The culture of a people whose ancestors fought and embraced each other for 400 years
..... who watered the sol : with their blood in anger ...... and mixed in love ...... will un-
fold itself n all its rich splendour in music dance and painting as -
CHILE COMES TO
by Oliver Hunter
CHILE land of the giant race Patagonians ...... of
the proudest of the Caribbean and Latin American peoples
the Mapuches who were never conquered by the Conquista-
dors ..... of the revolutionary Pablo- Neruda and Gabriela
Mistral, NOBEL PRIZE writers comes to CARIFESTA
with a culture that is unlike every other in the region.
The factor which makes thi
singular difference between the
culture of Chile and the other
Caribbean and Latin America
countries is the lack of much
African cultural influence in the
land and the fact the indigenoui
peoples of this vast country with
a length of 2,600 mile, was never
completely conquered and as su'hb
toere is a ;re.tt sense of pride
The tale of the Chilean people
is strange, bittec-sWeet, beauti-
ful and sprinkled with a tou -h of
Actually the Chilean people are
mainly the mixture of two indo.
mitable racr, the conquering
Spaniards and the never cn'n_
quered Araucanos. It is unbi:;ev.
ab:e, but true how these t\.o
people alternately fought and em-
braced each other for 400 year.
They watered the soil with thFer
blood in anger ... and they mixed
in love .. now they have a naain
whij h boasts proudly 'of its
If there is at least one third ,
which 'this pre-Colomblan/o i -
World mixture has, produced it
is the rich .culture of the people
that will be presented through
the many art forms at CAP:-
This cultum-al richness can, for
example, bae seen in the folI
fiesta celebrated "ev-ey. Decemb-r
26 iby the people of Andaco., in
honour of La Chinita. At th:s
time ,he menokik leave the!r go:l
workings an-d join ther wonsn
all dressed in bright costunme
and masks and head-dresses wieh
feathers .and mirrors The done
to this virgin, which the nat:ve
believe works many miracles for
them, lasts for three, days arnd
It is a touching spectacle to
see the pilgrims from the Nol;vi-
an highlands and Argentina -
some with jungle packs on their,
backs arriving for this sacred
fiesta after travel'ingi for hun1
dreds of miles over the Ande?
Mountain, which towers for ov.r'
20,000 feet, through treacherot.
jungles and black cataract-f;lled
rivers. This colorful bl'endi-g of
the secular with the irleigious
bringing together a high ma's.
fireworks, cockfighting, wine and
music, is typical of the Litj1,
American and Caribbean mani]'
approach to religion.
TO THE FORE
In the Araucanos viilag,
around Temuco .and other rural
areas much of the folk art comes
to the fbre: In many cases the
n-slic is pre-Colombian, for in
this laid- the people have not for
gotten he mrusicWal instruments
of their forefathers.
The trutru'a. or reed pipe, pro-
-duces ia bellowing note. And,
there- is the ouinruicahue, a
double musical bow of wood or
bone$ that is bent with a bow-
strin. land interlocked This in.
strutm-ent gets its sound by the
rubbing of the bowstring whirh:
the ,Mapuches rised to play after a.
successful hut iaid ,a full be'.,,.
A few mo'e ty.'ici.nstrunient.
of the pepte whith have s.it
vived from the times of the Chi[-
e can idigenoius tribes" a:'e the
huad :a seed filled rattle; the.
Quicuil, a cow's horn on the end
of a bamboo tube; the pincuil-'
hue, a vertical flute; and the cul-
turum, a flat drum-
It is these int:iuments \hi( h
provide the music for any of the
Chilean festivals, and so some of
it will surely thrill the CARi-
FESTA audiences. Chile's most
typical dance is the zamnacueca
of Moorish/Spanish origin with
touches of indigenous move-
The richness of the Chilean
cu,'ture also comes out in their
handicraft and art work and
painting in literaturee and drama.
The handicraft capital of Chile
is Temuco where the Mapuches
descendants of the fierce Arau-
canos, still ,-'e indigenous ancient
techniques to weave thier gaily-
colcured choapinos. ponchos slit
in the middle for the head.
beautiful woven and embroidered
sashes and scarves, all kinds of
leatherwork, as well as unique
pottery rosaries and necklaces
The Mapuches love 'working 11
the gold mines and making
beautiful double-plaque necklaces
ear-ring's and b-:acelets for their
The art of Chi:e is a liberated
arl expressing the pride of its
people. The modern day paintings
have come a far way from tfhe
times of Pedro Rencoret the
grandfather of Chilean painting
and his masterpiece on canvas
And the same can be said of the
country's sculpture..... its music
is ;a creature of two rhythmic
Much of Chilean 11teralUre
lijke.its legends and folklore is
centered around the struggle bc-
'tweten the Spaniards and the
literature also has its foot deep
in the Chilean soil. It is a :Itera.
ture .that speaks o( the straugg9e,
Itetaveen the Incas and the Arau-
canfans of ho\\ th Conquitadors
tortured their leader. Valdivia
was tortured bY lthrow'ig molten
gold down his throat because he
ousted d after it." The literature
'~peias" of La Quintrala the
faouis..poison muireress of one
of the w*eathest reolei famil'ei
w\m did away with her father,
swNetheart and a score of others
then bribed a corrupt Governor
and escaped punishment. It cap-
tures the pathos of the Patagon-
dans, .a semitgiant tribe of the
Americas who still u-se arrows
tipped with flint....... o the
women at. tlhe foot of the Chilean
Andes who still igo to market
weariag silver medalls Mnd
their heads and silver plaques
covering their breasts.
One of the most outstanding 'said that Chile possesses 8all the Discov erIg e tr
waiters in Chi e and indeed the j t" Atiire kno i to pe -1whd some ntsa
entire Latin Axre.rioa and CariP- the ld ...... with vY ys clut of an Anabian. tale was an
bean area is Pabo Neruda who stretding for ove .e hties exprieee for the famous ex-
was awarded the country's na- and a a4lbre grapitic iass tower, p'orer Magellan. -'
tional prize for literature in ji for 2i)0(o-feet. 'ftisj u -' .
1945. ruined a :iisa i-lan. Mari .had -just escape.
.Aike Ouba Chile is socialist, arebel ianos!;ain d eal4 s :tor J ieit atrs
OChe shows rrUic interest in i ,6 ie .a del teor
things happening in CUba. p, For 600- mO s between its i'ir ndd he- t before he
fact five of Pablo Neruda's poems border with Peru' t~'d heC'o. d. is en. .were alktrst .fright-
that have been inuded in ,te apo ere' the- ottt f eed t dea. by. t. -strage
CARIWESTA- Bterature deals te Wiericas whee osbtletGoS lights from. the: .imive Indian.
with the pIeple's revolution n for a whole year n r~i falls, wari fire.now called C~id, onlv
Cuba. Both Neruda and Mistral gnss gros; o:ly .vt a gr eet idy-a.qeer huia
who have served their countries hills o n te aind1 e 1meet -.big-wra pped Guanac .skin3,
overseas as Ambassadors oOaupy the ye...;:.. It ia reof "'ne arm and one leg bare, talk-
themselves with grassroots things death;; ....; ~dee- d bonef of ;in* slowly over ia-;hilj nearby..
belonging to the people 'and tfi-, ea-nd power bas whitened The creature was so large that
long.any d. SQoih a e e an came only to his waste,
The Chileans like a the pturides-i0n- opken irThe sv aaamed hini
peoples of the arlbea I a;g -.:ia- sad tale of cyo 'for -Patagon "The Big Fot"O nd.thu
Latin Anerira have been mold., f'water, water. .the whole tribe beoline known as
ed byib enro.nit wh et^ :r -the' Patagoniia. The P Dta tgoxW
harsh or peB In hICae It Is For enothler ;400 miles -oma ;itl roam the jungles of Souli
Copiapo 't Illapel only. _.the Chile.
valley bottom bloom. From.l, -1
lapetop Ooinception,.at thbi heart- Many have labandoned their
land,.of Chile always blooming skin capes sewn Vwit wjaie's
beautiful ald much rain; be- beard, whIhe.otJers stl use their
teen Cooppion "ania iuedfo odd fish spears, woven baskets
Monl tts a word of a. -ithousand- and animal skin pouches. .and
laWkes and "riveirs;frkn4r Puerto caulked papyrus boats.
Montt-to the treadlehrous Cape
Horn.......... a stretch of a Chile "The Long Land" brings.
thousand miles..... are the in- to CARIFESTA MuMb of their
human regions with its dark wld pre-Colombian ridbness and
forests and sombre mountains, Spantsh heritage in a form that
glaciers, fjords, islands and will help 'bring about ,a greater
channels where fierce freezing understanding aiong our several
winds howl their war songs and pecopls ...... indeed they come
the white ice covers .the ground proud as their indigenous-
for the better part of the year. Mapuches "and gAant-like pata.
Out of this environment corres
the people and culture of Chile.
Nuance of the irdhmess, grandeur
beauty and harshness of the
Chilean landscape has ground
its way to the music, dance,
literature and art of the people.
It is this ervironrrent that hais
caused the evod'ution of one of
the strangest- types of human
be~l -fi wjt ....... the
Chile a .country of traditions
and different latitudes with
desert plains to the north and to
thp south, the land of Chiloe,
"the magic archipelago," with its
--ich arthology and its agitated,
almost. violent dances, born a!r-d
raised in the midst of the -old
learons and the hardships of the
fisherman of Chroe, brio g. a
proud culture to CARIFESTA -
.a culture of which all the other
Oaribbean Latin Ameroa coun-
tries can ibe proud.