao, if
large crops are expected; but when the soil is suitable, the tree will
grow and give fair returns in a moderate dry place. The ordi-
na ry cacao plant will not do well in the mountains above two thousand
feet. and even at that height it becomes stunted and does not remain
fruitful for many years. The best elevation is from 300 to 500 feet;
ai u., in sheltered situations near the sea shore, good crops are to be
obt iined, but the tree will not thrive if exposed to the direct in
flut-ce of the sea breeze. Sheltered lands and valleys with
a southern or western aspect are the best situations to form acaao
plantations. The cacao trees when young will not thrive
without shade, and when they are fully grown, it is found that they
give better crops if shade trees are planted at intervals. For the
y.ouug cultivation, the banana gives the best shade, and it
seems specially adapted for the purpose; besides which, its fruit is
valuable, and will give a return for the land whilst the young cacao
i. growing. For perminent shade, the immortelle tree
(Eriqthrina umbrosa) or the cacao mother," as it is called, is used
in frinidad; but breadfruit, breadnut, trumpet tree, and guango or
saman trees may be planted. Returns from a cacao plan-
tation cannot be expected until five years after planting, and it will
not be in full bearing before from seven to ten years. A few trees
may bear earlier than five years, but these are very favourably
I situated and they are exceptions to the rule. The trees bear nearly
all the year round, but there are two principal crops --one from
April to June, and the other from November to January, the latter
'-rop being much the more abundant of the two The crops are
usually termed Easter and Christmas, after the season of the year
during which they are gathered.
The average yield of dry cacao from each tree, of course varies
very much. The limits may be said to be from a pound and a half
to eight pounds per tree. On the rich alluvial lands of Surinam,
tr. m eight to nine pounds per tree are said to be obtained; but, in
the bad cultivation of the West Indian peasant proprietors, it is
doubtful whether a pound per tree is got."-Dr. Nicholls.
('OcOA-NUTS-" The low alluvial flats, near to the mouths of rivers,
more especially lands subject to occasional inundations, are the best
sit nations for the cultivation of the cocoa-nut, for in these places, the
alluvial loam is usually rich and deep The yield of nuts
depends on soil, climate and cultivation, and, as may be imagined,
the crops of different trees vary wildly In Ceylon it is said that
the general average return of cocoa-nut estates is not over thirty
uuts per tree; but individual trees have been known to give over
300 nuts every year for a period of ten years. This enormous yield,
however, is most exceptional; but, with a good climate, a fair
average soil, and judicious cultivation, the return ought to be at







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


least fifty nuts a tree, and at twenty-five feet distance, thie w.uldi
give a yield of 3,500 nuts per acre. By the application of a.italbh.
manure the returns may be increased to eighty nuts a tree. or .,ver
5,000 per acree, but such a yield cannot be expected from thb- liaht
sandy soils of the coastline."-Dr. Nicholls.
CoPFEE PLANTING-" In Manchester the land is not so precipitou- :ai In
the Blue Mountains: the elevation for coffee does not rangr- i .tny
part much over 3,000. Planting is done at distances of from .) to 6
feet square; deep red virgin soil in this parish is the best whl-n,~ever
obtainable, but this description of land is scarce. The uilk ot
uncultivated woodland remaining is due to marl or other condition,.
of soil unsuited to coffee cultivation; there is also a dark r rr.-lly
soil which comes next and is also good for coffee. Heavy .:,d .l lr'Y
is unsuitable; if below the surface it will cause coffee to d.lie out
when the tap root gets to it.
Pasture land can be used on which cattle have been graLizmn tor
the last 50 years (of which there is a good deal in this parish ift the
grass is well dug into the soil (no.fire used), but subject to Ihlh .-ians
cultivation with manure, chiefly vegetable; no weeds allowed t.., _row
and kept covered with dry grass or rubbish as a protection inr keep-
ing off the direct rays of the sun from drying up the gr.i,.tid and
exh lusting the property of the manure. With the above treatment,
the yield of coffee will equal that of woodland Shade can t-., ob-
tained by planting plantains and bananas and fig-trees. Cut and
plant large branches, the larger the better (they grow ri-.adily),
and plant in like manner as in planting plum-tree br.Li-bh_-
at distances of about 25 or 30 feet apart. It will be foundl that
coffee does not die out when growing under and protect..- Io. the
shade of a fig-tree, which latter is deciduous dropping ii- Iciav
when not required during the cool season at the fall of thI yi-ar,
renewing them when most required in the. dry and hot season The
leaves also form good vegetable manure I would recommnt.nd a
nursery of plants grown from seed to be kept for planting our iandl nt
to depend on coffee plants uprooted anywhere, which is th.- Leni-iral
system: the nursery plants will be found in every way sup.-rio-r and
will more than repay the little extra trouble Covering the land
with grass, leaves, &c., will not only intercept the sun's ii %. and
avoid waste of manure but will help to form manure of th, dJ.:-.-rip-
tion required, and keep down the growth of weeds and -.i, : void
weeding which destroys the fine fibrous roots which will he round
on all healthy trees between the surface soil and the manure-
looking for plant food. The absence of this description ot rot is
an indication that the tree is in poor health. The top .ind other
lateral roots serve chiefly to steady the plant
Liberian Coffee, which when full grown is a large tree, thriv.,- blist
on low rich and well sheltered land; especially when younrG. -uff-r
severely from breeze. It is rarely, if ever pruned. It is picked by
climbing the tree. It should be planted at not less than 2. teeth
square. A pulper must be made expressly Pulp thick, fibrous and
tough, berries much larger, parchment very tough, even wli.u dry,
hard and horny. When prepared for use, Liberian coffee ia hb no
equal to the Arabian aroma, and is of a coarse flavour. Qu..talions
for best quality are lower than for Arabian. I think the experience







AGRICULTURE.


of growers here would result in a verdict unfavourable to the
Liberian.
Arabian Coffee--A plant between a tree and a shrub, will grow
over 15 ft. in its iuative state from 1% to, say, 6 inches diameter full
grown; if pruned and allowed afterwards to grow into a long top,
it will average up to 10 ft. in height : it is picked when long by
bending down. If topped about 32, 4, to 4Y ft. it is easy to pick
standing on the ground It is pruned as often as is necessary: it
thrives from almost sea level in some localities, if the soil is suitable
to 5,000 ft. It stands more breeze ,ut requires shelter in exposed
positions. It is planted at from 5 to 6 feet square.
It pulps easily when ripe with an ordinary pulper; when properly
dry the parchment comes of easily. When prepared for use, the
aroma is good and the flavour delicate and delicious.
From the introduction of the hulling process in London, I have
have constantly shipped in husk. From (late of shipment as per
bill of lading on Royal Mail Steamer in Kingston tup to date of
report sale in London the average is 28 days. I have to take my
turn at hulling : the coffee is hulled in bond under Government super.-
vision. What I get (lone in London in seven days would take me
about the same number of weeks here to hand-pick in the old style.
Although I have all the machinery necessary for I.** I F.:ti;f the process
of curing, my experience is that it is best to ship in husk, i.e. parch-
ment."- Geo. Nash.
The yield of coffee varies, of course, according to soil, climate
and cultivation but it may be said to be from four to twelve cwts.
to the acre. A pound per tree, on an average, would be a very good
return, but in favourable situations ard under proper cultivation
some trees will yield much more The Liberian coffee trees are
much more prolific than the Arabian kind, and each tree yields from
one to eight pounds of clean coffee About three bushels of berries
may be picked by a good worker in a day, and this will yield about
301bs. of dry coffee, or about 10lbs. to the bushel in the case of the
Arabian coffee, but the pulp of Liberian -.,,tt. .. is much thicker,
and the berries of this kind will not give so much clean coffee to the
bushel; but the trees, by bearing larger crops, compensate for the
greater loss in pulp."--Dr. H. Nicholls.
COFFEE PLANTING IN THE BLUE MOUNTAINs-" It was on the 13th Sep-
tember, 1884, that I commenced felling and clearing the first 50
acres, and it was on the 4th April, 1885, that I started planting.
The first return from this cultivation was obtained in 1890.
The establishing and up-keep until 1890 of the first 100 acres,
together with the building of house, works, and the erection of
machinery, cost 14,000. It will thus be seen that a young Blue
Mountain Coffee Planter must have, not only the necessary capital
for establishing an estate, but enough besides to enable him to live
during the years the coffee takes to come into full bearing.
The second 100 acres cost 9,000 and the 3rd 100 acres up to date
7,000. The return to be expected from the 300 acres, judged by
the light of previous experience, can be taken to be 20 per cent. on
capital outlay.






22 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

There are immense tracks of splendidly rich land in Portland and
St. Thomas that have been given to the Railway Syndicate. This land
will grow coffee to perfection, but there two obstacles at present to
cultivating largely, and they are want of labor, and driving roads.
To overcome the first difficulty the Government will have to facili-
tate the introduction of coolie labour, if any good is to be done, and
with regard to the second, the Government, under His Excellency
Sir Henry Blake. have embarked on a scheme of Mountain Roads
which when complete will make these lands accessible; and the
roads will contribute enormously to the future prosperity of .amaica.
In all my previous remarks it must be clearly understood that I
am speaking entirely and solely of high Blue Mountain Coffee
planting; they do not apply to the plains, or to the prospects of
coffee growing there.
In conclusion I may state that for any one possessed of ample
means and energy, there is no more healthy, profitable, or pleasant
life, than coffee planting in the beautiful climate of the Blue Moun-
tains of Jamaica."'-G. G. Taylor.
GINGER-" There is no extensive acreage under cultivation at the present
time. In 1822-3 the acreage was returned at 246. The season
supposed to be the most suitable for planting operations is in the
month of March or April. Should seasonable weather have
prevailed, and proper attention have been bestowed on the cultiva-
tion, the cultivator might reasonably anticipate that under such
favourable conditions 2,000 pounds will be the average yield per
acre. The cultivation of ginger on a large scale would hardly
be regarded as a remunerative industry, the employment of labour
being costly; its growth is therefore undertaken almost exclusively
by the peasantry who, as owners or tenants of small areas of land in
in the mountainous district, expend their own labour on its cultiva-
tion One of the essential conditions to the growth of the plant is
in the elevation of the land selected for cultivation, which, to secure
the best results, should be at least 2,000 feet above sea-level.
It is generally recognized by cultivators that the soil best adapted
to its growth is clayey-loam, or the virgin soil of the forest land, the
crops usually attaining the highest market value. Manchester,
Trelawny and St. Ann, must be regarded as the principal ginger
producing parishes in the island. The cost of establishing one
acre in plants would depend on the site chosen; but I am of opinion
that if for each acre the cultivator calculated on an outlay of from
L8 to 10 he would not fall for short in his estimate *." G.A.Douet.
LIMES'-" Limes grew best near the sea up to an elevation of 500 feet,
where the atmosphere is moist. If the spot is liable to droughts,
irrigation is necessary.
The soil should be light. It need not be as rich as for cocoa, so
that those portions of a cocoa estates where the soil is too poor for
cocoa, might be suitable for limes. The trees begin to yield when
about 3 years old, and are in full bearing at 7 years. The yield
varies, but under favourable circumstances may be as much as from
three quarters to a whole barrel from each tree."-Bulletin of the
Botanical Department.
LoGwooD.-" It was introduced into Jamaica from Honduras by Dr.
Barham, in 1715, and later on it was carried to other parts of the






AGRICULTURE.


We~t Indies *. Logwood is used in medicine as an astringent,
but its principal use is as a dye *
Logwood will grow well on moist soils, except loose sands and
heavy clays. It grows best. however, and produces finer heart-
wood on moist rich soils where there is an abundance of vegetable
matter. The climate must be hot, but not arid: although the plant,
whru it has become firmly rooted in the ground, stands a drought
very well *. Logwood can scarcely be said to be cultivated, for
mo.t of the blocks are cut from self-sown trees. But waste lands
unsulitable for other cultivations, mi y with advantage be planted with
logwood, and properly tended trees will always give a finer product
than those growing wild *. n Jamaica quite a large business has
hreen established in digging ant exporting logwood roots left in the
around when the trees were felled during the last twenty or thirty
vears. Some idea may be formed of the importance of logwo< d as
a dyt- when it is remembered that the imports into England alone
tar valued at more than a quarter of a million sterling for a single
year."-Dr. Nicholls.
NuTME.E1'. -" Nutmeg trees require a deep, rich, loamy soil, moist but
not -wampy, with a humid atmosphere. They thrive best in shady
riv.r valleys from sea-level up to 300 or 400 feet, but they will grow
in tavourable situations up to an elevation of 2,000 feet *. The
I r-i.r are a long time comin- to maturity not producing a crop, as a
rule. till they are nine years old; and only when they first'flower,
at t, or 7 years of age, is it possible to determine whether they are
male or female. A very small proportion of male tress is left for
rertilisation by insects; the rest are cut down and fresh plants are
sub-iituted The fertile trees continue to produce fruit for 70 or 80
years. On an average each tree will yield 10 pounds of nutmegs,
and about one pound of mace every year; and when highly manured
it is said that they will produced ten times that amount *
Mr. I. Reece, Resident Magistrate of St. Ann, writes as follows:-
SI .ran not tell you how very glad I am to know that you are en-
deavouring to get people here to go in for nutmegs. Ever since I
came to this colony, I have been trying to impress on those with
whom I have come in contact, and who possessed lands adapted for
the growth of that valuable article, the great fortunes to be made
ther.-by. I know Grenada well having been there on several occa-
.inus. There are lands here as suitable in every respect for the
cultivation of cocoa and nutmegs as there are in that island. As
regards the value of nutmeg trees, I know an old man living about
five miles out of St. George, who, when I was there last (1884), told
me that. from two trees in the preceding year, he had got Z30'."
Batl tin of the Botanical Department.
ORANuL-.-'" The climate of Jamaica is so well adapted for it that the
orn Ige grows in nearly every part of the island,and its soil is so fertile
that it grows without any kind of cultivation or care of any kind:
any where the seeds are thrown they grow readily and produce good
fruit. For a great many years there was no trade done in this fruit;
the birds seemed to enjoy them and no one disputed their rights to
do so. Many people are under a false idea that the orange is a very
p.-rlhable fruit; this is not really so, for, if the fruit is carefully
gathered and has received no damage, it can be kept for twelve





24 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

months easily. It the fruit is properly handled it can be shipped to
any part of the world in good condition. Not very many years ago
the trade began with the New York market, and, although the rot
was very severe, the high prices shippers got for the fruit still gave
such large profits, that it paid them to run the risk; the demand was
so great in America for the fruit that shippers only sought to put in
large lots without any attempt to improve the quality of the fruit or
the mode of handling and packing &c. The very large prices
obtained in New York for the very inferior kind of fruit shipped
there, induced large capitalists to go into the cultivation of oranges
in Florida, neither the soil nor the climate of which place is suitable
for its cultivation; yet from good cultivation and careful handling
they have succeeded so well that they are able to put into the market
at the present time nearly five million boxes of oranges per annum.
The Florida crops begin early in November and last till the end of
February, so that our only market for Jamaica fruit is August,
September, March and April In Florida they are working their
cultivation so as to bring in the fruit in the early and late months.
If we are to continue the orange trade we must look for other
markets for our fruit; to ship to other markets we must have the
oranges put up in a proper way and have steamers suitable for the
trade-steamrrs that will carry the fruit well at'even temperature
Now I shall deal with the best mode of handling and shipping
oranges:-
Picking-This is the first and to my mind the most important part
of the work. The orange should not be picked when there is any
moisture on the fruit. The picker should climb the tree with a
basket slung by a cord ; he should then gather the fruit with a piece
of the stem on the orange which he must cut off close to the orange
with a very sharp knife and put in the basket; when full the basket
is then let down ca!refully to the ground, carried to the packing
house, and the oranges carefully put away on shelves to cure; in no
case should they be stored deeper than one foat; the fruit should
remain on the shelf two days.
Sizing. When the curing is done, the fruit can stand more hand-
ling, it can now be passed through the sizer, which will separate the
different sizes. The very large and very small oranges are not worth
shipping; these should be rejected, also any coarse skin, or dis-
coloured fruit; only the fine skin orange is worth shipping: any that
are known as cross-grained oranges must be thrown out. After the
sizing is done, they are now again stored on the shelves about six
inches deep for at least one day, then the culling is done by careful
hands overhauling the fruit and throwing out any that are not good.
as this work should not be entirely left to the wrappers, as is the
general practice. After the culling is done, the wrapping begins ; the
best paper is the fine tissue paper used in Florida. The wrappers
are also to examine the fruit as they wrap, so as to throw out any
bad fruit overlooked by the cullers; each orange is wrapped with
the stem in the twist of the paper; fancy paper can be used for
fancy oranges.
Packages. The best package is the regular Florida box which mea-
sures 2 feet long by 1 foot square with a division in the centre of
box; these boxes carry the fruit much better than barrels as the







AGRICULTURE.


bulk i- smaller and the fruit keep on a more even temperature; the
iruir are also always kept in one position, they are also a neater
pa:-kage, and being a smaller package and the fruit sized, are ready
tor rh- consumer, and more easily sold than barrels of mixed oraugV4
If trait is being sent on a very long voyage, the best kind of package -
is that which is quite air tight, the fruit packed being in fine saw-
du~r care being taken that the fruits do not touch each other; also
that rhe dust used is not of wood of a strong scent as it will impart a
foreign flavour to the fruit.
Pai-king in barrels. The oranges are packed in rings firmly, begin-
SniuIL ith the outer ring and so on until the whole layer is done;
eare -hould be taken not to press too hard with the thumb or the
orann,-, will be damaged: this is repeated on each layer till the
S barr.-l to full, the fruit should come about one inch above the line-
hoop, the head when put on will press down the fruit to the level of
S the ho, p.
.Voi'?. In packing in boxes, the fruit being sized, each is packed
exact rl alike and holds the samenumber ot fruit : the size measure-
mennt~ are:-
For fruit packing 226 oranges to the box 2 1; in.
200 2 1| in.
," 176 2 I in.
150 3 r3 in.
126 3
112 3
Pncling Houses. The present system of putting up oranges is to
hire t-hy shop or room that can be got for the purpose: the con-
.equence is that the fruit is thrown on the floor or ground as the
ca;t miay be, and piled up to the height of 4 feet and sometimes
eveu more than this, the very weight of the fruit damaging the
loew r ones; the fruit being wrapped and packed as soon as they
comr.I in: the consequence is that the fruits are not tested and bad
fruit :ie sent away To put up fruit properly, one requires a good
deal l room to sort and handle well. In putting up a large order
of ..ranges, it is l..-iliI. to do so without a large and well venti-
lated packing house; th, 1ul.ll.: should be specially built for the
puipu.e, it should be l..rr. ,,iA shelved all through with shelves
about *. feet wide so as to store the fruit as already explained. It is
al,, aL.visable to have the packing house at the railway, so that
there will be no fear of getting fruit wet after it is packed."-H, 8.
Brchnm.
PIMENTo--" This is a very pungent spice, and is known as 'Jamaica
Pepper' and 'Allspice.' The tree, which is of moderate size, grow-
ing t.- a height of some thirty or forty feet, with a circumference at
the base of the trunk of about three feet, is a species of myrtle. The
word is covered with a greenish grey bark, which is smooth and
bhniug in appearance; the leaves are a dark and very glossy green,
anil when crushed in the hand emit a strong aromatic odour. The
general appearance of the tree is very striking, owing to the colour
of rhe bark, which causes every tree to show up through the dark
gren-n of the leaves, with a peculiarly beautiful effect. It has been
tho"tbht that Jamaica is the only place where this spice is to be
found, but this is not so. It has been found in parts of South







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


America. but. owing to the expense of the gathering in tIe,. pilrac-,
it would prove a very unprofitable article of export. 1, .1:1,i,:uaia,
however, where labour of a kind is comparatively ch. +., .A.. 'an
gather in the spice at a price which allows of consider;al..-. .rntir to
the grower; and yet give the labourer a very fair wage t.r ii- time.
Another erroneous idea respecting pimento is that it will n.1l.t row
if planted by hand, but must be dropped by birds or. illr- 'rr.iuud.
The birds certainly are very fond of the ripe berries, aInd It i- a tact
that nearly all our pimento trees are planted in this wa it. it i- a
great mistake to suppose that it is necessary for the seed nr.-t 1.. pass
through the bird ; for if a ripe seed is washed and cli-.i.-l -.t the
external pulp, and then planted, it grows readily. TIh pIulp hI.w-
ever must be removed, for if not, it dries and forms a h r h-' lit-hry
skin, which will be in the ground for an indefinite time, .iu1. prevent
the seed from springing. There are two kinds of pimeit.. Ire-,.. the
fruitful or bearing tree, and the unfruitful or, as it -. -..ininonly
termed, the male tree. They are very much alike in al'p.,I mlice,
and can only be distinguished by experienced eyes. It .- I.-ld by
botanists that the so called male" trees are not nec.-.: ar t-. the
fructifying of the bloom on the bearing trees, and th.ir rl,.i are
simply barren trees of no use to the grower, and, ex.s-ptir_- whit-
they are useful as shade trees, are better outof tie i\;\ anuy
growers however find it difficult to reconcile this theor% with .rtiial
experience, holding that when all the male" trees art- .,- ..t, the
yield of the other trees is not equal to what it had be< 1 i -tor- the
axe was put work. A pimento tree under favourable eIiim;tmi.r; es
begins to bear when about eight or ten years old, but i- i- u .t -n lull
:,.:if ;ii, Illabout i;Ih.'l .it or twenty years. It will g -' n i ,.:lrmug
it I "s" rl;.' treated for a very great number of years lunr tlan'
the average life of a man. The berry, which is the markt:all pro-'
ductof thetree,andis the'Allspice'of commerce,isasmall iyr .Iiil truit
about the size of an ordinary black currant. They gr.." iIn ItersJ
on the tree, and are in the best condition for picking w -l. till but
not ripe. When ripe they are of a glossy black colour, sn e-t ,il viry
spicy in flavour, in fact very pleasant to the taste. Tii tull. but
unripe, berry is more spicy and somewhat peppery, anri .i-, riinit.
The process of gathering is carried out by sending a la. Ip iI tH- tree
with a long stick with a crook at the end; with this tL :trl,-- the
long outer branches, and bending them back till within hlit 1n- i-h he
snaps off the smaller ends where they are about the t,-kin -- .f an
ordinary walking cane, and throws them down to ground In thiI
manner, he breaks off all the small branches upon w-ihb hie riud
the pimento berries hanging, and at the same time effect ivrly pru ne
the tree, without which pruning the tree will not bear r.-,ila rtl. Thb
tree thoroughly 'broken,' women and children gatlir-, ,1. iht
branches, and sitting down they pick off the berries nilt, hf-kets
talkitr care to winnow out all the stems and leaves, aul, I-.,- ..min
the berries. At the close of the day the baskets, full with pi nuv1nto
are all brought to the barbecues, and then measured : tih. .|iI init
picked by each person being entered up in the barbecill- h-...i.k. a
paid for at the end of the week.
The barbecue is the place where the berries are dried .ind prI-lar
for market. It is a large paved court; the size dependinog ,-u th






AGRICULTURE.


average quantity of pimento picked on the property. It is sub-
d divided into beds' by a low banking, so that the pimento picked on
S.le day and which has begun to dry, does not mix with the green
tresh spice of another day's picking. When a -ilt;. I, quantity has
b-en thrown upon a bed,' it is spread out and exposed to tie sun,
a man with a wooden rake being employed to keep turning it over
that all sides of the berry may have the benefit of the heat.
Pimento takes from six to ten days to cure in this manner, the
length of time being effected by the heat of the sun's rays A. good
Iry breeze is a great help in the curing, and quickens the process
| materially. Tarpaulins should be provided for e ery ra ige of bar-
becues, for the pimento should not be ii.......1 to get wet while the
dying process is going on. The damp spoils the quality of the spice
and effects the bright brown colour, which is the chief point looked
to by purchasers. Tho berries are known to be thoroughly dry when,
upon taking up a handful, and holding it firmly in the hand, a sharp,
dry, crisp, rattling sound will be heard, if shaken near to the
ear. When this is noticed, it can then be gathered up and stored,
1ill the time comes when, the crop being over, it is passed through a
a machine for fanning out all dust and leaves, and then bagged
ready for shipment.
The average production of pimento is about 50,000 to 60,000 bags
-,t about 1501bs. weight per annum foi the whole island. It is always
-.ld in the island by the 1001bs., and the average price for the past
tiie years has been about 15' per 1001bs. Whe have known pimento
duringthe last twent-' years as high as 40s. per 100lbs., and for a
-r,.od manv years 25 to 28; ruled as the value. Plantation pimento
Sill of course always fetch a higher price than settlers produce, owing
r-- the quality being superior--not from any fault on ti(e part of the
*|ice itself, but from the careless manner of curing on the part of tile
'trtlers as a rule St. Ann is the principal pimento growing parish
in the island, but St. !.li/,l..- il, St Mary, Trel.wny and Mainchester
produce large quantities also."--Adam fo.churgh.
RAMlIE --" Ramie is the Malay name for the variety native in the Malay
rchipeligo, which is greenish on both sides of the leaf. It has been
ciiltivated in Assmun for long periods, and is there known as Rhea.
This variety is distinguished by the name tenacissima. The variety
% ith the whitish underside of the leaves (nivea) is a native of China,
and has been conveniently designated tle Chinese White Nettle.
The fibre prepared from it, and imported into England, is known
inder the inappropriate name of China (rass
China grass fibie generally obtains double the price in London of
Rhea. Some writers state that the variety tenacissima produces the
strongest fibre *. *. Ramie in virtue of its quality has a wide
range of affinity with other fibres, though it is not perfectly similar
to any -f them. This explains why its experimental applications
cover such a wide field. It has been actually tried as a substitute
tir cotton, hemp, flax, wool and silk *. All the information
,b-tainable tends to prove that not only will RCamie grow freely in a
gl eat part of Jamaica, but that it is a plant which is well suited for
cultivation by planters and small settlers alike, especially by the
I:i.ter, agit requires but little original outlay, yields a quick return,
and the only process which has to be carried out on the spot, retting,





HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


is very simple. With good soil, and moderate rainfall, or irrigation,
Ramie will in Jamaica produce four or five cuttings a year It is a
plant, that if grown thickly, needs little or no weeding; and if the
waste liquid from the retting process and the leaves are returned to
the ground, but little manuring will be necessary on fairly good
land. Hitherto, the only obstacle iu the way of its successful culti-
vation on a commercial basis has been the lack of a machine able to
treat its fibre expeditiously."-Bulletin of the Botanical Department.
SISAL HEMP.--The Sisal Hemp is admirably suited for growing in hot,
dry places, it requires little cultivation and seems to thrive in any
poor, rocky soil.
SUGAR. -" Estates in Jamaica have been gradually decreasing for a
number of years and at the present moment the whole industry is
threatened with total extinction, although considerable advances
have been made of late years in the way of improved cultivation
and manufacture, still they are far behind in the march of progress.
There are few estates that can turn out a cask of produce, that is
one hhd. of 2,2401bs Muscovado sugar and a puncheon of 100 gallons
Rum, under 10 sterling per cask. Some run as high as 12 or
even t15 per cask, but can only pay their way by having such
auxilliaries as logwood, pimento, cocoanuts. etc., or by making a rum
of high quality netting 20 to 30 per puncheon. Since the passing
of the 1894 Tariff Law in the U.S.A., sugar of 89 polariscope test is
only worth about 8 10s. per ton, while commonrums in London are
at present netting 8 per puncheon. The great question of establish-
ing central factories has been long talked of, but as yet nothing
has been done It is now high time that steps were taken in this
matter. Nearly all estates as they now stand are too small to pay
the cost of new buildings and heavy expensive plant such as a cen-
tral factory would have,"-A Sugar Planter.
TEA.-" The plant grows very well in the West Indies, but as yet it has
not become an article of export from these countries, nor has it been
produced in sufficient quantity to supply local wants. Mr.
Morris says, in regard to Jamaica, 'for the hills, the tea plants
already established here, being the Chinese kind. are admirably
suited; but for the parish of Portland, with its warm, moist climate,
and splendid rich valleys, the Assam kind appears to be more suit-
able,' There are about twenty to thirty acres of tea established for
some years in Jamaica, and small quantities of produce have been
prepared of excellent quality."-Dr. Nicholls.
TOBACCO. -The cultivation of tobacco is practically confined to the
parishes of St. Andrew and St. Catherine where it is in the hands of
Cubans.
A prize of fifty guineas, recently offered by the London Chamber
of Commerce for the best sample of tobacco grown in the British
Empire of 4001bs. weight, was divided between Jamaic'a and North
Borneo.
VINE CULTURE. -"The climate and most of the :soil of the lowlands of
Jamaica are all that can be desired for the production of the finest
quality of table-grapes. If the vine is planted in a deep well-drained
loamy soil, trenched from two to three feet deep, well supplied with
manure and water at the proper time, proper attention with regard






AGRICULTURE.


to pruning, disbudding and thinning is all that is needed to produce
good fruit Too much light and sun cannot be given to vines in
any stage; the least shade is most injurious to them.
Cuttings of all the best English varieties of vines can be obtained
from the Department of Public Gardens and Plantations in the
spring, of the year. By planting the proper varieties of vines, grapes
can be had most of the year through. Vines will not stand early
cropping any more in Jamaica, than they will in other countries.
Care must be taken not to crop the vine before it is from four to five
Years old.
SArbours must be used to grow the vines on, as they make such
vigorous growth: for the first three years the vines can be run on
good strong poles.
There are some very fine vines about the island and some big
crops are produced."- Wm. J. Thompson.

(b.) CULTIVATION.
Returns published by the Revenue Department for the year ending
31st July, 1894, and compiled from i,.-i in,-,, made by taxpayers
under the provisions of Laws 26 of Isl', .,rl 17 of 1890, show the
acreage alienated from the Crown and vested in individuals or Trusts
as 1,976,546 acres. Of these 1,284-477 acres or 65 per cent. are re-
turned as being in wood and ruinate, [i.e. land thrown up, out of
cultivation], and 692,069 acres as under care and cultivation. This
latter acreage may in its turn be divided into land appropriated into
pastoral purposes and that devoted to agriculture in the more limited
application of the term, 510,774 acres or just under 74 per cent. of
the whole being grazing lands anl 181,295 acres of lands which have
been subjected to tillage. Of the tilled lands 31,284 acres or 17 per
cent. are under cultivation of sugar cane, and, besides providing
for home consumption, the products of this crop exported during the
year ended 31st March, 1895, were:-Sugar, 398,683 cwt., valued
at 239,210. Rum, 1,956,291 gals valued at 187,477.
The area in cultivation of coffee is given as 23.523 acres or 12 per
cent of the crop lands, and the exports of the berry amounted to
95,129 cwt., valued at 356,734. Next in extent is the area in
bananas which is shown at 18,528 acres, the output of this frui
r-a,.hing the considerable total of 4,678,761 bunches, valued at
S42~,S~tl Cocoanut palms are shown to cover an area of 10,39
acres, the Export Table giving the shipments at 10,143,500 nuts5
valued at 36,770. The only other specific cultivation covering any,
appreciable area, with the exception of Ground Provisions which
cover an area of 95,177 acres, is that of cacao which is returned as
1,554 acres, the exports being 9,333 cwt., valued at 20,534.







30 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.



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AGlRICULTURE. 31

(c) AORIOULTURAr, HoLDINOs.
The summary of the Agricultural Holdings brought under collec-
tion in the year ended 31st July. 1894, shows that there were 73,606
Holdings not exceeding 5 acres in extent:
9,380 between 5 and 10 acres
4,973 10 and 20 "
2,788 20 and 50 "
929 50 and 100 "
61S 100 and 200 "
611 200 and 500 "
302 500 and 800 "
144 800 and 1,000 "
216 1,000 and 1,500 "
258 exceeding 1.500
(d.) CROWN LANDS.
The lands belonging ty the Government in the island are in the
hands and under the control of the Surveyor General. Freeholds
and leases of lands are put up to public auction from time to time.
Small quantities of land, from 5 to 50 acres in extent, are offered for
sale and at from 5/ per acre, upwards, to small settlers; the payment
being spread over ten years. During recent years 26,504 acres have
been reclaimed from squatters. ider the Railway Law, at present
30% square miles have been assigned to the Railway Company.
The following table shows the Government lands that are under
lease; -hose that are unoccupied, and the parishes in which they
are situated:-

Government Government
Par:sh. land land under Unpltented Totals.
unoccupied. lease to vari- Land.
Son-i persons.
Acres. Acses. Acres. Acres.
Kingston I'i 1.200 1,216
St. Andrew i 1.3 4A 1.6s83
S'. Thom;as 15.7:i7 943j 16.7104
Portland 22,11 .571 2.170 28 559
St. Mary 1,382 14 220 1,61
S St. Ann 600 157 4.660 5,417
Trelawny 17,710 17,200 34,910
St. James 17 40(1 1 700 2.197
Wetmoreland 3l 300(
St. Elizabeth 9 I 10.100 1 (I.659
Manchester -
Clarendon 217 l.1 s 7..00 8.598
St Catherine 6,153 .63 6.764 14,780
Grand Totals t66,765i "2) 0.i 50'1 1 12t6,66i

SThe Survey Branch has prepared cadastral plans, on a scale of
four inches to one mile, for the use of the collectors of taxes of all
the parishes of the island. These plans represent every property
and parcel of land from ten acres and upwards, and show correctly
their extent, area, boundary, s and names, as well as the names of the
owners ; also the roads, rivers and other topographical details.







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


(e.) DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC GARDENS AND PLANTATIONS.
This Department has charge of the following establishments:-
1 The Botanic Garden, Castleton, in the parish of St. Mary on the
road connecting Kingston with Annotto Bay, nineteen miles from
Kingston and eleven from Annotto Bay, contains a large collection
of tropical plants. The chief features ate the palmetum and a col-
lection of economic, spice and fruit trees. Elevation 580 feet. An-
nual mean temperature 76.20 Fah. Average annual rainfall 114.96
inch.
2. The Hill Gardens, in the parish of St. Andrew on the slopes of
the Blue Mountains, about 20 miles from Kingston, by way of Gor-
don Town, lie in the centre of an immense district shortly to be
opened up by means of driving roads.
The Garden was first established by Sir J. P. Grant for experiments
with Cinchona, which was so successfully grown that the Govern-
ment realized about 17,000 by the sale of bark, until the price fell
in consequence of the extensive plantations in India, Ceylon and
Java.
Vegetables have also been grown, and instruction given in their
cultivation, so that Ihey are now produced in large quantities by all
the settlers round.
There is a nursery for timber trees, and an experimental Orange
Garden has lately been established at about 3,700 feet.
Olives, Fruit trees and Tea have been planted: Fodder plants
grown-; experiments made with the variety of Ramie known as
China Grass, and other plants of economic interest, all of which will
probably be largely cultivated when the driving roads are completed.
Elevation, 3,500 to 6,300 feet Annual mean temperature at 4,907
feet, 62.7 Fah. Average rainfall 105.31 inch.
3. The Hope Garden, near the foot of the hills in the Liguanea
Plains, 5 miles from Kingston, consists of about 220 acres. The
inner portion is being laid out as a Geographical Botanical Garden.
There are large nurseries containing about 70,000 plants, such as
cacao, rubber plants, nutmeg, clove, orange, mango, vanilla, carda-
mom, sarsaparilla, cinnamon, Liberian coffee, etc. Elevation 600 feet.
Annual i.ean temperature 77Q4 Fah. Average rainfall 52.55 inch.
4. Kingston Parade Garden, the'public pleasure garden of Kingston,
is kept up with shade and ornamental trees, flowering plants, tanks
and fountains. Elevation 60 feet. Annual mean temperature 790
Fah. Average rainfall 36.39 inch.
5 Botanic Garden at Bath, is the old Botanic Garden of the Colony,
established in 1774; it is still maintained for the sake of its valuable
trees and palms, though much reduced in size. Elevation 170 feet.
Temperature 78 Fah-
6. King's House Garden and Grounds, 4 miles from Kingston, con-
tain about 177 acres, of which about 20 acres are kept up as an
ornamental garden attached to the official residence of the Governor.
Many valuable economic plants and fruit trees are also under culti-
vation, as well as the rarer tropical palms and orchids. Elevation
400 feet. Annual mean temperature 78.7' Fah. Average rainfall
48.5T1inch.







AGRICULTURE.


(f. MARKETS.
There are markets in the following towns in Jamaica. T i(y are
according to parishes:-
Portland-Port Antonio and Buff Bay ; St Thomas-- Morant Bay ;
St. Andrew-Halfway Tree ; Kingston-Kingston (Victolia Market
and Jubilee Market), and Port Royal; St. fuary -Port Maria and
Annotto Bay ; St. Ann-- St. Ann's Bay, Clarem,,nt, Moneague.
Brown's Town and Ocho Rios; St. Catherine -Spanish Town, Lin-
stead and Old Harbour; Clarendon-Chapelton, May Pen, Four
Paths, The Rest, The Alley and Hayes; Manchester-Mandeville and
Porus (two), Newport and Devon; I`rt ...i. -r'almouth ; Hanover-
Lucea, Green Island and Sandy Bay; St. James-Montego Bay;
St. Elizabeth-Black River, Malvern, Lacovia, Santa Cruz, Shaws
and Mountain Side; Westmoreland-Savainah-la-Mar.
(g.) PRICE oF PROvisIoNs, &C.
S The following are the average prices at which articles of food, &c.
are sold in the island:-
I. MEAT AND FISH, PER LB.
Beef (fresh or salt), 6d. Mutton, Is. Goats' Flesh, 6d. Pork
(fresh), 9d. Pork (salt), 7fd. Turtle. 6d. Ham, Is. 6d. Salmon,
7%d. Fish (fresh). 6d. Fish (salt), 3d. and 6d. Shads, 4d. Herring,
3d. Mackerel, 4,d.
1 i. POULTRY.
Chickens and fowls. 6d to 9d. per lb. Duck, 5s. to 7s. per pair.
Game according to size, Is. to 2s a brace. Pigeons, Is. 6d. a pair.
Turkeys, Is. per lb.
SIIIl. VEGETABLES, &C.
Ackee, l Y to 3d. per dozen.
Artichokes, according to size, from 9d. to / a piece.
Bananar, 6d to 1/ per bnnch, according to size.
Cabbage, 31 to 6/ a dozen.
Cassava, 61 to 8/ per cwt.
Chocho, 3d. to 6d. per dozen.
Cacao, 8/ to 10/ per cwt.
Garden Eggs, 9d. or I/ per dozen.
Onions, 3d. to 6d. per.lb.
Plantains, 4/6 to 6/ per hundred.
Potatoes (American), 2d. to 4d. per lb,
Pumpkins, 3/ to 4/ per cwt.
Sweet Potatoes, 3d. per lb.
Yam (Guinea), 7' to 15/ per cwt.
(Indian), 8/ to0/ "
(Negro), 5/ to 12 "
(White), 7'to 15/ "
(Yellow), 6/ to 13/ "
Turnip, Beet Root. Carrot, Celery, Indian Kale. Leeks, Lettuce,
Parsley, Radish, Sage, Scallion, Sweet Marjoram, Thyme
and Water Cress, are sold in small bundles from 1% to 3d.
each.
Cucumbers, Jerusalem Artichokes, Tomatoes, Ochroes and
Peppers are sold in bundles or by heaps.







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


IV. FRUITS.
Avocado Pears 1./ :per dozen. Mammee d. a d./..ii
Banana (ripe) 3d. Mammee Sapota 9d.
Bilberry 9d. per quart. Mangoes -3d.
Blackberry 9d. Melon (Musk and
Breadfruit / per dozen. Water) 3 to 1 .I:z..
Cashew roasted I, per quart. Naseberry 6d. per ,I.17
Cherrimoyer i Oranges (China and
Citron Tangerine) 3d. ,, Ci. ".
Cocoanuts ) I/ per dozen. Papaw -3d. ..*;l
(water and I Pine Apple, accord-
dry) J ing to size 3/tot. p. riLz.
Creole or Sour Plums, (Spanish) 14 d pe-r lhar-
Apples 6d. Pomegranates I per -.l.zt
Custard Apple 1/ Prickly Pears 3d.
Forbidden Fruit 6d. Rose Apples lY
Ginep, (a bunch of Shaddock 2/
about 100) 1% Star Apple 6d.
Ginger 1 per lb. Strawberry 16 l'e .i,,ri
Grandidilla, Sugar Canes 1/pkr builie
according to of 16 or 20, 3 trt-t lI.n
size 3d.to6d.each Sweet Cup 1I ,. b-:.1.
Grapes. black 1, per lb. Sweet Gourd or
white 1/3 Squash 3d. .-ab
S sea side l1d. a heap Sweet Lemon 3d. p.|[ Ii
Guava Id. a dozen Sweet Sop 6d.
Jackfruit 6d. tol/ each Tamarinds -3d. a leal,
Limes 1 per doz. Wanglow in full season 6d. a it : ..uI
Locust d. a heap of season 1/3 ".-i quart


v. GROCERIES,


Arrowroot 6d. per qt.
Bread 3d. per. lb.
Butter 2/1/6 and 1/3
per lb.
Candles 9d. per lb.
Cheese (Ameri-
can) / per lb
Cheese (En-
glish) /6 per lb.
Rice, (brown) 3d. per qt.
(white) 4d. per qt.
Sago 3d. per lb.
Sugar, (brown) 2d.
S(white) 4d. "
Salt 1 d. per qt.
Tea 3/ & 4/ per lb.
Vermicelli 9d. "
Vinegar 6d per qt.
Anotta 4%d. per qt
Black Betty 6d.


Coffee 1/ pr 11i.
Flour (white) 2d. per it
Lard 6d. per 11.
Matches 4%d. p.r .ioz.
Oatmeal 4d, pel Ib.
Oil (Cocoanut) 1/ p r It.
" (Kerosine 4d. per qt.
Beans, (broad) 6d. per ,It.
(French) in pod-
(Sugar) 6d. prrr .t.
Corn at 4 per
bushel, 2d. P;r it.
Ground-nuts 3d. per qt
Peas, Black Eye 4%.i. prr qt.
" Gongo 6d.
" Quick Increase 73%.
" Red 6d.
* Rounceval 6d.
Split 3d.






AGRICULTURE.


(h.) COST OF LABOUR.
The working hours in the neighbourhood of Kingston and Spanish
Town are from 6 a.m. to 5 p m., with one hour for breakfast, be-
tween 11 and 12 o'clock. On Saturdays from 6 a in. to 11 a m.
In the country the hours vary considerably, but as a rule they are
from 7 am to 4 p.m. with one hour for breakfast; and the people
seldom turn out to work on Saturdays.
The average rate of wa7es paid about Kingston and Spanish
Town under ordinary circumstances is given below.
DAY-WORK.
Fitters (scarce but not in much demand) 5s. to 6. per day
Masons and Bricklayers 3s. to 4s. per day
Carpenters and Joiners 2s 9d. to .:s per day
Painters .2s. 3d. to :;s. per day
Blacksmiths 2s. 6d, to 4s. per day
Labourers s 6d. to 2s. per day
Women 9d. to Is. per day
Hire of mule and cart (or dray) with driver 4s. 6d. to 5s. per day
Ditto ditto, with two mules 7s. per day


TASK WORK LABOUR
Ordinary Brickwork

Rubble Walling in Mortar
Dry Stone Walling

Shingling

Painting per coa
Whitewashing Walls, per coat
Cartage (hired) including all charges

Cartage when done by owner of stock
Mixing Cement concrete and putting
in position
Cutting Cord-wood
Cutting Grass

Fencing Stake and Rail
Wire fencing
Penguin Fencing
Digging Stumps
Cleaning Ruinate Land
Cleaning Commons and Grass Pieces
Excavating and throwing out earth
Ditto d.tto and removing to a distance
not exceeding 80 yards
Excavating Rock, including Blasting
Material
Drilling, Blasting and Quarrying Rock
Breaking Road Metal

Making and Burning Bricks including
cost of Wood


ONLY.
5s. 3d. to 7s. 9d. per cubic
yard
5s to 7s. per cubic yard
Is. to Is. 3d. per cubic
yard
3s 6d. per square of 100
feet
Id. to ld. per sup. yard
4d. to %d. per sup. yard
Is. to is (d. per ton per
mile
6d. to 9d. per ton per mile

2s. to 2s. 6d. per cubic yd.
Is. id to 2s. per cord
2s. 6d. to 3s. per 100
bundles of 281bs. each
3s id. to 5s. per chain
2s. 6d. to 4s. per chain
2s. 6d. to 4s. per chain
2s. to 3s. per 100
10s. to 20s per acre
Is. 6d. to 4s. per acre
4d. to 9d. per cubic yard

9d.to Is. 6d percubic

3s. to 4s. per cubic yard
2d. to 4d. per lineal foot
Is. 3d to Is. 9d. per
cubic yards

22s. 6d. to 30s. per 1,000






HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

Water tanks constructed of stone and rendered or the in.ide A ith
cement, cost from 1 d. to 3d. per gallon-including cost of lal tur
and of all materials.
Shoeing horses and mules 2s. to 2s. id. per month, each, :n.luidilug
shoes and nails.
Day-labour rates are lower in the country districts, but aftur
making allowance for shorter hours the rates remain practi'.ally tile
same for town and country. T:I some parts, artizans are ve'r. -cearre
and are getting scarcer every year, and inferior men have 1. hIr iun-
ployed at town prices.
On a rough average, lab mir costs from 50 to 100 er cent. iuVr il
in Jamaica than in England To mention one instance, good brick.
work costs 8/ per cubic yard in Jamaica and only 3/6 for similar
work in England.
Labourers make good navvies after a little practice, and the wo-
men work well by task.
The Government, so far, have experienced no difficulty in getting
all the labour required for public works; but in some distrn.s there
is great scarcity of labour for sugar estates and for banana cuiti-
vation.
Wages have an upward tendency, especially in the fruit 'r..rwiug
parishes.
The foregoing prices are only approximate and do not rleter to
work on estates where the prices paid are somewhat lower.
Domestic service is cheaper in the country than in town It arie-
as follows : -Cook 5 to 8/ a week; cleaner (housemaid) 4 ti, 6,;
butler (parlourmaid) 4/ to 7/; nurse 4/ to 6/ ; coachman or gro-,m
5/ to 12/. With the exception of nurses, servants provide their own
food.


VI. FISHERIES.
There is a large supply of wholesome food-fishes around t I.- -lire-
of Jamaica. Although the industry has up till now nev-.-r hI.-ni
developed -the boats and gear used being verS primative in .l- Iral-
ter-good livelihoods are gained by numerous fishermen al,-I.1 tht.
coast. The fish caught finds a ready sale at the various market Ii
the coastal towns, and it is also carried inland for sale
The rivers of Jamaica also supply good food-fishes.


VII. ARTICLE PUPILS IN FARMING AND PLANTING.
Jamai-,a offers numerous favourable openings for young menn
from Great Britain and other European countries with small .opitakl
(sayfrom 2,000 to 3,000) and some experience in farming, wb..
wish to adopt an agricultural career. But many are deterred bI
the knowledge that to start farming or planting without some pre-
liminary experience of the country and of the condition- under
which agricultural pursuits are carried on, is to court disaster.






ARTIOLED PUPILS.


The I'ov\rnc.rs of the Institute of Jamaica, having come to the
Vo01irlusil.u from representations made to them that it is desirable
to take ..oir steps to bring about a means of communication between
thi,-"e plantiers and penkeepers who are willing to receive yonng men
as articled pupils, and intending emigrants from Great Britain and
elsewhere. have prepared a register of such planters and penkeepers
as are willing to take pupils; but it must be distinctly understood
that they c.n accept no responsibility at all in the matter, and can
only enrculate copies of the precis of the replies received from
-... planter, tr,)m which enquirers must draw their own deductions.
A I.jrmn of agreement which it is thought might prove of service has
been prepiired, but the use of it is of course optional
Pupil. must also communicate direct with the planters and pen-
keepers with respect to terms, etc., and it is suggested that some
friend -bould if possible be asked to visit the property on behalf of
the pupil.
The following schedule, which has been compiled from the replies,
alluded to above, hitherto received from the planters and penkeepers,
show. i ) the nature of the properties (ii.) the districts in which
the\ are nitaated, (iii.) the premium required, (iv.) some indication
of I he k d of home and surroundings the pupils might expect, and
iv ) the w,.rk they would have to perform, and the instruction they
wou)l receive. Copies of this schedule can be obtained on applica-
tion to the Institute. The Secretary will also be pleased tohear
from a uy planters or penkeepers who wish to have their names added
to the register.



DRAFT AGREEMENT.
Thi- agreement made this day of between
A of in the parish of Jamaica,
and B .-' in
WITNESSETH
ThaIt i consideration of the sum of to be paid quarterly
iy the -aid B to the said A the latter agrees
t[.I receive, instruct and take care of the former for the period of
years; and to do all in his power to enable B
to a.-.Liulir :a full and thorough knowledge of the business of
Tl6h '-aid B undertakes to serve the said A
dilc-ilntl and to behave himself properly for the period named and
to i.r his best endeavours to acquire instruction and to assist fairly
ht- .aid A in the working of his industry.
The S:hiedule hereto attached is to be regarded as part of this
agI I.ln-nt.
An\ difference that may occur between the parties hereto to be
s -ttlrd by arbitration in the usual way.
This agreement to come into effect on the day on which the said
B takes up his residence with the said A.
Signed hy the parties hereto iu the presence of







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA--

Precis of Replies recei ed rom


Name, Propqrty and
Parish.




I Charles Low Ballaros Valley,
Walker I.~t i .-tid.
| Pr, '! Mar)


II. Hon. John Prin-
gle, M.D.





















III. Arthur Town-
end (of Devon-
shire, England)


Eleva
tion
above
sealevel.



41 0 ft.


Agualta Vale. An- 90 to
notto Ray P.O.. 1000
St. Mary
[Twelve different
Properties ]


Pantreparntl Fal-
month P.O..
Trelawny [and
Blenheim a nd
Devonaide in
St. Ann]


General Penkeep.
in aii le L..g.
i... .I Barn n i
( 'IlllI L .5I *









Fruit growing,
Cane growing,
Cattle, Horse,
Mule and Sheep
rearing. Log-
wood and Pimen-
to growing,
Cocoa, Nutmegs,
&c.


150 Banana. Co c oa,
Cocanuts, &c.,
Penkeeping in
all branches.


Cultivation. No. of
Pupils.


1












2 sober
and well
educated
Gritilrmr-n
about 21
years.







.\RTICI LED PUPILS


ARTI.-I.LL P'PI'I. SN'BESIE.

Pltnltrn Hnit Pnki epers.



Prermiu r. i'W... Papil would General Remarks as to
i. Irjl I nt i.n .,. cluired to Instruction Pupil accommodation,*
E.'ig gA-s-Frr r'- form. would receive Sports, Clothing to be
brought, ac.


I.....king after
I t le, Mules,
. -i, .. pigs chip-


'R a cultiva-


\'... IJ.1,, i [h rious works
qn r-,I A .,,id .*. i.rncted with
,r.r,, u-.i.lr l Ihbe iove indus-
,l,.r Ill- I .r ir-- nearly all
.i. li.g- r.r r I -.I -i.ich are car-
.", r.. ,- i!~i' .n in each
At-1 '


1IlI per.1lhlIra l
'..r e' rBT


r,- help owner to
"l -ievise work
1..-rh., and count
C lme, S he e p,
,:"


SMust purchase his own
Pupil will be in- horse-stabling and
struiited hy own. forage free-Boy on
o'r Pen will attend to
him gene rallv-
Shooting-no linen
and plate. &c., re-
quired-light, cool
outfit-t hi c k soled
Bo ot s-Waterproof
Cloak-Saddle and
Bridle-P i t h Hat,
large brim.

Furnished residenceon
Daily as much as each Property-
one could take in. would be in his own
Have two already home-must have his
on above footing- horse, but there are
Would have to he riding mules on the
gentlemen whmi estates-must supply
owner could in his own servant, for
viteto his house whom plenty df ac-
on Saturlays and commodation.
Sunday's. Tennis. Must supply
a limited amount of
line n. Top-boots,
stou t Waterproof
Cloak-Tweed a n d
Wio o 1 en Suits-
Saddle and Bridle.
One educated i n
Agricultural College,
and with a know-
ledge of Veterinary
Surgery or Survey.
ing required.


How to plant and
cultivate B an a-
nas, Cocoa, Cof-
f e e, Cocoantts,
&c.. and Penkeep-
ingin all its bran-
ches ; also rudi-
mentar3 agricul
tural chemistry.


Must supply his own
horse-fodder and
stabling found, but
not corn-Boy will
be supplied-Shoot-
ing, Fishing, Boat
ing-no linen, &c ,
req uir e d- light
rfeed Suits--Flan-


Srj' it pl- ll.-.- ill be treated as members of the family in all cases; but
moil, ii ali nl-inJ e -lmu lie paid for, if needed, unless otherwise stated.


N- l'ir- liII.I "-l
-It lr.-. li -.

.. .I t l .. I







HANDBOOK OF INFsRM l'ION.


INSTITUTE PF-. AM.MI'A.-

fP t.ts ,I HRepht r,.'u,ei tIrma,


uname.


III. Arthur Townend
(of Devonshire.
England), contd







IV- Alexander Scott


Property and.
Parish.


The spring Dun-
;ns P. 0 Tre.
lawn


V. James Francis Cedar H ; r st,
Portland, Gor-
don Towjn P.O.,


F ,.. I...
. ,1 rl r v l ,


liu .n ,, n, r., L a r,., ,:,ll.
rn i, i,, ,nI ',i










i in Ii ,_. In iS s I
I i .I ,,, K .. I ,,. [I 1,.
rn. In t .,T i..
~I~ i~l ~~~~ l~i


-I J O MT u Lf B


vL, o nnox u ay r .
P. ,O., Portland ,. N.


I.


R- ,


--
ICi








ARTICLE PUPIL-. 41

ARTIrLED PU'PILS SCHEME

Planters awnd P'enkeejpFrd. criiitired.



[ Premiumli re W .:.rk l'r.,i d n.-i..LJ i T..-r > Remrcark o .. I
S quiredi .r..1 ern, i.p .. .-.1 .. I. rli-l.i Ethic.' PI..i ..-..mr ...r1 'i.D
S ) F.rig.ig-ij.lr.i rlir .l i. .-f [..1-. i l..,lhing tl. b-
hr.ughtii &..

_______________- -l -- -------------
i l. .. good bahck o.le.i
B,.... If Papil i
alP. a n d 9 t e Ad r
~:. l.1 tilt him a ii
c h i r gA ?f Pantre
ifr, t. v e r ', r A'
w, .*cr. mnd pA .al arr
l.rf..rr lhi [him ln I i


I b Half r t.' ', I' .II i 1i i l i'iu Lluii rM .,;r ii. .|ljv tin wnil
ur r m..nLhl ... ieri.. i i.,ree-f..d r:r i ri 1
i .. ..,ll r.i..tJbliig .uri. i-B- ..y
ii_. lt b u rF.und I y
Pupil, but would ber
I ace .. mm d at ed-
Cricket-miast bring
Iner. & e.- j .. I
c t h i rn g-thLck


t pe' -..r airi.ii --i.. .i-i'..r .f i-n-ri- in-ltrii. P.up. mi.ti 'iupply hii
W ..rk- -..r *., t." r., Er. I I tll r .. 1 1 .:.-, -. ra'* a rl ng
illiti! r.. Ir r, i.r.thtii'b .. f A'.k .in.1 pa-l re fn.e-
a l I 1 ,It., -l. .1 it |. ri t 1o'i .tf t.I ,n l tore ..f r ,., ?
w..rk-ri..r t.- i.e I P! I rin l... i rr..n, lt l.1 b.. sI1[. i ,i-
,. i...iii a Ihi r .ri-- r ...d I,,. .,.,rrt ti r ex
m- ri li ., ., .l i.r ?I... it. luring -111. I Ic- p ri-fliiri -c..uld
a, I t- ihil-i].Mng ..:f i .r. e llte Fenri a n d
.1Lt :- -.il, Ith her B,:.t.nic.l pe
..*t-r indi-triei tne -I in r- nn. &A .
,:iul. be uppheid-
W.-...llIn clothi.g-
thibk B.-.nt. Water
p.r.-.f Cl -. 1 k. A
Chrintian 3 ilth p.re-
fi rredi.

II,1C p"r nlllim I ~ui.p .-llrlt,.l I [ .-trurlonn ill CII t 'll Miln ppl th O
f,.r t-.. r. b ir.-r-. ril. up I' .iir -n '.f B.I h'rA r..] A h.,- -- ta.
E t-lit Bouki.. c .r-ir.1 C':..':c. arnd b i li 'g, [ or ig, .lnd
NutmrigA ro, fr ..,r liu ajn.i-
rital.in ind i huoot.
ing-Linren, &c ovill
br plrovr.ied--L.ght
Woojller Cl.lbting-
thick Boot.--Sddle
an.d Bridle
SSuir Ahif pui.rl-: w.:.l.dl be tirl j 1.- inembers ..f 'the famil it .A l .i.e bilt
mr diC'l atrvnjd n.,"- ltu-t L.e p'...l f.r, Jt nr-eed:. -irlts ith- r*a .'t .i-d







HANDPHOK >iF INlI.iRM.'ll 'N.


N llu. Pi.l.o:rl .1I
P .ri.ij


--- --- --4- -.

II1 .i l.i, i, [i.nm R.,nnr.ig i i.
'ills Litl: .-H r R P
*t J onl..













I F iu Hill [, gl, .
i..i. t I. 1 .. PO ,t
I :msn [al-.
I H al .-r t, : i i 1
St D.ir.1'. >L.l
A '.t.i, iiiJ P..,rT.
I +h,. f; I.I P,,a p..P I
I en,t l


INSTITUTE I;F JAMAI.-'A.-

Prct.r iji Repl,' rec,'tie from



E It ', '1
ior. IN -i -,





.P. ..c i















411111 ,f-,,: I'l .l .r.,; I
I- i
I.1


-------- ----- - -- ---
IX. I.:.hn T *cirl, ri W ..rtb P r k. 1I. 1 i" ne ,r.. r.ng and Ii
E irtin P.il m iniih, turie
t C ilt trin:. Sr.g Tl a' Rum.
[ld-., ",:tn I C -, c,o Coffet-,
t C',l h-rre ] Br-ie lig .4 C
I I.







k hOICLE

ARTICLED PiPILS SC.'HEME.

SPlanters and Penkaers. .untiinued.



Prr-i.uu. r. 'W..-.rt Pup.1 would
S,'ir.d ind. T.-ra l hI r-.jird to
ofi Engi Frmr ,T I rf.rin.


D) PUPILS


d


11 '.i..r rnl.ui. Ne.~--- i.r duties
.r irr; .1g on a
.Su ir Pi rntatiou.


Instruction Pupil
would receive




How to carry on
a Sugar Planta-
tion.


General remarks as to
accommodation,*
Sports, Clothing to be
brought, &c.



Must supply his own
horse and boy,should
he require one-sta-
bling, forage and
quarters for bo y
found-next to no
sports-Linen, &c,,
would be supplied-
good stock of cloth-
ing, Saddle and Bri-
dle. Pupil should
be steady and indus-
trious.


S------__1 --...---i -_


1 11** per annium
r r 2" '-e',r;,
pay hie .qui
r I ir, a.i
ranet


A.;rT in manage-
nhr- .' Coffee
ir:l- is W.,rks and
-t... k--k,:p Plan-
I tI..I B;.--ks and
Ace.... i- Survey-
, .g a i il laying
jit r t s for


Plant it...rn pur-
p ..- : r e of
s:.ork. Pastures,
&r





l i per r ni ni T. i i around
f.:.r I ;i b ]t ,j. b- I. .


Instruction i n
Coffee plantingin
a 11 its branches
preparing Coffee
for Market. keep-
i n g Plantation
Books and Ac
counts. &c.


As in the forego-
ing paragraph.


Must supply his own
corn and boy-pas-
turage found, a 1 s o
quarters for the boy-
no sport-no linen,
&c., required-good
outfit-Saddle and
Bridle Waterproof
Cloak.


Must supply his own
horse and boy-sta-
hlinrr an.i f o r e r a


Ill 1"'"^ I.Ctp'l kelep r g g > ^
r,-, -.. Iri- gene f o u n d-Cricket or
r iI r,, ,i gement Tennis-Music with
.i.] i...l- Of cul my family when nat
r t...u to assist at work-must sup-
ln k i ng up ply his own bed linen
.....k- ir..1 paying -good outfit of
nl.,'n-,, woollen clothing-
Waterproof Cloak--
thick soled Boots.


1 Slt ih]..- pril ...nlrS he treated as members of the family in all cases; but
menidi'i Ilt.:r-.i iu'ei mnui i- paid for, if needed, unless otherwise stated.


i i


1






HANI'*Bl.IIK ,4', INFORMATION.


INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA.-

Prees oj Replieq receried from


Name. Pr.,-per[, 1.1
P art


Pu iii..


X. Thomas Hicks
Sharpe


XI. Edward Pratt


I i I Pa ,k
, sui i-th l,:,' tJ
O .. Sl C"ttr
n.: ; (i .d. Dr."-
a1ll aid S.- l
Il],rd Wi St t a
ther ,M .. y
P ii. R...der',
L,.ng vi l e,
.n..n, Nev-r Pi r.

er-in Cl renl, n]

















---------I
M.alvrn P '.rk, Sr
Ann'- Bly P.0,
[.1 n d Mamrnni:
By Sr Ann ]


'IlI i't B.I n. in S t r I
C a rn e. :lr.ing'
S tl:btie i Frult
Sand Vw'1 di,r- I
Pruduc- Dr I. r-.
Wha.ri n i t -,
Dye W.:.,:.d DIN l-
er.. ,'oc-k C.tI-
il. P Dc.tl-.r-





















rin ii 5- Er.-liir inrd rear
C-.'.A i g p .1 I. atlle.
H ..rr a"ju'
Males Cultira.
lion *,t Cocoa
nD [ s. Ban.lana
and .maller pre.
di(.E, for t h e
Amer-.an Mar-
ket.






r
if A-RTIC.'lFl PUPILS'.

ARTICLE PUPILS SCHEME.

Plantper and I'enkeeperi. contniued.

1 I I
Premium ri W,-,rk Pupil w'ouldi
quired Al n ermm I '-, rf: hired T- In[ truleti.:.n PupL
of Engag. m-nt r perform. I v.:.ald ri'ceve.



let 3 mlh-. G.?-ral r i.il Oi'ener lkn...wle..'e
lnd nil inD e t iilir-reit in aRri,.i. ur'e
3rd Aill Ineie .. butlin--. il.d die linli Iruit
pay 1' .&0.1 gr o 'v I n r. c
board. Prctr 'lI le'.".n,-
4th 3 m.:.ith will be gi'en
w. ill [p. lI 1.
S and L.aird.


i'fn-r II remarks as t1
Ize..'mme..il.al' ',
.Sporti., I. loritn to be-
br..ughbt, c

--- I
Pjr! ..i -lld ht. iurrl b-
-.1 Ilb noro- od .j ...r-
ige I1 1 ', perl,'iIrter
\irtr- .....ul. I ,[ e I l
|,j'r ,l l.-. k- ,p t,.,,v-
SL,.."jing Ind Fi;h-
ir[i--b.:il.J b r i n g
g,-,.,, ,:utrir. itrouing
Biot-. Siaddle n d
Brdl-, 'iun Owner
hL i ar. shb'ir 16i
rp'-.p..Dll.: Agentl
i h- -r mploymnin
Pupil imu.t beober,
blOune, under ian'l
Bo.:k-keping, writI
a itar b h rn d. not
old e r th- n :h or
yr~oinger t hn a1
ye i r s. A t e r 3'


months w,-.ulld be .al
lo re:l to usil-ct which
br.auh of the budi-
'ner be.. preferred.
Mu t be i n gl I
Special idvantagei
io .ipt puplI.



.6 per imiruim Gen-a i.r e! uprrnl. ...ula r.r, a.*- NIau-r -,.,lply i', r*wli
fir 2 Vyrtr ,,I c:ourding il tb'h-. hir' i,.., -F
S w.:-rk t : in ni ..i.,
*. SC .il'r.l) .r 1 i c.

-Iappliled Fi.htiii
tl.jti line. h.iIIng,
'rick.:r. Linei. ac .
.- II I-,.- F und. i1...1-
..tiirii I o r r-.rking
io ,* .,1thur clihette.
Str, og B.:.ut--Rid-
irig Bre,:-cbe._--Leg-
g n g --Witerproot
Cli-.ik.


SSuitablr Puipixl ati.ul. be treated j members ..i ti- I il 11. sill M 1 c hut
iJediual attendance muw i be paid forii nerded, uril-i' r* .i '- ril.aed


F








HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

INSTITUTE FO JAMAICA.-

Precis of Replies received from


Name. Property and
Parish.


XII. Thomas H. Ingle


XIII. Win. Donald
Hill (from Aber-
deenshire, Scot-
land)






XIV. Henry Cork














XV. James Brough-
ton


Darlaston House,
Darlaston P.O.,
Westmoreland.


Windso r, Fal-
mouth P.O.,
Trelawny.


Eleva-
tion
above
sealevel.


1400 ft.


Cultivation.
I


Penkeeping. 1


I ~ -_ _________________I_~___-


Burlington, St. On Sea
Margaret's Bay Coast.
P.O., Portland,
[also Bonneville .1600 ft.
m St. Ann.]










Water Valley An-
notto Bay P.O.


Penkeeping, Co-
coa, Coffee, IBa-
nanas, &c.







Cattle Breeding.
Banana planting.
Sugar
Cocoa "
Cocoanut
Dairy Business.









Banana planting.
&c.


No. of
Pupils.


1









1 or2














1 or 2








ARTICLED PUPILS.

ARTICLID PUPILS SCHEME.

Planters and Penkeepers.



Premium re- Work Pupil would
quired and Term be required to Instruction Pupil
of Engagement perform. would receive


All work connec-
ted with horse-
kind and horned
stock, cleaning
of pastures, &c.


General superin-
tendence of Pen
work along with
owner.


Supervising gangs
i n foregoing
work.


Good instructions
from owner.


Instruction in be
for e-mentioned
cultivation.


Practical educa-
tion inforrgoing
subjects. Pupils
would have
choice of which
branch he pre-
ferred to learn.


General Remarks as to
accommodation,*
Sports, Clothing to be
brought, &c.


Must supply his own
horse and boy-Fod-
der, stabling, and
accommodation for
boy found. Linen.
&c., will be supplied.
Shooting and home
pastimes. Moderate
stock of useful cloth-
ing-not too heavy.


Would be provided
with horse and sup-
plied with boy.
hooting and river
fishing. Linen, &c.,
would be supplied.
Moderate outfit-
strong Boots and
Waterproof Cloak.


Must supply his own'
horse-grass and sta-
bling found-3/ per
week allowed for a
boy. Splendid fish-
ing-fair shooting.
Must supply his own
Linen, Plate, and
Cutlery. Flannel,
and light Woollen
Tweeds-good rough
Serges-Water- tight
Boot s-Waterproof
Cloak.


Would be furnished
60 or 60 per General assistance Practical iustruc- with horse and boy-
annum for 2 and supervision, tion in the busi- boarded-when suffi-
or 3 years. ness. c i en t 1 y advanced
would receive some
acres of land to work
on halves-w o u 1 d
have separate accom-
modation-9- n s t
have a good outfit.

Suitable pupils will be treated as members of the family in. all cases; but
medical attendance must be paid for, if needed, unless otherwise stated.


80 per annum
for 2 years


100 for 2 years
25 per quarter
for board.







100 for 3 years
2nd year
would receive
30. 3rd year
40.


--------1------~--i----~--~-I-~---~--~~


------- ---- -------I-- ---- --- i--rr~------ -----






HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

INSTITUTE OF JAMAICA-
Precis of Replies received from


Eleva-
Name. Property and tion Cultivation, No. of
Parish. above Pupils.
sea level.


XVI. R. Henry El. 1 Rose Garden 100 Small ungar works. 1
worthy, Associ- 2 Hatfield, k riest- Cultivation of
ate of the Onta- man's River P. cocoanuts,bana.
rio Agricultural 0, nas, cocaos, nut-
College meg, Kola, &c.
Breedin gof
horses and cat-
tie and treat-
ment of their di-
seases. Chipping
and shipping
of logwood.
Generalim-
provement of
properties.




XVII. Edward C. AEolus Valleyand 400 Coffee, Bananas,
Prichard, C.E.. Wharf Land at and Plantains, at first.
late Executive Yallahs Bay, St. Piggery a n d
Engineer,P.W.D. D a v id, in St. Bees commentc
India IThomas.ye-East, ing) dealing in
Yallahs Bay logwood and
P,O. other agricultu-
ral products.


1










ARILcfI.ELE 1P'I.PILB.


ARTICLIt.I PUPIL.- *.HFiME

Plant,' u't Prn,..'p, cat,,nlinll.


I'iliii'11 11 l ii
P* l i ..If


ii
'lii


Id,.. .. 'ii'
1i..-hi. *.=-i li..


1 ... i l it.'1 ari t: .
.1 in..ri a..Ji..h.,
F' '' r" I I '[l n lD rI ,,:
'.., 'l..i Lr .


_____ I----- I-- _


I'' 11111,


I.


* ( I ra a.. 1a11


* l' I I


Ir, .., .,i i.. .
,,,r,- *r l. I i.i...ll
V ..,I I..


r,, .- l l .r.1 I..-
. ,.-I -i I .

.t I .. ... .' .
.1


ii'I., 1 ~~


.. h, -L I., i .' I.

.......I- A, .1


M .Ir Iuu ,iii-, In- LIi
I .r... I, 1. ,'.. ,- -, I.




>l t l*-1 ui- A .ifil
I ., l,, ...lkn.
.r -- .h I. I i.il ..rll






j'rrlt. inAu.










.Mu i ,'ii.i. I" .'.w i
Ih- r inJ, ." .[... .

t ,ari I. .. I .: ...l. 1,










i.l .I r i ... I ,I i- ii
h] ~. 1 h .l t ..ll .r .5i,.





.Il. '. I b T-1- d i.e
'rntm Rlni-.u Aid


I I L' e ,i I LU I.. leu r(rli
-4 u .J r. H.iL 'i _M ....iu i.srn
1rj in ,.i, ii.r i: L,'ri ii .1, irT ii.i Cl.?




n .**L Ii-eC...i ) I ft
Ibm!ier bimelif wth
a lI.lraW Lc 6 1 i
King.ron canfirn.,h
it. Medii.l asei-.
lance f-i,,1,. ,if Ih
Pupil comrhr.rlthy
Mluil bea gentleman




i Sit l., I Wpl- ....ld I.e tJrei.t al i mr l'.m r .,f the iamilv in "ill ca .- hut
mdli.a'l aireii..i ...' mi.t l I.[id for. if r Pede.. uD lr- ..ither-lie t. ted


I




1

50 HANDBOOK 01 INFORMATION.

V1II, MANUFACTURES.
The Factories of the Island include Dye Works, it Sr;pi.Ii T.,wt)
Electric Light Works, (at Kingston and Black Iave-i : (,l l'r, Ak,
(at Kingston); Ice Factories, (at Kingston Itwi,,. s.,ia i a ia Mar,
and Montego Bay) ; Iron Foundries, (at Kingston a II I 1 IIl HI;tlIur) ;
Matches, (Kingston); Mineral Water Factories, i K II ,'- .iii ..I M1Ni.
tego Bay); Pottery, (Kingston) ; Printing QOfices. I il*i-.onI. MIintel-o
Bay, Falmouth, Brown'sTown, St. Ann's Bay, ;amI ,\ .-Ir-Mar);
Railway Works, (Kingston and Montego Bay); ,, tat,
(throughout the Island); Tanneries, (Kingston(i It'.i II,,,/.,.
(Kingston, Spanish Town, Montego Bay, Linsr-.'-1, F;ilrlnirii. St
Ann's Bay, Morant Bay, Port Antonio, Port 3M-ri,. -P1. BHarliour
and Black River).


IX, HYGIENE.
(a) BOARDS OF HmEALTH.-There is a Central Board ..t H-..ilI in King-
Kingston (E. A. Foster, Secretary), appointed I. rth,. ia.u--rr,,r;
and the Parochial Boards of the various pari-Ri.- i, ..i.n tilted
Local Boards of Health, subordinate to the 'l-irl.al Bi.lrd, r.th
power to adopt all necessary measures for sui.ml', n..inrcs
and promoting the public health.
(b) MEDICAL SERVICE.-The Island is divided into rt.ity iiIr- idiral
districts to each of which is appointed by the Go. rin... t a uii.liRal
officer, who is held responsible for the due discL;h,r,., ..t 1ill inlh.t-al
duties within his district. There are few F1:.'-- iiI rh-. i-land
more than eight or ten miles from the residence "r a- m,-.ll.. laIli.-.r:
and, as there are good driving and riding roads il-rim.U i- not
really great.
The district medical officers are required to undil.-ri;ak, I.h- ridi-
cal charge of the paupers, and of any hospital.m .almn--l,,-.- or
prison within their districts; and to exercise a ,.-neral a.,.rrl and
superintendence over the Government Dispen-..r.- a't th.l-r dis.
tricts; to vaccinate; and to advise the Governmn-ut ;aul Pa;r.--bhial
authorities on questions affecting the public health. Tlh.-y are at
liberty to take private practice.
(c) HOSPITALS. -There are 23 Hospitals in the Island .1. t.,il'w. -
Kingston Hospital 200 beds Montego Ba. H.rpitarlm 45 Ieids
Victoria (Lying-in)* 12 Lucea ** 25
Lunatic Asylum 509 Sav.-la-Mar ** l ",
Morant Bay Hospital 60 Black River ** .
Hordley 150 Mandeville o** 30
Port Antonio 70 Chapelton 4" 0 '
Buff Bay 50 Dry River "" S "
Annotto Bay 100 Lionel Town 110 "
Port Maria 50 Spanish Town 77
St. Ann's Bay 30 Linstead 4
Falmouth 47 Lepers' Home 165 "
The Lazerretto at Green Bay, opposite Port RLyal, ha- accaommo-
dation for 32 first class and 36 second class passengvrr-.
Here 14 pupil nurses are trained in midwifery.






HYGIENE.


(d) MINERAL SPRINGS.- There are many mineral springs in Jamaica,
most of them possessing valuable qualities for the cure of various
diseases and infirmities of the body. Two of these are particularly
famed, namely, the hot sulphurous spring at Bath and the warm
salt spring at Milk River. There are public institutions maintained
at both these springs for the benefit of those requiring relief.
The spring at BATH in the Parish of St. Thomas is believed to be
the hottest in the island; the temperature at the fountain head is
126Q to 128 F., but the water loses about nine degrees of heat in
its transit to the baths. These waters are sulphuric and contain a
large proportion of hydro-sulphate of lime ; they are not purgative
and are beneficial in gout, rheumatism, gravelly complaints, cuta-
neous affections and fevers. Some new buildings have lately been
erected for the accommodation of visitors, and the management is
creditable. It is remarkable that a cold spring flows from the same
hill-side, near the hot spring, so that cold and hot water are de-
livered alongside of each other at the bath
The bath at MILK RIVER in the district of Vere is one of the most
remarkable in the world. It is a warm, saline purgative bath; the
temperature is 92 F. It is particularly efficacious in the cure of
gout, rheumatism, paralysis and neuralgia; also in cases of disor-
lered liver and spleen. Some wonderful results are on record, and
it is believed that if the beneficial -tn. .-t of these.waters were more
generally known in Europe and America a large number of suffer-
ers would be attracted to them. The buildings are extensive; they
have lately been repaired and improved, and comfortable accom
modation at a moderate charge can now be obtained by visitors,
The Spa Spring, or Jamaica Spa, as it is called, at Silver Hill in
St. Andrew, was formerly maintained as a Government Institution
and extensive buildings once existed there, but they have long gone
to decay and the spring is neglected. These waters are chalybeate,
rerated, cold, tonic; beneficial in most cases of debility, particularly
after fever, in dropsy and stomach complaints
Another similar spring, but not so strong a chalybeate, exists at
't. Faith in the district of St. John.
There is also a remarkable spring at M affot, on the White River,
a tributary of the Negro River in the Blue Mountain Valley. These
waters are sulphuric, cold and purgative, useful in itch and all cuta-
neous diseases. A similar spring exists near the source of the Caba-
ritta River in Hanover.
The spring at Windsor near St. Ann's Bay, was once brought
into considerable prominence in consequence of some remarkable
cures effected by its use. People from all parts of the island visited
it and the water was carried away to great distances. It is still a
tavourite among the peasantry, and it is said to possess wonderful
powers in healing ulcers, &c.
There are warm springs at Garbrand Hall on the east branch of
the Morant River, and on the Adam's River, near the Blue Moun-
tain Ridge in the Parish of St. Thomas.
The well known spring at New Brighton, in St. Catherine, is the
favourite bath of the inhabitants of Spanish Town.






HANTDBoOK OF INFORMATION.


Mineral springs also occur on the sea edge at Manatee Bay ; in
St. Catherine, and at Rock Fort near Kingston, where there is a
swimming bath.
A Spring possessing some qualities of importance is to be found at
Golden Vale in Portland; and there are salt springs near the Ferry
on the Kingston and Spanish Town Road, and at Salt River ir
Vere; and in many other localities salt-water springs are found.
and some impregnated with soda or other alkalise.
The following are the analysis of the principal Mineral Springs ;-
I.-MILK RIVER.
One Pint contains: 92 deg. F. Savory & Moore.
Chloride of Potassium .... 1-44
Chloride of Magnesium .. .. 37-08
Chloride of Sodium .. .. 186-93
Chloride of Calcium .. .. .. 13-50
Sulphate of Soda .. .. .. 27-93
Silica .. .
Chloride of Lithium .. I
Iodide of Sodium .. .
Bromide of Potassium .. .. Traces.
Bromide of Sodium .. ..
Bromide of Magnesium .. .. .
Silicia ...
Organic Matter .... Undet'd.


II. -JAMAICA SPA. III.--SILVER HILL.
One Pint contains: Jamaica Spa 63 deg. Silver Hill
Ed. Turner. Bowrey.
Carbonate of Lime .. 0 866
Chloride of Sodium -. .. .125
Sulphate of Soda .. .. .. 341
Sulphate of Magnesia .. 2"831 1-745
Sulphate of Lime .. .. 1. 1234
Sulphate of Iron .. .. 2-21 8-33
Sulphate of Alumina .. .. 4168 1-360
Phosphoric Acid .. .. Free
Silica .. .. .. 883
Organic Matter .. .. Undt'd.

IV,-ST. THOMAS.
One pint contains: St. Thos. 130 F.
Bowrey.
Carbonate of Soda .. .. -21
Chloride of Sodium .. .. 1-48
Chloride of Potassium .. .. .. 0-04
Sulphate of Soda .. .. .. 0-79
Sulphate of Lime .. 0-62
Silicate of Soda .. .. 45
Sulphuretted Hydrogen .. .. Undt'd.





HYGIENE. 53

V.-MANATEE BAY.
One Pint contains:
Carbonate of Iron .. .. .. Traces
Carbonate of Lime .. .. 2*71
Chloride of Potassium
Chloride of Sodium .. 2525
Chloride of Magnesium .. .. .. 4'34
Chloride of Calcium .. .. 1'31
Phosphate of Alumina .. .. .. Traces
0). WATER SUPPLY.-There are many parts of the island of Jamaica
where there is a deficient supply of water from natural sources,
arising not from too small an annual rainfall but from the porous
nature of the soil and the geological formation of the underlying
rock. A very large proportion of the water that falls from the
clouds upon the high lands passes in deep underground channels
along the greater part of its course to the sea. Hence in some ex-
tensive tracts of country, artificial tanks, generally of small size,
and constructed of masonry, are in necessary use; these are in
nearly all cases private property. In other parts of the island,
though small ponds are not rare, droughts are frequent; and when
they occur, in the absence of all artificial provision for storing water,
the results are sometimes extremely distressing. It may be said
that whilst persons of means .uth.-,uit. to provide some sort of water-
works for their own domestic wants and for their own cattle or
sugar or coffee works are seldomin any part of the island in distress
for want of water, the masses have often suffered the greatest dis-
tress from this want.
The names of the towns which have water-works are given on
p. 50.
The assistance of the Government in making advances from gene-
ral revenue for providing water- works has, under recent law, been
invoked for the districts of Savanna-la-Mar, Morant Bay, St. Ann's
Bay, Port Antonio, Port Maria, Old Harbour, Montego Bay, Black
River, Chapelton, Lucea and May Pen. Thus, the distress hitherto
felt by reason of periodical droughts is being ameliorated.
In addition to the foregoing, wells had previously been sunk at
the following places for the purpose of affording a supply of water
to the public: -Four Paths and Hayes, in the parish of Clarendon,
and Porus, in the parish of Manchester. In the last named parish
a large supply of water is stored in a basin excavated in the grounds
of the Parochial Hospital of Mandeville, the water being conducted
to the basin by a catchment area constructed of cement concrete.
Kingston, Spanish Town, Old Harbour and Falmouth, have regular
house supplies of water.
(I) DRAI NAGE -The drainage of the town of Kingston has hitherto,
like all the other towns in Jamaica, been confined to open gutters,
but it is at present being supplied wilh a drainage system, construc-
ted on the Waring principle.
(gi VITAL STATISTICs.--The population of Jamaica, according to the
Census of 1891, was 639,491, or 56.681 in excess of the population of
1881; and 133,337 in excess of the population of 1871. The total
estimated population on the 31st March, 1894, was 672,762.






HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

The births registered in the year 1894-95, numbered 25,295 giving
a rate of 37.2 on the estimated mean population. The deaths regis.
tered in the year ended 31st March, 1895, numbered 14,321 being in
the proportion of 22.2 to each 1,000 of mean population.
The following shows the annual birth and death rates for "ight
years:-
Births annual rate Deaths annual rate
per 1,000 per 1,000
estimated mea:i population. estimated mean population.
1887-88 39.1 .. 22.3
188S-S9 35.3 .. 22.2
1889-90 35.6 .. 28.0
1890-91 38.4 .. 25.0
1891-92 38.3 .. 22.7
1892-93 37.3 .. 20.9
1893-94 40.9 .. 22.2
1894-95 37.2 21.0
The population of the various parishes is given on page 1.









HYiIENN. 55





I 00- '- 0 Io

"snoltre A | *


z ''taoidieia [ --



a uaI j :






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.. .. r. .1. .
I _" ,- I :







'f lsPI f .I [ 1c- -. C- *s 1- 0 -
0- *
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; rl o ^ 1
0-' Ia 00 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 e 01
P -Ch~ l


I s
I I
>


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.










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or







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*
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-ooas O' 00 x X X S a I 5 g p $


I 0i ao o0 0 oo CE o 0 c'

I* h -


I cc cc








4 X 0 0 s I 0 W4


C
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C
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C
00
C
C
*0






HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


(i) THE CLIMATE OF JAMAICA. Dr. Thomas L. Stedman, of NeYi. York
City, writing on the Cl.iate of Jamaica, in Buck's Hi-.-r-neie
Hand-book of the Medical Sciences," says: The mosi -irlkiii
peculiarity of the climate of Jamaica is its variety combnii-.I ith
equability. A ride of a few miles into the hills will bring orn. tro:,
the torrid zone to the temperate-from an average temperlirll. i-
nearly 80 to one of 659 or 709. But whatever district *n,.- may
select, whether a warm or a cool one, he will find the r. mner' -
ture very nearly constant, the extreme range for any o-ne month
being seldom over 25 Fahrenheit, while that for the eirir- \-ar
at Kingston, is but 359; and in some parts of the lihlenl the
excursions of the mercury are even more restricted thln iltii
As regards humidity, also, there is the same choice of climia- ,p<..n
to the invalid or the pleasure seeker, who may select a pla.--- 1I riel-
dence with a humid or a dry atmosphere as suits best his inlhitiatioun
or the necessities of the affection from which he suffers. .i.mi.:a
indeed enjoys all the advantages in respect to uniformity ,t t .-m-
perature of island climates in general, while the difference-- in ele-
vation ond in exposure to, or protection from the prevaiiln, trdl.-
winds give to it the pleasing diversity, as regards temp.-r:toire,
humidity and riit.t.,il, of the most temperate of contin-'t.il I.li-
mates.***
There is, as a rule, less rain in Kingston than in most of tf I .,t her
parts of the island, th- trade winds being drained of their mu,-,r-tir
by the mountains to the north and east of the city. The I.t-,i i.--
precipitation occurs in the parish of Portland, which t.,rrn- thi-
north-eastern extremity of the island.
There are two principal rainy seasons, namely in May :,rll Oi.r.I
ber, but there is usually more or less rain all through the- --inuiI -r
months. In the winter months in the neighbourhood of Kir.-: t.ri rin-
precipitation is very light. The rain usually comes in heavi -Ila ,er-
of only a few hours' duration, and the days during which the -, 'I .l...-
not shine at all are very rare. It is almost always possible, 1.1 p ..
diet when the rain is coming as it can be seen quite a whil.- lrt....
the downpour begins. This is fortunate for visitors, as a w-rtiim, L-
one of the three things that an unacclimated person in t .-- rrr[-.i,
must avoid, the other two being exposure to the direct ray- .r ih.-
noonday sun and to the cool night air."
(I.) CLOTHING.-The clothing suitable to Jamaica, is that usually. ..-rin
in a warm summer in England, except that a hat suitable- 1.. th,
tropics is requisite. Clothing of all kinds can be purcliina.l in
Jamaica, at prices slightly higher than in England.






POST OFFICE AND TELEGRAPMS.


X. POST OFFICE AND TELEGRAMS.
POST AND MONEY ORDER.
(a.) FOREIGN.
S(.) POSTAL UNION.-Jamaica is included in the Postal Union.
The rates of of postage to places in the Universal Postal Union are
as under:-

For Post papers or
For a Letter Card,. other For Conuer- For Pattelrs Registra-
per j ounce. Printed Pt a cial Papers per per 2 unces. tion Fe
Ri P eply pers per 2 2 ounces.
ingle paid. ounces.
21d. Id. d. d. d Id. id. 2d.
Slowest (hI .. I. .. charge
7 -dd. Id.
(11.) MAILS. -Royal Mail Steamers convey mails fortnightly, between
Jamaica and the United Kingdom, via Jacmel and Barbados:-
To Jamaica.-Leave Southampton every alternate Wednesday at
6 p.m. Arriving in Jamaica on tie following Friday fortnight at
8 a.m.
From Jamaicu. -Leave Kingston every alternate Tuesday at 2 p,m.
Arriving at Southampton on the following Wednesday fortnight at
9. p.m.
The Return Packet Express Mails leave the Terminal Post Offices
for Kingston every alternate Monday and are due in Kingston on
the morning of Tuesday, the day of the departure of the Steamer.
The mails for Great Britain by the Royal Mail Steam Packet
Company's steamers are made up at the General Post Office, King-
ston, at the following hours:-
Registered letters, 9-a.m.; newspapers, 10 a m.: ordinary letters,
11.30 a.m. Late letters may be posted at the General Post Office on
payment of a fee of threepence up to 12 30 p.m. : on board the
steamer until she leaves the wharf on payment of a fee of sixpence
in stamps.
There is not any Contract Mail Service between Jamaica and the
United States of America, although there are frequent opportunities
for the exchange of mails in Kingston and at the outports. The
most frequent and ra.,,d'-r opportunities in Kingston are by the
steamers of the Atlas Company. The opportunities at the outports
are by the steamers of Messrs J. E. Kerr & Co. of Montego Bay
and of the Boston Fruit Company at Port Antonio.
There is a monthly mail service between Jamaica, Halifax, Ber-
muda and Turks Island, by means of the Steamers of Messrs.
Pickford and Black which arrive here about the 25th of each month
and leave three day.; after. The steamers are subsidized by the Go-
vernment ot the Dominion of Canada.
(uI.) BOOK POST.-Printed papers and commercial papers may be sent
to any country of the Postal Union under the Book Post regulation.







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


It is forbidden to send through the post to any nijoutry of the
Postal Union-
1st. Any letter or packet containing gold or silver Illi'u, picltes
of money jewellery or precious aLticles.
2nd. Any packet whatever containing articles liall.. to ,'u-t%.ms
duty.
3rd. Any article of a nature likely to stain or inji'.re th- .-orr.'s-
pondence.
(Iv.) PARCEL POST.-A Parcel Post Exchange -between J:iuaicn. and the
United Kingdom; certain places via the United Kineilim : British
Colonies in the West Indies; and the United States .-t Aimnriv-a-
is now in operation.
Parcel mails for the United Kingdom and British i_'.I.limes in the
West Indies are made up in Kingston on every alt.-int-t Monday
for despatch by the Royal Mail Contract Line of tr.tu.-r--par-
eels being received up to 4 o'clock on that day.
Parcel mails for the United States are closed for deqp-i.h Iiy. each
direct opportunity from the Port of Kingston.
Rate to Great Britain, 9d. per lb. Limit of weight ri ireant Bri-
tain and United States, &c. 11 lbs. Limit of size, g-r-ar.-t length
3 feet 6 in.: length and girth combined, 6 feet.
Rate to the United States and British West India Col.'nie, i6,. per lb.
(v.) MONEY ORDERS.-Money Orders are issued at the head t-li'-e. King-
ston, and at the several parochial treasuries. Aplliaritous for
money orders addressed either to the Postmaster for .Iluliii'a or to
a Parochial Treasurer are free of postage and registration fte.
The commission on money orders drawn on the Unitmd Kiugdim,
Canada and the United States are as under:--
For any sum not exceeding | Above 5 and not us.ie-,ling 7-
2- -Os. 9d. 2s. 3d.
Above 2 and not exceeding Above7andnotex .s:eiling 10 -
5-1s. 6d. 3s. Od.
The rate of exchange of money orders between the tnin1t.l States,
Canada and Jamaica is $4.87c. to the .
The commission on money orders drawn on Barbai.i- and British
Guiana and the Leeward Islands are as under:-"
For any sum not exceeding Above 5 and not I-s.v-i-lng 7-
2 --Os. 6d. I s. 6d.
Above 2 and not exceeding Above 7 and note-x,-tidinL, 10-
5-1s. Od. 2s. Od.
No single order can be granted for more than ten pomndi.
(VI.) oEGISTRATION.-The poster of a registered article ..a ol.tain an
acknowledgment of receipt from the addressee on l:il.-ymnt in ad.
vance of a fee of 2d. in addition to postage and registn.it~lu re-.
(b.) INLAND.
(I.) MAILS.-There are 127 Post Offices in the Island. Tih-r n- a daily
post between Kingston, Halfway Tree, Gordon T.,l n a; d I'old
Spring, and between Kingston and Port Royal an I htwi,.-i all
places on the railway, and a tri-weekly to all other part ..t- the
country. In Kingston there are ten street letter bl..,x win, hi are
cleared four times daily, and there is a delivery of letti-r. t.ii ti mie
a day on post days, and three times on other days.







POST OFFICE AND TELEGRAMS.


The following are the existing Regulations with respect to Inland
Postage:

LETTERS. PoST-CARDS. PACKET.
For each Newsp a- Prices For each For eCh -.
Half-ounce per i Current two onc two onnc. ti I
or frac- *- Reply each each. 'e or frae e, or frac
tional Paid tional tional
part there part part
of thereof. tlereoi.
One- alf On Half Half Hal One Two
penny. penny. penny. i penny. penny. penny, penny, pence.
Letters, newspapers, &c., which are wholly unpaid are liable to a
surcharge equal to double the deficiency.
A book packet may not exceed 3 pounds in weight, nor two feet
in length, nor I foot in depth or width, except it be intended for
transmission by mail coach.
Parcels by mail coach will be carried, not exceeding 101bs in
weight or 1,000 cubic inches in size, at the rate of threepence
per lb., or per 100 cubic inches, or fractional part thereof, it being
at the option of the Post Office to elect under which scale the par-
cel is to be paid for. A parcel may not exceed two feet in length,
or 1 foot in width or depth, nor may it contain anything likely to
damage other parcels. The charge on parcels must be paid in
advance, in cash, at the respective Local Post Offices or at the
General Post Office.
POSTAL ORDERS -Postal Orders, payable in Kingston, or at any of
the parochial treasuries, are issued for the following amounts:-


Amount Commission.
Sixpence ... Half penny
One Shilling H f ,..
One Shilling & Six- I i I 1 .....
pence


Amount. Commission.
Two 'i.;ii;..- & Sixpence Half-penny
Five -i.ii... j ...i O.e penny
Ten Shillings ... Two-pence


TELEGRAPH.
(a.) OCEAN. -Jamaica is connected with America and Great Britain by
means of the West India and Panama T.I', I.I- .ti Company (London,
9 New Broad St E.C.)
Tarifs from Jamaica to North America, Europe, &e., via Havanna.
Per Word. Per Word.


United States, East '
of Missippi
United States, West f
of Missippi
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
Cape Breton
Vancouver Island (
British Columbia 5


d.







7y


s.
Canada 5
Key West 3
Newfoundland 5
Prince Edward's Island 5
Great Britain, France ( 5
and Germany
Italy 6
Spain, via Fance & 7
Marseilles
All other Offices, via Eastern 7






HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


For Messages addressed to stations in the East Indies and South
America, via England, and for all stations on the continent of
Europe, the London rates are charged, plus the tl. ill from London
to the place of destination.
Telegrams for stations in South America, via Panama, are for-
warded by telegraph to Panama, from thence by the Central and
South American Company's Cables to destination
(b.) INLAND.-There are 67 telegraph stations in the island. The charge
for telegrams throughout Jamaica is one shilling (Is ) for the first
twenty words and threepence :3d.) for every additional five words.
i.e., for every additional group of not more than five words, the
names and addresses of the sender and receiver not being counted.
If the addressee reside within one mile of the terminal office the
telegram is delivered by messenger without any additional charge;
but if beyond that limit the following porterage fee must be pre-
paid:-
a. If the whole distance be under three miles at a charge of six-
pence (6d.) per mile, counting from boundary of the free de-
livery.
b. If the distance be over three miles at a charge of one shilling
(Is.) per mile, counting from the office.
Persons resident at a place to which the Island Telegraph Line
has not yet been extended can benefit by its use on the following
conditions:-
1. If the words By Post" with the name of a telegraph station
be written on a message it will be wired to such station and for-
warded Irom thence to its postal address by first post.
2. If a letter marked "On Post Office Telegraph Business" be
sent by post to the Telegraph Clerk at any station the message en-
closed will be promptly forwarded by wire from such station. In
this case the letter by post must be registered and the cost of the
message enclosed in telegraph stamps or coin.
8. No charge will be made in either case for postage or registration.



XI, FISCAL.
(a.) INTERNAL REVENUE.
THE Revenue of the Island-parochial as well as general -is collected
and accounted for by a Department under the control and direction
of the Collector General of Customs, Excise and Internal Revenue.
At Kingston separate establishments are maintained for the collec-
tion of Customs Revenue and the collection of the Excise and In
ternal Revenues; but in the other parishes the whole of the duties
are performed by the collectors of taxes or by subordinate officers
acting under their supervision. Each collector of taxes is stationed
at the principal town of the parish and (except in Kingston and St.
Andrew) besides the duties devolving on him in connection with
the collection of revenue, he has to discharge the duties of parochial
treasurer. The collector is ex-qfficio manager of the government
savings bank, and he issues and pays money orders drawn on and
by the Treasurer in Kingston or any other collector of taxes.







FISCAL.


I) LAND TAx.-Taxes are levied on land as follows:-


Upon every acre or frac-
tion of an acre of land
in cane, coffee, ginger,
arrowroot, corn, ground-
n u t s, cotton, tobacco,
cocoa, vegetables, bana-
nas, cocoanuts or ground
provisions 3d.
Upon ditto in Guinea Grass 1 % d.
Upon ditto in common
pasture, or in pimento,
or in common pasture
and pimento d.
Upondo. in ruinate or wood Xld.
On borsekind and carriages:-
Each head of horse-
kind used on roads 0 11 0
Each head of horse-
kind used solely for
hire and livery sta
ble purposes 0 7 0
Each ass 0 3 6
Each wheel of a car-
riage 0 15 0
Ditto solely for hire
and livery stable
purposes 0 10 0
Each wheel of a cart 0 6 0


Quit rent an acre
On Holdings not exceeding
5 acres 0
10 0
20 0
S50 0
100 0
S200 0
500 1
800 1
S" 1,000 1
S 1,500 2
exceeding 1,500 3


Each wheel of a hackney
carriage
Each firearm to be used
on the premises of the
owner
Ditto to be uIied otherwise
Every horsekind, ass or
horned stock of and
above one year old not
used on any road
Each head of horned stock
used for the purposes of
draft
On dogs in town each


1


0
0


0


0
0


III) POOR RATE:-
On every house of the annual aspect of which poor rate is pay-
value of four pounds or up- able, a tax or duty of 2s.
wards, a tax or duty after the On every other house a tax or duty
rate of one shilling and six- of 4s.
pence in the pound of such Or such rate as may be fixed by the
value. Revenue Commissioner after con-
On every hut in a provision sideration of Estimates prepared
ground used as place of tem- and furnish( d to him by the seve-
porary shelter,theowner hav- ral Parochial Boards.
ing another residence in re-
(III.) EDUCATION RATE :--
On every house under 6 annual value 0 4 0
the value of 4 0 2 0 On very house exceeding
On every house of the 6 but not exceeding
annual value of 4 0 3 0 12 annual value 0 5 0
On every house ex- On every house exceeding
ceeding 4 and not 12 annual value 0 6 0
and not exceeding
(Iv,) LICENSES have to be taken oht by Hawkers and Pedlars, for sale of
Gunpowder and Spirits, wholesale and retail, for Taverns, Hotels,


Id.

2 0
3 4
4 8
5 4
6 8
10 0
0 0
10 0
16 8
13 4
0 0



0 0


2 0
8 0


1 0


1 0
4 0





b(2 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

Stills; by Merchants, Storekeepers, Auctioneers, Wharfingers,
Masters of Vessels or Supercarges and Proprietors of Newspapers.
(v.) LitH P-HoIus DUES. -Island Light Dues are paid as follows:--d.
per ton of the registered tonnage of steamers, and 3d. per ton of the
registered tonnage of sailing vessels which enterat any port of the is-
land. Dues in respect of droghers and other ships, sloops, and vessels
engaged in the coasting trade of the island or trading within the
tropics are not demandable oftener than once within any period of
twelve calendar months, and in respect of all other ships, not oftener
than once within any period of three calendar months.
Harbour Light Dues are paid as follows: ---olly Point Light
House-A uniform rate of 4d. per ton on every vessel on the occa-
sion of each entry or call at the port of Port Antonio. Ships of
war and the contract coastal steamers are exempt.
vi.) WHARFAGE DUES.--There is a Schedule (for Wharfage at the va-
rious public wharves in Jamaica. But the legal rates are not always
,'lmared. At a good many of the wharves special arrangements
i;re made and concessions granted.

(b.) IMPORTS.
(i.) DUTIES.


X s. d.
Alc, Bcrand Porter, per gallon I 0 6
Bacon per pound 0 1
Barley (not Pearl Barley) per
bushel ( 4
Beef, wet, salted or cured, per
brl. or 200lbs. 11 3
Beans, per bushel I 01
Bread or Biscuits, per 100lbs. 0 1 o
Butter, Oleomargarine
Butterine orother nsust;tu'e
for butter, per lb. I 0 1
Calavances, per bushel 0 0 4
Candles, composition, per
pound 0 0 2
-- -wax or spermacetti,
per lb. 0 0 2
Cheese, per pound 0 1
Cider and Perry, per gallon 0 0 6
Cocoa, per O1001b. 10 0
Coffee, British Colonial, per
1001bs 1 I 0
Corn, Indian, per bushel 0 0 3
Fish, dried orsalted, per 1001bs. 0 3 6
- smoked n o t otherwise
enumerated or described,
per pound 00 ,0j
--Alewives. picked per bar-
rel of 2001bs 0 2 6
--LIorrine pickled, pic erbar-
rel .r ',,.. 0 2 6
--Herirngs, smoked, per
pound ) 0 0
--Mackerel, pickled, per bar-
rel of 2001bs. 0 2 6
--pickled. n o t otherwise
enutifprated or described,
per barrel of 2001bs. 0 4 6


--Salmon, smoked, per
pound
--Salmon, wet, or salted,
per barrel of 200lbsl.
Flour. Itye. per barrel of
196lb. -
- Wheat, per barrel of
1961bs.
Gunpowder, per pound
Hams, per pound
Indigo, per pound
Lard and its compounds, per
21bs.
Matches, Lucifers and others
per gross of 12 doz. boxes,
each box to contain 100
sticks, and boxes containing
any greateror lesser quantity
to be charged in proportion
Meat, salted or cured, per bar-
rel of 200lbs.
Meal, not wheat meal, perbar-
rel of 2001bs.
Oats, per bushel
Oil, other than petroleum and
cotton seed oil, per gallon
Peas (not being split pease.)
per bushel
Pork, wet, salted orcured, per
barrel of 2001bs.
Petroleum and its products,
crude, or refined, per gallon
Rice, per O01lbs.
--undressed, per bushel -
Salt, per 1001bs. -
Sausages. dry or pickled, per
pound


s.d.


o 11 i

0 8 0

0 S 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 0 o

0 0 01







FISCAL. 63

s.d. s.d.
Soap, per lO01bs 0 6i or prepared for buildings by
Spirits, Brandy, per gallon 0 10 0 superficial measurement of
--Gin. per gallon 0 10 0 1 inch thick 0 9 0
--Rum, the produce of and --per every 1,000ft. of white
imported from British pine lumber, or other lum-
possessions, per gallon 0 10 0 ber, by superficial mea-
---Whisky, per gallon u 10 0 surement of 1 inch thick 0 9 0
Spirits of Wine, Alcohol and --Shingles, Cypress, more
all other spirits, cordials or than 12 inches in length
spiritous compounds, per per thousand 0 ( 0
gallon 0 100 Shintlta Wallaba shingles per
Sugar, unrefined, per 1001bs. 0 10 0 i1.. s.ii 0 6 0
Tea, per pound 0 1 0 Boston Chips. an d all
Tobacco, manufactured, in- shingles n o t otherwise
cluding Cavendish, per lb. 0 1 0 enumerated or described,
- Unmanufactured, per per thousand 0 4 0
pound 0 0 6 On all other Goods, Wares,
- Cigars, per pound 0 5 0 Merchandize, and effects of
Tongues, salted or cured, per every description not other-
barrel of 2001bs. 0 15 0 wise enumerated, for every
Wheat, per bushel 0 0 6 100 value 12 10 0
Wines in bulk and in bottle, And after these rates for any
per gallon 0 2 6 greater or less quantity of
Woood, per every 1,000 ft. of such goods respectively.
pitch pine lumber, in rough
(II.) EXEMPTIONS FiOM DUTY.
Animals, alive, and poultry Drugs, medicines and medicinal piepara-
Apparatus and appliances used for gene- tions of all kinds including patent or
i t;pV. storing or conducting electric proprietary medicines
:it Dyewoods
Asbestos and tar paper for roofing Eggs
Beef, smoked and dried Fertilizers of all kinds, natural and arti-
Beef and pork preserved in cans. not ficial
being wet, salted or cured Fish. fresh or on ice
Belting for machinery, of leather, ( ,,r F;-l in'r apparatus of all kinds
or India rubber FI\
Birds Fruits and .. .i .11. fresh or dried,
Boats and lighters when not ( ar.. 1 1,,-r Books bound or unbound. 1.-in.1 i1b. ,. fixtures including pipes and stoves
newspapers and printed malt.-- im 11l ,.ld all apparatus for generating, mea-
languages spring or storing gas
Bones and horns Gold and silver coin and bullion
liottles of glass or stoneware Hand machine for preparing fibre or for
Bran. mi-ldlll ,- and shorts spinning cotton or wool
Bricks (rni t. l, bricks) Iay and straw for forage
Bridges of iron or wood or of both com- Hemp
bined Hides, raw
Brooms, brushes and whisks of broom Houses of wood complete
straw Hydraulic Presses
Candles of tallow Ice
Carts, waggons, cars and barrows. with Implements, utensils and tools for agri-
or without springs, of all descriptions culture, including axes, billhooks, cut-
not being such as are ordinarily used lasses, diggers, forks, grass-knives.
as vehicles of pleasure hatchets, hoes, picks, shovels and
Clocks and parts thereof spades
Coals and Coke India-rubber and gutta-percha goods,
Cotton-seed and its products. to included including water-proof clothing made
meal, mealcake. oil and cottolene wholly or in part thereof
Cotton-wool Iron, ,.; -.1
Crucibles and pots of all kinds for melt- Iron r -....--. li doors and shutters-and
ing metals every kind of iron doors and shutters
Diamonds Lamps and lanterns not exceeding tea
Drawings, paintings, engravings, litho shillings each in value as defined in
Graphs and photographs Section 24 of Law 18 of 1877






64 HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.

EXEMPTIONS FROM DUTY, contd.

Leeches 'Soda, ash or sub-soda
Lime of all kinds iSpecimens illustrative of natural history.
Locomotives, railway rolling- r.. I. ...i- rineralogy and geology
railway ties and all material ... I 'l -. ,i and power engines and machines.
pliances for railways and tramwa s machinery and apparatus, whether sta.
Malt dust tionery or portable, worked by power
Marble or alabaster, in the rough or or by hand, for any agriculture, irriga-
sq(ured, worked or carved, for building tion. mining, the arts and industries of
purposes or monuments all kinds and all necessary parts and
Meat, fresh appliances for the erection or repair
Mess plate and friiiture, band instru- thereof, or for the communication of
ments for the use of the Army and motive power thereto
Navy, on the certificate of the Military Steam boilers and steam pipes
or Naval Commanding Officer Stills or any part of a still
Mills, whetherthey be forgrinding c.-i-, .;,' i. definedd
paint, coffee, corn or grain of any kid n'l Ii I"r
or for sawing boards, raising wat. r ..r I ill *. and animal grease
such as are set in motion by -- m I ,n Il. rk of all kinds, whole or ground
horse, wind or water power a.Il 11l. i. 2r .I.I wire, telegraphic, telephonic
parts of the said mills and electrical apparatus and appliances
Molasses i and all kinds of communication or illu
Oil cakes, whole or in powder, and other] mination
prepared food for cattle and animals Tiles, marble and earthen, as well as
Oysters, preserved in cans paving stones
Paper of all kinds, whether for .ruii.t.i T..n:.-- -aloked and dried
writing, wrapping or packing .. ii.. t.I. .ri .r L.l.-l
purpose, to include envelopes and bags Tow
of paper Trees, plants, vines and seeds and grains
Patent fuel of all kinds for propagation or cultiva-
Pans for boiling sugar, whethe- of cop tion
per or iron Turtle
Photographic apparatus and ch i'.nic is Varnish not containing spirits
Pipes for conveying fluids Wall-paper
Printers' ink, all colours Watches and parts thereof
P. .1.r. presses, types, rules, spaces and Water-pipes of all classes, materials and
all accessories for printing dimensions and water-meters
Pumps for raising water Wax, bees'
Quicksilver Wire fencing. iron standard and also tomb
liesin, tar, pitch and turpentine I railings
Salt, rock Wire for fences, with the hooks, staples,
Sarsaparilla : nails and the like appliance for fast-
Sewing machines and all parts and ac-I ening the same
cessories thereof Wood hoops
Shooks, tierces, puncheon and ti .:-. 1-rl- \. .I staves and headings, red or white
and all descriptions of shocks, also oak or ash
tierces, hogsheads and casks Yeast, cake and baking powder
Slates Zinc. tin and lead, in sheets


(III.) VALUE OF IMPORTS.

THE value of the Imports into the Colony in each of the last ten years

was as follows:-

1884-85 1,487,833 1890-91 2,188,937
1885-86 1,325,603 1891-92 1,759,890
[886-87 1,351,394 1892-93 1,941,481
1887-88 1,695,605 1893-94 2,1.7,7U4
1888-89 1,597,600 1894-95 2,191,745







FISOAL.


The Imports for the last three years were drawn from the several
countries in the following proportion, viz :-
1894-95. 1893-94. 1892-93.

United Kingdom 50.5 55.1 51.9
Dominion of Canada 8.5 8.8 9.6
United States 36.6 33.2 34.8
Other Countries 4.4 2.9 3.7
(Iv.) VALUE OF IMPORTS ENTERED FOR CONSUMPTION IN 1894-95.
FOOD STUFFS. CLOTHING IN- OTHER MACHI-
CLUDING BOOTS. NERY & TOOLS.
From United Kingdom 100,642 14 0 529,512 4 2 21,320 17 2
British Possessions 185,836 16 3 1,041 16 0 16 15 0
U. S. of America 414,844 10 1 66,804 1 3 17,553 4 11
"Other Countries 4,141 9 6 5,687 16 1 2,899 0 6

Total 705,465 9 10 603,045 17 6 41,789 17 7*


LIQUORS. HARDWARE AND
IRONMONGERY.


From United Kingdom
British Possessions
U. S. of America
Other Countries

Total


From United Kingdiom
British Possessions
U. S. America
Other Countries

Total


From United Kingdom
British Possessions
U. S. of America
"Other Countries

Total

Grand Total


70,241 10 7
4,492 6 11
4,353 7 1
2,874 1 9

81,961 6 4

TOBACCO INCLU-
DING CIGARS.

1,349 3 3
6 19 4
16,278 13 9
324 10 1

17,959 6 5


68,709 16 5
83 2 7
24,097 9 6
750 8 4

93,640 16 10


COALS AND
COKE.
50,618 13 6
478 0 0
6,953 15 6


58,050 9 0


BUILDING MA- BOOKS AND
TRIALS. OTHER PRIN-
TED MATTER.
36,099 17 3 15,278 19 4
7,441 10 7 161 8 2
80,981 7 0 3,954 3 10
2,981 11 6 192 18 11

127,504 6 4 19,587 10 3


HOUSEHOLD ESTATES' MA-
FURNITURE. CHINERY AND
SUPPLIES.
27,362 19 6 31,420 15 11
49 1 5 2,168 9 3
10,284 1 11 8,081 13 10
3.240 2 2 162 9 0


40,936 5 0


41,833 8 0

.


MISCELLANE-
OUS.

151,696 11 11
25,970 3 5
152,039 1 1
29,232 1 8

358,937 18 1

2,190,712 11 2


* Including Railroad Plant and Bridges.







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


(s.) EXPORTS.
(I.) VALUE.--The value of [the exports of produce and manufa-
tures in each of the last ten years is shown below :-


Year.

1884-85
1885-86
1886-87
1887-88
1888-89
1890-91
1891-92
1892-93
1893-94
1894-95


Of British, For-
Of the Colony. eign and other Total.
Colonies.

1,181,203 227,645 1,408,848
1,078,315 201,803 1,280,118
1,334,465 174,542 1,509,010
1,661,601 166,989 1,828,590
1,501,660 113,164 1,614,824
1,807,084 95,730 1,902,814
1,628,777 93,319 1,628,777
1,690,637 69,169 1,759,806
1,962,596 93,093 2,075,689
1,848,877 72,544 1,921,421


(II.) DISTRIBUTION.-The total amount of the island's Exports was dis
tribute in each of the last three years as under, viz:-
1894-95, 1893-94. 1892-93.

United Kingdom 26.7 26.7 29.1
United States 58.7 57.3 54.2
Dominion of Canada 1.6 1.7 2.6
Other Countries 13.0 14.3 14.1
The following is a comparative statement of the proportion of ex.
ports during the the last three years :-


Fruit
Sugar 12-9
Rum 10-1
Coffee
Dyewoods
Pimento
Minor products


1894-95.

27-9
23-0
19-3
19-0
4-5
6-3


100-0


1893-94.

26-6
14-2 21-6
17-3
24-3
38
6-4


100-0


1892-93.

23-1
14"3 25-6
11-3 S256
20-1
21-1
3-5
6-6

100-0


As will be seen from the above table, in 1893-94, the products -if
the fruit plantations (principally bananas) for the first time depos-,J
the products of the -i .rar estates (sugar and rum) from the premier
position which they had ever held in the exports of the island. 't
sugar less than 6 per cent. of the whole export goes to Englanl
and nearly 90 per cent. goes to America while of rum, the State.
receive but 1'6 per cent., and the United Kingdom over 90 per cent.






FISCAL.


QUANTITY AND VALUE OF EXPORTS, 1894-95.


To United Kingnom
British Possessions
U. S. of America
Other Countries

Total



To United Kingdom
British Possessions
U. S. of America
Other Countries

Total



To United Kingdom
" British Possessions
" U. S. of America
" Other Countries

Total



To United Kingdom
" British Possessions
" U. S, of America
" Other Countries

Total




To United Kingdom
" British Possessions
" U S. of America
" Other Countries

Total


SUGAR.
Hhds.
1,208 12,323
1,161 11,845
20,951 213,697
132 1,345

23,452 239,210

RUM.


Puns,
16,119
433
309
2,701

19,562



154,480
4,153
2,963
25,882

187,478


COFFEE.


Cwts.
19,053 71,449
3,006 11,275
56,666 212,499
16,403 61,511

95,128 356,734

PIMENTO.
Cwts.
25,336 25,336
509 509
41,661 41,661
16,449 16,449

83,955 83,955

DYEWOOD.

Tons-
36,064 160,341

17,224 77,150
24,884 111,533

78,172 349.024


FRUIT.

,284
3,218
S 511,716
24

S 516,242

TOBACCO (including
Cigars.)
Lbs.
2,732 1,366
10,292 5,165
191 96
5,411 2,378

18,626 9,005

MINOR PRODUCTS (in-
cluding Ginger.)

61,683
3,462
37,143
S 4,197

S 106,485

HORSEKIND
Head.
3 85
14 585

2 75

19 745

MISCELLANEOUS, VIZ.:
Foreign Produce re-
exported.

24,422
9,405
31,387
7,330

72,544

1,921,422


* At a Standard of 100 liquid gallons.





HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


(e.) CURRENCY IN JAMAICA.
COINS IN CIRCULATION.
British coins, gold and silver, of all denominations (but t not bronze)
Doubloons Mexican and Spanish at 3 4 0
Colombian 0
Aliquot parts in proportion.
American (United States) Gold
Double Eagle -- 4 2 0
Single 2 1 0
Half 1 0
Quarter 0 10 3
Dollar 0 4 1
Jamaica--Nickle Coins: Penny, Half-penny, Farthing.
The rates for the selling of Bills of Exchange at the Colonial Bank
and at the Bank of Nova Scotia are as follows :-
RATES FOR SELLING ON LONDON.
90 Days % per cent. premium.
60 Days & "
30 Days % "
Sight 1 "
Drafts on Messrs. Lloyd's Bank, Limited, drawn to order on de-
mand, are sold at the following rates:-
Not exceeding 10 at 2/6 Not exceeding 35 at 8,9
" 15 3/9 40 "' 10/
" 20 5/ 45 11/3
" 25 6/3 50 12/6
30 7/6 Issued up to 1,000 at same ratio.
RATES FOR SELLING ON NEW YORK.
Demand Diafts only issued ; price varies according to Exchange
quotation at New York.
(f.) BANKING.
In Kingston, there are branches of the COLONIAL BANK of London
(Oscar Marescaux, Manager), and the BANK OF NOVA SCOTIA (W.
P. Hunt, Manager).
In the GOVERNMENT SAVINGS BANK in Kingston there were on the
31st March, 1895, 27,045 depositors including charities, societies,
clubs, &c., with an amount 453,875 on deposit.
There are branches of the Government Savings Bank at the fol-
lowing places:-Kingston, Morant Bay, Port Antonio, Port Maria,
St. Ann's Bay, Falmouth, Montego Bay, Lucea, Savanna-la-Mar,
Black River. Mandeville, May Pen, Spanish Town-open daily.
Siub-lrau.-h.- of the Government Savings Bank are established at
the following places:- Buff Bay, Annotto Bay, Brown's Town, Santa
Cruz, Porus, (open every day), Alley. Chapelton, Linstead, Old
Harbour-all of which are open at least once a week.
Penny Banks have also been established in nearly all the districts
of the island by ministers of religion, and other influential gentle-
men. There are now 129 in the island, with 21,007 depositors.






LAW AND POLICE. 69

XII. LAW AND POLICE.
(1.) LAW COURTS.-With the Supreme Court of Judicature of the island
are consolidated the High Court of Chancery, the Incumbered Estates
Court, the Court of Ordinary, the Court of Divorce and Matrimonial
Causes, the Chief Court of Bankruptcy and the Circuit Courts.
The Court consists of a Chief Justice and two Puisne Judges, the
Chief Justice being President. All the Judges must be members of
the Bar of England, Ireland or Scotland of at least five years
standing.
The full Court holds a session in Kingston on the first Monday in
February, April, June, August, October and December in each
year. A special sitting of the full Court may at any time heap-
pointed by the Chief Justice.
The times and places for the holding of the Circuit Courts are fixed
by the Governor in Privy Council. The following are the arrange-
ments for 1896:--
EASTERN CIRCUIT.
Kingston -January 6th; April 20th ; August 24th.
Spanish Town -January 13th; May 4th ; September 7th.
Morant Bay-March 3rd; July 7th; November 3rd.
Port Antonio The sittings of those Courts will follow after the
Port Maria preceding, and will be fixed a month before
they are held.
WESTERN CIRCUIT.
May Pen -February 3rd ; June Ist ; October 5th.
Mandeville
Black River
Savanna-la-Mar The sittings of these Courts will follow
Lucea after the preceding and will be fixed a
Montego Boy month before they are held.
Falmouth
St. Ann's Bay
There are 9 Barristers at Law admitted to practice in Jamaica, 7
Advocates and 88 Solicitors.
There are also Resident Magistrates for the parishes of the island,
one for each. They preside at the Courts of Petty Sessions, and also
hold Courts of their own where they sit alone. They are Coroners
for their parishes. (For List see p. iii).
The Custos of each (parish is the chief of the Magistracy in it.
There are a number of Justices of the Peace in each parish, ap-
pointed by the Governor onr the nomination of the Custos.
(II.) CONSTABULARY. -The police in each parish are under the charge of
an Inspector. There are 102 Constabulary stations throughout the
island. The Constabulary Force is made up as follows :-
Inspector General 1
First Class Inspectors 4
Second Class Inspectors 5
Third Class Inspectors 5
Sub-Inspeetors 5







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


Sergeants-Major 15
Sergeants 38
Corporals 80
First Class Constables 100
Second Class Constables 565--818
The Detectives and mounted orderlies are
included in this strength.
WATER POLICE.
Coxswains, 1 Sergeant, 5 Corporals 6
Acting Coxswains (First Class Constables) 2
Water Policemen 26--34
RURAL POLICE.
Headmen 218
Policemen 1,308-1,526

Total 2,378
(Ii Il' SONS.- Besides the General Penitentiary in Kingston, there
are prisons at Spanish Town, Falmouth, Lucea and Port An-
tonio : a Boys' Reformatory at htonv Hill, St. Andrew, and a Girls'
Retormatory in Kingston.


XIII. EDUCATION.
(a.) ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
There are in the island, under the supervision of the Chief In-
spector of Schools, with whom is associated an advisory Board of
Education, a large number of elementary schools, which are sup-
ported by grants, and at which no fees are paid. In 1895 there
were 962 schools, (160 fir t clans, 345 second class and457 third class),
with 104,149 scholars onthe books, and 62,587 in average attendance.
The schools are inspected annually by Inspectors of Schools of
whom there are eight in the island. Teachers for these schools are
supplied from the various Training (C.11.-,--.
(b.) TRAINING COLLEGES.
Bethlehem, St. Elizabeth. MORAVIAN FEMALE TRAINING COLLEGE,
(Principal, H. E. Seiler) 30 students.
Fairfield, Manchester MORAVIAN MALE TRAINING COLLEGE,
(Principal, Rev. P. A Herman-Smith), 30 students.
Kingston. CALABAR INSTITUTION, or Jamaica Baptist College,-
(President, Rev. A. James, B.A.) There are 6 theo-
logical and 25 normal students, and 5CO pupils in the
model school.
Mico TRAINING COLLEGE, (Co-Principals, Rev. Wm.
Gillies and L. G r. Gr'hy). Has 60 students supported
by Government. and 20 students on the original founda-
tion, in training as schoolmasters. There is a prac-
tising school in connection.
Shortwood, St Andrew. GOVERNMENT TRAINING COLLEGE FOR
FEMALE TEACHERS, (Lady Principal, Miss A. C. Johnson). Has
30 students, and a practising school in connection. Entrance
fee 5. Board and lodging free.






EDUCATION.


(c.) HIGHER GRADE SCHOOLS.
The following is a list of some of the principal educational estab-
lishments in the island.*
Barbican, St. Andrew. WESLEYAN SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, (Lady
Principal, Miss Bond.)
Camperdown, St. Andrew. CAMPERDOWN SCHOOL, (Masters-C. F,
Poole, M.A., and E. A. Poole, B.A.) (Private).
Halfway Tree, St. Andrew. LADIES' COLLEGE, (Mistress-Miss
Ashby.) (Private.)
Hope, St. Andrew, JAMAICA HIGH SCHOOL, (Headmaster, Rev,
Win. Simms, M. A.) has 22 Foundationers, 7
Endowed School Scholars. 11 terminal board-
ers, 2 weekly boarders and 3 day boys, Total
45.
S UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, (Principal, Rev. Wm.
Simms, M.A.), Founded in 1889, in order to
extend University 1.'.. Ilnug in the island. Has
4 students.
Kingston. THE BOARD SCHOOL, (for Manual Instruction).
CHURCH OF l'. :i.... i. GRAMMAR SCHOOL, (Headmaster,
Rev. M. C. I ir,.j. Fees 6 to 10 per annum.
(Private.)
'" ~OLLEGIATE SCHOOL, (Principal, Wm. Morrison, M.A.)
Fees 1 10s. to 2 10s. per term. Board 8 per
term. (Private).
RANCISCAN CONVENT, (Roman Catholic) Boarding
School and Elementary Schools in connection.
EBREW NATIONAL INSTITUTION (Day School).
*' JAMAICA CHURCH THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE, (Warden,
Rev. C. H. Coles, M.A. ; Tutor, Rev. J. B. Ellis,
M.A.)
HIGH SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, with Kindergarten, (Mis-
tress-Mrs. M. C. Clare). (Private).
KINGSTONACADEMY,E( Mistress-Mrs Lewis). (Private)
ST. GEORGE'S COLLEGE, (Roman Catholic), Fees, Day
Scholars 10. Boarders 36 to 40 per annum.
WOLMER'S FREE SCHOOL, (Headmaster, H. Dews, B.A.:
Headmistress of the Girls' School. Miss C. Murray;.
Lucea, Hanover. RUSEA'S FREE SCHOOL, (Headmaster, A. E.
Tomlinson, B.A.), has 15 Free Foundationers, and paying pupils
at 8 per annum.
Mandeville, Manchester. HIGH SCHOOL, BOYS MIDDLE GRADE
SCHOOL (Headmaster, M. F. Johns.)
GIRLS MIDDLE GRADE SCHOOL, (Mistress-Miss L.
Cartier.)
Montego Bag, St. James. SECONDARY SCHOOL FORl BOYS, Head-
master, E. V. Lockett. B.A.)
Old Harbour, St, Catherine. LUDFoRU'S BEQUEST.
Port Antonio, Portland. TITCHFIELD Fi.: ks. t :)L,. (Headmaster,
Boys' School, W. H Plant; mistress, Girls School, Miss Doran.)
Port Maria, St. 'lar,'- RECTORY SCHOOL, (Principal, Rev. J. H.
H. Graham), F,. .C2 to 3 per term. (Private.)
Al schools, except those marked Private, are endowed or nbsidized by the
Government,






HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


Potsdam, St. Elizabeth. MUNROE AND DICKENSON'S FREE SCHOOL,
(Headmaster, Rev. W. D. Pearman, M.A.) Has 10 Free
Foundationers, 10 20 Foundationers and 11 term boarders.
Ropley, St Andrew. ROPLEY SCHOOL, (Principal, Rev. M. F.
McDermot.) (Private)
Savann-a-laMar, Westmoreland. MANNING'S FREE SCHOOL,
(Headmaster, W. A. Milne).
Spanish Town, St. Catherine. GRADED MIDDLE CLASS SCHOOL (in
connection with Beckford and mith's Trust.) (Principal, Rev.
W. Kemp Binssell.) Fee 2 per term
York Castle, SI. Ann. YORK CASTLE HIGH SCHOOL, (Wesleyan )
(Governor, Rev. W. C. Murray, ).D. Headmaster, W H.
Mitchell, '1.A.) There is a theological training institution in
connection.
(c.) GOVERNMENT SCHOLARSHIPS
I.) The Jamaica Scholarship --Once a year a scholarship of l200 per
annum, tenable for three years at any one of the Universities of
Great Britain and Ireland is awarded. It is given to the boy (who
must be Jamaica born, or a son of parents domiciled in the island)
who passes best in the Cambridge Senior Local Examination, pro-
vided that he obtains either a first or second class in honours, or a
third class in honours together with distinction in one subject
(II.) 60 Scholarships. -Two Scholarships of 60 per annum, tenable
for three years, are granted each year to the two candidates in the
Cambridge Senior Local Examination who -born in Jamaica or of
parents domiciled in Jam-ni(.i, not less than seventeen or more than
nineteen years before the 15thi of December in the year of examina-
tion (after excluding the winner of the Jamaica Scholarship and any
others who cannot or do not take up ore of these Scholarships)-
stand highest amongst those who pass the Cambridge Senior Local
Examination, provided they obtain Honours or a mark of distinction
in one subject, and declare their intention of proceeding within three
years to the examinations for some degree of the University ,of Lon-
don.
(III.) 15 Scholarships. Four Scholarships of 15 tenable for one year
are awarded annually to the four boys, and one to the girl, who
stand highest on the list of successful candidates under 19 years in
the Cambridge Local Examination for Senior Students; the winners
of the Jamaica Scholarship and the 60 Scholarships being excluded.
(IV.) 10 Scholarships.-Eight Scholarships of 10 tenable for one year
are annually granted to the eight boys under the age of sixteen years
who stand highest on the list of the successful candidates in the
Cambridge Junior Local Examinatton, provided in each case that
the scholar be placed in one of the honour classes or obtains mark of
distinction in some subject.
Two such Scholarships are annually granted to the two girls under
the age of sixteen years who stand highest amongst the girls in the
same examination, without the requirement of any further proviso.
(v.) 5 Scholarships.-Twenty-eight Scholarships of the annual value of
5 each, tenable for two years, are annually granted to twenty
eight pupils from the Elementary Schools of the island, who, after
examination held by the Superintending Inspector of Schools, de-






RELIGION.


clare their intention of continuing their education at any school
created or assisted under the Secondary Educaton Law, or approved
by the Board of Education.
(v ) Trade Scholarships -Five Scholarships of the maxinimum value of
25 per annum each, and lasting for a maximum period of, years
each, are annually granted to five pupils from the Elementary
Schools, who must be not less than fourteen years of age and who
shall be willing to enter into articles of apprenticeship with trades-
men to be selected in rotation from the following list: -
Tradesmen. Period of Training
Carpenter .. 5 years
Blacksmith -
Plummer and Coppersmith "
Cooper 3 years
Mason .. 5 years
Wheelwright 3. years
House Painter 2 ears
Saddler years
Shoemaker "
Tailor 2 ears


(d.) (AMBRIDGn E IOCAL~ EXAMI:A'TrIONs. TLhe
every )Decemder in Kingston, at the Jama
and at such other centres as the eocal
(The Rev. Win. Pratt, M.A., i-; the Local
following was the result -
Examined.
Seniors. Boys 19
S Girls 4
Juniors. Boys 74
Girls 23
Preliminary Boys 68
Girls 26

Total 214

(e.) COLLEGE OF PR6ECEPTORs EXAMINATIrONS.
now held in Kingston yearly.


se examinations are held
,ica High School at Hope,
c committee may appoint.
Secretary.) In 18)5 the

Passed.
18
3
46
13
33

121

These Examinations are


XIV. RELIGION.
The f.llwiiig is a list of the various religious denominations in
the island.
i. THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN -JAMAICa (disestablished in 1870). There
are 105 churches and 97 mission-stations. There are a Bishop, an
Assistant Bishop, upwards of 100 clergymen, and about 250 eateehists
and lay readers; and a membership of nearly 44,000. The Church
maintains Theological College, and over 320 elementary day school,
are managed by its clergy. Bishop of Jamaica-Most Rev. Enos
Nuttall, D.D., Primate of theWest Indies.
n. THE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND IN JAMAICA, has 8 churches, 4 clergymen
1 lay missionary, and1l,500 to 1,600 communicants; 12 day schools.
and 10 Sunday schools.






HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


IN. THE ROMAN (ATHOLIC CHURCH, Besides the principFl h,1icni.
that of Holy Trinity, Kingston, there are about 200 i*hal.l-. lu
various parts of the island, which aie periodically visit. 1 hi ad.
edition to several elementary schools in town and country. il' r>- iar.-
two industrial schools and an orphanage Bishop of Tl1harir;i .irli
Vicar Apostolic of Jamaica-Right Rev. Charles Gordon
IV. THE JAMAICA BAPTIST MISSION has 186 churches, 64 inoinir-,ir a
membership of 36,308, about 5,000 candidates for menimr-r-liip .,1u
over 250 day schools.
v. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF JAMAICA has 57 congrk-.-.ti..,iL. 2S
ordained ministers, 19 catechists and 364 ruling elders, ..*. 11 L.J17
members, and 86 day schools. Clerk to Synod---,'. W Y.
Turner, M.D.
VI. THE CONGREGATIONAL UNION OF JAMAICA has 10 ordaiir..I I'a.t..r-.
9 Catechists, 3,580 church members, and 33 day schools.
vii. THE WESLEYAN METHODIST CHURCH has 140 chapels, a rn,-iii.-rlhill
of over 24,000 persons, 53 ministers, and 134 day scho.l- 14 : Son
day schools and two high schools, one for boys the othli t-..r i,-i.
President elect Rev. Thomas M. Geddes.
VIII. THE UNITED METHODIST FREE CHURCH consists of 1iiili.,lt-iT.
3,527 communicants and 34 day schools.
IX. THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, or the Church of the Disciple. ..t1 hri...
numbers 6 ministers, 19 churches, 1,900 members and 10 .ti\ -.h, rl-.
It is chiefly supported by the Christian Woman's Board ..I1 M1-.. I-
of Indianapolis, U S.A.
x. THE MORAVAIN CHURCH has 20 principalstations, a total m-oiil.. ,i,
of over 17,000, with 19 ministers, and 77 day schools. Thli- Ibr.-l
maintains two voluntary Training Colleges Bishop- -li-ht H e%.
G. H. Hanna.
xl. JEWISH CONGREGATIONS. There arein Kingston, the An. lilr'.-I a1r.l
Congregation of Israelites (Rev. S. Jacobs, Minister ot I HI. Sr na-
gogue in Duke street), and a Synagogue in East Street wirl *i 10,
Reader.)
xII. CHINESE. There is a Chinese Temple in Kingston.


XV. HISTORY.
Jamaica was discovered by Columbus on the 3rd M1 9. 1494,
during his second voyage, when, landing on the 14th -.t iila at
Dry Harbour, he found it thickly populated by Araw Ik I iians.
During the Spanish occupation, which lasted 161 years. ithe tilivns
of Sevilla and Mellila (which have long since perished; ;n l S~Nil
Jago de la Veg% (the present Spanish Town) were buili. Aliust
the whole of the natives were destroyed; but a large ,in.ii.-r io
horses and cattle were reared.
On the llth \lay 1655, the island was given up by th.- .: maijards
to an expedition under Penn and Venables which had i.,nl&i Ita t
attempt to capture St. Domingo After a short period ,I rmilut;iry
command, General D'Oyley in 1661 received a commission a;- I.'".r.
norof Jamaica, since which date there have been 41 i\..\,r.r,
besides a number of Lieutenant Governors, and latterly .\d1rimi- rii-
tors, during the temporary absence of Governors. The ir-ir ci~e-irahl
representative Assembly of the people met at St. Jago d1- Ia Vega






i HISTORY.


il January, 1664. and that body continued in existence until 1865
when Crown Government was established, with Sir John Peter
Grant as Governor, in the form of a simple chamber called the
Legislative Council of Jamaica, con -isting of public officers and
other persons appointed by the Queen This I.11'L '-.-'it continued
till 1884, when, under Sir Henry Norman, a new Legislative Council
was constituted and the inhabitants thereby received a form of
Representative Government for which they had been for a long time
agitating. The following is a brief list of a few of the more import-
events in the history of the island during the British possession.
1655 In May the Island was given up to the English.
1661 General D'Oyley first Governor
1664 Sir Thomas .l/,i ,.t,,rd arrived from Barbados as Governor, bring
ing with him 1111111 i.-tlers He transferred the residence of the
Governor from Cagua (Port Royal) to St. Jago do la Vega (Spanish
Town).
A census was taken of the population, which amounted to 4,205.
1670 Jamaica formally ceded to England by the Treaty of Madrid.
1675 Under Lord Vaughan, 1,200 persons arrived from Surinam, and
settled in the island, principally at a place called Surinam in the
parish of Westmoreland.
1678 During the Governorship of the Earl of Carlisle, the Assembly
successfully resisted the proposed change in the political constitution
of the island.
1687 Sir Hans Sloane, the naturalist, visited the island in the suite of
the Duks of Albemarle.
1692 On the 7th June, Port Royal, then the finest town of the West
Indies and one of the richest places in the world, was destroyed by
an earthquake ; which event led to the development of the town of
Kingston.
1694 The island was visited by a French fleet under Admiral Du Casse,
but the invaders were driven back.
1702 Fight off Santa Martha between Du 'sse and Benbow, who died
from the effects of a wound; and lies buried in Kingston church.
1711 Severe storm in the western part of the island, the parish of West-
moreland alone sustaining damage to the extent of Jt 7,11 ,li in
1718 Introduction of Coffee into the island.
1722 Much damage done at Port Royal by a hurricane.
1730, 1732 and 1734. Difficulties with the Maroons; and in 1738, a
treaty of peace was entered into with them by which 2,500 acres of
land were assigned to them in different parts of the island.
1739 [War declared by EInLrl.mid against Spain.]
1744 A dreadful storm and earthquake. Port Royal, Kingston, Old
Harbour, and Passage Fort suffered, and Savanna-la-Mar was totally
destroyed
1758 Three Counties-Cornwall, Middlesex antd Surrey--formed.
1760 A formidable rebellion among the slaves in the parish of St. Mary:
about 600 were transported to the Bay of Honduras.
1778 An expedition was sent against San Juan de Nicaragua by Gover-
nor Dalling. Nelson, who was then Governor of Fort Charles, left
his post and accepted a subordinate command The Castle of San
Juan was captured, but the **-- r.r- -,tl-,.r- 'I fearfully from malarial
fever. Nelson only escaped with his life.







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


1782 Rodney achieved his great victory over Count de Grasse, and thus
saved Jamaica from possible capture
1784, 1785 and 1786. The island was visited by very severe storms, and
a large number of negroes perished from famine.
1789 [Revolution in San Domingo ]
1795, 179(. Further troubles with tihe Maroons : 500 ol, them were sent
to Nova Scotia, whence they were afterwards traul'ferred to Sierra
Leone.
1807 Africa i Slave Trade ,i' dlished.
1824 S e of Jamaica constituted : JDr LipscoiMb wa, made the first Bishop
of Jamaica
During the Duke If Maanchester's administration began liie con-
troversy between the Imperial Government and the House of Assem-
bly in connection with the measures proposed by the former for
improving the condition of the slave population.
1831 Outbreak of the Negro popuhkiion in Cornwall
1833 In May a law was passed by the Imperial Parliament which de-
claied thatfrorn anu after August, 1834, all slaves in the colonial pos-
sessions of Grnat Britain should be free for ever, subject to an inter-
mediate state or six years'apprentice-ship. The amountof 5,853,975
was granted to Jamaica in compensation of the freedom of upwards
of 300.000 slaves.
_..L31 On the first of August the total abolition of slavery took place.
1841 The Jamaica Silk Company incorporated by a local act.
1842 In May arrived the first batch of immigrants from India as agri-
cultural laborers.
1845 The Jamaica Railway was opened
1850 Asiatic (holera visited the island. The deaths were estimated at
32,000
1865 During the Governorship of Mr. Eyre, occurred the outbreak at
Morant Bay in October, when Baron Von Ketelholdt, the Custos of
St. Thomas in the Ea-t. and eighteen other gentlemen were killed.
George William Gortdon member of the House of Assembly, was tried
by Court Martial and hanged. As a result of the Royal Commission
which enquired into the circumstances of the case, Governor Eyre
was recalled.
!, 6i New Constitution under Sir John Ieter Grant. The twenty-two
parishes reduced to fourteen A .emi-military police, a medical
service, and a department of public works were organized.
18OS Fruit trade with America started at Port Antonio.
1869 By the opening of telegraphic communication between Jamaica
and Ilavanna it first became possible to send telegrams from the
island to Europe.
1870 The Episcopal Church was disestablished.
Removal of the seat of Government from Spanish Town to King-
ston.
1872 First introduction of the Mongoose direct from India.
1877 Jamaica admitted to the Postal Union.
1882 11th December. Great Fire in Kingston.
1883 1st December, publication of a new form of Government.
1889 Sale of the Jamaica Railway to an American Syndicate.
1891 27th January. Jamaica International Exhibition opened by
Prince George of Wales.







CONSTITUTION. 77

1804 Jamaica Railway extended to Montego Bay.
18!(i First Legislative Council under Extended lRepresentation. A
member for each parish.
Governors. Amongst the most prominent Governors of Jamaica
have been Sir William f' i I .. I', in whose honour a parish was
created and named after him ; the Duke of Manchester who was
here for no less than nineten years; the Earl of Mulgrave whose
administration of the Government during a critical time in tile
history of the island was marked by much firmness and discretion;
Sir Charles Metcalfe who did much to reconcile the colony with the
mother country, anl who also had a parish named after him which
is now merged into St. Mary; Lord Elgin. who made many endea-
vours to improve the methods of agriculture practised in the island;
Sir John Peter Grant, upon whom devolved the duty of organizing
the new form of government; Sir Anthony Musgrave, during whose
term of office, many improvement in the island took place, and Sir
Henry Norman, under whom a new Legislative Council was consti-
tuted, which gave the inhabitants a form of Representative Go-
vernment.




XVI. CONSTITUTION.
(I.) LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.-The present Legislative Council consists
of the Governor, (President); five ex-officio members (the Senior
Military Officer for the time being .in command of Her Majesty's
Regular Troops in Jamaica, the Colonial Secretary, tile Attorney
General, the Director of Public Works, and the Collector-General) ;
no more than ten members to he nominated by the Crown, [of which
at present only five are -o i.iiiI. I..1] ; and fourteen members
elected by the people, one for each parish. [For names of members
of Legislative Council, see Official List p vii.]
Those qualified as voters are British male subjects of twenty-one
years of age beingoccupiers, as tenants or owners, of house property
paying taxes to the extent of ten shillings, or owning property and
pay.ng taxes to the extent of thirty shillings : or being in receipt of
an annual salary of .50 and upwards.
The Legislative Council lasts for five years, and sits when sum-
moned by the Governor, usually for two or three months in the
early months of the year.
No laws involving questions of finance are passed if opposed by
nine or more elected members. The President has only a casting
vote. Bills passed by the Council and assented to by the Governor,
become law; but Her Majesty may disallow any law within two
years of its passing.
(11.) PRIVY COUNCIL.--There is also a Privy Council, *.u-i-tiL- of the
Senior Military Officer in the Island, the Colonial Secretary, the
Attorney General, and other persons not to exceed eight in number,
nominated by tne Crown. [At present there are only three nomi-
nated members]. [For names see p. vii.]







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


XVII. MILITARY AND NAVAL.
The troops in Jamaica are under the command of a Colonel with
local rank of Major-General. There are a detachment of British
regiment stationed nt Newcastle; a company of Artillery and Royal
Engineers at Port Royal and at Apostles Battery; and companies
or either the first or second West India Regiment at Up-Park Camp,
Kingston; the remainder of these regiments being at St. Lucia,
Barbados, or the West Coast of Africa. The Depot of the West
India Regiment is at Up-Park Camp, Kingston.
(a.) MILITARY,-The strength of the Military stationed in Jamaica on
December 1st, 1895, was as follows :-
Brigade Staff Officers 4
Regimental Field Officers 8
R.-in.;i t.- al Captains 7
Regimental Subalterns 23
Regimental Staff Officers 3
Royal Engineer Officers 6
Army Service Corps (Officers) 2
Army Medical Staff (Officers) 7
Army Pay Department (Officers) 2
Ordnance Store Department Officers 2
Warrant Officers 5
Staff Sergeants and Sergeants 105
Trumpeters and Drummers 20
Rank and File 1,373

Total 1,567
(b.) NAVAL. At Port Royal tlure arie a Depot Ship, the Urgent, (2,801
tons) ; the Royal Navy Yard with a naval officer in charge, Secretary,
Master Attendant. Naval and Victualling Store-keeper and Account-
ant, Assistant Naval Store-keeper, Engineer, Chief Carpenter,
Boatswain and F.inm i, of Works ; and the Royal Naval Hospital.
The North American and W, st Indian Squadron visits the port once
a year, in the Spring.
(c.) THE JAMAICA MILITIA. Formed in ]':i In Kington there are a
corps of Infantry, and a Company of Garrison Artillery; in Tre-
lawny a Company of Miounted Infantry; in St. Elizabeth a Company
of Infantry; in St. Catherine, a Company of Artillery and a Com-
pany of Infantry. The total Volunteer Force at present in famaica
consists of 32 (tti. I,, 500 Non-Commissioned Officers and Men,
total 532. Adjutant of Jamaica Volunteer Militia, Captain E S. C.
Kennedy, W.I.R.



XVIII. INSTITUTIONS.
Black River, St. Elizabeth Benefit Building Society, (Secretary,
C. G. Farquharson).
Brown's Town. Brown's Town Benefit Building Society, (Secre-
tary, J. A. Dickenson).
Falmouth, Trelawny Benefit Building Society, (Secretary, Henry
Levy).







INSTITUTIONS. 79

Kingsten, Board of Supervision (for Port Relief), (Secretary,
Robert Johnstone).
Central Board of Education, (Secretary, J. D. Kerrich,
B.A.)
Civil Service Widows and Orphans' Fund, (Secretary,
A. H. Miles).
Floral and Horticultural Society, (Secretary, G. A.
Mould, A.M. C.E )
"" Hebrew Benevolent Society. (President, Herman Siern.)
Home Marine Insurance Company, (Manager and Se-
cretary, D. B. Callaghan).
Institute of Jamaica : for the encouragement of Litera-
ture, Science and Art, (Founded 1879) Library,
and Art Gallery open free daily, from 11 a.m. to
9 p.m. Museum from 10 a.m, till dusk.
Jamaica Agricultural Societvy, (Secretary, .A. A. ouet).
Jamaica Branch of the British .;edical Association.
(Honorary Secretary, ( V. Lockett, M.B.)
S Jamaica Civil Service 1 Mutual Guarantee Association,
(Secretary, A H Milesi.
Jamaica Club (Social), (Secretary, F A. Steel).
Jamaica Co-operative Fire Insurance Company,
(Secretary, Henry Ford).
Jamaica Marine Insurance Company, (Acting Mana-
ger, J. F. Squire ;
Jamaica Masonic Benevolence, (Secretary, F. (. Sale.)
Jamaica Mutual Life assurancee Society, (Secretary,
A. H. Jones).
Jamaica Permanent Building Society, (Secretary, T.
A. H,-).
Jamaica Schools Commiis-im, (Secretary, Robert
Johnstone).
Kingslon and St. Andrew Rifle Association.
Kingston Benefit Building Society, (Secretary, J. M.
Poison).
Kingston Yacht Club, (Honorary Secretary, L. C. B.
Yoeman).
Lady Musgrave's Women Self Help Society, (Secretary,
Miss Burke).
Medical Council of Jamicn, (Ser,,tary. M Grabham,
M.B.)
People's Discount and Deposit, (-ecretary. G C. H.
Lewis).
Royal Jamaica Societ\ of Agnricultre and Commerce,
(Secretary, G. Levy).
Royal Jamaica Yacht Club
'" Sailors' Home. (Secretary, 1). M. Leon)
Victoria Mutual Buil ling Society (Secretary, W A.
Paine).
Lucea. Hanover Benefit Building Society
Mandeville, Literary Institute.






HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


Montego Bay. St. James Benefit Building Society, (Secretary.
J. S. Coridaldi).
Port Antonio, Portland Benefit Building Society. (Secretary, R.
W Clark).
St. Ann's Bay, St Ann's Benefit Building Society. (Seretary, .Mis-
P. Cork).
Savanna-la-Mar, Self Help Institute.
S Westmoreland Building Society. (Manager, H on
and Rev. H Clarke).
Many of the British Insurance Companies have agencies in the
Island.





XIX. NEWSPAPERS, PERIODICALS, PRIST LISTS, &c.

Name of Proprietor Where Is- Price per
Title of Paper. or Editor. sued. No.


Daily
The Daily News Letter James Gall Kingston ld.
1 leaner DeCordova & (Co. L- d.
Jamaica Post .. W. Kerr & C. .; ,
Tri-weekly.
Budget C. L. Campbell ld.
Tri-weekly Gleaner DeCordova & Co,. 3d.
Semi-weekly.
Falmouth Gazette .i J. W. Henry Falmouth l1d.
Nineteenth Century D. A. Corinaldi MontegoBey I Y2d.
Cornwall Times Brown & Brown "
Weekly.
The Weekly ivews Letteri James Gall .Kingston 3d.
Jamaica Gazette Government 3d.
Police Gazette Government "
Fortnightly
Jamaica Prices Cuirent DeCordova & Co. "
Methodist Messenger Rev. John Duff 3d.
Monthly. i
Baptist Reporter ev. W. M. Webb Stewart Town 14d.
Bulletin of the Botanical Director of Public
Department Gardens and Plan-
tations Kingston Free
Bulletin to the Education Superintending In-
Lepartment spector of Sch lols '
Catholic Opinion A Committee 3d.
Christian Helper Rev. G E. Hender- Brown's
son, B.A. Town
Gardn(r's Monthly Aston W. Gardner Kingston







SPORTS AND PASTIMES.


NEWSPAPERS, PERIODICALS, PRICE LIST, &C., continued.

Name of Proprietor Where Is- Price per
Title of Paper. or Editor. sued. No.


Monthly.
Gospeler Rev. G. W. Downer Free
Jamaica Churchman A Committee 3d.
Jamaica Congregational
Magazine Rev. C. A. Wookey 3d.
Journal of Commerce Charles E. D'Mer-
cado Free

Reinke 1 d.
The Presbyterian Rev. James Coch- 2s per
rane annum
St. Michael's Magazine Rev. R. G. Ambrose "
Winkler's Musical Month-
ly L. Winkler & Co. 6d.
Quarterly.
Journal of the Institute The Institute of Ja-
of Jamaica maica 1/.


XX. SPORTS AND PASTIMES,
CRICKET -There are Cricket Clubs in Kingston. Mandeville, Spanish
Town and other towns.
LAWN TENNIS is much played in Kingston and elsewhere.
FOOTBALL is played in Kingston and Spanish Town.
PoLO is played at the Camp near Kingston. and in St. Ann.
ROW NG can be had in Kingston Harbour, in Lucea Harbour, (which is
land locked), and in some of the rivers, but most of them aro too
rocky.
SHOOTING.-Of Game birds, the principal are the blue pigeon, the bald
pate, the white-wing, the pea-dove, the white-belly, the partridge,
and the ring tail pigeon Close time for white-belly, partridge and
ringtail, from April 1st to August 31st, for the others, April 1st,
to 25th July. The blue pigeon and baldpate are strong-winged
sporting birds that take a good deal of shooting when in a hurry.
The whitewing is a smaller pigeon and flies more in flocks than the
others The pea-dove is generally to be found singly or in pairs
along the roads or on commons, or in dry river courses, and he will
carry away more shot for his size than any other bird. The white-
belly and partridge never fly in theopen. They haunt thickets in the
woodland where the underwood is not too dense. The ringtail is
a denizen of the high mountains, and shooting him is very toilsome
work.
In addition to these, we are visited every winter by large flocks
of duck and teal, escaping from the rigours of the North American
climate.







HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION.


The best time for shooting is in the grey dawn of the morning,
and for a couple of hours af:er sunrise, for then the birds leave the
roost and fly off to the feeding grounds in the case of pigeons, and
and the ducks and teal come out of ihe sedges and disport themselve-
in the open spaces on the ponds aci marshes."
FISHING.-The rivers of Jainaica ,,ffert attractions to the fisherman
Chief of those found near tIle nmo! is are the callipever, thj snook
and the mullet, which is taken with a cast net Higher up in tLe
rapids are found the far-filmed mountain mullel Eels, mud-fisi,
ir;ai i-l and prawns. caught in bamboo basket-work pots, also.,
abound in all the rivers.
The sea is full of fish of all kinds of which the chief are the king-
fish. junefish, snappers, yellowtails, grunts, mullets, grouper, hind,
jack, parrotfish, turbol, whiting lad cutlass
RACE MEETINGS are held in Kingston. at Cumberland Pen (near King
stone at Black River, at Alandeville, at St. Ann's Bay and elsewhere.
A Queen's Purse (given by lihe tGovernment) is raced for once a
year in Kingston.
NATURAL HISTORY. -" rTo the tourist interested in animal or vegetable
life a visit to Jamaica will yield a wide field for investigation. T'ht
absence of all dangerous quadrupeds and snakes such as may he
found in lands further south, relieves one of all fear ; while the very
few unpleasant insects met with but add zest to what otherwise
might be considered too tame an experience for a tropical tour.
The island is exceptionally rich in land shells; and insects ..t
varied and beautiful form and colour, attract attention both :n
the day and night Some of the rarest forms of moths and butter -
flies are to be found here.
Of even greater interest is the vegetable life; the stately palm,-
and bamboos, the delicate lilies and orchids, the enormous silk
cotton tree with its buttress roots and far spreading branches, the
ficus whose seed, dropped by some bird high up on the branch of a
great cotton tree, germinates there, sending rope like roots dow n
and around the massive trunk until their tight embrace kills the
giant, and in its place stands, as grand, a wild fig tree ; the many
coloured convolvuli which appear on every hand during the morning
hours or shine like great white stars in the dusk of eve and early
morn, --and a variety of other plants are to be seen growing wild ;
the Black Eyed Susan,' from purest white to deepest orange, festoon
the hedges in the lowlands; begonias, tradescantias and other
lovely plants which are cared for with great solicitude in the h,.'t
houses of colder climes, are but weeds in the mountain districts .of
Jamaica. The massive mango, the breadfruit with its handsome
large deeply cut leaves and great green fruit; the star-apple called
two faced," because while the upper surface of its leaf is a dark
green, the lower is a velvety brown; the cacao-pods, and jack-fruit
hanging, not from the twigs, but upon the main branches and even
on the trunks of the trees; and the coffee with its masses of snow
white blossoms, are all objects of great interest to the traveller.
Butthe ferns! What shall be said of them ? Who does not
admire the delicate tracery of their waving fronds ? The island
boasts of some 500 species, ranging from noble tree ferns-matching
many palms in size and second to none in beauty-to tiny filmies