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 Cover
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Members of the Florida state board...
 Directors of county health...
 Official staff Florida state board...
 List of Tables
 Table of Contents
 Tenures of state health office...
 Organizational chart of the Florida...
 General administration
 Bureau of dental health
 Bureau of entomology
 Bureau of finance and accounts
 Bureau of laboratories
 Bureau of local health service...
 Bureau of maternal and child...
 Bureau of mental health
 Bureau of narcotics
 Bureau of preventable diseases
 Bureau of research
 Bureau of sanitary engineering
 Bureau of special health servi...
 Bureau of vital statistics
 Articles and publications by state...


PALMM UFSPEC



Annual report - State Board of Health, State of Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000243/00035
 Material Information
Title: Annual report - State Board of Health, State of Florida
Series Title: Publication - Florida. State Board of Health
Physical Description: v. : ill., ports. ; 23-29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Board of Health
Florida -- State Board of Health
Publisher: State Board of Health.
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Creation Date: 1965
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Public health -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1968.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year for 1893/94 ends Mar. 31; for 189<7>-1968, Dec. 31.
Numbering Peculiarities: Reports for 1923-32 combined in one issue.
General Note: Reports for 1910-<17> issued as its Publication.
 Record Information
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Holding Location: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569394
lccn - 07039608
System ID: AM00000243:00035
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Annual report - Division of Health, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, State of Florida

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Members of the Florida state board of health
        Page iv
    Directors of county health departments
        Page v
    Official staff Florida state board of health
        Page vi
    List of Tables
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
    Tenures of state health officers
        Page x
    Organizational chart of the Florida state board of health
        Page xi
    General administration
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Bureau of dental health
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Bureau of entomology
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Bureau of finance and accounts
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Bureau of laboratories
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Bureau of local health services
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
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        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
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        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Bureau of maternal and child health
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    Bureau of mental health
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Bureau of narcotics
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Bureau of preventable diseases
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
    Bureau of research
        Page 200
        Page 201
    Bureau of sanitary engineering
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
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        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
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        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
    Bureau of special health services
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
    Bureau of vital statistics
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
    Articles and publications by state board of health staff members, 1965
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
Full Text



'WE


FLORIDA


STATE BOARD
OF
HEALTH


1965


AN E l .NmUAL REPORT






4,enuae


72epoet


State Board of Health


State of


7co1ida


1965




WILSON T. SOWDER, M.D.
STATE HEALTH OFFICER
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA














The Honorable Eugene G. Peek, Jr., M.D., President
Florida State Board of Health
Ocala, Florida

Dear Dr. Peek:
I herewith submit the annual report of the Florida
State Board of Health for the year ending Decemnber
31, 1965.

Sincerely yours,

WILSON T. SOWDER, M.D., M.P.H.
State Health Officer

May 1, 1966
Jacksonville, Florida














His Excellency, Haydon Burns
Governor of Florida
Tallahassee, Florida


Sir:

I herewith present the report of the Florida State
Board of Health for the period of January 1, 1965 to
December 31, 1965, inclusive.

Respectfully,

EUGENE G. PEEK, JR., M.D.
President

May 1, 1966
Ocala, Florida
















Members of the
FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH


EUGENE G. PEEK, JR., M.D., President
Ocala

T. M. CUMBIE, Ph.G., Vice-President
Quincy

LEO M. WATCHEL, M.D.
Jacksonville

WILLIAM 0. SHUMPERT, D.D.S.
Ft. Lauderdale

W. S. HORN, D.O.
Palmetto








DIRECTORS OF COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENTS
(as of December 31, 1965)
Alachua .....................................Edward G. Byrne, M.D., M.P.H.
Bay ............................................A. F. Ullman, M.D.
Brevard .......................................T Paul Haney, M.D., Dr.PH.
Broward ......................................Paul W. Hughes, M.D., M.P.H.
Collier ........................................Clyde L. Brothers, M.D.
Dade ............................................T.E. Cato, M.D., M.P.H.
Duval ....................................... Patricia C. Cowdery, M.D. (Acting)
Escambia ......................................E. E. Metcalfe, M.D.
Hillsborough .............................John S. Neill, M.D., M.P.H.
Lake ............................................J. Basil Hall, M.D., M.P.H.
Leon ............................................Clifford G. Blitch, M .D.
Manatee ......................................George M. Dame, M.D.
Marion ......................................James B. Stapleton, M.D.
Monroe ...................................Jose T. Sanchez, Jr., M.D. (Acting)
Okaloosa ...................... .......... Henry I. Langston, M.D., M.P.H.
Orange .............................. Wilfred N. Sisk, M.D., M.P.H.
Palm Beach ............................C. L. Brumback, M.D., M.P.H.
Pinellas .......................................John T. Obenschain, M.D., M.P.H.
Polk ........................................ ...James F. Cason, M .D.
St. Johns ................................ Mason Morris, Jr., M.D.
Santa Rosa ............................ A. E. Harbeson, M.D.
Sarasota .................................Elton S. Osborne, Jr., M.D., M.P.H. (Acting)
Seminole .................................. Frank Leone M.D.
Volusia .......................................D. V. Galloway, M.D., M.P.H.
Baker-Nassau ..........................B. F. Woolsey, M.D.
Calhoun-Jackson ..................... Terry Bird, M.D., M.P.H.
Flagler-Putnam .........................James R. Sayers, M.D.
Franklin-Gulf ..........................Elton S. Osborne, Jr., M.D., M.P.H. (Acting)
Gadsden-Liberty ........................ B. D. Blackwelder, M.D., M.P.H.
Jefferson-Wakulla .....................P. H. Smith, M.D.
Madison-Taylor ..........................Luther A. Brendle, M.D., M.P.H.
Osceola-Indian River ................C. C. Flood, M.D., M.P.H.
Pasco-Sumter ........................John L. Ingham, M.D.
Bradford-Clay-Union .............A. Y. Covington, M.D., M.P.H.
Charlotte-Desoto-Hardee ..........Francis R. Meyers, M.D.
Citrus-Hernando-Levy ...........H. F. Bonifield, M.D., M.P.H.
Columbia-Hamilton-Gilchrist ..F. Barton Wells, M.D.
Glades-Hendry-Highlands ........William F. Hill, Jr., M.D., M.P.H.
Holmes-Walton-Washington ....William G. Simpson, M.D., M.P.H.
Martin-Okeechobee-St. Lucie ..Neill D. Miller, M.D.
Suwannee-Dixie-Lafayette ......John S. Williams, M.D.








OFFICIAL STAFF FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH
(As of December 31, 1965)
State Health Officer....................................Wilson T. Sowder, M.D., M.P.H.
Deputy State Health Officer...................... Malcolm J. Ford, M.D., M.P.H.
Deputy State Health Officer......................Elton S. Osborne, Jr., M.D., M.P.H.
Encephalitis Research Center
Assistant State Health Officer..........James 0. Bond, M.D., M.P.H.
Coordination of Training.................... Robert V. Schultz, M.D., M.P.H.
Division of Health Education................Vincent Granell, B.S., M.S., Ed.D.
Librarian ..........................................Mildred T. Clark, B.A., B.S., M.A.
Division of Personnel............................Miles T. Dean, B.S., M.A.
Division of Public Health Nursing......Enid Mathison, R.N., M.P.H.
Bureau of Dental Health..........................Floyd H. DeCamp, D.D.S.
Assistant Director ...............................Delmar R. Miller, D.D.S., M.P.H.
Bureau of Entomology................ .......John A. Mulrennan, B.S.A.
Entomological Research Center............Maurice W. Provost, Ph.D.
Bureau of Finance and Accounts............Fred B. Ragland, B.S.
Assistant Director ...............................Paul R. Tidwell, B.B.A.
Purchasing Agent ...............................Frank E. Craft, B.S.B.A.
Bureau of Laboratories............................Nathan J. Schneider, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Assistant Director ...............................Warren R. Hoffert, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Miami Regional Laboratory................Dwight E. Frazier, M.S.
Orlando Regional Laboratory............. Max T. Trainer, M.S.
Pensacola Regional Laboratory............Emory D. Lord, Jr., M.S.
Tallahassee Regional Laboratory........Robert A. Graves, M.S., M.P.H.
Tampa Regional Laboratory................ Justine L. McCurdy, B.S. (Acting)
West Palm Beach Regional
Laboratory ..................................... Lorraine Carson
Bureau of Local Health Services-.......... Elton S. Osborne, Jr., M.D., M.P.H.
(Acting)
Assistant Director ...............................Hubert U. King, M.D.
Division of Nutrition............................Mildred Kaufman, B.S., M.S.
Division of Sanitation.......................A. W. Morrison, Jr., R.S.
Bureau of Maternal and Child Health....David L. Crane, M.D., M.P.H.
Bureau of Mental Health..................... Elton S. Osborne, Jr., M.D., M.P.H.
(Acting)
Bureau of Preventable Diseases
Assistant State Health Officer........ C. M. Sharp, M.D.
Division of Epidemiology................. E. Charlton Prather, M.D., M.P.H.
Division of Radiological and
Occupational Health ..................Edwin G. Williams, M.D.
Division of Tuberculosis Control..........Dwight Wharton, M.D.
Division of Veterinary Public Health..James B. Nichols, D.V.M.
Bureau of Research
Assistant State Health Officer..............Albert V. Hardy, M.D., Dr.P.H.
Bureau of Sanitary Engineering............David B. Lee, M.S.Eng.
Assistant Director ..............................Sidney A. Berkowitz, M.S. Eng.
Division of Industrial Waste................Vincent D. Patton. M.S.S.E.
Division of Special Services...........Charles E. Cook, C.E.
Division of Water Supply...................John B. Miller, M.P.H.
Division of Waste Water....................Ralph H. Baker, Jr., M.S.S.E.
*Bureau of Special Health Services....... Malcolm J. Ford, M.D., M.P.H.
(Acting)
Division of Chronic Diseases..............J. E. Fulghum, M.D.
Division of Hospital and Nursing
Homes ............... ....................... C. L. Nayfield, M.D., M.P.H.
Bureau of Vital Statistics.........................Everett H. Williams, Jr., M.S.Hyg.
Division of Data Processing.................Harold F. Goodwin
Division of Public Health Statistics....Oliver H. Boorde, B.S., B.A.
Division of Vital Records..................Charles H. Carter
* This bureau was abolished late in 1965 and the two divisions were raised
to bureau status.








LIST OF TABLES


Number Page
1 Number of employees in the Florida State Board
of Health and county health units ................................ 22
2 Distribution of personnel, Florida State Board of Health .... 23
3 Distribution of personnel in county health units .............. 25
4 Employment termination and turnover rate ..................... 27
5 Arthropod-borne virus isolations from mosquitoes ........... 43
6 Summary of pest control registration and enforcement ...... 44
7 Results of cage tests of thermal aerosols against dog fly .... 53
8 Results of tests with aerial sprays against caged dog flies .... 54
9 Effects of salinity on the kill of Culicoides larvae .............. 57
10 Funds received by county health units ............................. 74
11 Examinations performed by State Board of Health
laboratories ............................................... ............. 87
12 Specimens submitted to State Board of Health
laboratories ........................................ ................ ............. 89
13 Comparison of three serology test procedures
for syphilis ..................................... ...... ....... ......... 91
14 Proportion of fecal specimens positive for hookworm
and ascaris ................................................................. 91
15 Viral and rickettsial diagnostic findings for 1519 patients .... 92
16 Examinations performed in tuberculosis hospital
laboratories .......................................................- ......-- 92
17 Permitted establishments and facilities ..............................136
18 Major activities of local health units ..................................137
19 Postgraduate obstetric-pediatric seminar registration ........159
20 Patients discharged from Child Guidance Clinics by
type of service, condition on termination, referral
source ......................................................................................163
21 Patients discharged from Child Guidance Clinics
by age, race, sex, diagnosis ............................................... 164
22 Practitioners registered with the State Board of Health ......170
23 Distribution of sources of radiation ....................................182
24 Summary of X-ray surveys ............................................183
25 New active tuberculosis cases and tuberculosis deaths ........189
26 Number and percentage of reported active cases
of tuberculosis ..................................................190
27 Results of 70mm X-ray screenings ......................................191
28 Results of state X-ray survey units ........................................192
29 Tuberculosis cases in central register ................................193
30 Tuberculosis case register statistics ....................................194
31 Number of cases of animal rabies ...................................199
32 Engineering laboratories analyses basic water
quality data ......................... ............................. 206








LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd)


Number Page
33 Industrial waste projects approved ........................................215
34 Incinerator projects approved ................................................ 216
35 Summary of activities relating to shellfish and
crustacea plants .......................................................222
36 Number of sewerage projects approved ................................225
37 Sewage treatment plants by type and capacity ...................226
38 Number and estimated cost of waste water projects ............226
39 Number of water projects approved ......................................232
40 Permits issued for swimming pools, natural bathing
places, water wells and plans approved for public
swim m ing pools .......................... ..................... 233
41 Number of water plants visited ..............................................234
42 Water and sewage works operators short schools ................235
43 Sanitation of water supplies serving interstate carriers ......235
44 Total patient visits to tumor clinics ...................................... 241
45 Glaucoma screening program .....-........................ ........249
46 Major evaluation indices by type of hospitalization
program s ........................... ... .. .... ................. .. 253
47 Applications processed and approved for payment by
hospitalization program ........................ .............254
48 Medical Assistance to the Aged hospitalization
applications processed and approved for payment ..........255
49 Hospital evaluation statistics ......................................257
50 Nursing homes licensed by county .................................... 258
51 Activities of the Division of Vital Records -----.......................270
52 Resident births and deaths with rates per
100,000 population ......... ................................270
53 Ten leading causes of death ......................................... 271
54 Resident deaths and death rates (preliminary 1965) ..........272
55 Resident deaths and death rates (final figures 1964) ..........273
56 Estimated population and resident births, deaths and
infant death rates (preliminary 1965) ........................274
57 Estimated population and resident births, deaths and
infant death rates (final figures 1964) .......................275
58 Marriages by race, divorce and annulments by county ........276
59 Vital statistics scoreboard ........................ ...........277

FIGURES

Number Page
1 Sewage treatment plants approved .......................................227








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
Administration (including Activities of the Board; Train-
ing Coordination; Scholarships; Encephalitis Research
Center; Divisions of Health Education, Personnel and
Public Health Nursing) ............-...-......-- .......-- .. 1

Bureau of Dental Health ................... ............... .......... ... 31

Bureau of Entomology (including Entomological Re-
search C enter) ............................................... ..................... 36

Bureau of Finance and Accounts (including Purchasing
and P property ) ............................................................................ 64

Bureau of Laboratories .....----------......... --.------....--........--... 76

Bureau of Local Health Services (including Accident Pre-
vention and Health Mobilization; and Divisions of
N nutrition and Sanitation) ......................................... ...... 93

Bureau of Maternal and Child Health ........................................153

Bureau of Mental Health (including Florida Council on
Training and Research in Mental Health) ...........................160

Bureau of N narcotics ..................................... ................168

Bureau of Preventable Diseases (including Divisions of
Epidemiology [Venereal Disease Control Program],
Radiological and Occupational Health, Tuberculosis
Control and Veterinary Public Health) ........................----..........171

Bureau of R research ....................................... ................... 200

Bureau of Sanitary Engineering (including Divisions of
Industrial Waste, Special Services, Waste Water and
W ater Supply) ................ ........ ...... ...........202

Bureau of Special Health Services (including Divisions of
Chronic Diseases and Hospitals and Nursing Homes;
and Hospital Services for the Indigent Program) ..................236

Bureau of Vital Statistics (including Divisions of Data
Processing, Public Health Statistics and Vital Records) ......262

Articles by Staff M embers .......................... ....... ............278


~














TENURES OF STATE HEALTH OFFICERS

J. Y. PORTER, M.D., 1889-1917
W. H. COX, M.D., 1917-1919
R. N. GREENE, M.D., 1919-1921
R. C. TURCK, M.D., 1921-1925
B. L. ARMS, M.D., 1925-1929
HENRY HANSON, M.D., 1925-1935
W. A. McPHAUL, M.D., 1935-1939
A. B. McCREARY, M.D., 1939-1940
W. H. PICKETT, M.D., 1941-1942
HENRY HANSON, M.D., 1942-1945
W. T. SOWDER, M.D., 1945*-
A. V. HARDY, M.D., 1961-1962
(Acting)
W. T. SOWDER, M.D., 1963-

On leave October 1961 to December 1962










dOROWtZArT/lOl N CNRT OF tri

FORIDA StArE IO4RD OF HlEAiTH



GOVERNOR





BOARD OF
Imm mm m mIm m m(5 emers) m m m m m mm mm m mmi
I l I
SII I II
I -I e I I I


MEDICAL DENTAL COUNCIL ADVISORY
SCHOLARSHIP SCHOLARSHIp ON TRAINING HOSPITAL COM-TTEE OIR
ADVISORY ADVISORY RESEARCH L R HOSPITAL
COMMITTs EE CODITTEE IN NTAL"" SERVICE ORO CONTROL
HEALTH COVCML THE INDIGENT COMISSIOV





STATE
HEALTH
OFFICER




DEPmUT STATE i~DM S
HEALTH OFFICER HEALTH OFFICER
PROGRAM
PLANNIOPERATIONS
ALYI I too


DIVISION OF
DIVISION OF HEALTH
PERSONNEL EDUCATION
(Library)


I'' I ILDOORATODIEI I I RENDOC R
SEA TO E C RSVADn EAl I I ADD
L Jii~ Lbrt''1 COT


SI
BUREAU OF
SANITARY ENGINEERING
(Stream Sanitation,
Waste Treatment
ConetructiRn)

DIVISION OF
INDUSTRIAL WASTE
(Air Pollution)
DIVISION OF



DIVISION 0r
WASTE WATER
DIVISION OF
WATER SUPPLY
({Swiming Pools)


I

BUREAU OF VITAL
STATISTICS



DIVISION Or PUBLIC
HEALTH STATISTICS
DIVISION OF
DATA PROCESSING


IWNIARCH I I ROBLICE ABLTRI
LENTJ I INO~r


I ~


BUREAU OFB BUREAU OP
RESEARCH DENTALAOTICS


I


I-I- m*-

BUREAU OF
LOCAL HEALTH BUREAU OF
SERVICES MATERNAL
Civil Defense, & CHILD HEALTH
Accident Prevention) (Migratory
Labor)
DIVISION or
SANITATION
DIVISION OF
NUTRITION





'


PREVENTABLE
DISEASES

DIVISION OF
RADIOLOGICAL
OCCUPATIONAL
HEALTH
DIVISION OP
VETERINARY
PUBLIC HEALTH
(Milk Sanitation)
DIVISION OF
TUBERCULOSIS
CONTROL
DIVISION OF
EPIDEMIOLOGY
(Venereal Disease
Control)


BUREAU OF
SPECIAL HEALTH
SERVICES

DIVISION OF
CHRONIC DISEASES
(HeartCancer,
Diabetes)
DIVISION OF HOSPITALS
AND NURSING HOMES
(Indigent Care,
Hospital & Nursing
Home Licenaure)


DEC.
1964


67 Cnatfy Nealth Departments


BUREAU OF
EHTOMOLO Y
(Resea .rch Center,
Weet Florida

Mosquito control
Districts,

Aiiif


--







GENERAL ADMINISTRATION


WILSON T. SOWDER, M.D., M.P.H.
State Health Officer
Nineteen sixty-five may be long remembered as the year that
gave birth to large scale, far reaching medical care programs.
Unfortunately, with the onset of Medicare and other massive
federal health programs, one of the most difficult problems to face
the State Board of Health (SBH) this year was the grave loss
of so many key personnel. Among those resigning or retiring this
year were the following: Miss Elizabeth Reed, Director of the
Division of Health Education, Dr. Edward L. Flemming, Assistant
Director of the Bureau of Mental Health, Dr. L. L. Parks, Assistant
State Health Officer and Director of the Bureau of Local Health
Services, and Dr. Simon D. Doff, Assistant State Health Officer and
Director of the Bureau of Special Health Services.
To make matters worse, while we are faced on the one hand
with a loss of experienced, key personnel, on the other hand we
are having great difficulty in hiring bright, well trained young
people who can be groomed to assume positions of leadership. A
prime reason for this is our low current pay scale. Because of the
vital and highly complex duties assigned to the SBH, we must
rely on educated specialists from a multitude of disciplines; yet
we must attempt to hire these people at salaries that are less than
attractive. One survey completed this year showed that we are
attempting to hire college graduates in engineering at a salary
range that pays $162 a month less than the current industry
average. As a result, we have a number of engineering positions
open, with no applicants interested in filling them. Everyone agrees
that clear air and pure water is vital to our state, but expanding
environmental engineering problems combined with a shortage of
personnel is creating a difficult situation for this bureau. Florida
can have air as clean as it wishes and water as pure as it wants,
but there is a price tag on both and it has to be met.
While personnel shortage is a vital problem to our Bureau of
Sanitary Engineering, it is by no means confined to that unit. This
is probably our greatest handicap, and it is common throughout
the agency. For instance, we are offering this year's graduate in
business administration $130 a month less than the industry
average; the liberal arts major $141 less; the chemistry major $147
less, and so on. What with more and more health programs made
possible through federal funds and made necessary by an enlarging
population in Florida, by the increase of state tourism, and by the
growth of industry, our need for new, highly trained public health
personnel is urgent and critical.
On the other hand a number of important advances were made
in 1965. The year saw the establishment of a State-Local Relation-
ships Study Committee. The difficult and important assignment of







2 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

this committee is to study the organizational structure and rela-
tionships of county health departments (CHD) and the SBH as
they relate to the effective provision of public health services
throughout Florida. The committee is also examining the legal,
administrative, fiscal, consultative and cooperative aspects of state-
local relationships in light of current and future health needs as
they are affected by population, political and economic factors
in Florida. This is a large order, but we hope the results of this
study will serve as valuable guidelines for future state-local
relationships.
This year, for the first time in the history of reportable diseases
in Florida, not one case of poliomyelitis was identified. It appears
that this terrible childhood disease is finally on the threshold of
total eradication from the state and nation. Unfortunately, it con-
tinues to rage in other portions of the world, so we must not let
up on our efforts for total immunization.
We are not succeeding as well in our attempts to eradicate
syphilis from the state. In fact, the number of early infectious
syphilis cases reported increased again this year, as has been the
trend since 1959. It is becoming evident that a well informed
public is necessary for the control of this disease, so we are intensi-
fying our efforts at public information and education in this im-
portant area.
With Florida maintaining its popularity as a retirement state,
we must pay a good deal of attention to heart disease, cancer,
stroke and other chronic diseases. It is estimated that about 21
per cent of our population is now over 55 years of age, and chronic
disease of one sort or another is responsible for most of the
hospital admissions in the state. In addition to maintaining active
programs in cancer, diabetes and heart disease, one of our newer
programs is in prevention of blindness (glaucoma). This disease
is the second most common cause of blindness in Florida, and we
estimate that more than 40,000 people over 40 years of age may
have glaucoma. To date, more than 61,000 persons have been
screened for glaucoma, and over 1568 of these were referred to
ophthalmologists for diagnosis. In most of these cases, the disease
was discovered before extensive damage was done.
As for radiation hazards, this was our first full year as an Atomic
Energy Commission Agreement State (which means we have
agreed to assume certain regulatory activities from the AEC),
and as a result we have increased activity in licensing and use of
radionuclides in medicine, industry and research. To date, 6300
radiation-producing machines have been registered, and we have,
of course, continued all of our radiation surveillance activities.
We made some fine progress in dental health this year, with
that bureau participating in a number of Head Start Projects and
other special dental projects conducted about the state by local







GENERAL ADMINISTRATION 3

dentists. Also, a total of 35 fixed dental clinics were operated in
27 counties this year, serving underprivileged expectant mothers
as well as underprivileged children.
In veterinary public health we continued our study, surveillance
and control of animal diseases that are transmissible to man. In
this area, it's cheering to note that only 78 cases of rabies were
confirmed in animals this year. This is a decline over the annual
rate for the past two years.
Not so cheering is the fact that our Bureau of Entomology has
discovered that salt-marsh mosquitoes seem to be developing a
resistance to Malathion, heretofore our most effective adulticide
in mosquito control. It looks as if we are going to have to search
for another pesticide to destroy resistant adult mosquitoes. In
addition, this discouraging note comes at a time when personnel
loss is badly hampering the activities of this bureau.
These, then, are some of our problems and some of our suc-
cesses of 1965 the good and bad of it. It has been a year of
large problems, but larger accomplishments. For a detail by detail
look at the year, we commend to you this Annual Report.
STAFF ASSISTANCE
The internal auditor plans, directs and coordinates the internal
audit program of the SBH, including the 67 CHDs. He has one
permanent assistant, and was provided with an additional account-
ant for four months during 1965. The internal auditor conducts
post audits of the financial transactions of the agency to determine
that fiscal matters are in accord with state and local laws and the
policies of the SBH. Accounts of 34 CHDs were audited during
1965. Also, audit work papers were prepared on the accounts of
six additional CHDs.
The staff attorney provides legal advice on problems related
to administration and operations, and participates in the formula-
tion of the agency's legislative and regulatory programs. He also
maintains a distribution and supplementation service to over 700
recipients of the compiled SBH regulations. This is a limited service
to those persons interested in the total program activity. Distribu-
tion of regulations to the general public is handled by the bureaus
and divisions directly responsible for specific program activity.
There is a general trend of increased legal involvement in
public health programs. Litigation involving regulations for the
handling of dead bodies directly resulted in extensive technical
studies of burial practices and subsequent revision of regulations
on the subject.
The use of direct civil litigation, legal assistance to CHDs and
administrative hearings have been the most successful methods
of securing compliance of public health requirements when the
noncompulsory methods of health education, consultation and







4 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


persuasion have failed to correct violations. These have been
utilized in the fields of air pollution control, trailer park permitting,
nursing home and hospital licensure, and water pollution.
During 1965, the press secretary distributed 74 press releases
to news media over the state; and various media were given assist-
ance 136 times by supplying information to them or by setting up
and aiding their representatives to obtain their own stories, photo-
graphs, radio or television interviews.
PROGRAM PLANNING
MALCOLM J. FORD, M.D., M.P.H.
Deputy State Health Officer
This was the first full year of operation for the Deputy State
Health Officer for Program Planning. He is charged with the
coordination and administrative review of all grants-in-aid, project
grants, contracts and cooperative agreements of the State Board
of Health (SBH). The agency has received 11 grant-in-aid funds,
and 39 special projects have been processed to date, as well as 10
projects awarded to other agencies and eight agreements signed
by the SBH.
This officer also serves as the project director of a special pesti-
cides study being conducted under a contract with the U.S. Public
Health Service. Through studying the epidemiology and ecology
relating to pesticides, combined with a statewide survey of pest
control operators of morbidity and mortality and a consideration
of laboratory services, this study hopes to determine the short
and long term effects of pesticides on human health.
In addition to these duties, the Deputy State Health Officer
for Program Planning conducted exhaustive reviews on the pro-
gram content and administration of the Division of Health Educa-
tion and the Bureau of Special Health Services; represented either
the State Health Officer or the SBH on the Florida Commission
on Aging, the Governor's Committee on Employment of the Handi-
capped and the Florida Joint Council on Health of the Aging;
coordinated program information between the SBH and the
Governor's Office of Economic Opportunity; and served as acting
director of the Bureau of Special Health Services. Mr. J. N. Conger,
Health Program Analyst on this staff, served as acting director of
the Division of Health Education.
OPERATIONS
ELTON S. OSBORNE, Jr., M.D., M.P.H.
Deputy State Health Officer
In this first full year of operation also, the Deputy State Health
Officer for Operations performed a most important function in
working with the State Board of Health (SBH) Division of Per-







GENERAL ADMINISTRATION


sonnel and the Florida Merit System. It is believed that a better
working relationship between this agency and the Merit System
has been achieved as a result.
Beyond serving as acting director of the Bureau of Mental
Health and as acting director of the Bureau of Local Health
Services, the Deputy State Health Officer for Operations repre-
sented the State Health Officer at Merit System Council meetings,
the Conference of Directors of State Agencies and the Annual
Conference of the Surgeon General with the State and Territorial
Health Officers. This position also assumed the supervision of the
staff attorney and the press secretary of the SBH.
ACTIVITIES OF THE BOARD
February 7 Jacksonville
1. Re-elected Eugene G. Peek, Jr., M.D., as President of the
Board and Mr. T. M. Cumbie as Vice President.
2. Approved the appointment of Mr. Louis O. Frost, Jr., as
Counsel to replace Mr. Carlton Maddox.
3. Discussed a study by a committee set up for the purpose
of careful scrutiny of the regulations in the handling of
dead human bodies.
4. Discussed the problem of dual licensure of hospitals and
nursing homes.
5. Approved the recommendation of the Board of Governors
of the Florida Medical Association that the referral of
cancer patients on the Medical Assistance to the Aged
Program to Tumor Clinics not be required by the State
Board of Health (SBH) and that such patients have the
privilege of retaining their private physician.
6. Approved in principle Standards and Operating Procedures
for Family Planning Services and a Guide for County
Health Departments (CHD).
7. Discussed the purchase of mental health drugs and autho-
rized the use of county health unit at large funds through
June 30, 1965, for this purchase up to the amount of
$50,000.
8. Approved amendments to Chapter 500 Food, Drug, Cos-
metic and Devices Act for submission to the Legislature.
9. Approved amendments to the Uniform Narcotic Drug Law
for submission to the Legislature.
10. Disapproved proposal set forth by the Florida Air Pollu-
tion Control Commission to amend Chapter 403 for the
purpose of bringing the entire state under the control of
the Commission and any provision for rules and regula-
tions to be adopted solely by the Commission.







6 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

11. Approved a resolution submitted by the Pinellas County
Board of Health for the transfer of $40,000 from the
Pinellas County Health Unit Fund to the Pinellas County
Anti-Mosquito Control Program.
12. Discussed the Italian Broadsides found among the rec-
ords of the SBH and advised Dr. Sowder to keep the
originals and send copies to the Smithsonian Institute
in Washington.
13. Discussed the donation of a surplus airplane to the State
Board of Health by the Brevard Mosquito Control District
to be used in the research program in the distribution
of insecticides to control mosquitoes and dog flies.
April 24- Miami Beach
1. Discussed the Agreement on Civil Rights.
2. Discussed the Community Medicine Study being carried
on by the University of Florida and designated the State
Health Officer to personally handle all relationships with
the University with regard to any cooperative arrange-
ments involving the SBH and the CHDs.
3. Discussed the status of a proposed bill which would sep-
arate the Dade CHD from the SBH.
4. Discussed the appointment of a committee to study the
various phases of CHD operations and asked the State
Health Officer to submit names of possible members to
the Board at a later meeting.
5. Discussed the policy regarding physicians employed in
the central office engaging in private practice outside of
the SBH and reiterated their long standing policy that
physicians employed by SBH not be allowed to engage
in private practice.
6. Approved seven candidates for medical scholarships
recommended by the Advisory Committee on Medical
Scholarships.
7. Adopted a statement regarding the SBH's position re-
garding the placement of the Mental Health Program of
the SBH under another state agency as proposed by
legislation.
8. Approved amendments to regulations on septic tanks,
Chapter 170C-4.
9. Approved a policy whereby SBH staff not be allowed to
issue permits that are in conflict with local laws or ordi-
nances unless such action is required by the results from
a pending court case, or by a legal opinion from the
Attorney General's Office.







GENERAL ADMINISTRATION


10. Approved amendments to the Bedding Law to be sub-
mitted to the Legislature.
11. Approved amendments to the Structural Pest Control Law
to be submitted to the Legislature.
12. Approved the submission of a deficiency appropriation bill
regarding Tampa Laboratory.
13. Approved candidates for Postgraduate Training.
14. Authorized the State Health Officer, who is the State
Registrar of Vital Statistics, to settle questions of eligi-
bility for the waiving of fees for particular organizations
or individuals qualifying for free services under the general
categories approved by the Board.
15. Referred the matter regarding the International Minerals
and Chemical Corporation Plant in the Mulberry area to
the Florida Air Pollution Commission for its action and
recommended that a hearing be set for this matter by
that group.
April 25 Miami Beach
1. Discussed the action taken by the House of Delegates of
the Florida Medical Association regarding the Mental
Health Program and the Indigent Hospitalization Program.
June 13 Jacksonville
1. Approved the appointment of Mr. Charles Carter as the
director of the Division of Vital Records in the Bureau of
Vital Statistics.
2. Approved the appointment of Miss Mildred Kaufman as
director of the Division of Nutrition.
3. Accepted the resignation of Simon Doff, M.D., as director
of the Bureau of Special Health Services.
4. Accepted the information on the resignation and retire-
ment of Miss Elizabeth Reed, director of the Division of
Health Education.
5. Discussed proposed rules concerning the transportation,
storage and disinterment of human bodies and postponed
action until further study.
6. Heard a report on the Civil Rights Agreement with respect
to hospitals receiving federal funds in Florida and the
necessity of their compliance by September 1, 1965.
7. Discussed proposed revisions of Chapter 170C-10, Garbage
and Rubbish and a proposed section dealing with patho-
logical waste. Postponed action until consultation with the
Florida Hospital Association regarding this matter could
be arranged.







8 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


8. Approved the purchase of the property on Pearl Street,
Jacksonville, immediately by the State Health Office out
of the funds provided for this in the Legislative Budget.
9. Heard a report by Mr. Fred B. Ragland on legislation
affecting the SBH.
10. Approved the release of funds from the Lake County
Health Unit Fund in the amount of $1800 for the comple-
tion of the Clermont Health Center.
11. Heard a report by the State Health Officer on the effect
of the legislation regarding the transfer of the Mental
Health Program to a separate agency.
12. Approved an extension for postgraduate training for
Robert S. Wright, Sanitary Engineer.
13. Discussed the dedication of the Pensacola Laboratory
Building which is to be held some time in August.
14. Discussed a report from the Florida Medical Association's
Board of Governors with reference to the medical scholar-
ship program.
15. Approved the use of state monies in the amount of $30,000
for use in the counties in the Vaccination Assistance
Program.
16. Discussed the use of architectural firms for the construc-
tion of the new building in Jacksonville.
17. Approved a leave of absence without pay for Albert B.
Hardy, M.D., up to three months.
August 1 -Jacksonville
1. Approved revisions of regulations in Chapter 170E-7,
Transportation, Storage and Disinterment of Dead Human
Bodies.
2. Heard reports from Dr. Hardy and Nathan J. Schneider,
Ph.D., regarding the status of the Encephalitis Program.
3. Approved revisions in Chapter 170C-9 Air Pollution.
4. Discussed the law on phenylketonuria (PKU) testing
passed by the Legislature and possible programs to be car-
ried out because of its passage.
5. Discussed rules and regulations of the State Board of
Cosmetology.
6. Developed a statement of policy regarding salary supple-
mentation and asked the State Health Officer to circulate
it to all employees of the SBH and the CHDs.
7. Established a policy whereby all printed pamphlets, book-
lets, etc., by the SBH contain the names of the Board
Members and the State Health Officer in them.







GENERAL ADMINISTRATION


8. Appointed Malcolm J. Ford, M.D., as acting director of the
Bureau of Special Health Services.
9. Appointed a Committee on State-Local Relationships.
October 3 Jacksonville
1. Discussion with the Florida Tuberculosis and Respiratory
Disease Association officials regarding problems in the
Hillsborough County area.
2. Revised certain sections of the recently approved regula-
tions regarding Chapter 170C-9 -Air Pollution.
3. Heard a report from Leo M. Watchel, M.D., on a meeting
held by the Advisory Committee on PKU.
4. Discussed proposed revisions of the Pest Control Regula-
tions and postponed action until a further study could be
made of these revisions.
5. Approved the appointment of members to the Advisory
Committee on Hospitalization for the Indigent.
6. Appointed a Committee to assist the State Health Officer
in seeking candidates for the position of director of the
Bureau of Local Health Services.
7. Approved the appointment of Dr. Elton Osborne, acting
director of the Bureau of Local Health Services.
8. Extended the time limitation for certain physicians not
yet having secured their license and asked the State Health
Officer to make a complete study of the problem.
9. Approved the expenditure of $6000 to investigate the pos-
sibility of cooperation of the SBH with the Florida Medical
Association in the Salvador Parades Hospital Project in
Trujillo, Honduras.
10. Discussed federal money to be available during the next
year for a Home Health Services Program.
11. Discussed a proposed draft of a Multi-County Project and
suggested that careful study be given this; and further that
an advisory committee go over this proposal before being
brought back before the Board.
December 5 Jacksonville
1. Recognized the re-appointments of Dr. Peek, Dr. Wachtel
and Mr. Cumbie as members of the Board for another four
year term.
2. Abolished the Bureau of Special Health Services and
created a Bureau of Chronic Diseases with James E. Ful-
ghum, M.D., as director; and created a Bureau of Hospitals
and Nursing Homes with Chester L. Nayfield, M.D., as
director.







10 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


3. Approved revisions of the Pest Control Regulations.
4. Confirmed action taken by mail regarding the acceptance
of an airplane from the Brevard County Mosquito Control
District.
5. Approved only those regulations of the Board of Cosme-
tology which pertain to health and sanitation.
6. Approved a plan for the operation of a PKU Program
within the SBH.
7. Approved the establishment of a central drug distribution
program within the SBH and the employment of a pharma-
cist to handle this.
8. Inaugurated a measles vaccination program in conform-
ance with existing policies of the SBH; such as the ap-
proval by the local medical society for the program in each
county, the distribution of drugs to CHDs only; and the
limitation or the use of vaccine by CHDs to indigents and
medically indigent persons unless specific approval is ob-
tained from the medical society for other groups.
9. Approved rules and regulations with reference to an
amendment by the legislature of Chapter 170G-1, Drug,
Cosmetic and Device Law.
10. Heard a report from Dr. Sowder on the trip to Trujillo,
Honduras.
11. Discussed the employment of a physician to head up the
Medicare Program.
12. Discussed the recent federal legislation passed regarding
a Solid Waste Program.
13. Heard a progress report regarding the Home Health Serv-
ices Program.
14. Approved the appointment of Senator Robert M. Haver-
field as a member of the Advisory Committee on the Hos-
pitalization for the Indigent.
15. Discussed possible methods of taking legal action regarding
medical scholarship recipients.
16. Approved the appointment of Vincent Granell, Ed.D., as
director of the Division of Health Education.

ENCEPHALITIS RESEARCH CENTER
JAMES O. BOND, M.D., M.P.H.
Director
California encephalitis (CE) viruses assumed a role of major
importance in the studies of the Encephalitis Research Center
(ERC) during 1965. Identified first in California in 1943, and again







GENERAL ADMINISTRATION 11

in Florida in 1962, these arboviruses were considered relatively un-
important until recently. They are now the most frequently re-
covered mosquito-borne, viral agents in Florida. In the Tampa Bay
area during 1965, 21 such recoveries were made; all from the Aedes
genus of mosquitoes. Joint studies by the ERC virology laboratory
and the University of Pittsburgh Laboratory identified two distinct
serotypes; one was unlike any previously described and has been
given the new name of Keystone virus. In addition to the isolation-
identification of the CE viruses from mosquitoes, the two labora-
tories developed more precise serologic techniques for the diagnosis
of infection in humans and other mammals. Two human cases were
identified during 1965; both were children and both had probable
exposure in North Carolina. Each recovered from a mild meningo-
encephalitis without apparent sequelae. Serologic surveys in the
normal population indicate an inapparent infection rate with CE
virus of five per cent.
The reservoir of CE viruses in nature is presumed to be a mam-
mal rather than a bird. In the Tampa Bay area, very few of the
mammals examined during 1965 demonstrated HI antibodies to CE
virus. However, the rabbit, raccoon and squirrel were serologically
implicated as possible reservoirs. Limited studies of the preferential
feeding habits of Aedes mosquitoes in the Tampa Bay area indi-
cate that mammals are a preferred source of blood and, of these,
the rabbit, horse and cotton rat serve as frequent blood meals for
these mosquitoes. Both field and laboratory studies are currently
underway to describe further the epidemiology of this interesting
group of arboviruses which is becoming increasingly important in
Florida.
The major purpose of the ERC is to study the epidemiology of
St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), but this was frustrated in 1965 by
the virtual absence of this virus from the Tampa Bay environment.
Serologic evidence indicated that cotton rats in Hillsborough
County and backyard chickens in Hardee County may have been
infected with SLE virus sometime during the spring of 1965. De-
spite intensive studies, however, no further evidence of SLE virus
activity was detected. The volume of material collected for viral
surveillance in 1965 exceeded any previous year. Specimens tested
for SLE virus, either by serology or viral isolation, included over
175,000 mosquitoes, 2832 wild birds, 747 sentinel chickens, 205
backyard chickens, 52 horses, 531 mammals, 419 human central
nervous system (CNS) surveillance cases and 398 human serologic
survey specimens.
Significant positive contributions to our knowledge of SLE epi-
demiology included a better understanding of the interpretation of
human serologic responses to SLE antigens used in the hemaggluti-
nation-inhibition laboratory test. The University of Pittsburgh, co-
operating with ERC, found that old dengue infections, particularly
in the Hillsborough and Manatee County areas, caused consider-








12 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


able overlap in the immunological response measured by SLE anti-
gens. A better interpretation of both the epidemiology and serology
of SLE infections in humans in the Tampa Bay area is now possi-
ble. Follow-up studies of earlier SLE cases continued in conjunc-
tion with the National Institute of Child Growth and Human De-
velopment Study Center in St. Petersburg. Significant, residual,
emotional instability in the old SLE patients was again demon-
strated, although some improvement was evident.
Although no SLE virus was identified in the mosquitoes during
1965, continued studies added new knowledge on the habits of the
proven vector, Culex nigripalpus. Host preference studies verified
the suspected ubiquitous feeding habits of this mosquito. Donkeys,
chickens, cotton rats and even box turtles were fed upon. Birds,
however, are apparently the preferred host. Carbon dioxide, in com-
bination with either chicken bait or light, was a powerful additional
stimulant toward attracting these mosquitoes into traps. Very
preliminary studies showed some correlation between the adult
density of C. nigripalpus in the summer months and the levels of
ground water. An artificial colony of this species was established in
an insectory and maintained throughout the year.
The possible vertebrate reservoirs) of SLE virus in the Tampa
Bay area are varied. In laboratory infection experiments, the
mockingbird was found capable of maintaining a viremia long
enough to be a potential wild reservoir. Other species with this
same potential include the chicken, dove and sparrow. Population
studies, by ornithologists, demonstrated that urban environments
favor an increased prevalence of such species as the dove, sparrow
and pigeon. In contrast, swamp environments completely lack these
species of birds and have a lower density of birds in general. This
has important implications in the future epidemiology of SLE in
Florida.
New, unidentified viruses present an interesting challenge to
the virology and biology sections of ERC. In the Big Bend area of
Hillsborough County, over 900 rodents have been collected in a
three year period, 360 of these in 1965. Viral agents have been re-
covered from cotton rats in each of the three years; two during
1965. Attempts to identify these agents, both in the ERC and the
University of Pittsburgh, have so far been unsuccessful. Four addi-
tional tick agents, also recovered in 1965, are undergoing further
identification tests at the University of Pittsburgh. Other unidenti-
fied viruses from the Big Bend area have apparently occurred in
C. nigripalpus mosquitoes. These findings give high importance to
the continuing studies in this particular small area of Hillsborough
County, although the medical and public health significance of
the findings cannot be assessed at the moment.
Significant new observations or activities of the various sections
of the ERC during 1965 were as follows. In the human surveillance
program, studies of systemic viral infections, in addition to CNS








GENERAL ADMINISTRATION


viral infections, were initiated in midyear. Etiologic diagnoses,
which were either new or unusual, included mycoplasma pneu-
moniae, herpes simplex, ECHO 7, and parainfluenza 3. Western
encephalitis (WE) antibodies were detected in two humans; how-
ever, these were acquired from previous infection outside of the
state of Florida. An unusual prevalence of Group B arbovirus anti-
bodies in patients referred by neurosurgeons for viral diagnostic
studies was observed in Hillsborough County. Special serologic
surveys for EE, WE, SLE and CE arbovirus antibodies were car-
ried out in children in the Sunland Training Hospital, Orlando, the
MacDonald Training Center, Tampa, and in old cases of epidemic
neuromyasthenia in Punta Gorda. No significant antibodies to
those arboviruses were observed. The virology laboratory embarked
on a new program of producing arbovirus antigens and antisera
which involved an expenditure of an unusual amount of time and
resources. The entomology section instituted new programs or ex-
periments to study host-feeding preferences of mosquitoes, and
the attractant efficiency of various types of collecting devices. An
insectory was established for artificial rearing of mosquito colonies.
The biology section instituted new, large-scale studies of migra-
tory birds, both in the Tampa Bay area and on the southern most
tip of Florida in the Dry Tortugas Islands. In conjunction with
ornithologists from the University of South Florida, a large program
of banding and bleeding members of the heron families throughout
south Florida was initiated.
TRAINING COORDINATION
ROBERT V. SCHULTZ, M.D., M.P.H.
Coordinator of Training
This activity is within the office of the State Health Officer. It
functions under the general direction of the Deputy State Health
Officer for Operations and its activities are primarily concerned
with providing assistance in planning and conducting meetings,
seminars, symposia, workshops and other forms of in-service train-
ing; with administrating the academic training program; with ar-
ranging for short and long term courses and other training pro-
grams supported by grants from the United States Public Health
Service (USPHS) or other sources, and with the conduct and ad-
ministration of the special programs listed below.
Student Traineeship Program
For a number of years, Florida residents who are medical,
dental, veterinary, sanitary engineering, graduate science or under-
graduate students, have been employed for a period of three
months in the State Board of Health (SBH) or county health de-
partments (CHD), to assist in ongoing projects which are related
to the student's indicated interest in these fields. Selection is based
on financial need and the students' potential for continuing careers








14 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


in public health. To this end, they receive special training and
supervision designed to acquaint them with the inter-relationships
and overall functions and activities of the SBH and CHDs. Most
students are employed during the summer months, but the program
is not restricted to this period.
In 1965, there were 177 applications for this program. Of these,
54 were selected for employment at the central office and in the
regional laboratories of the SBH, the several regional offices of the
Bureau of Sanitary Engineering, the Encephalitis Research Center
in Tampa and divisions or activities of the following counties:
Brevard, Dade, Duval, Hillsborough, Leon, Marion, Orange, Palm
Beach, Pinellas and Polk.
SCHOLARSHIPS FOR PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION
The scholarship programs created by the 1955 Florida State
Legislature for the study of medicine, dentistry and the several
disciplines concerned with mental health were continued.
Scholarships for the study of medicine were awarded based on
the recommendation of a seven-man advisory committee authorized
by law. The seven members were: David W. Goddard, M.D., Chair-
man, Daytona Beach; James T. Cook, Jr., M.D., Marianna; John
C. Finerty, Ph.D., Associate Dean of the School of Medicine, Uni-
versity of Miami, Miami; E. B. Hardee, Jr., M.D., Vero Beach;
Hugh M. Hill, M.D., Assistant Dean for Students, College of
Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville; Homer L. Pearson,
Jr., M.D., Executive Director, Florida State Board of Medical Ex-
aminers, Miami; and Arthur J. Wallace, M.D., Tampa.
As authorized by the Legislature in 1959, one scholarship was
awarded for the study of osteopathic medicine. The recipient was
recommended by the State Board of Osteopathic Medical
Examiners.
Scholarships for the study of dentistry were awarded by the
SBH upon the recommendations of the State Board of Dental
Examiners.
Scholarships in the several disciplines of mental health were
awarded upon the recommendations of the Florida Council on
Training and Research in Mental Health.
Through the Federal Social Security Act of 1935, the SBH re-
ceives federal funds which are used to provide scholarships for its
employees and those in affiliated CHDs for specialized professional
training. These scholarships are awarded to career employees who
evidence a potential for growth and service in specialized areas of
public health.









GENERAL ADMINISTRATION 15

MEDICAL
Scholarships Awarded in 1965:
**Gordon Charles Finlayson ........ ............ ...... ......Broward
Louis B. St. Petery ............... ....... ............Orange Park
Monica Anne Minyard .................... ....Ft. Lauderdale
William Clark Morgan ......................... ..........Gainesville
*Donald L. M cBath ... .... ......................... ..... ...... Hollywood
George L. Sanders ................... ..................Pompano Beach
Julia Carolyn Revell ..............................Tallahassee
Harrison Denison Williams ............ ....... ................Tallahassee
Wayne Raymond Johnson ................--.---- ..........Miami
Continuing Scholarships Awarded Prior to 1965:


Awarded 1962:
Richard Julian Bagby
Leonard Channing Bass
*Lloyd Dale Gauvin
Joseph William Haddock
Donald Gammon Hall
Gordon David Onstad
Laurie Miles Pardee
Richard Thomas Roby, Jr.
Howard Todd Wilson
Awarded 1964:
***Daniel Leslie Benboe
**Clarence M. Harris III
Jack Benson Owen
Elena Suzanne Rose
*Orville Leon Barks, Jr.
James Patrick O'Leary
Elizabeth Orene Vaughan
Charles Edward Walbroel
Rosetta Mae Bush
Edmond Delaney Roinson


Awarded 1963:
Kenneth L. Beckett
Calvin Collins, Jr.
**Beatrice Alfreda Denefield
Samuel Boykin Hunter
Ronica Mahoney Kluge
Bodo Eidel Pyko
Kathleen Mary Santi
Ira Harmon Wenze
Phillip Eugene Wright




*Osteopathic scholarship
**Scholarship surrendered
***Dropped from school


DENTAL
Scholarships Awarded in 1965:
Melvin C. Beard II ....Escambia David W. Rawson .................Santa Rosa
Albert J. Endruschat ..........Dade John L. Ricks, Jr. ....................Jackson
Richard L. Finkbeiner ........Polk Drew H. Turner, Jr. ..................Duval
Nathan A. Graddy .............Polk Richard H. Waldbart, Jr. ....Hillsborough
Leonard W. Peterson ....Monroe John W. Shannon .............. Duval


Continuing Scholarships Awarded Prior to 1965:


Awarded 1962:
George W. Boring, Jr.
*James V. Ferdinand
William W. Motley, Jr.
Alvan C. Smith
Emory T. Cain


Awarded 1963:
John F. Bembry
* *Norman M. Bevan, Jr.
Frederick A. Booth, III
*Robert L. Ferdinand
Anthony B. Frilingos
George D. Sanchez
Michael R. Kennedy









16 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


Awarded 1964:
Wayne D. Bradley
Roger E. Gibson
S* Charles L. Graves III
James R. Hoover
Ronald J. Marien
Conrad A. Mora
James E. Owens
William A. Thompson


* *Scholarship surrendered
***Dropped from school


PUBLIC HEALTH PERSONNEL
Ernestine S. Boswell ..............Public Health Nurse II ............................Duval
Collette Davidson .................Public Health Nurse Supvr. I ...............Dixie
Martha V. Long .................... Asst. County Nurse Director .......Hillsborough
Doris B. Jones ........................Public Health Nurse I .......................Manatee
M. H. Speakman ....................Public Health Nurse II ........................Highlands
Vernon Buttram .................Health Field Worker II .............................SBH
Oliver H. Boorde ..................Chief PH Statistics ...............................SBH
Leroy C. Doughty ....................Sanitary Engineer III ..................................SBH
C. W. Sheffield ......................Sanitary Engineer III ..............................Orange
R. S. Wright ..........................Sanitary Engineer IV .................................SBH
O. J. Baker ....... ...........Sanitarian IV ...................................... Broward
James Walter Mason II ......Sanitarian ................ ........................... Brevard
Harry Zarcadoolas ..................Sanitarian I ....................................................Dade
James L. Hulbert ....................Sanitarian ....................................................Orange

MENTAL HEALTH
Clinical Psychology
Marjorie A. Bayes ....................Miami Steven P. Rievman ....................Miami
Carol W. Cardoza ....................Miami Dorothy B. Ward ..............Gainesville
William T. Dillon ........St. Petersburg

Psychiatric Nursing
Alice B. Atkins ..........................Miami Shirley M. Bloodworth ....Gainesville
Sandra H. Swicord ..........Gainesville

Psychiatric Social Work


First Year:
Gerald J. Buchert ...........Port St. Joe
Gail Dee Chadwick ..............Sarasota
David F. Dillon ....West Palm Beach
Joseph R. Dills ................Jacksonville
Jack I. Knight ............Winter Haven
Joan Kogelschatz ...............Inverness
Ruth McCartt ............Chattahoochee
Jan C. McGurk ..................Miami
Marian Schneider ............Opa Locka
Richard J. Sheldon ........Tallahassee
A. Julius Sontag, Jr. ......Tallahassee
Donald F. White ............Jacksonville
Catherine L. Zulauf ..........Rockledge


Second Year:
John W. Terlouw ............Tallahassee


Florida Program for Residency Training in Public Health
The Council on Medical Education, American College of Pre-
ventive Medicine, has approved the Florida program and the fol-








GENERAL ADMINISTRATION


lowing five Florida CHDs for residency training in public health:
Dade, Alachua, Hillsborough, Pinellas and Palm Beach.
This residency in public health offers qualified physicians one
year of postgraduate training and up to two years of indoctrination
under the guidance of the director of the CHD to which the resi-
dent is assigned, in preparation for recruitment in public health
activities in Florida. It is jointly administered by the Council and
by the coordinator, who for this purpose, is designated as program
director by the State Health Officer and functions in this capacity
under his supervision.
John J. Woodward, M.D., completed his first year as Resident
in Public Health in Hillsborough County, October 1, 1965.
The coordinator assists the Division of Health Education in
program planning and evaluation of a four and one half day orien-
tation course for new employees. (See Division of Health Educa-
tion elsewhere in this report.)
He provides individual orientation for trainees from the USPHS
and other agencies, small group orientation for special guests and
dignitaries from other sections of the United States or from foreign
countries who are visiting the SBH.
The coordinator is -responsible for appropriate distribution of
information brochures, pamphlets and announcements concerned
with training available in all parts of the United States. The SBH
assumes no responsibility or obligation to provide for fees, per
diem or travel, incident to attendance. This is considered a matter
for local decision by the directors of the departments concerned.
For reference purposes this office maintains a file of catalogues of
Schools of Public Health, other institutions, and USPHS publica-
tions concerned with training.
In addition, the coordinator is currently assisting the Bureau of
Local Health Services in recruitment and was appointed by the
State Health Officer to represent the SBH on the Health Task
Group on State Emergency Resource Management Plans (Civil
Defense).
DIVISION OF HEALTH EDUCATION
ELIZABETH REED, R.N., B.S.
Director (to May 14)
J. N. CONGER, M.P.H.
Acting Director (May 14 to December 1)
VINCENT GRANELL, Ed.D.
Director (from December 1)
As in the past, the division continues to serve all other bureaus
and divisions, county health departments (CDH), voluntary health
agencies, PTAs, public and parochial schools, health-related pro-







18 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

fessions and the general public. Thirteen health educators are em-
ployed in CHDs, with four more positions vacant. There is an acute
need for more health educators as many CHDs are considering
adding such a position to their budgets.

Audio-Visual Library
In 1965 the Audio-Visual Library continued its steady growth.
Circulation, as well as the number of booking orders processed,
reached an all-time high. The number of films and other aids cir-
culated increased 19.8 per cent, for the first time going over the
10,000 mark. The actual figure was 10,465 compared with 8748 in
1964. The number of booking orders processed increased 13.7 per
cent. The number of times all aids were used showed a marked
increase. In 1964 they were used 17,935 times compared with
21,326 in 1965, an 18.9 per cent increase. The number of times
equipment was used outside the Audio-Visual Library increased
from 287 in 1964 to 317 in 1965, an increase of 10.4 per cent.
The use of motion pictures alone increased 20.5 per cent. In
1964, 8438 prints were circulated compared with 10,072 in 1965.
The use of all other aids combined also showed an increase, but of
all audio-visual aids motion pictures accounted for about 97 per
cent of the circulation with slides, filmstrips and tape recordings
comprising the remaining three per cent.
One film was televised to an estimated audience of 3400 per-
sons. Seven television spot announcements were booked. Eleven 35
mm tuberculosis trailers were shown approximately 92 times.
Forty-nine prints of motion pictures were removed from circula-
tion because of obsolescence or damage. Two other aids were re-
moved because of damage. Two motion pictures and one filmstrip
were lost in transit.
Inventory as of January, 1966 included 1242 prints of motion
pictures. There were 563 separate titles and 255 other aids. Pur-
chases consisted of 93 prints of motion pictures. No equipment was
purchased. A catalog and a supplement were printed and dis-
tributed during the year. A circulation survey was compiled,
printed and distributed.

Medical Library
New books added in 1965 totaled 1312, while 686 outdated or
worn-out volumes were withdrawn bringing the total number of
books and bound journals in the collection to 21,548 on December
31. The vertical file of unbound material was increased by the ad-
dition of 940 pamphlets.
By far the most extensive use of the library was made by the
personnel of the State Board of Health (SBH) in Jacksonville
and those in the CHDs. The number of loans made to the libraries







GENERAL ADMINISTRATION


of the Jacksonville Hospitals Educational Program was next. Local
physicians, nurses, lawyers and students also were borrowers.
Of the 2555 books checked out, 752 were issued on indefinite
loan. Journals circulated both in Jacksonville and out-of-town
numbered 10,059. Day loans (books and journals used in the li-
brary) came to a total of 2446. Other statistics included 97 inter-
library loans, 34 bibliographies compiled and 1666 photocopies
made.
In 1965, the library continued to publish the leaflet, "Book
Bulletin," which gives the titles of the new books received. This
was circulated to SBH personnel, CHDs and other local libraries.
The library participated in the program of the Medical Library
Association Exchange through which medical libraries may request
the missing issues of journals and in return supply the needs of
other libraries by mailing out its duplicates. The SBH library re-
ceived 180 requests and was able to fill 135, of which 13 were from
foreign libraries. This represents 2545 duplicates mailed.

Pamphlets
The total amount of pamphlets distributed in 1965 was 324,475.
The decrease from the 1964 distribution figures was due to the
discontinuation of many pamphlets while others were being revised,
reviewed or in the process of printing. The Spanish pamphlets were
sent to the Dade County Department of Public Health for use.
A new procedure has been initiated to accumulate information
on each pamphlet. A card is completed giving the following data:
name of pamphlet, publisher and address, price, budget number of
bureau or division financing purchase, number of copies ordered,
date ordered and date delivered. The procedure will permit an in-
telligent answer to the purchaser who wishes to determine the
effectiveness of a pamphlet.
Based on requests, there is need for more pamphlets on child
growth and development, sex education, good grooming, caloric
charts, careers, insects, water pollution, air pollution, bacteria
and viruses.
Publications, Radio and Television
The circulation of the Florida Health Notes (published 10
months a year) continued to climb in 1965 with 20,500 copies a
month being printed. Subjects covered in 1965 were: air pollution,
mental health, dental health, day care centers for children, the
Aedes aegypti Eradication Project, health of migrant laborers,
smoking and health, nursing homes, a condensation of an environ-
mental health survey of Gainesville and a condensed annual report.
Monograph Number 8, Developmental Evaluation Clinic, was
published. Assistance was given to the editing and publishing of







20 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


40 other books and pamphlets, as well as the Annual Report. In-
cluding slides, over 158 photographic assignments were completed.
Approximately 200 radio stations received 37 new spot an-
nouncements on various health topics. Filmed spot announcements
on general immunization and measles prepared by the Federal
Government were received and distributed to state television
stations.
Exhibits and Illustrations
The exhibits consultant developed 40 exhibits and displays dur-
ing the year and made 78 reproductions and 50 illustrations. A
total of 150 charts, graphs and maps were made, plus 160 signs, 89
slides and 28 miscellaneous illustrations. Forty conferences were
conducted and 12 trips made for consultation on exhibits, displays
and other creative productions.
Educational Activities
The staff health educator participated in a variety of health
education activities with many groups and agencies. Activities
included attendance at the PTA State Conference, Florida Associa-
tion for Health, Physical Education and Recreation annual work-
shop, Florida Education Association State Conference, Southern
Branch of the American Public Health Association, State School
Supervisors Conference and National Association of Sanitarians
Conference.
The consultant participated in the Health Project in Teacher
Education (see report of the Bureau of Maternal and Child Health
elsewhere in this report) and assisted as a consultant in the de-
velopment of a workshop on school health at Florida State
University.
The consultant assisted the CHDs in the development of health
education activities. Similar services were given to the public health
educators employed in the CHDs. He served as a consultant to
principals' workshops on health matters, conducted three SBH
Orientation Programs and served as adviser to community health
councils as requested.
The services of the health educator are being requested more
and more to assist in developing programs that focus on the pov-
erty aspects of society. The emphasis on health indicates that more
personnel will be necessary to meet the demand for services
requested.







GENERAL ADMINISTRATION


DIVISION OF PERSONNEL
MILES T. DEAN, M.A.
Director
Under the general direction of the State Health Officer, this
division is responsible for the administration of the personnel pro-
gram of the State Board of Health (SBH). This includes advising
administrative officers concerning personnel practices and develop-
ment; putting into effect procedures for carrying out approved per-
sonnel policies; participating in the preparation and administration
of the approved Classification and Compensation Plan; administer-
ing the leave regulations; maintaining adequate personnel records
on all persons employed in the agency; acting as liaison official with
the Florida Merit System involving requests for certificates and
reporting on the selection of eligibles, promotions, salary advance-
ments, salary adjustments, demotions, transfers, dismissals, lay-offs
and resignations; providing and administering a service rating sys-
tem and the preparation of state and federal reports. Payroll oper-
ation, also a responsibility of this division, includes the administra-
tion of leave accounting, the employee insurance program, retire-
ment and Social Security, as well as the preparation of the admin-
istrative payroll and distribution of warrants. Preparation of the
salary portion of the Legislative Requesting and the Operational
Budgets is also a responsibility of this division.
The total number of employees of the SBH increased signifi-
cantly during the past year. There were 1398 employment. Most
of these additional personnel were in programs included in the
Grants and Donations category.
In April 1965, there was a major change in our personnel and
payroll procedure. The payroll was changed to an add and delete
operation, and the procedure for reporting personnel actions was
changed so that such actions were made with the minimum amount
of necessary work in the field on new IBM printed forms.
A major change was made in the classifications used by the
SBH. This included a revision in the classes of health officers,
dentists, nurses, sanitarians and nutritionists. A large percentage of
the classes used by the SBH received a pay range increase, but the
full implementation of the Merit System pay plan was not made.
There was a considerable change in the pay plan rules effective
August 1, which allowed considerably more flexibility on pay mat-
ters within the agency.
Turnover of personnel continued to be a real problem. There
was a marked increase in turnover for higher-paid employees dur-
ing this year.
Difficulties in recruitment and retention of employees in-
creased. In the field of Sanitary Engineering, even after concerted
efforts, only about 75 per cent of vacancies were filled. Retention of








22 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

physicians, although the salary ranges for physician classes were
revised upward, became a real problem. Recruitment of the entire
spectrum of health workers became so difficult that employment
above the minimum salary was on a considerable increase over
previous years.


TABLE 1

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE FLORIDA STATE BOARD
OF HEALTH AND COUNTY HEALTH UNITS
AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1956-1965

State County Health Total
Year Office Departments Employees
1965 ... ................ ........... 914 2647 3561
1964 ................................ 843 2326 3169
1963 ............. .................. 762 1918 2680
1962 ................... ...... .. 692 1821 2513
1961. ................................ 626 1593 2219
1960 ................... ... ...... 604 1534 2138
1959.......................... 586 1396 1982
1958................... ............. 558 1321 1879
1957. .. .............. ........... 528 1234 1762
1956 ............................ 481 1127 1608








TABLE 2

DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH

(OTHER THAN COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENTS)

DECEMBER 31, 1965




.. "00
ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT g --
o -. o ) 5 -E-


Grand Total ...................................................... 914 28 11 81 33 27 202 7 121 277 127
Administration
Research....................................... .......... 20 2 ..... ..... ..... ..... 6 1 4 6 1
Training................................... 18 1 ..... 5 1 4 ..... 2 2 3
State Health Officer. ................... ......... ... .... ... 35 8 ..... ..... ..... I "3 ..... 7 16
Health Education ........................................... 14 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .... 6 6 2
Personnel ................... .............................. 14 ..... ..... ....... ..... ..... ..... 4 10
Nursing ..........12 ..... 10 ..... ... ... ..... ..... .... 2
Encephalitis Research Center.................... .........8 2 ..... ..... ..... ..... 2 ..... 1 3
Dental Health ................... ................... ......... 15 ..... 10 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 2 3
Entomology
State and Regional Offices ..................................... 23 ..... ..... ..... 1 ..... 11 ..... 1 4 6
Research Center-Vero Beach ................... ..........53 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 29 ..... 1 3 20
Arthropod Laboratory in West Florida .................. ............ 8 ..... ..... ....... 8... .. .... .. 4 ..... ..... 1 3
Finance and Accounts
Fiscal ................................................... 14 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 6 8
Purchasing and Property................... ................... 7 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 2 4 1
Building and Facilities ...................... ................ .. 35 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 1 6 28
Laboratories
Central-Jacksonville ................... ...................... 66 ..... ...... .... ..... 1 47 ..... ..... 7 11
Miami ............................. ........... ......... 22 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 17 ..... ... 2 3
Orlando ................... ................... ......... 10 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 6 .. .... I 3
Pensacola............................ ....... ............. 9 ..... ..... ..... ..... ...... 5 ..... ..... 1 3
Tallahassee ................................................. 7 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 4 .. .1... 1 2
Tampa ...................................... ..... 21 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 13 ..... ..... 3 5
West Palm Beach ......... ........7 ...... ..... ..... ..... ..... 6 .... ..... 1
Epidemiology of St. Louis Encephalitis ..................... ........ 19 .......... 1 19 .1. .. .... 11 ..... ..... 3 4
Local Health Services
Bureau of Local Health Services. ................... ......... ...... 9 1 ..... ..... ..... 1 ..... .... 2 5
Sanitation.................................................. 6 ..... ..... ..... ..... 5 ..... ... 1 ..
Nutrition ................... ................. ........... 10 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 8 2
Civil Defense ................... ................ ........ 2 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... I 1
Accident Prevention ...................... ............... 2 ......... .... .. ..... ..... .. .. .... 1 ...














TABLE 2 (Continued)

DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH

(OTHER THAN COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENTS)

DECEMBER 31, 1965





ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT a c



Maternal and Child Health ....................................... 60 4 ..... 22 ..... 9 ..... 3 4 13 5
Mental Health .......... 8 ..... ..... 2 ..... ..... ..... 1 1 4 ...
Narcotics .............. 19 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 13 6 ....
Preventable Diseases
Bureau of Preventable Diseases ................................... 11 3 ..... ..... ..... ..... 2 ..... 1 5
Radiological and Occupational Health .............................. 20 1 ..... "1 4 ..... 6 6 "2
Tuberculosis Control ...................................... 68 4 ..... 22 ..... ..... 14 ..... 3 24 1
Venereal Disease Control .... .......................... ......... 19 ..... ..... .... ..... ..... ..... .... 15 4
Veterinary Public Health.. .......... .. 5 ..... ..... ..... .... .. ..... ..... 13 2
Vaccination Assistance Project .... ............ ... ............... 1 ... ..... 18 ....... ..... ..... 4 15 14
Sanitary Engineering and Air Pollution Control ....... .............. 86 .... ..... ..... 31 2 16 ..... 5 23 9
Special Health Services
Bureau of Special Health Services ................ .................... ... .2 ..... ..... 1
Hospitals and Nursing Homes..................................... 16 1 ..... 1 ... ..... 1 ..... 6 8
Chronic Diseases ......................................... .. 14 .... .... ..... 1 ..... 2 9 ..
Community Cancer Demonstrations ......... ...... ................ 3 ..... ..... ..... ..... ......... .... 1 2 ..
Vital Statistics
Bureau and Division of Vital Records. ................... ......... . 47 ...... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 5 42
Statistics .................... ................. ......... 5 3..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 3 2
Data Processing ................... .......................... 13 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 2 10 1











GENERAL ADMINISTRATION 25


TABLE 3

DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL IN COUNTY

HEALTH UNITS, FLORIDA, DECEMBER 31, 1965






COUNTY 4 2 1 6 1







Bradford ........ ..... 7 ........ 1 ...... ...... ...... 1 1
Grand Total.........1 2647 122 21 724 17 339 46 92 61 484 741

Alchua ...................... 6 1....... 6 1 10 5

Bay ..... . . .. 17 I ...... 6 ...... 3 ...... 2 ...... 3 2
Brevard ............ 45 1 ...... 15 2 10 1 2 ...... 13 1
Broward............ .. 105 3 2 30 3 18 4 3 3 29 10
Calhoun ........... 4 ...... ...... 1......... ..... .... .. .. 1 1
Charlotte ........... 11 1 ...... 5 ...... 3 ... ...... ...... 1 1
Citrus .............. 6 1 ...... 2 ...... 1 ...... .
Clay. ............... 10 ...... ...... 5 ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... 2 1
Co.ller . . . 14 1 .. .... 3 ...... 3 ...... 2 .... 4 1
Columbia........... 9 I ...... 3 ...... 3 ...... ...... ...... I 1
Dade ............ .. 434 45 9 161 4 58 19 13 17 87 21
DeSoto ............ 7 ...... ...... 3 ...... 1 ...... ...... 2
Dixie ......... 3 ...... ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 1I
Duval............. 52 2 1 17 ...... 9 1 6 ...... 10 6
Escambia........... 75 4 ...... 25 ...... 14 2 3 2 18 7
Flagler............. 3 ...... ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 ..
Franklin ............ 4 ...... ...... 1 ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 1
Gadsden........... 13 1 ...... 6 ...... 3 ...... ...... ...... 2 1
Gilchrist. .......... 3 ...... 3...... 2 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 1. .
G lades ............ 1 ..... ... ...... ........ .. ...... 1 ...
Gulf.............. 5 ...... ...... 2 ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 2 .
Hamilton........... 5 ...... ...... 2 ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 1
Hardee............ .. 6 ...... ...... 3 ...... 1 ...... .. .. 1
Hendry ............ 12 ...... ...... 5 ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 3 3
Hernondo ........ .. 3 ...... ...... I ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... I .
Highlands ........... 9 1 ...... 3 ...... 2 ...... 1 ...... 2
Hillsborough ........ ..188 6 2 7 2 35 3 4 8 38 20
Holmes ............ 6 ...... ...... 2 ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 1 2
Indian River......... 11 ...... 5 1 1 ...... ...... ..... : 2 1
Jackson ...... 14 .... ......1 2 ...... 1 ...... 2 4
Jefferson. ........... 6 1 ...... 2 ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 1
Lafayette. .......... 4 ...... ...... 1 I ..... 1 .
Lake.............. ... 18 1 1 7 ...... 3 ... ...... 4 2
Lee ............... 17 1 ...... 6 ...... 3 1 1 ...... 5 ......
Lean. ............ 41 2 ...... 11 ...... 6 ...... 6 1 11 4
Levy .. ........... 5 ..... ...... 2 ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 1
Liberty . . .... ...... 2 .. .... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
Madison ........ .... 6 1 ...... 2 ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 1 1
Manatee ............ 32 1 ...... 11 ...... 7 ...... 3 1 7 2
Marion ............ 18 1 ...... 7 ...... 2 ...... 1 1 4 2
Martin ............. 5 ...... ...... 2 ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... .....
Monroe.............. 16 1 ...... 5 ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... 4 4
Nassau ............. 13 1 ...... 4 ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... 3 3
Okaloosa............ 20 1 ...... 7 ...... 4 1 1 1 3 2
Okeechobee .5 ...... ... 1 ...... 1 ...... ...... I 1
Orange............. 95 4 1 26 ...... 17 1 4 5 23 14
Osceola ........... .. 6 ...... ...... 2 ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 2 1
PalmBeach ......... 126 9 2 36 2 21 2 8 6 28 12
Pasco ............. 8 1 ...... 3 ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... 1 1
Pinellas ........... 184 9 1 72 1 29 8 5 7 43 9
Polk .............. 96 3 1 40 2 11 2 2 2 19 14
Putnam ............. 15 1 ...... 5 ...... 4 ...... 1 ...... 3 1
St. Johns............ 10 1 ...... 4 ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... 2 1
St. Lucie........... 21 1 ...... 4 ...... 5 ...... 5 ...... 5 1
Santa Rosa......... 12 1 ...... 5 ...... 2 ...... ...... ...... 2 2
Sarasota ........... 45 1 ...... 15 ...... 8 ...... 3 ...... 16 2
Seminole........... 17 1 ...... 8 ...... 2 ...... 1 ...... 3 2
Sumter ............. 4 ...... ...... 1 ...... 1 .... ...... ...... 1 1
Suwannee ........... 9 1 ...... 3 ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 2 2
Taylor.............. 5 ...... ...... 2 ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 1 1
Union.............. 3 ...... .. I 1 ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 1 .
Volusia.............. 58 3 1 21 ...... 9 ...... 5 ...... 10 9
Wakulla .. ....... 3 ...... ...... I ...... ...... ...... 1 1
Walton .. ......... 9 2 ...... 2 ...... 1 1 ...... ...... 2 1
Washington .. ...... 5 ...... ...... 2 ...... 1 ...... ...... ...... 1 1










26 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


TABLE 3 (Continued)

DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL IN COUNTY

HEALTH UNITS, FLORIDA, DECEMBER 31, 1965



E -.: -


d r .2 a .
S- 'o J


Eradication of
Aedes aegypti
Alac uaA. : : : : : 11 ...... ...... ................ .... .. .. 1 60
Brevard A. A.......... 12 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 11
Broward A. A.......... 51 1 50
Dade A.A ............ 157 ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... 2 155
Duval A.A.. . .. 26 4 10 12
Escambia A.A. . . 15 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... .... 1 14
Hillsborough A.A....... 67 ... ...... ...... ... 65
Lee A.A............. 20 ...... ...... ... 1 19
Leon A.A............. 8 ...... ...... ....... .....7...... ..... ...... ..... 1
Manatee A.A.......... 27 ...... ...... ......2............. ....... ....1
Monroe A.A .......... 15 ......1...... ...... ...... ..... ..... 14
Orange A.A......... 28 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 27
Palm Beach A.A........ 45 ...... ...... ...... ...... .. .. .... .. ...... 1 44
Pinellas A.A......... 53 ...... ...... ...... ...... .... ...... .. ..... 1 52
Polk A.A. .......... 15 ...... ...... .......... .. .... ... .... ... 14
St. Lucie A.A ...... .. 10 ...... ... ..... .. .. 10
Sarasota A.A......... 13 ...... ...... ........ .... ...... .. 13
Volusia A.A.......... 6 ...... ............ .................. ...... 1 5









GENERAL ADMINISTRATION


TABLE 4

EMPLOYMENT TERMINATIONS AND TURNOVER RATES BY
CLASSIFICATION AND SALARY, FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH
AND COUNTY HEALTH UNITS, 1965
(FULL-TIME EMPLOYEES ONLY)

SALARY
CLASSIFICATION Under 200- 300- 400- 500- 600- 700- 800- 900- 1,000
Total 199 299 399 499 599 699 799 899 999 Over
TERMINATIONS 1965

Total-All employees ..... 916 47 221 416 121 30 43 10 8 3 17
Physicians ............ 22 .... .... .... .... .... 3 1 2 1 15
Dentists................... 20 ............ 5 .... 15 .............
Sanitarians ............ 35 .... .... 8 21 5 .... .... 1 .... ...
Sanitary Engineers....... 8 .... ........... 5 1 1 .... .... 1
Public Health Nurses ... 126 .. 5 65 53 1 2 .... ...
Laboratory Workers
proff. & tech.)........ 36 .... 8 11 7 3 3 3 .... 1 ....
Mental Health......... 52 .... .... 3 10 9 19 5 4 I 1
Other professional and
technical ........... 18 .... .... .... 10 7 .... .... 1 .... ...
Clerical ............. 189 1 133 51 4 .... .... ....
All others ............ 410 46 75 278 11 .... .... .... .
TURNOVER RATE*
Total-All employees .... 25.7 38.2 42.0 37.4 11.6 9.3 22.5 15.2 16.7 15.8 15.3
Physicians............ 14.7 .... .... ......... ... 37.5 100.0 100.0 14.3 16.9
Dentists .............. 68.5 .... ..... .. 62.5 .... 100.0 .... .... .... ....
Sanitarians ............ 9.6 . .. 266.7 12.1 3.9 . 50.0 .... .
Sanitary Engineers....... 16.0 .. ... .... ..... 100.0 9.1 16.7 ....... 9.1
Public Health Nurses ..... 15.7 ... 20.8 69.9 9.0 1.5 7.4 .... .... .... ....
Laboratory Workers
proff. and tech.). ....... 14.5 . 20.8 18.6 12.3 7.1 10.3 25.0 .. 100.0 ....
Mental Health ......... 52.5 .... .. ... 150.0 52.6 30.0 82.6 71.4 40.0 100.0 ....
Other professional and
technical ........... 9.9 .... ........ 17.5 15.9 .... .... 11.1 .... ....
Clerical ............. 24.8 4.8 44.8 13.6 5.9 .... .... .... .... .... ....
All others ............ 47.2 51.7 47.5 48.8 22.9 .... .... .... .... .... ....
*Per cent of full time employees terminating by classification during 1965.



DIVISION OF PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING

ENID MATHISON, R.N., M.P.H.
Director
A primary function of this division is to coordinate and to con-
sult with all other units of the State Board of Health (SBH) con-
cerning programs and projects which require nursing services.
Guidance and assistance is given to public health nursing at the
local levels in the planning and development of the various public
health programs.
Special efforts are made to recruit nurses from the colleges of
nursing, since this is the only public health preparation available at
the undergraduate level. As nursing services expand and become
more complex it is imperative that well qualified nurses give leader-
ship and supervision to staff nurses and to the increasing numbers







28 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

of nonprofessional people who will be involved with providing care
for patients in their homes.
The nursing consultants participate in planning conferences
with bureau and division directors, and interpret to the county
health department (CHD) personnel the policies of the SBH and
the newer trends in nursing programs. Upon request they work
with local nursing directors and supervisors to improve the ad-
ministrative and supervisory services within the nursing unit.
Assistance is given in the planning and implementation of com-
munity health activities, workshops and continuing education
programs for all nurses.
The consultants who gave special emphasis to the vaccination
assistance program in the state worked with many of the counties
to orient them in the initial procedures necessary for participation
in the program. A great deal of time and effort went into the
preparation of a time equivalency reporting form which makes it
possible for the nursing personnel assigned on the special project
funds to function in a generalized public health program.
A short-term traineeship grant from the U.S. Public Health
Service made possible a one-week seminar on public health nursing
administration in November. Nursing directors and supervisors
from 28 CHDs, two visiting nurse associations, public health fac-
ulty from three colleges of nursing and nursing administrators
from four other states participated in the course.
The continuing education committee, under the leadership of
the nursing education consultant, has prepared an orientation
guide for use in the four field training centers. All newly employed
nurses who have not had preparation or experience in public health
nursing are required to have a planned eight weeks orientation
before permanent status is granted.
In cooperation with the director of the Division of Tuberculosis
Control, a guide for the Tuberculosis Control Program was com-
pleted. This will constitute one unit in the public health nursing
manual now under revision.
There are now 42 voluntary nursing organizations, incorporated
as nonprofit bodies, which contribute to or provide nursing care to
the sick at home. With the exception of the seven independent
visiting nurse associations, the service is combined with the CHD
to provide a generalized nursing service to the community. In these
42 agencies, fees collected for nursing services are administered by
the agency, the monies reverting back into nursing service. Fees
are collected on a sliding scale, according to the ability of the
patient to pay; however, no one goes without nursing care because
of a lack of funds. A number of CHDs have enabling acts which
permit them to receive money for services rendered. All counties
accept referrals for Medical Assistance to the Aged patients, and
in some of the smaller counties, where there is no organized nursing







GENERAL ADMINISTRATION 29

care of the sick at home program, additional services are given on
a limited basis. Additional nursing staff will be necessary before
the service can be expanded in most areas of the state. The de-
mands for nursing care of the sick at home are expected to increase
markedly with the inception of the medicare program. Unfor-
tunately, lack of nursing staff curtails many services badly needed
by the CHDs.
The division has developed a survey form which will be used
to determine the readiness of agencies--both official and non-
official for certification as providers for Home Health Services,
as defined in Public Law 89-97. All consultants will give these top
priority in January and February, 1966, so that the agencies
ready for certification can participate in funds now available to the
state.
Studies to determine the time and cost of units of nursing
activities have been completed in 17 counties. The following are
examples of the cost per visit and average time in minutes spent
giving care to the patient on disease and disability visits:
Cost Time
Clay CHD $6.56 36
Manatee CHD 5.83 49
Jacksonville VNA 5.58 67
Okaloosa CHD 4.44 35
Sarasota CHD 6.79 53
In recent years the number of midwives has been decreasing at
about 10 per year; 179 were licensed in 1965. A definite need for
the services of a midwife is established before a woman is selected
for training. Before licensure a new applicant must complete a three
weeks training program, sponsored by a maternity home and the
CHD (Seminole).
A grant of $3000 was secured from the Florida Council on
Training and Research in Mental Health for a detailed study to
determine the mental health engendering concepts in the Florida
Midwife Program. Data have been collected and will be published
when the material has been analyzed and conclusions reached.
The three orientation programs at the Gainesville Sunland
Training Center were attended by 71 people; two at Fort Myers
by 47; two at Marianna by 63; and two at Orlando by 66. These
programs make it possible for professional workers, rehabilitation
personnel, special teachers and social workers to see the facilities
available within the state for the care of selected mentally retarded
children. Many of the training programs at the institution can be
adapted for use in the local communities. Communications among
agencies have improved considerably as a result of the orientation
programs at the institutions. The consultant in this program is
also promoting community action programs so that maximum serv-
ices will be available to the non-institutionalized retarded in com-
munities throughout the state.








30 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

The consultant in rehabilitation nursing had the major role in
the preparation of a book BLUEPRINT FOR STROKE RE-
HABILITATION THROUGH COMMUNITY ACTION. This
was a joint project of the SBH and Florida Heart Association.
Educational programs in rehabilitation nursing were conducted for
public health nurses, institutional nurses and nursing home per-
sonnel. The requests and need for these programs in nursing
homes can not be met.
The Advisory Committee on Public Health Nursing, appointed
by the SBH in 1963, published its first report in 1964. This dealt
with the study of the role, problems and direction of public health
nursing in Florida. The committee gave invaluable assistance to
the division this year in the revision of the Merit System Nurse
Classification Series.







BUREAU OF DENTAL HEALTH 31
FLOYD H. DeCAMP, D.D.S.
Director
DELMAR R. MILLER, D.D.S., M.P.H.
Assistant Director
The dental health program expanded this year due to an in-
crease of funds made available through the Children's Bureau, the
U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS), at the state level and by the
interest of county health department (CHD) directors in the
establishment of well planned and equipped dental clinics in many
of the new health centers built this year.
The clinics are staffed with at least one full-time dentist and a
dental assistant. Some counties have several well equipped dental
clinics in areas throughout the county.
During the year, the bureau participated in a number of Head-
start Projects and also in other special dental health projects con-
ducted throughout the state by local dentists.
The bureau is greatly assisted in the conduct and planning of
programs through the efforts of the dental member of the State
Board of Health (SBH). The state law in Florida provides that
one of the five members be a dentist. This action assists in form-
ing much closer cooperation between the bureau and the members
of the Florida State Dental Society.
The Dental Scholarship Program and the Dental Preceptorship
Program being administered jointly by the Florida State Board of
Dental Examiners and this bureau has resulted in an excellent
association and cooperation between these two state agencies.
PRECEPTORSHIP PROGRAM
Since its beginning in 1957, this program has provided an ef-
fective method of recruiting dentists to staff dental clinics in
CHDs. Preceptees are selected by the Florida State Board of
Dental Examiners and supervision of their work is provided by a
dental consultant from this bureau, a committee of dentists from
the local dental society and the director of CHDs in their re-
spective areas.
Some 125 highly qualified young dentists have served in the
program during the nine years of its operation. Most of these men
have entered private practice in the state on completion of their
assignments and continue to maintain great interest in public
health matters of their communities.
Counties served by dental preceptees during all or a portion of
1965 were: Alachua, Broward, Collier, DeSoto, Duval, Flagler,
Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Manatee,
Marion, Palm Beach, Polk, Putnam, Sarasota, Santa Rosa and
Volusia. Preceptees also served in the Jacksonville City Health
Department and as operators of the two mobile dental clinics of
the Bureau of Dental Health.








32 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

In addition to preceptees serving throughout the state of
Florida in CHDs, there are 12 dentists engaged full time in dental
public health on the county and state level.
DENTAL SCHOLARSHIPS
Ten dental scholarships were awarded in 1965. These were
granted in accordance with the dental scholarship law which pro-
vides a stipend of up to $1000 per year for as many as four years
for recipients who agree to practice in "areas of need" (where there
are few or no dentists) for 12 months for each $1000 received. Stu-
dents may repay the funds received under certain circumstances.
Since 1955, a total of 111 scholarships have been awarded, four
of which were cancelled before becoming effective.
Disposition of the 69 graduates to date:
Serving in "areas of need" ..................................... ...... 23
Repaid scholarship in full (cash) ..................................... 17
In military service ....................... .................. .............. .. 10
Completed compensatory practice .................................... 14
Repaying stipends received .......................................... 4
Obligated to repay but not qualified for Florida licensure 1
69
DENTAL CLINICS
During the year, a total of 35 fixed dental clinics were operat-
ing in 27 counties. All served only underprivileged children in ele-
mentary grades or underprivileged expectant mothers. Full-time
licensed public health dentists served all or a portion of the year in
the dental clinics of the following counties: Broward, Dade, Jack-
son, Liberty, Orange, Palm Beach, Pinellas, St. Johns and Volusia.
In addition, the bureau assigned two completely equipped mobile
dental clinics to various counties. These mobile clinics are main-
tained to serve underpriviledged elementary school children in
counties having few or no practicing dentists. Financing and super-
vision of mobile clinic operators is provided by this bureau, the
preceptorship committees and the county health officers in the
counties or areas where the clinics are assigned. One mobile clinic
operated for four months and the other operated for 10 months
during the year. A summary of the services performed follows:
School dental inspections .................................. ...... .... 95
New Patients ........................................ 1192
Repeat Patients ................................ ........................... 325
Prophylaxis ....................................................................... 266
Fillings (all types) ....................................... .................... 3037
E xtractions ..................................................................... 1592
M miscellaneous treatments ............................................... 289
Topical fluoride applications ........................................ 20
Talks given to school and civic groups .......................... 5
Pamphlets distributed ..................................................... 200
As a continuance of previous efforts to develop ways of provid-
ing dental services to handicapped children, a mobile clinic was







DENTAL HEALTH


assigned for one month to a special school for the handicapped.
Preventive dental services and treatments were provided for the
underprivileged children attending the school.
A new dental clinic began operation in Hardee County.
Charlotte County completed installation of dental equipment in
a new clinic. DeSoto County acquired a portion of the equipment
necessary to begin a dental treatment program. Clay CHD com-
pleted installation of equipment in the dental clinic of a new
building.
A full-time dental hygienist was employed during the entire
year. Her efforts made it possible to increase the amount of
assistance given to the growing number of requests for aid to school
dental health programs. The hygienist gave dental inspections to
6009 children in 19 different schools in 11 counties. A total of 69
lectures were presented to students, teachers and PTA groups.
Approximately 250 stannous flouride treatments were performed
by the dental hygienist at the Florida School for the Deaf and
Blind at St. Augustine and at the girls' 4-H encampment at Doe
Lake in Marion County. The hygienist served as a coordinator for
the Florida Health Project in Teacher Education at one of the
participating universities.

FLUORIDATION
Many communities expressed interest in the matter of water
fluoridation during the year. Pensacola ceased fluoridation as a
result of city commission action. Daytona Beach, in a referendum,
voted heavily in favor of fluoridation and is proceeding with the
necessary plans. Fluoridation was approved by city commission
action in Sanford and Eau Gallie. A negative decision resulted from
a fluoridation referendum held in DeLand.
At the end of 1965, 26 Florida cities, with a combined popula-
tion of over 756,132, were fluoridating water supplies. An addi-
tional population of more than 300,446 residing in 26 other cities,
including Jacksonville and Sarasota, is served by water supplies
containing approximately the correct amount of fluoride as a
natural component. In all areas, a total population exceeding
1,056,578 is receiving the benefits of water containing fluoride at
near optimal level to control dental decay.

Oral Cytology Project
In 1964, this bureau, in cooperation with the Florida State
Dental Society and Florida Northeast District Dental Society,
initiated an oral exfoliative cytology project in a 17-county area of
northeast Florida. It was funded by the USPHS with the under-
standing that at the end of one year it would be evaluated and
considered for expansion statewide.







34 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


The evaluation committee consisting of four dentists, a physi-
cian, an oral surgeon and pathologist, met May 26, 1965. The de-
cision was made to expand the program. Sufficient funds from the
first year's fund grant were available to permit the expansion to a
statewide program for an additional year.
The four other dental districts agreed to participate in the
program. Plans were immediately made to organize an oral
cytology committee in various local dental societies throughout the
state, and to conduct orientation programs for all participating
dentists. These orientation programs are now being conducted and
will eventually include all local dental societies within each district.
Local participating pathologists in each area examine the
smears and biopsies submitted by the dentists, and are paid from
project funds by the Bureau of Dental Health. One dentist in
south Florida, who holds a fellowship in the American Academy
of Oral Pathology, is examining smears and biopsies for dentists in
the Miami area. In other areas throughout the state, the local
dentists are inviting medical pathologists in their area to partici-
pate in evaluating cytological slides and biopsies.
So far, there have been approximately 60 dentists throughout
the state who have submitted specimens for examination, and the
number is steadily growing as new areas are included in the
program.
LACTOBACILLUS LABORATORY PROGRAM
A few years ago this bureau, in cooperation with the Bureau
of Laboratories, adopted a simple diagnostic test of saliva from
young patients who had an excessive amount of dental caries. An
increased number of dentists throughout the state have utilized
this service during the past year because it is an approved scien-
tific fact that a change in the diet, in which other foods are sub-
stituted for carbohydrates and sweets with proper control, will
markedly reduce the dental decay rate. In 1965, 106 dentists par-
ticipated in this program, and each year the program is increasing
in scope.
HEALTH EDUCATION
A variety of dental health activities were carried on in Florida
during the year. The ultimate objective is to decrease the vast
amount of dental decay and tooth loss among the children of this
state.
Parents and teachers have been encouraged to make more
effective use of known dental health measures to reduce the high
rate of dental decay and early loss of permanent teeth of young
children.
The Florida State Dental Society has adopted a unique policy
in which local dentists through official action of the Florida State







DENTAL HEALTH


Dental Society are encouraged to serve as dental health con-
sultants to elementary and high schools in the various counties.
Through the interest of the Florida State Department of Education
and many county boards of public instruction, this new program
has provided a close liaison between school principals and school
health coordinators on a statewide basis. It is estimated that in
1965, 1100 dentists served in this capacity.
Not only were there many thousands of school dental inspec-
tions performed by these dentists, but they lectured on dental
health to civic groups, and they assisted in the introduction of
DESIGN FOR TEACHING DENTAL HEALTH IN FLORIDA
SCHOOLS, Bulletin 7.
Dental health education in local 4-H clubs was improved, and
distribution of dental health educational materials for the members
has increased.
The major portion of the health educator's time was spent in
public and private schools, meeting with administrators and
teachers to promote effective dental health education from primary
grades through college level. Some of these activities were to assist
in teacher preplanning conferences at the beginning of the school
year, as well as for groups of health coordinators during the year.
Lectures on the value of dental health were given in most of
the 50 junior colleges and universities each term. In addition,
presentations on dental public health were given at least once a
year in each of the three Florida schools of dental hygiene.
Meetings were held in six urban areas with dental advisors
(private dentists serving elementary schools in the company of
consultants) and school supervisors to show the latest audio
visual aids and new teaching materials available from the SBH.
The health educator also served as a SBH consultant on the
Florida Health Project in Teacher Education. (See report of
Bureau of Maternal and Child Health elsewhere in this report.)







36 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY
J. A. MULRENNAN, B.S.A.
Director
A most discouraging note for 1965 in the field of public health
entomology was the finding that salt-marsh mosquitoes were show-
ing a terrific resistance to the fogging application of Malathion for
adult mosquito control. This excellent insecticide was first used in
the state on wide-scale application in the mosquito control dis-
tricts in 1957. The chemical has been an extremely effective adulti-
cide, the only method of use in mosquito control. This now means
that many counties will be required to turn to another insecticide
to destroy resistant adult mosquitoes.
The encephalitis surveillance program appears to be working
quite well since it has been able to show, by collecting mosquitoes
from different sections of the state and examining them for arbo-
virus, that St. Louis encephalitis (which caused the epidemic in
the Tampa Bay area in 1962) was not present in mosquitoes ex-
amined in 1965. However, many other strains of arbovirus were
circulating, as is shown in this report.
The federally-supported Aedes aegypti Eradication Program
continued operations throughout the year with expansion to other
counties in addition to the seven original counties reported upon
last year. The funds were increased to $3,066,000 during 1965. Two
years operation is not sufficient to provide definite conclusions, but
it is apparent that excellent reduction in breeding is being ac-
complished in the Tampa Bay counties. Unfortunately, with the
exception of Monroe County, the same cannot be said for the three
other southeastern counties. In fact, resistance to DDT is in evi-
dence in Dade County. Many other methods of control are being
carried out in hopes of finding a method which will be effective
in this area. In addition to extensive container breeding, the area
presents a unique problem of breeding in cultivated bromiliads
found by the thousands on many premises.
ARTHROPOD CONTROL
Source Reduction Accomplishments
The number of counties and/or mosquito control districts par-
ticipating in the state aid program for the control of arthropods
remained the same as during 1964. Fifty-seven programs were
operated in 53 counties; 26 programs being directed by county
health departments (CHD), six by boards of county commissioners
and 25 by boards of mosquito commissioners.
Holmes County resumed participating in state aid after with-
drawing for a year due to legal difficulties, and Calhoun County
was dropped, due to the failure to meet state aid requirements for
receiving state aid. Two separate programs continue to be operated
in Bay, Duval, Lee and Walton Counties.








ENTOMOLOGY 37

The state fund matching rate for source reduction measures
averaged 20.75 per cent for the year; however, at the end of the
year the matching rate was only 17.60 per cent. This reduction in
the state matching rate each year appears to cause many counties
and/or districts to increase their local annual budgets to offset the
loss in state funds, which further reduces the percentage rate of
state funds that can be given. In 1963 the local funds budgeted
amounted to $4,865,700, and in 1965 the amount was $5,805,700,
an increase of $940,000 in two years.
Hydraulic dredging was discontinued in Brevard County in
February, 1965. Only one dredge is now operating (Indian River
County), and it will likely be discontinued in 1966.
Some new dragline ditches were constructed; however, the
greater portion of machine work performed was in maintenance of
ditches constructed several years ago. The construction of dikes,
for impounding salt-marsh mosquito breeding areas, continued in
Brevard and St. Lucie Counties.
The disposal of solid waste material poses an ever increasing
statewide problem. Considerable time was, spent during the year in
consulting with local officials, and making surveys pertaining to
garbage and rubbish disposal. The 38 counties conducting sanitary
landfills under the state program reported direct field costs for
garbage disposal to amount to $659,482.
There follows a summary of the source reduction work accom-
plished throughout the state during 1965:
Machine Ditching and Maintenance
1964 1965
Number of counties participating ............................ 33 34
Miles of ditches dug or maintained .......................... 447.164 427.741
Cubic yards earth excavated ......................................3,604,286 3,662.598
Average labor cost per cubic yard .............................. $0.1032 $0.1110
Construction and Maintenance of Dikes
Number of counties participating .......................... 4 4
Miles of dike constructed or rebuilt ...................... 47.54 34.06
Cubic yards earth placed in dikes ........................ 937,037 694,343
Average labor cost per cubic yard ........................ $0.0615 $0.0810
Hydraulic Dredging (10-inch Dredges)
Number of counties participating ............................ 2 2
Number of dredges used ........................... ............. 2 2
Cubic yards earth fill placed ......................................1,023,298 206,252
Average labor cost per cubic yard .......................... $0.0575 $0.1720
Deepening and Filling (Draglines and Bulldozers)
Number of acres improved ...................................... 97.63 113.3
Average labor cost per acre ...................................... $132.21 $92.47
Sanitary Landfills
Number of counties operating landfills .................... 35 38
Total number of landfill sites operated ....... ...... 121 143
Total field costs in all counties ................................ $659,482
Cubic yards of garbage disposed of ......................4,989,121 5,673,595
Total field costs per cubic yard ................................ $0.121 $0.1162
*Figures not available.








38 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

Temporary Control Measures
The temporary control of arthropods is accomplished by the ap-
plication of insecticidal formulations, applied either as a larvicide
or as an adulticide. The material is dispersed by either/or both
ground and air equipment.
Airplane applications of insecticides were made, on a contract
basis, in Dade, Broward, Martin and Indian River Counties.
Counties owning and operating their aircraft for temporary control
measures are Collier, Lee, Volusia, Monroe and Brevard.
Dibrom and Malathion were the principal insecticides used for
adulticidal work. A small amount of Baytex formulation was suc-
cessfully used on Sanibel Island in Lee County, following obtain-
ing poor results with Malathion. The West Florida Arthropod
Research Laboratory is conducting resistance studies, which is re-
ported under its section.
The following is a summary of the ground adulticiding work
performed during the calendar year. The costs shown are direct
field costs, and do not include capital investment costs, deprecia-
tion of equipment, or supervision and overhead expenses.
1964 1965
Number of counties or districts doing
ground fogging .............. ............ ............ 46 54
Total number of hours fog machines operated...... 62,511 57,737
Total number of miles fogged ................................ 372,537 389,571
Gallons of insecticidal formulation used.............. 2,559,085 2,806,887
Total field costs in all counties and districts.......... $1,271,100
Average cost per hour for fogging ......................... $22.02
Average cost per mile for fogging .............................. $3.26
*These figures not available for 1964. Reporting procedures revised on
October 1, 1964.
Airplanes were used in eight counties for adulticiding and/or
larviciding work. Hillsborough County received a surplus C-47 air-
plane, which at the end of the year was nearly ready for a restricted
license for mosquito control work. Polk County purchased a new
Piper Pawnee, which will be used in midge control work and
herbiciding. Volusia County completed building a Bell helicopter,
which was licensed and operating late in the year.
Adulticiding and Larviciding with Airplanes:
1964 1965
(1) Airplane Fogging (with Malathion and
Baytex in 1965)
Number of counties and districts
doing fogging ................................. ...... .. .......... 3 4
Gallons of insecticidal formulation applied...... 227,041 303,408
Acres treated ........................................................2,706,840 2,641,833
Gallons applied per acre (average).................. 0.10235 0.11485
Labor cost per acre treated ......................... $0.0112 Incomplete
(2) Airplane Spraying:
Number of counties and districts
doing spraying ............. .... ......................... 5 5
Gallons of spray formulation used ................... 160,124 214,459
Acres treated ................................. ....... 221,864 308,512
Gallons applied per acre ...---................................ 0.7217 0.6951
Labor cost per acre treated ......................... .. $0.125 Incomplete








ENTOMOLOGY


Adulticiding and Larviciding with Airplanes: (continued)
1964
(3) Airplane Larviciding with Paris green:
Number of counties doing larviciding............ 3
Pounds of Paris green pellets used ............... 236,463
Acres treated ..................... ............................. 22,779
Pounds applied per acre (Aver. 5% mix) ........ 10.38
Labor cost per acre treated ........................... $0.4945


1965

4
313,490
18,541
16.90
Incomplete


Dog Fly Control
Emulsifiable DDT, mixed with sea water, continued to be used
by the most western Florida counties bordering on the Gulf of
Mexico for controlling dog flies. The program was continued on the
same basis and manner as in previous years. No spraying was per-
mitted by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Department on their reserva-
tion in Wakulla County, and no work was reported as being
done in Escambia County.
The following is a summary of the dog fly control work per-
formed in the seven remaining counties:
1964 1965
Total miles of shoreline treated ...................... .................... 962 963
Gallons of 35 per cent DDT concentrate used.................. 12,634 12,219
Average labor cost per mile ....................................... .. $8.33 $9.47
Number of man-hours labor required ............................ 5,686 7,774
The control work continued to be effective, with only a very
few small and localized outbreaks of short duration being reported.

Counties Participating and Local Fund Budgets
The following counties participated in the State Arthropod
Control Program during the year. The amounts of local funds bud-
geted for arthropod control activities during the fiscal year October
1, 1965 through September 30, 1966 are (as of December 31, 1965)
as follows:


County
Alachua ........................$
Bay (Comm.) .........
Bay (Gulf) ....................
Bradford ...............
Brevard ..................
Broward ......................
Charlotte ....................
Citrus ..........................
Collier ........................
Columbia ..................
Dade ............................
Duval (East) .............
Duval (Northeast) ......
Escambia .................
Flagler ..........................
Franklin ...................
Gadsden ......................
Gulf ..............................
Hardee .......................


Local
Amount
88,194.00
100,906.00
51,857.13
16,334.11
346,966.17
82,743.86
80,938.33
123,099.51
179,974.26
14,728.06
241,599.00
108,467.33
134,000.00
125,199.95
14,191.28
15,000.00
12,710.00
41,255.44
4,700.00


County
Hernando ..................
Highlands .....................
Hillsborough ................
Holmes ............-........
Indian River ..............
Jackson ....................
Jefferson ..................
Lake ...................
Lee (District) ..............
Lee (Beach) ................
Leon ..-.... .........$
Levy ........................
Madison ..................
Manatee ..................
Marion ...................
Martin ....................
Monroe .....................
Nassau ....................
Okaloosa ............-....


Local
Amount
15,009.46
4,625.00
342,120.00
11,000.00
353,637.69
5,036.89
10,727.23
88,500.00
502,306.95
63,011.00
80,000.00
15,000.00
1,150.00
87,421.75
30,000.00
43,237.89
283,215.27
61,549.00
42,243.50







40 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

Local Local
County Amount County Amount
Orange .......................... 107,143.00 Sarasota ......... ...... .... 158,601.94
Osceola .................. 45,147.44 Seminole ........................ 15,000.00
Palm Beach .................. 340,946.00 Suwanee ................ 15,930.00
Pasco ....................... 80,210.91 Taylor .................... 4,850.00
Pinellas ................. .. 315,274.73 Volusia .............. 319,081.64
Polk ....................... 228,003.00 Wakulla ................ 18,000.00
Putnam ................. 25,000.00 Walton ................. 7,500.00
St. Johns ........ ....... 90,493.26 Walton (South) .......... 22,262.20
St. Lucie .................. 147,026.82 Washington ................ 2,500.00
Santa Rosa ...........:........ 40,071.00
Total local funds appropriated .... ................$5,805,698.00
Total state funds appropriated .............................. 1,650,000.00
TOTAL BUDGETED FUNDS FOR
ARTHROPOD CONTROL ................... .........$7,455,698.00
Engineering
The engineering section continued its assistance to counties
and districts through assisting the directors, commissioners and
health officers with the many aspects related to their particular
area and program. Assistance in the field was given through pro-
gram planning, equipment needs, project plans and proposals, se-
lection of landfill sites, preparation of budgets, specifications for
purchase of heavy equipment, record keeping procedures, and
preparation of monthly report forms.
The office staff maintained records pertaining to financial ac-
counts of all 57 counties and districts; checked monthly report
forms for accuracy, and tabulated progress and costs by activities.

Regional Entomologists
Five entomologists and one assistant continue to serve the state
from locations in Panama City, Marianna, Jacksonville, Orlando,
Tampa and Miami. They have continued to advise and give
entomological assistance to counties and districts from these head-
quarters (except for Marianna, which is primarily concerned with
encephalitis mosquito collections), while coordinating all regular
phases of state and local activities, including the functions of plan-
ning, budgeting, operating, approving control projects, evaluating
and reporting the progress of 57 mosquito control and landfill
programs in 53 counties of the state.
A sample list of other duties, taking more or less time accord-
ing to region, season and necessity, include meeting with county
and district commissioners to discuss mosquito operations and
procurement of personnel; participation in State Board of Health
(SBH) orientation and sanitarian training classes; conducting
tours for World Health Organization personnel and foreign stu-
dents; addressing and showing films to various civil clubs and com-
munity groups, promoting and extending landfill programs in inter-
ested counties; assisting and training personnel of counties and







ENTOMOLOGY 41

districts to prepare progress and financial reports; field work in
calibrating equipment for Paris green pellet application by air-
planes and helicopter; assisting in pest control problems and in-
vestigating insecticide poisonings (heaviest in Miami, Tampa and
Orlando); testifying in conjunction with pest control and fly prob-
lems; locating, relocating, terminating, arranging for new construc-
tion or repairs and securing cooperators in the mosquito light
trapping program; collecting, developing techniques and arranging
for collection of mosquitoes in suspected encephalitis areas
(119,364 specimens details elsewhere), and generally serving as
a clearing house for information several times daily for people who
telephone or visit the regional or central offices with their insect
and pest problems.
Arthropod Identification Laboratory
The identification of arthopods of public health importance con-
tinues to be an increasing need for the citizens of Florida, both
from a personal standpoint and also in conjunction with wide-
spread control activities and research. The season just finished has
been near normal for the most part, with a sizable increase in the
encephalitis mosquito identification work. "Salt-Marsh Mosquito-
grams" have been published weekly to advise districts, counties
and others interested of the current status of salt-marsh mos-
quotes in 43 coastal locations spaced evently around the state. The
"Weekly Bird Baited Trap Collections" were published through
October 30 as an aid to encephalitis research, and then discon-
tinued. These traps, except for specific collections, are being re-
placed by more efficient and practical CDC traps.
Freshwater collections from 63 interior locations, Woodruff
Dam, North Bay and Shell Creek impoundments, have been con-
tinued on a routine or seasonal basis throughout the period of this
report.
As usual, the general public has kept this bureau abundantly
supplied with arthropods and miscellaneous pests for identifica-
tion. The technicians have rendered this service for so many years
that they are becoming proficient with many arthropod groups out-
side their normal field.
The identification and pooling of live mosquitoes collected for
encephalitis research in conjunction with work in the Jacksonville
SBH virus laboratory has increased substantially during this year
as a result of the improved trapping and CO, baiting techniques.
Due to the close relationship of certain species commonly found in
encephalitis collections and the fact that the anesthetized mos-
quitoes must be identified and preserved on ice within 30 minutes,
the work is extremely painstaking in comparison to routine salt-
marsh mosquito identification. At times of heavy collections the
laboratory is taxed to the limit.
The laboratory identified 9514 adult and 4 larval collections







42 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


containing a total of 680,046 adult and 49 larval specimens re-
spectively for the regular light trap program. Although the bird
baited trap program was gradually curtailed, as previously ex-
plained, a total of 12,892 specimens from 960 collections were
identified from samples taken in 24 counties from January to
December.
The identification, pooling and processing of live mosquitoes for
encephalitis virus studies was continued this year. A total of 794
collections from 729 CDC light trap nights, 56 bird-baited trap
nights and 9 sweep net collections containing 119,364 live mos-
quitoes (the dead discarded) was collected from 25 counties. The
mosquitoes collected were brought into the entomology laboratory
alive, identified and grouped into pools of usually 26 to 60 speci-
mens of a single species.
Eleven of the counties had no pools positive for encephalitis.
These counties and the number of mosquitoes identified were as
follows: Dade, 3155; Hardee, 2464; Highlands, 2359; Jackson, 196;
Levy, 4570; Okaloosa, 272; Orange, 1388; Osceola, 498; Putnam,
691; St. Johns, 121; and Wakulla, 142.
At the time this report goes to press 2170 pools have been
processed by the Jacksonville SBH virus laboratory, and 61 posi-
tive virus isolations in 14 counties obtained.
The counties with positive pools and the details concerning the
virus type, species of mosquito concerned, number of live mos-
quitoes identified, and geographical locations of each virus are pre-
sented in Table No. 5.
This is a cooperative project involving both Entomology and
the Jacksonville virus laboratory. (See section on Laboratory Serv-
ices elsewhere in this report.)
Midge Studies
During 1965 33 collections containing 2961 live chironomid
larvae were taken. Each larva was placed into an individual vial to
rear, and a total of 678 adults emerged. This work is a continuation
of a study of the life history and ecology of the Chironomidae of
Florida, supported by a research grant from the National Institutes
of Health.
Twenty collections, containing approximately 1150 insects,
chiefly Culicoides, were identified to species for the West Florida
Arthropod Research Laboratory.
The Midge Research Laboratory at Winter Haven, submitted
96 collections with more than 205,000 insects, mostly Glyptoteipes
paripes and Chaoborinae. These were identified by checking an
aliquot of each collection.
In addition, 21 collections of miscellaneous Diptera were identi-
fied for private individuals, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Quar-
antine Station at Miami, and the University of Florida.











TABLE 5

ARTHROPOD-BORNE VIRUS ISOLATIONS FROM MOSQUITOES, FLORIDA, 1965

COUNTIES

-5 o


Mosquito species 4 0 _
o n > oo


An. crucians. .................... 1B 6B 18 68 2B 16 15236
A. atlanticus ................... 3C 2C 2C 7C 3C 1C 3C 21 5650
A. infirmatus. ................. I C 1C 2 6017
A. taeniorhynchus. ............... 1C 1 2407
Aedes spp ................ ...... 1C 1 1547
C. nigripalpus .................. 1H 1H 1C 3 54608
1W 1B 1W
Cs. melanura ................... 1H 1H 2E 1E 1E 1C 2E 1E 16 7371
2H 1H
P. confinnis ............ ..... B 1 1654
Total positive pools by county ......... 6 3 1 1 2 19 1 4 2 1 9 1 8 3 61


Number of mosquitoes
identified by county ..............


Letter and number designate positive pools:
W = Western Encephalitis
E = Eastern Encephalitis
C = California Complex
B = Bunyamera Group (probably Tensaw)
H = Hart Park like virus


1825 1456 2744 2608 1500 16842


815 9420 3719 9066 3876 47519 1320


m

Z
-4
0


0
I-

0
0









44 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


TABLE 6

SUMMARY OF PEST CONTROL
REGISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT,
FLORIDA, 1961-65

Registration 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965
State Board of Health Licenses issued.............. 274 296 311 329 338
State Board of Health Change of Address Licenses issued.. 29 33 34 44 41
State Board of Health Licenses revoked* .......... .. 0 0 2 1 0
State Board of Health Licenses placed on probation* .... 1 0 0 3 2
Pest control certificates revoked, suspended or placed on
probation* ........ ... ...... .......... ...... ... . . 3 2
Employees' Identification Cards issued ............. 2,818 2,996 3,391 3,588 3,910
Employees' Change of Address Identification
Cards issued ............ ... ..... .. 136 145 160 237 283
Employees' Identification Cards revoked or stopped* o... 0 7 15 10 12
Employees' Identification Cards on probation* ........ 5 0 2 2 2
Thermal-Aerosol Certificates of Authorization renewed*. 12 9 8 6 5
Enforcement
Homeowner complaints investigated ............... 94 81 82** 83 92
Unlicensed illegal pest control operators investigated ... 35 21 11 19 31
Warrants filed against unlicensed operators .......... 15 5 5 9 6
Letters of warning issued to unlicensed operators ....... 10 9 4 9 14
Enforcement miles traveled (Jacksonville office only) .. 18,222 16,865 17,107 18,608 19,427
*By Pest Control Commission of Florida
**Corrected from 1963 report
Licenses, identification cards and thermal-aerosol certificates issued are based on 1964-65 licensing year. All
other entried are based on calendar year 1965.


PEST CONTROL
The bureau continued for the 18th consecutive year its respon-
sibility for licensing and issuing employee identification cards to
firms engaged in the business of pest control, and enforcing the law
and regulations governing this industry (see Table No. 6). In April
the State Legislature amended Chapter 482, formerly the Struc-
tural Pest Control Act, enacting the Pest Control Act and provid-
ing for a new category known as "lawn and ornamental pest con-
trol." Other significant changes effected by the act include increas-
ing the license fee; changing the name of the commission from
Structural to Pest Control Commission; increasing penalties for
violation of both the law and regulations; directing the board to
promulgate regulations for the protection of health and safety of
pest control employees and the general public, in conformity with
the act, by requiring that all pesticides be used only in accordance
with the registered label; and, at long last, fixing certain criteria for
certified operators "in charge of" pest control activities of a busi-
ness.
As required by law, public hearings were held on September 13
and November 12 to consider complete revision of Pest Control
Regulations. New regulations were adopted by the board on
December 5, filed with the Secretary of State on December 10, and
will become effective January 21, 1966.








ENTOMOLOGY


The number of regular licensees and employees' identification
cards issued increased by 2.7 and 8.9 per cent respectively over
1964. The number of investigations of property owners' complaints,
involving licensees, increased 10.8 per cent over 1964, while investi-
gations of unlicensed operators increased by 63.2 per cent. The
Pest Control Commission recorded 864 certificates in force and
issuance of 386 new certificates during the year.
ENTOMOLOGICAL RESEARCH CENTER
The supplementation of state funds by U. S. Public Health
Service research grants took a new administrative direction in
1965. This year was the first in which all entomological research
at this center was supported by a program-project grant (Al -
06587) from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious
Diseases. This broad program is entitled "The Natural History of
Mosquitoes" and is subdivided into seven projects, each of which is
treated separately in the following report. The one remaining in-
dividual Public Health Service research grant is CC 00101, en-
titled "The Biology of Salt Marsh Larvivorous Fishes" and its
progress is reported under Project 8.
PROJECT 1: BITING CHARACTERISTICS
This project will explore the biting behavior of mosquitoes by
performing precipitin tests on the blood meals of specimens col-
lected in areas where the land vertebrates are routinely censused.
It was started by collecting fresh vertebrate sera and preparing
antisera in rabbits and chickens. Antisera for the recognition of
the principal groups of Florida mammals were easily accumulated,
but a similar bank of antisera to identify the various orders of
birds has been delayed by difficulties in obtaining enough live
specimens of representative species. Precipitin tests which have
been made with the prepared antisera indicate that the techniques
being used are entirely satisfactory.
Progress in the field work has required the development of new
traps and methods of collecting. This knowledge will be especially
useful when it is necessary to obtain more specimens of the same
animals.
A special test of methods of storing mosquito blood meals has
been undertaken to study the following factors: time since feeding,
pinning versus sealing in gelatin capsules, various conditions of
temperature and humidity, and, especially, duration of storage.
PROJECT 2: POPULATION DYNAMICS
Comparisons were made between collections of mosquitoes
taken by non-attractant (truck trap, suction trap and power aspi-
rator) and attractant (New Jersey light trap, bait trap and human
landing rate) samplers. The data from the non-attractant samplers
were used as a base to establish levels of light activity. Compari-








46 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

sons with attractant methods showed that Aedes taeniorhynchus
and Psorophora confinnis prefer to fly in open areas while Aedes
infirmatus prefers wooded areas. Culex nigripalpus occurs freely in
both types of areas.
Ovarian examinations were made on all collected material. Most
C. nigripalpus and P. confinnis taken were found to be in egg stage
I, while most A. taeniorhynchus were in stage II. Stages III and
IV were taken in largest numbers by the power aspirator (as were
most blood-engorged), operated only by day over the ground-litter
resting places. This implies that little flying is done during these
stages when eggs are maturing after the blood meal. Truck traps
and suction traps took more gravid (stage V) females than at-
tractant traps, indicating that neither hosts nor light are especially
attractive to gravids. Gravids were taken primarily during the twi-
light periods, few being taken during the middle of the night, sug-
gesting a preference for oviposition at those times.
The parous rate among females did not appear to vary during
the night. However, larger numbers of nulliparous females of both
A. taeniorhynchus and C. nigripalpus were taken by the truck trap
and the landing rate station than by other methods. This suggests
that nullipars range more freely and attack more readily than
older females.
PROJECT 3: DISPERSAL CHARACTERISTICS
(a) A migratory species
The care and management of the nursery plots for salt-marsh
egg production has proceeded as usual. A very high egg deposition
had been maintained throughout most of the summer by scheduled
flooding the swales with brackish water. The electric pumping sys-
tem for water level control (in relation to attraction for oviposit-
ing females) has been improved by installation of automatic float
switches to control rain and tide seepage. The dikes at some points
need raising to prevent hurricane tides from flooding out egg
supply. The hurricane in September flooded out the egg supply but
a large brood of females has replaced it. Three towers have been
installed for raising nets to a height of 50 feet for exodus studies.
Also improvements were made in the heat-controlled rearing
trough. Attempts were made at controlling fiddler crabs, Uca Spp.,
and minnows in the plots. The greatest aid towards this end will
be an artesian well which will provide water of a lower salinity.
No actual experimentation with A. taeniorhynchus dispersal
was undertaken during the year because of lack of supervisory per-
sonnel. Analysis of data from an as-yet unreported exodus experi-
ment in mid-March 1964 yielded several meaningful conclusions.
This was primarily a technology-testing experiment and several
departures in exodus-recording technology were proven effective.
(1) Feeding a colored sugar-solution to the newly-emerged adults








ENTOMOLOGY


worked well and gave strong evidence that more of the fed than
the unfed take part in the twilight migratory exodus and that the
unfed took off earlier. (2) Time-lapse photography with newly
designed exodus cages succeeded in pin-pointing the twilight migra-
tory exodus to from 10 to 25 minutes after sunset. (3) Stationary
nets demonstrated their high selectivity for migrants and proved
that at wind speeds under three miles per hour the exodus is up-
wind while at wind speeds over three miles per hour the exodus is
down wind and over a narrower sector the greater the wind
velocity.
(b) A non-migratory species
In July and August of 1965, the dispersal and longevity of C.
nigripalpus, a non-migratory species, were studied by marking
reared specimens with radioactive phosphorus and externally ap-
plied dusts. Each different dust or combination of two dusts was
used for the releases made on two successive nights and was not
repeated within three weeks. An average of more than 3000 fe-
males with internal and external marking was released each night
for 36 days, and then, on the two days following, there were final
releases consisting of about 14,000 females marked only with
phosphorus and about 15,000 marked only with dust. Collections
to recover the marked mosquitoes were made with CDC miniature
light traps placed in pairs at half-mile intervals on three radii each
extending three miles from the release point.
Some of the findings are still tentative because the markings,
both internal and external, were not entirely satisfactory, and be-
cause the examination of the collections is not yet complete. The
released specimens spread at least three miles in each direction,
and the rate of dispersal, as shown by the day on which the col-
lecting sites first became positive for recoveries, was 0.57 miles
per day.
The problem with regard to the internal marking arose from
the use of too high concentrations of the radioisotope. The dosages
which were selected to offset a 29 per cent loss in radioactivity
observed when females oviposited in the laboratory, apparently
prevented normal development of the ovaries and delayed ovi-
position.
The problem with regard to the external marking was the exces-
sive loss of dust before recapture and the resulting possibility that,
in many cases, a mosquito had lost its second marking. On the
other hand, the amount of information provided by the external
markings justifies a thorough study of the best way to attach them
to a mosquito. It is through the recovery of specimens of known
age that longevity data are best obtained, and this knowledge will
lead to a better understanding of the infectivity of populations in
the field.







48 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


(c) Migratory versus non-migratory dispersal
Four large-scale investigations conducted in 1951-55 on the
dispersal of the migratory salt-marsh mosquito, Aedes taeniorhyn-
chus, were made the subject of a comparative study. There were
found to be marked differences in the displacement of the released
populations as well as in their maximum spread. There was also a
wide range in the rate of dispersal. Investigations of Culex tarsalis
and C. nigripalpus exhibited relatively slight displacement com-
pared to that of A. taeniorhynchus. An analysis of dispersal based
on the unmarked specimens in the recovery collections provided
strong evidence that A. taeniorhynchus ceased to migrate within a
week of adult emergence.
PROJECT 4: COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY
Investigations conducted during 1965 were directed towards
basic behavioral patterns of reproduction in Culex nigripalpus
(Florida's SLE vector) and how these corresponded or differed
from those of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Culex bahamen-
sis. The latter, an abundant species in the Florida Keys, was colo-
nized during the year and found to lend itself readily to laboratory
manipulation. Principal points of Culex studies were: insemination
of female and its effect on avidity for the blood meal, effect of in-
semination on oviposition and space and light requirements for
mating. Copulation was stimulated in refractory species by intro-
ducing another species which mates readily in flight under labora-
tory conditions. Tests with C. nigripalpus, using A. taeniorhynchus
as the "stimulating species," resulted in increased mating. Other
species were ineffective as stimulators for C. nigripalpus.
Diets were developed for rearing maximum numbers of C.
nigripalpus larvae with maximum synchrony of pupation. Late in
the fourth instar, it was found that three times the usual number
of larvae could be crowded together for radioisotope (p") marking
without appreciably reducing the synchrony of pupation. Larval
diets were also developed in relation to effective crowding for con-
servation of space and time in manipulation for: Culex pipiens
quinquefasciatus, C. bahamensis, Aedes sollicitans and A. vexans.
Survival studies on stored reserves at emergence were initiated
for wild grown A. taeniorhynchus. The investigation will be ex-
panded to include several other species. Seasonal vector sources
were studied in relation to mosquito population survival in the
field.
Further ethnological observations were made on the crab-hole
mosquito, Deinocerites cancer, in anticipation of early publication
of studies on this species made during the past several years.
A catalogue of the 35 mosquito species reared in this laboratory
was prepared, with an analysis of progress in the various steps lead-
ing to eventual colonization. The analysis stressed the points of
procedural weakness, with a view to leading as early as possible to
efficient colonization.







ENTOMOLOGY


PROJECT 5: REPRODUCTION
Comparative studies on the endocrine system of Aedes have
shown that the medial neurosecretory cells (mnc) and the corpora
allata are both essential for egg maturation. Transplantation of
corpora allata into a host mosquito from which the mnc had been
surgically removed or implantation of mnc into an allatectomized
female showed that the mnc and corpora allata were not inter-
changeable. Therefore, each must have some essential function un-
related to the other. The timing of mnc-ablation was as critical as
that of allatectomy. The percentage of taeniorhynchus and triseri-
atus which matured eggs after mnc-ablation increased when the
operation was performed on older females. Extirpation of the mnc
did not prevent digestion or absorption of the blood meal because
as much triglycerides were synthesized by mnc-ablated females as
by unoperated controls which were fed the same amount of blood.
Several species took notably larger blood meals from unoperated
animals. The lack of effect of mnc-ablation on protein ingestion
and on digestion in mosquitoes appears to differ from what is re-
ported for blowflies and other insects.
An anatomical study of the neuroendocrine system of Aedes is
underway utilizing both dissection and histological staining tech-
niques, specific for the neurosecretory cells. The objective is to
trace the axons of the mnc and observe their content of neuro-
secretory material in different animals and under controlled
physiological conditions.
In addition to its influence on egg maturation, the endocrine
system has been shown to control insemination. The age at which
a normal A. aegypti female becomes inseminated during mating has
been established and compared among four strains. Extirpation
and implantation experiments have demonstrated that the corpora
allata in some way regulate insemination.

PROJECT 6: GROWTH
In addition to temperature and food, larval development in
A. taeniorhynchus is affected by the photoperiod acting through an
endogenous 22-hour rhythm in terminating it as a synchronized
daily rhythm of pupation. A series of experiments were performed
to elucidate the photoperiod-related rhythm. It was found that
maximum synchronization of a brood or population occurred on a
"full ration," at a 12L:12D photoperiod, and between 29C and
31C; under these conditions there was but one day's burst of
pupation for the whole population. Under a variety of other condi-
tions, pupation occurred as a short to long series of daily burst or
"peaks."
The main findings concerning the complex of factors affecting
pupation were: (a) Minimum larval duration, at any constant







50 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

temperature, was the same on full or quarter rations, feeding at 24-
hour or two-hour intervals, in continuous darkness or on a 12L:12D
photoperiod, but was five to six hours longer in continuous light.
(b) Different photoperiods have only a slight effect on the first
three larval molts, as the intervals between successive molts vary
with temperature only. (c) Under continuous darkness or contin-
uous light and on full rations, only one long skewed peak of pupa-
tion occurs. (d) Under continuous darkness, at quarter ration, and
with feeding at two-hour intervals, pupation occurs in a series of
peaks at 22-hour intervals; this is the first demonstration in an in-
sect of an endogenous circadian rhythm expressed without environ-
mental cue or entraining. (e) At quarter ration and 12L:12D
photoperiod, three to four pupation peaks occur at 22-hour inter-
vals, and these occur even when all light is excluded from the
time pupation first appears.
The morphological and physiological status of mosquitoes at
emergence is the result of larval nurture. Studies to relate larval
diet, density, temperature and photoperiod to adult characteristics
at emergence showed that adults obtained from larvae reared under
12L: 12D on full ration but having different larval rearing tempera-
ture (24-34oC) were different in their physical and chemical
compositions, at the different temperatures and between emergence
peaks at the same temperature. Dry body weights, total fats,
glycogen, trehalose and autogeny were maximum at 30C, showing
an apparent correlation with the maximum synchronous develop-
ment of pupae. However, thorax length, wing length and hind
femur length were completely temperature dependent showing a
low decrease in their measurements from 24-34oC.
The effects of different temperatures on the physical and chem-
ical constitutions of the newly emerged adults show that tremen-
dous changes take place during the pupal stage. In males, total
lipids, glycogen and dry weights were maximum at 30C, but some
distinct differences in these constituents were observed at different
temperatures in the females.
PROJECT 7: ENERGETIC
For the isolation of total glycogen from animal tissues, most
investigators favor a modification of Pfluger's method. The pro-
cedure, however, yielded low and unreproducible results when ap-
plied to small quantities of glycogen. Therefore, each step of the
procedure was reinvestigated. Quantitative isolation of as little as
1 ug of glycogen has been achieved. Furthermore, although analyti-
cal methods exist for determination of small amounts of sugar,
glycogen and lipids, no methods appear to be available for separa-
tion of these materials when present in the same biological system.
For studies of the metabolism of glycogen and triglycerides in car-
bohydrate-fed insects, a method was devised to separate mixtures
of sugars, glycogen and lipids.







ENTOMOLOGY 51

Certain cold-blooded animals take meals in excess of their
body weight and, without obligation to maintain constant body
temperature, may convert a measurable portion of the chemical
energy in a single meal into caloric reserves. Mosquitoes appear to
be uniquely suited for such energy-balance studies. This problem
was investigated by determining the growth and decline of the total
glycogen and fat pools, produced at constant temperature by dif-
ferent quantities of sugar-fed individual mosquitoes. It was found
that the fat pool grows in proportion to the sugar meal, but that
glycogen reaches a maximum in 8-12 hours, independent of the
amount of sugar fed. The rate of fat synthesis was similar whether
sugar or calorically equivalent amount of protein was fed, but
glycogen was synthesized ten times faster from sugar than from
protein.
This information was used to study the role of the neurose-
cretory system in glycogen and triglyceride metabolism. It was
concluded that in the female fed sugar, the medial neurosecretory
cells of the brain restrict synthesis of glycogen from sugar and
stimulate fat synthesis. Surgical removal of these cells greatly
increased the storage capacity for glycogen at the expense of fat
storage.
In cold-blooded animals, the rate of many physiological pro-
cesses is temperature dependent. A measurable chemical reaction
was followed, i.e., the rate of synthesis of glycogen and fat from
a single dose of sugar, in a temperature range (10C to 350C)
where no excessive mortality was caused by heat or cold exposure.
The rate of fat synthesis was temperature dependent at all experi-
mental temperatures. Glycogen synthesis was temperature de-
pendent between 35 and 22.50, but independent of temperature
between 10 and 22.5.
In another experiment designed to study the effect of tempera-
ture on the composition of newly synthesized triglyceride fatty
acids, the results in mosquitoes did not support the hypothesis
that depot fat is more unsaturated when synthesized at low
temperatures.
PROJECT 8: BIOLOGY OF LARVIVOROUS FISHES
This project has to date concerned itself with the biology of
the larvivorus fishes of the salt marsh. Studies of the feeding habits
of these fishes, including their predation on mosquito larvae, have
pointed up the necessity to understand the whole ecology of the
salt marsh. Such an ecological understanding would, of course, not
only give the context for predation by fishes but would give the
context for mosquito larval feeding habits as well, and also depict
the environment within which mosquito parasites, diseases and
predators must also operate.
The current year's work therefore comprised (1) the launching
of a new study on the productivity of the high subtropical marsh,







52 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

(2) the bringing to near-completion of a study of the reproductive
biology of the larvivorous fish, Rivulus marmoratus, and (3) the
preparation of several manuscripts for publication on Rivulus and
on the food habits and reproductive cycles of other larvivorous
species.
WEST FLORIDA ARTHROPOD RESEARCH LABORATORY
Owing to delays in the building of new facilities not anticipated
when the 1964 Annual Report was prepared, this laboratory was
still in temporary quarter at the U. S. Navy Mine Defense Labora-
tory, Panama City, at the end of 1965. It is now anticipated that
the new facilities will not be ready until February 1966.
Although the limitation of temporary quarters and unfilled
staff positions were significant handicaps, some progress toward
the objectives of the laboratory was made during 1965 which are
discussed below:
DOG FLY STUDIES
During late 1964 and early 1965 personnel made an evaluation
study of the equipment and procedures used for the control of the
stable fly or dog fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, in West Florida. The
objective of this evaluation and of the research on this insect
during 1965 was to provide local authorities with more effective
tools for control of this pest at the earliest possible time.
This vicious, bloodsucking fly is prevalent on the shores of bays
and on the Gulf beaches in West Florida during late summer and
early fall, which is the principal tourist season in this area. A
meeting of all fly control districts was held at the laboratory on
January 28, 1965, at which time detailed recommendations were
made for improving the effectiveness of methods currently used
for control of this pest.
Extensive tests with insecticidal thermal aerosols (fogs) for
control of adult dog flies were initiated in April, 1965. These tests,
which utilized flies from the laboratory colony, quickly revealed
that the formulations of Dibrom used effectively for mosquito
control were not adequate for control of dog flies. Subsequently,
it was found that 31/2 ounces of Dibrom per gallon of diesel oil
applied in the standard operation of 40 gallons per hour, five
miles per hour or at 80 gallons per hour at 10 miles per hour, gave
good kills of adult dog flies. The data are shown in Table 7. This
information was made available to all dog fly control districts via
a memorandum issued by the Bureau of Entomology on June
1, 1965.
The standard method for control of dog flies in West Florida
during the past 20 years has been the spraying of DDT emulsion
on windows of marine grasses along the shores of the large bays.
These grass deposits comprise the principal known source of dog







ENTOMOLOGY 53

TABLE 7
RESULTS OF CAGE TESTS OF THERMAL AEROSOLS
OF DIBROM AGAINST THE DOG FLY,
STOMOXYS CALCITRANS, FOUR REPLICATIONS EACH TREATMENT,
FLORIDA, 1965

Formulation1 Volume Vehicle Per cent kill in
(Oz./gal.) (gol./hr.) Speed 24 hours
1-3/42 40 5 55
1-3/4 40 5 70
1-3/4 80 5 90
3-1/2 40 5 96
3-1/2 80 10 96
1Ounces of actual Dibrom per gallon of diesel oil.
2These tests conducted from 10:00 a.m. to 4:15 p.m.; all other tests conducted from 4:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m.


flies in this area. All available information indicates that DDT
emulsion spray is still effective in reducing the numbers of dog
flies produced in these grass deposits, if done according to recom-
mendations.
One of the planned objectives of the dog fly studies during
1965 was to evaluate the effects of rainfall on DDT sprays applied
to marine grass deposits. It was requested that officials of the con-
trol districts advise the laboratory when grass deposits suitable for
testing were found in their respective areas. But as the season
progressed, no grass deposits were reported for this purpose.
Therefore, laboratory personnel started surveys in August to find
suitable sites for these tests.
Between August 13 and October 15, field plots were estab-
lished five times either in natural grass deposits or in grass that
was gathered for this purpose. In each instance, hurricane or storm
tides destroyed or damaged the plots before significant data were
secured. Much of the misfortune encountered with this type of
testing in 1965 was due to inexperience with local conditions and
cooperative working arrangements with local authorities. With
experience gained in these areas during 1965, it is expected that
research on the spraying of grass deposits will be more fruitful
during 1966.
There is a desperate need for a fast, effective method of abate-
ment when hordes of adult dog flies suddenly invade many miles
of the Gulf resort beaches in West Florida. The airplane seems to
offer the only hope of providing a solution to the problem under
these circumstances. With this objective in mind, tests were begun
in August, 1965, to determine an effective aerial spray operation
against this pest.







54 ANNUAL REPORT,


Initial tests were conducted on the municipal airport at Mari-
anna, using caged flies from the laboratory colony. Dibrom was
applied in emulsion formulation with a 235 h.p. Piper Pawnee air-
plane. Caged flies were placed in two plots, one on an open grass
strip and one in an adjacent wooded area. Results of these tests
are shown in Table 8.
TABLE 8
RESULTS OF TESTS WITH AERIAL SPRAYS OF DIBROM
AGAINST CAGED ADULT DOG FLIES,
FLORIDA, 1965
Dosage/acre Per cent kill
Swath in Feet
Volume Ib. toxicant No. Tests Open Wooded
200 1 qt. .14 2 100 99
400 1 pt. .07 3 97 85


Owing to the high rate of kill in the open plot with the 400-foot
swath, this operation was tested against natural populations of
dog flies on the beaches at Panama City, one test in October and
one in November, 1965. In the first of these tests, conducted Octo-
ber 22, caged flies were used in addition to the natural population,
the latter being sampled with traps before and after treatment.
In this test, 88 per cent of the caged flies were killed by the treat-
ment but no valid data were obtained on the effect of the spray
against the natural population. Northerly winds bring dog flies to
the beaches along the Florida Panhandle and southerly winds
apparently cause the flies to disappear rather suddenly; presum-
ably the southerly winds take the flies back to the bays, or beyond,
which lie north of the beaches. Within a few hours after the tests,
both in October and in November, the wind changed from a north-
erly to a southerly direction and flies disappeared or were greatly
reduced in numbers, both in untreated plots and treated plots.
Therefore, no meaningful data were obtained from either of these
tests as to the effects of the spray on natural populations.
During July, 1965, the West Florida Arthropod Research Lab-
oratory was awarded a research contract by the U. S. Department
of Agriculture in the amount of $85,000 for conducting tests with
insecticides against dog flies. Owing to administrative delays in
authorizing employment of personnel and acquisition of equip-
ment, this contract work was not fully activated during 1965. It is
hoped that a full complement of personnel and required equip-
ment will be available to permit this project to reach maximum
activity during 1966.
In general, the dog fly problem was reported to be less severe
in 1965 than in any previous recent year. There were no significant


1965







ENTOMOLOGY


outbreaks of this pest on the Gulf beaches of Bay County until
October, which is past the peak tourist season. However, reports
from some of the other counties indicate that small outbreaks did
occur as early as August in some areas. There was a small outbreak
in August on the shores of St. Andrews Bay, but these flies never
reached the Gulf beaches in significant numbers.
The efforts of the fly control districts in following the recom-
mendations of the laboratory ranged from good to poor, some
reporting inadequate budgets for purchase of recommended equip-
ment. It is estimated that the overall budget for control of dog
flies in West Florida should be three times the present amount of
$36,000. Under these circumstances, it would be difficult to assess
the effects of the control effort on the generally favorable fly situa-
tion in 1965 prior to October.
The spraying of marine grass deposits was discontinued on or
about October 1, 1965, by the control districts. Investigation re-
vealed that it is "traditional" to terminate the spraying of the
marine grasses on October 1. The only major outbreak of dog flies
during the 1965 season commenced during the third week in Octo-
ber and continued into November. On October 25, one trap oper-
ated by this laboratory caught 543 dog flies on the Bay County
Gulf beaches in two hours 48 minutes.
It is not possible to state firmly that this major outbreak re-
sulted from the termination of control activities on October 1.
However, the weather was mild during October and the outbreak
started about two to three weeks after control operations ceased,
which is the normal development period for dog flies. This is strong
supportive evidence that this outbreak might have resulted from
the cessation of control activities, but no other data are available
to confirm this. This laboratory was not consulted about the term-
ination date for spraying marine grasses in 1965, but a memoran-
dum was issued through the Bureau of Entomology in late October
recommending that control operations continue at least until No-
vember in future years.
MOSQUITO STUDIES
During the summer of 1965 the first apparently bona fide re-
port of mosquito resistance to Malathion in Florida was received
from Lee County. An immediate collection of adults and larvae
from several areas in this county was made and the subsequent
tests conducted with these mosquitoes revealed a 10 to 30-fold
resistance in A. taeniorhynchus larvae.
Therefore, over a period of the next few months adult mosqui-
toes were collected from 20 different areas in eight different coun-
ties. Although the tests are still in progress, the results indicate
a definite resistance to Malathion on Sanibel and Captiva Islands
in Lee County, on the Keys in Sarasota County and possibly
on the mainland of Lee and Brevard Counties. Tests completed







56 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

to date do not indicate any significant change in susceptibility
of A. taeniorhynchus larvae from Indian River, Martin, Volusia
or Hillsborough Counties.
This past year considerable time was spent in an attempt to
establish laboratory colonies of A. taeniorhynchus and C. nigripal-
pus by means of techniques presently used at the Entomological
Research Center. Since A. taeniorhynchus is the most important
pest species and C. nigripalpus is the most important vector of St.
Louis encephalitis in Florida, establishment of colonies of these two
species is necessary to insure sufficient numbers of these mosquitoes
for research requirements.
There was a continuation of the study designed to further the
knowledge of particle size as it relates to insect control. Both
laboratory and field studies were conducted. The laboratory studies
are concerned with the deposition of particles on insects through
the use of a laboratory thermal aerosol generator developed as a
result of this study. Recent results have shown that the droplet
deposition on insects is affected by the type of oil used in produ-
cing the aerosol. The field studies are concerned with the effects
of wind, discharge rate, distance from discharge, and so forth, on
particle size as produced by commercial thermal aerosol gener-
ators. Recent studies have shown a reduction in the size and num-
ber of particles larger than five microns with distance and inside
screen cages of the type used in adulticide studies. Although it
has been demonstrated previously that the major portion of the
droplets in insecticidal fogs is made up of droplets smaller than
five microns, the relative importance of the large and small droplets
has yet to be proven.
Attempts were made at calibrating a rental aircraft for the
dispersal of concentrate sprays against adult mosquitoes. Much
time, effort and funds were expended traveling to and from Mari-
anna where the airplane used in this work is based. Efforts to
calibrate this plane were unsuccessful because the discharge rate
was not consistent between tests. This presumably was due to the
equipment on the airplane, which was not satisfactory for dis-
persing such small quantities as one-half to three ounces per acre.
It is expected that this laboratory will acquire its own airplane
soon. This will greatly facilitate the research and development
work with aerial sprays, including concentrate sprays.
Sand Fly Studies
Based upon successful control of sand fly (Culicoides furens)
larvae in small-plot tests at Vero Beach with coal tar creosote
emulsion (See 1964 Annual Report), this chemical was tested on
a larger scale against Culicoides in the Panama City area during
1965.
The creosote emulsion was applied with power equipment to
a bay shore, canal banks, and a small salt marsh at the rate of







ENTOMOLOGY 57

eight gallons of toxicant in a gross volume of 220 gallons per acre.
The test plots totaled 3.8 acres in size. Larval counts and light
trap collections of adults before and after treatment showed poor
results.
Since the dosage of creosote emulsion used in this test was
effective against C. furens at Vero Beach in similar habitats, it was
reasoned that the failure of this material in West Florida might
be due to a difference in species susceptibility and/or conditions
of the habitat. Accordingly, laboratory tests were conducted to
study effects of salinity, which appeared to be less in St. Andrews
Bay than in the Indian River, and species differences. Results of
the salinity tests are shown in Table 9.

TABLE 9
EFFECTS OF SALINITY ON THE KILL OF
CULICOIDES LARVAE WITH COAL TAR
CREOSOTE EMULSION, THREE REPLICATIONS EACH TREATMENT,
FLORIDA, 1965
Per cent larval mortality at
Toxicant Indicated water salinity (parts per thousand)
Concentration
(Parts per Million) 17.8 19.3 34.8
10 23 47 100
30 60 97 100
60 100 100 100
Check 0 0 0


In these tests, there was a definite trend toward a higher kill
with increased salinity at the lower dosages. Whether or not this
factor is as important under field conditions as these limited data
indicate remains to be confirmed.
In the species tests, larvae of C. furens were collected at Vero
Beach and compared with larvae of C. hollensis, the dominant
species in Bay County. Results showed no significant difference
in kills of the two species with the creosote emulsion; therefore,
species difference in susceptibility, at least between these two
dominant species, is not considered an important factor in the
results of the 1965 field tests. Species identification in these tests,
as in all tests of sand flies, were made by rearing samples of the
larvae to adult stage.
Coal tar creosote emulsion and other prospective larvicides will
be tested in small plots at Panama City during 1966.
Two light traps were operated during most of 1965 in the
Panama City area. Species collected were: C. hollensis, C. haema-







58 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


topotus, C. crepuscularis, C. villosipennis, C. stellifer, C. biqut-
tatus, C. piliferus, C. mellus and C. furens.

WINTER HAVEN MIDGE CONTROL LABORATORY
This year has been the most fruitful one as far as research is
concerned since the laboratory's inception nine years ago. Because
of the success achieved in controlling Glyptotendipes paripes Eds.
through the use of insecticides, more emphasis has been placed
on basic life history studies of chironomid midges. Tentative
studies were initiated in the area of pathology of chironomids as
a possible ultimate means of biologically controlling these insects.
Continuation of the limnological studies of lake hypereutrophica-
tion were carried out this past year aided by a PHS grant.
RESEARCH ON CONTROL OF LAKE PRODUCTIVITY
A. Nutrient Reduction by Water Hyacinth Harvest
As a continuation of the hyacinth experiments 10 commercial
swimming pools, 10 feet in diameter and 30 inches deep with vinyl
liners, were set up in the Lake Alfred-Minute Maid area. These
pools were used due to the ease of installation and maintenance
following the difficulties encountered with the use of polyethylene
sheets in ground excavations. Each pool was filled with water
from a shallow well, treated with four pounds of Milorganite and
20 grams of hydrated lime; three days later, four pounds of
hyacinths were introduced within a tygon-tubing ring encompass-
ing one square meter. The ring was used as visual aid in estimating
growth for harvesting purposes.
Three days after fertilization chironomid egg masses were
common in all polls (Chironomus fulvipilus and Chironomus at-
tenuatus). Seven days after fertilization Culex egg rafts and num-
bers of Culex larvae were noticed in all pools except those which
were rich green and full of bubbles. On this date several Gambusia
were added to each pool. Within three days no Culex larvae could
be found.
The hyacinths were harvested when they had multiplied to
fill the tygon ring in each pond. On July 28 one-half of the hya-
cinths were removed, drain-dried and weighed. Following further
air drying, aliquots of the hyacinths were analyzed for nitrogen
and potassium. The remaining dried hyacinths from the ponds
used as controls were ground in a Wiley Mill and returned to their
respective ponds so that the nutrient level in these ponds would
remain constant.
The harvest and removal of hyacinths apparently decreases
the hyacinth productivity. Temperature and/or light changes dur-
ing the season also may influence the plant productivity. Analysis
of the plant tissue indicate that the cessation of hyacinth growth








ENTOMOLOGY 59

was accomplished by the removal of only one-fifth of the nitrogen
and potassium originally introduced.
Starting in the middle of September, pools No. 1 and 3 each
received 10 gm. of Milorganite per day to stimulate nutrient addi-
tion to natural waters. This was an attempt to see to what extent
the hyacinths could remove nutrients from the water. So far there
has been no apparent effect, perhaps due to seasonal changes.
B. Nutrient Reduction by Aeration (to Keep Nutrients From Cycling
Within the Lake)
The aeration of Big Lake Tangerine was continued during this
period and Little Lake Tangerine and Lake St. Claire were con-
tinued as control studies.
The selected factors studied were pH, acidity, alkalinity and
productivity (light-dark bottle method) bi-weekly, conductivity
and DO weekly, and secchi and temperature three times a week.
The greatest difference appears to be in the dissolved oxygen distri-
bution; the DO is more equally distributed after aeration without
the extremes generally encountered in the other lakes. However,
the extremes were not as great for any factor in 1965 as in 1964 in
any of the three lakes.
CONTROL STUDIES
Through the cooperation of the officials of Polk County, the
realization of a successful midge or "blind mosquito" control pro-
gram is much closer. From the $30,000 allocated to the County
Arthropod Control Department to work in cooperation with this
laboratory for the development of a practical control program a
tremendous amount of data has been obtained. The following is a
brief summation of the more important findings.
Fenthion (Baytex), the one per cent sand granular formulation
which had been tested successfully in previous years, was found to
give an excellent initial larval control under a wide range of condi-
tions with no overt detrimental side effects to other aquatic organ-
isms. Unfortunately, due to apparent limnological changes in the
lakes during the summer and changes in the rate of development
of the midge G. paripes in the warmer seasons, the residual effec-
tiveness of the fenthion treatments varied a great deal depending
on the time of application. When the material was applied in
March, adult midge control was achieved for almost two and one-
half months. In June this same application gave adult midge con-
trol for less than one month. The October treatment applied at the
same dosage rate gave control for approximately a month and a
half. Thus, it now appears that for the cost involved, it is imprac-
tical to use fenthion as a midge larvicide in the summer and proba-
bly in the fall. In the spring the rate of development per genera-
tion of G. paripes is approximately 40-45 days, while in the sum-








60 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


mer it is less than 21 days. The bloom of blue green filamentous
algae during the summer months also appears to interfere with the
residual effectiveness of all larvicides.
Aerial applications of the granular insecticide were found to be
the most practical for large lakes. For smaller lakes or spot treat-
ments the material can be applied by a Buffalo turbine mounted
on a boat, although this method is not as accurate as the aerial
one.
By carefully marking the lake for the plane's swaths, the
amount of formulated insecticide necessary to achieve satisfactory
midge control can be reduced to ten pounds per acre from the
original recommendations of 20-25 pounds per acre. This cut seems
to shorten the residual effectiveness of fenthion by about a week.
Further reductions in the amount of toxicant used can be made in
some lakes and still maintain satisfactory midge control by treat-
ing only those portions of the lake bottom which breed midge
larvae in large numbers. This type of treatment calls for a careful
larval survey of each lake and an adequate marking system which
can be easily distinguishable from the air. In most of the lakes in
Polk County, unfortunately, the larvae are found breeding in all
the sand and sandy-muck bottom areas of the lake; therefore, it
was found, in many such cases, less expensive to treat the entire
body of water than to try to mark out and treat only the breeding
areas of the lake. It was also found that treating groups of inter-
connected lakes at one time did not greatly prolong midge repopu-
lation. All the lakes in this area breed G. paripes to some extent
and it would be impractical to try and treat all the lakes just be-
cause they might serve as a possible source of midges for re-infesta-
tion.
Abate (Am. Cy. 52, 160) was applied to four lakes during the
year; it gave excellent control of G. paripes larvae at dosages as
low as 0.05 pounds per acre of the technical material. This com-
pound was applied in a one per cent sand granular formulation.
There were no detrimental side effects to the aquatic biota from
these lake treatments with Abate. This chemical has not been given
federal clearance for use as a midge larvicide at this time.
A series of toxicological studies were conducted on various
aquatic organisms in the laboratory with fenthion and Abate. It
was found that neither fenthion nor Abate were toxic to fish at a
dosage rate necessary to control the larvae of the chironomid midge
G. paripes.
Fenthion was toxic to shrimp and amphipods at a dosage of 11
ppb which is below the level for chironomid larvae however, in
the field enough of the shrimp and amphipods were able to survive
the fenthion applications to repopulate the lakes. Microcrustacea
and protozoa were not affected by the dosage rate required to con-
trol midge larvae.








ENTOMOLOGY 61

Abate at 0.1 ppm was safe to all of the organisms tested. In the
field there was no notice of mortality of any aquatic organisms such
as Odonata, copepods, ostracods, Chaoborus or shrimp following a
0.25 pound per acre technical Abate treatment to control G.
paripes larvae.
Lake treatments with BHC in a wettable powder formulation
applied at the rate of 1.25 pounds per acre gave fair control of
midge larvae in one lake and very poor control in another. Since
residues of this compound were detected in the flesh of fish follow-
ing analysis, no further work was carried out on this chemical. A
new granular formulation of one per cent EPN gave good initial
larval control of G. paripes applied at the rate of 20 pounds per
acre, but it did not have the residual effectiveness of fenthion. It
will serve as a good back-up larvicide.
Three new larvicides were tested: Malathion, Paris green and
Dow M-2854. In the case of Paris green and Dow M-2854, a new
formulation must be developed which will carry the chemical to the
lake bottom. All preliminary tests with these three chemicals indi-
cate that they are good midge larvicides. Toxicity studies will have
to be run on them before being tried in the field.
Aerial fogging tests were conducted with Malathion as a midge
adulticide. It was a complete success. In the early morning hours
control was achieved within one hour. When the material was
applied at 11 a.m., the rate of knockdown was slower but a
hundred per cent control was achieved within three hours.
A great deal of time and effort was spent this year developing
the use of low volume Malathion sprays as a midge adulticide. It
was found that aerial applications of low volume concentrate sprays
of Malathion when applied at the rate of two and four ounces per
acre gave excellent control of G. paripes adults. At the four-ounce
dosage rate, control was achieved within three hours and the resi-
dual effect of the spray gave control for four days. At the two-
ounce dosage rate, it took almost six hours to achieve a satisfactory
kill; however, the residual effect usually lasted three days. It ap-
pears that there is no difference in the initial kill when one, two
or three swaths are laid down; however, there are indications that
the residual action is slightly less with one swath. Of the aquatic
organisms tested against the four-ounce dosage rate, none were
significantly affected when the concentration was approximately
0.14 ppm. There was complete mortality of mosquito larvae and
good control of midge larvae, but no mortality of the mosquito
pupae at a concentration of 0.5 and 1.6 ppm of Malathion. In the
field following the sprays, there was mortality of Hippelates eye
gnats, muscoid flies, small beetles and wasps.
Calibration studies of low volume sprays indicate that four tee
jet nozzles (800067 at 40 psi flown at a height of 40 feet) gave a
slightly better spray pattern than two mini-spin nozzles (0.29 and








62 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


0.37) at the same pressure and flown at the same height. With tee
jet nozzles a single swath width was about 320 feet in a cross wind
of 4-5 mph. In a cross wind of 10 mph, the effective swath was
almost 400 feet when the material was applied by mini-spin noz-
zles. There appears to be little change in the spray pattern when
the pressure was raised from 40-48 psi or when the plane was flown
at a height of 20 or 40 feet.
All the midge control research was done in cooperation with
the Polk County Arthropod Control Department.
BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF GLYPTOTENDIPES PARIPES
Five funnel-type emergence traps were continued in Lake St.
Claire, two each in Big and Little Lake Tangerine to estimate daily
and seasonal abundance, and in Lake St. Claire emergence by
depth and bottom type. Seasonally, spring and fall contained the
greatest emergences followed by summer and then winter. For
specific areas or lakes there are exceptions; for example, the traps
in Little Lake Tangerine contained their greatest numbers for one
month in January 1965. These studies continue to show bottom
types containing predominantly sand and depths intermediate in
the bottom profile are most productive of G. paripes.
A study comparing moon age with daily catches indicates most
catches occurred during the last quarter and over the new moon
period. The fewest catches were recorded the week prior to full
moon.
The use of 10 egg traps in Little Lake Tangerine was con-
tinued to study daily, seasonal and depth patterns. The daily and
seasonal patterns related to the emergence studies. The study of
depth distribution showed the greatest majority of egg masses were
recovered within 50 feet of the shoreline.
Larval samples taken in conjunction with the emergence traps
related the larval numbers to emergence periods.
Dissolved oxygen studies were continued to see if low DO was
related to a migration of larvae which was noted in Lake Cannon
several years ago. Since in the area of study no low DO was found,
and no large number of larvae was found in the emergence traps,
this aspect could not be proved nor disproved.
Throughout this year the research project on the relationship
between the plankton available in the lake to that found in the gut
of chironomid larvae was carried out. The results of these studies
indicate that basically there is a definite correlation between the
kind and amount of plankton available in the lake to that found
in the gut of midges throughout the year. The two main factors
which seem to influence high productivity of G. paripes is a plenti-
ful supply of algae and a sandy bottom lake necessary for tube
building.







ENTOMOLOGY 63

Laboratory and field rearing experiments were tried with vari-
ous degrees of success with the midge. Chironomus holoprasinatus,
which was formerly called C. fulvipilus. Life history studies indi-
cate that this species can complete its development within a two-
week period under favorable conditions. It is an algal tube builder
and thus requires no substrate to sustain itself. It is found com-
monly in small temporary pools or in artificial containers in con-
junction with Culex larvae.
Although the pathology studies were initiated last January,
they have been neglected throughout the year due to changes in
personnel. A partial survey has been made of the diseases and
parasites endemic to the local midge population. Two new species
of mermethid worms or nematods were identified from G. paripes
larvae. Microsporidia of the genera Thelohania and Stempellia
were isolated from midge larvae. Both fungus and bacterial infec-
tions have been observed in the larvae. At present an attempt is
being made to isolate and identify the different types of bacterial
diseases which are commonly found in midges.







64 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

BUREAU OF FINANCE AND ACCOUNTS

FRED R. RAGLAND, B.S.
Director
PAUL R. TIDWELL, B.B.A.
Assistant Director
Major responsibility rests with this bureau for the business and
financial management of the agency, and includes: accounting,
budgeting, purchasing, property control, duplicating services, mail,
shipping, receiving, automobile control and assignment and build-
ings and grounds maintenance. The business and financial man-
agement requires a close working relationship with the State
Board of Health (SBH) program directors in planning maximum
utilization of funds that have been provided. This means sound
budget preparation of the various health programs designed to
cover a future period of time. Once the funds are provided and
properly budgeted, then a logical system of accounting for these
funds and issuance of reports concerning their expenditure is
necessary. This function, along with the dissemination of proper
budget control information, is accomplished by the bureau. Some-
times this activity becomes quite involved due to the complexity of
the various sources of funds: federal, state, county, private, etc.
Each of these fund sources bears its own set of rules, laws and reg-
ulations as to the administration of expenditure of the money.
The fiscal year ended June 30, 1965, was the second year of
the 1963-65 biennium for which the 1963 Legislature made avail-
able to the agency state funds through the General Appropriations
Act. These appropriations were generally based upon maintaining
present programs at the same level.
Total program expenditures for fiscal year ended June 30, 1965,
amounted to $32,500,000; this was $4,700,000 over the previous
fiscal year. This increase can be accounted for in three program
areas. Half of it was in the Indigent Hospital Program due to the
Hospitalization for Public Assistance Recipients and Medical
Assistance for the Aged. County health department (CHD) ex-
penditures accounted for one-fourth of the increase and finally, the
general increased cost of ongoing programs and some increase in
special grants and donations accounted for the remainder.
It is important to note the ever-increasing number of special
projects and grants from the federal agencies. The most significant
of these continues to be the "best efforts" contract for eradication
of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This contract is now at a level of
about $3 million per year. The duration of the project will be
approximately five years.
At the close of fiscal year June 30, 1965, the number of state-
owned and operated automobiles was 107. These were driven ap-








FINANCE AND ACCOUNTS 65

proximately 1,650,000 miles during the year. In addition, the
agency owned 31 trucks or special-purpose vehicles. These units
traveled approximately 235,000 miles during the year. Assignment
and use of all vehicles is continually reviewed to insure that they
are used in the most effective and economical manner in carrying
out the agency's travel responsibilities. During 1965, 23 old vehicles
were traded and 29 new units acquired.
The bureau director and his staff continue to give assistance to
the overall planning of the health department activities, partic-
ularly in the area of coordinating financial plans.
PURCHASING AND PROPERTY SECTION
The purchasing section is responsible for the procurement of
the agency's supplies, equipment and services. Purchases are made
in accordance with rules and regulations issued by the State Pur-
chasing Commission covering the solicitation of bids, advertising
for bids under certain conditions, printing regulations, et cetera.
Requests for equipment and supplies are reviewed by the purchas-
ing department and purchases are made under contracts and maxi-
mum price regulations negotiated by the State Purchasing Com-
mission where applicable. The purchasing department continues to
cooperate with other state agencies in the exchange of information
pertaining to contracts for volume purchases which enable this
agency to purchase certain items under contracts negotiated by
other state agencies and to arrange for purchases under our con-
tracts by others. The property division of this section carries out
the responsibility of recording, marking and inventorying of all
property owned by this agency (desks, chairs, office equipment,
and scientific equipment). The state statutes prescribe records that
must be maintained and the frequency of physical inventories.
During 1965 the purchasing office issued 4312 separate purchase
orders which totaled in excess of $1,400,000. CHDs normally handle
purchases locally within their organizational framework; however,
their purchasing procedures must also conform to the Florida
Statutes governing purchases, such as obtaining bids and advertis-
ing for bids where required. The following of good business prac-
tices in procuring materials through competitive bids is advocated.
The purchasing agent at the SBH assists the CHD wherever pos-
sible with their purchasing requirement.
Property Control
The responsibility of this section is to see that capital outlay
items are assigned property numbers, maintain records, process
annual inventories on over 170 locations and handle fire insurance
on buildings and contents.
A total of 650 new pieces of equipment valued at $131,485 was
added to the inventory. Four small buildings were completed
valued at $19,000.








66 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


Property values reflected by the SBH Plant Ledger as of June
30, 1965, were as follows:
Real property ........................ ................ $2,856,042
Furniture and equipment............................... 1,385,546
Automotive equipment and trailers ........... 291,684
Books and films ........................................ 343,784

Total ......... ...... .................$4,877,056
Control of property and maintenance of records as required by
Florida Statutes continues to be a job of considerable magnitude,
not only because of the dollar increase, but as the SBH continues
to grow and departments acquire new quarters, property cards
have to be changed or corrected for insurance purposes on any
change of location.
The importance of correct maintenance and control of property
is continually stressed within the agency to insure that the records
reflect the current status of all property items owned by this
agency.
Insurance
Fire insurance on buildings and contents is carried in the State
Fire Insurance Fund under the supervision of the State Fire In-
surance Commission. Coverage on boilers and heating equipment is
carried in a master policy supervised in the office of the State Fire
Insurance Commissioner. Scientific equipment, dental equipment
and X-ray equipment in various mobile units is insured under a
"Floater" or "Transportation" policy. Automobiles, trucks and
other special-purpose motor vehicles owned by this agency are
covered by a fleet policy to include public liability, property dam-
age, fire, theft and comprehensive. The agency acts as self-insurors
for collision damage. Boats and outboard motors owned by the
agency are insured under marine policies to include public liability
and property damage as well as protection against damage or loss
of the boats and motors. Other major insurance coverages include:
money and securities, broad form, loss inside and outside of
premises; position schedule bond for narcotic inspectors; public em-
ployees honesty blanket position; Workmen's Compensation.
During 1965 we were notified by the insurance companies that
claims amounting to $16,843.30 were settled under the agency's
fleet automobile liability policies. This includes claims for acci-
dents during 1964 and 1965 which were settled during 1965, and
includes accidents involving vehicles on loan from the Federal Gov-
ernment for use in the Aedes aegypti Eradication Program, as well
as SBH vehicles. Damages to SBH vehicles caused by others were
settled for $2,044.17. Claims amounting to $2,730.27 for damages
to SBH and Federal vehicles under the Comprehensive clause were
paid by the insurance company. The SBH as self-insuror for dam-







FINANCE AND ACCOUNTS


ages caused by collision paid $1,469.38 for repairs. This figure is
less than the cost of carrying collision coverage in the fleet automo-
bile policy.
BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES SECTION
Maintenance During the year 762 work requests were re-
ceived of which 712 were completed. Forty of the uncompleted
requests are active and in process of completion; the remaining
10 have been cancelled or are being held in abeyance. In consum-
mating this work, $15,220.40 was expended in labor and materials;
an additional $1,525.50 was expended in labor and material to
provide preventive maintenance and to honor verbal requests for
assistance.
Some of the major accomplishments of the year were: almost
complete waterproofing and caulking of the exterior of the build-
ings along with recovering a large portion of the painted surfaces.
About one-half of the interiors have been refinished in a standard-
ized color; the media and wash rooms have been completely
modernized with shelving, sinks and specialty area setups. Many
additional electrical branch circuits were established for both the
laboratories and Vital Statistics, plus the updating of 39 ceiling
light fixtures. In addition, all fluorescent lighting fixture tubes
were replaced during the year. The preventive maintenance pro-
gram is not in full effect because of limited staff. Since the position
of boiler operator-repairman was filled in mid-December, boiler
outage complaints have been nil.
Shipping and Receiving Lack of operating and storage space
handicap this section severely. Business transactions continue to
increase at an accelerated pace over that of previous years. The
following figures illustrate some of the work performed in this sec-
tion: 300 orders filled for regional laboratories, 3500 for private
physicians, 2500 for CHDs and 300 for tuberculosis hospitals.
Fifteen hundred milk and water boxes were repacked with empty
cartons and return shipped; 6500 items were picked up within the
agency, wrapped and mailed; more than 400 vehicle trips were
made to local bus stations for pickup and delivery service; 5000
drug and 4115 form requests were received and filled, and 3600 rail-
way, truck and express waybills were executed during the year.
Mailing This office is also severely handicapped by lack of
space and reserve manpower. The following quantities of mail were
handled during the year: 1,078,456 pieces of outgoing and 489,340
pieces of incoming mail as well as 182,500 pieces of interoffice mail.
The annual postage meter expenditure was approximately $70,000.
Ditto Room The output of this activity is also indicative of
the large population increase within the state. In general, the out-







68 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


put in this section has been increased because of the necessity of
zip coding, plus a purge of the addressee lists conducted during
the year. Part-time training of a reserve operator is being con-
ducted. A modern Xerox dry copy machine was installed during
the year. The number of plates embossed on the graphotype ma-
chine was 12,870; total addressograph impressions were 642,058
and the total number of Health Notes addressed and mailed was
177,319.
Duplicating The three, 14 year old offset machines, con-
tinue to bear the brunt of the shop work. This department con-
tinues to perform the duty of stocking the bulk paper stationery.
The output during the past year consisted of: 2117 job requisitions
for a total charge of $38,635.89. The total machine impressions
were 8,980,426. The decrease in output reflects the influence
created by greater use of contractual printing firms for manu-
scripts, and other printing.
Security The work of the Security Force continues at about
the level reported in 1964 with a slight increase in the number of
court cases requiring testimony of a security officer.

FISCAL SECTION
The essential function of this section is the determination of
the legality and propriety of payments under the various programs
of the agency, processing all bills and vouchers for payment, the
financial record keeping and preparation of required financial
reports.
The financial transactions of the SBH for the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1965, as reflected by the records of the bureau, are pre-
sented in a condensed form at the end of this section. A detailed
financial report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1965, has been
prepared and distributed to the Governor, members of the Board
of Health and all bureaus, divisions and CHDs.
The funds received (or appropriated) for the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1965, were from the following sources:
State appropriations ............................$ 9,367,955.00 28.6%
From local agencies for county
health units .................................... 8,310,506.30 25.4%
From federal grants-in-aid ............. 3,619,046.91 11.1%
From research grants .......................... 2,308,306.80 7.1%
From local and state agencies -
hospital services for the indigent.. 8,627,265.62 26.2%
From state and federal for building .. 515,693.81 1.6%


$32,748,774.44 100.0%







FINANCE AND ACCOUNTS 69

The expenditures by the SBH, in summary, were for:
Personal services (salaries and
other personal services) ................$15,337,358.91 47.1%
Contractual services (repairs,
utilities, travel expense,
hospitalization) ...................... 13,113,058.85 40.2%
Commodities (office, medical,
laboratory, and mosquito
control supplies) ...................... 1,422,293.35 4.4%
Current charges (rent, insurance,
registrar fees) .......................... 544,253.92 1.7%
Capital outlay (equipment and
fixed assets) .................................... 603,308.78 1.8%
Grants to counties and mosquito
districts ......................................... 1,425,612.46 4.4%
Miscellaneous (education aids and
subsidies) ...................................... 144,409.16 .4%

$32,590,295.43 100.0%
In addition to funds reported in the annual financial report
and summarized above, certain other funds and services were made
available by the USPHS to the activities of the Board but were
not paid directly to the SBH. They include USPHS personnel on
loan to the Board in the Bureaus of Preventable Diseases and
Special Health Services.
Fiscal operation followed a budget plan of 189 departmental
budgets. These budgets were periodically revised as required.




SUMMARY OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS AND BALANCES
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1965


FROM STATE APPROPRIATIONS

General Public Health:
Salaries .............................. $ 2,971,560.00
Other personal services. ................... 10,250.00
Expenses ................................. 1,158,820.00
Operating capital outlay. ................ .. 59,410.00
Grants to localities ................... ...... 1,650,000.00
Encephalitis research and control ............ 100,000.00
Purchase of polio and combined vaccines ......... 125,000.00
Dental scholarships ................... ... .. 40,000.00
Medical scholarships ................... .... 40,000.00








70 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


Air pollution control . . .
Mental health council . .
Hospital services for the indigent. .
Deficiency fund . . .
County health units . . .


Total state appropriations . . . .


81,060.00
S. 149,360.00
S. 918,900.00
S. 28,595.00
. 2,035,000.00

.. $ 9,367,955.00


FROM FEDERAL GRANTS-IN-AID

Public Health Service:


General health.......
Chronic illness and care
Venereal disease .
Tuberculosis control. .
Heart disease .......
Cancer control ......
Mental health.......
Water pollution . .
Radiological health .
Mental health planning.
Cuban health services..
Dental health.......


............

......eeo....
.........ee..
.....ee.....
of.aged. e..e .


......e.e...
............
........o...
............
............
............


Children's Bureau:
Maternal and child health. . . . .

Total federal grants-in-aid . . .


305,954.00
398,035.40
166,964.53
69,957.00
184,063.00
94,720.00
177,423.00
121,698.00
57,740.00
99,702.26
726,027.30
10,000.00


1,206,762.42

. $ 3,619,046.91


FROM GRANTS AND DONATIONS .. ............ $ 2,308,306.80


FROM LOCAL AGENCIES FOR COUNTY
HEALTH UNITS ...................


........$ 8,310,506.30


FROM HOSPITAL SERVICES FOR INDIGENT
Local sources ........................... $ 338,570.11
State welfare board ....................... 8,288,695.51

Total hospital services for indigent ......... .$ 8,627,265.62


FROM STATE AND FEDERAL FOR BUILDINGS ....... $ 515,693.81

TOTAL RECEIPTS ..................... $32,748,774.44


I f. If. I..








FINANCE AND ACCOUNTS


Balance July 1, 1964, $4,993,356.58 (Less
expired appropriation of $2,141.14) . . ... $ 4,991,215.44

Total receipts and balances . . . ..... $37,739,989.88





DISBURSEMENTS


OPERATING EXPENSES

Personal services:
Salaries................................
Other personal services-individual .........
Other personal services-other . . .


Contractual services:
Travel expenses, including subsistence and lodging ..
Communication and transportation of things . .
Utilities .............................
Repairs and maintenance . . . . .
General printing and reproduction services . .
Subsistence and support of persons . . ..
Other contractual services . . . . .

Commodities:
Bedding, clothing and other textile products . .
Building and construction material and supplies .
Coal, fuel oil and other heating supplies . .
Educational, medical, scientific and mosquito
control supplies and materials . . . .
Maintenance materials and supplies. . . .
Motor fuel and lubricants . . . . .
Office materials and supplies . . . .
Other material and supplies. . . . .

Current charges:


Insurance and surety bonds. . . . .
Rental of buildings ................... ..
Rental of equipment ....................
Other current charges and obligations . .
Merit System ........................

Total operating expenses . . ..


.... $14,623,976.03
.... 548,114.42
.... 165,268.46


1,505,190.97
448,022.19
164,396.05
145,760.57
104,817.48
10,535,148.80
209,722.79


3,612.36
9,689.00
8,724.31

1,029,967.56
102,976.46
57,203.49
202,578.21
7,541.96


73,930.68
.. 158,553.43
.. 101,042.32
. 185,612.37
25,115.12

. $30,416,965.03








72 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965

CAPITAL EXPENSES
Books ................................ $
Buildings and fixed equipment ...............
Educational, medical, scientific and mosquito


con
Motor
Motor
Office
Other


10,414.95
246,207.30


trol equipment ..................... 152,772.31
vehicles-passenger . . . ..... 64,739.99
vehicles-other ................... 1,037.80
furniture and equipment ...... . .. .. 126,008.52
capital outlay ...................... 2,127.91

Total capital expense . . . ... ..$ 603,308.78


GRANTS, SUBSIDIES AND CONTRIBUTIONS
Grants to counties and mosquito control districts . $ 1,425,612.46
Other educational aids and subsidies .. . ... 144,409.16

Total grants, subsidies and contributions . $ 1,570,021.62

Total program expenses. . . . ... $32,590,295.43


NON-OPERATING DISBURSEMENTS
Transfers ..............................$ 526,704.31
Refunds .............................. 80,162.17

Total non-operating disbursements . .... $ 606,866.48

Total disbursements . . . .... $33,197,161.91

Balance June 30, 1965 ..................... $ 4,542,827.97

Total disbursements and balances. . . ... $37,739,989.88








FINANCE AND ACCOUNTS


SCHEDULE OF EXPENSES
BY PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAM ACTIVITY


Health services to mothers, infants, preschool and school
children .................... .......... $ 4,469,000.00
Statewide venereal disease control, diagnosis and
referral of infections venereal disease patients
to treatment clinics-also operation of program ....... 1,228,500.00
Mosquito and pest control programs, including pest
control law enforcement. . . . ..... 4,551,569.50
Indigent hospitalization . . . . . ... 9,900,170.02
Statewide sanitary engineering and environment sanitation 2,596,923.17
Statewide cancer control program . . . ..... 656,000.00
Statewide tuberculosis control, X-ray survey and
follow-up work ........... ..... ..... ..... .. 1,228,000.00
Mental health program .. ...................... 1,462,600.00
Statewide narcotic drug, medical practice law enforcement. 229,426.99
Chronic illness and care of the aged . . ..... 1,594,600.00
Heart disease program.. ...................... 492,200.00
Other health programs and administration . . ... 4,181,305.75

Total expenses .......................... $32,590,295.43


SCHEDULE OF EXPENSES
BY FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY


General public health (also includes miscellaneous
health activities and training). . . . . .
Vital statistics .............................
Health education ................... ........
Sanitary engineering .........................
Entomology and mosquito control. . . . . .
Tuberculosis control ..........................
Laboratories ...............................
Preventable disease (excluding tuberculosis control) . .
Mental health..............................
Narcotics ................................
Maternal and child health ................... ..
Hospital Service for the indigent. ................
Local health service..........................
Chronic diseases ............................
County health units ..........................
Building construction . . . ..... . ...

Total expenses ......................


$ 2,435,801.93
407,325.63
99,302.84
667,536.74
3,457,162.71
325,720.74
934,328.04
954,870.25
412,978.72
182,710.60
631,946.84
9,900,170.02
476,299.31
528,393.87
10,944,067.96
231,679.23

$32,590,295.43










TABLE 10

FUNDS RECEIVED BY COUNTY HEALTH UNITS FROM STATE BOARD OF HEALTH AND

LOCAL SOURCES FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1965


STATE BOARD OF HEALTH LOCAL FUNDS

COUNTY Total Board
Funds Total State Federal Total of County Board of Fees and
Commis- Public Cities Miscella-
sioners Instruction neous

Alachua ............................. $ 237,759 $ 82,234 $ 70,278 $ 11,956 $ 155,525 $ 118,227 $ 6,000 $ 22,220 $ 9,078
Baker .............................. 22,560 9,573 9,573 12,987 12,625 ........ ......... 362
Bay ...... ... ......................... 102,319 49,316 46,135 3,181 53,003 50,383 ........ .... .... 2,620
Bradford .......... ....... ........... 36,101 15,417 15,417 20,684 15,374 2,800 2,400 110
Brevard ......... ..................... .. 278,854 78,028 73,548 4,480 200,826 188,212 ...... ........ 12,614
Broward. ............... .............. 566,018 137,979 133,899 4,080 428,039 420,712 ...... 2,740 4,587
Calhoun ............................. 23,766 10,958 10,958 ........ 12,808 11,000 600 ..... 1,208
Charlotte. ................... ......... 71,586 21,185 21,185 ..... 50,401 43,811 1,000 ... 5,590
Citrus. .............................. 34,495 20,629 20,629 .... 13,866 9,961 3,600 .. 305
Clay............ ....... .... ......... 51,995 21,492 21,492 ........ 30,503 27,973 ........ 2,400 130
Collier.............................. 85,586 35,112 35,112 ........ 50,474 44,082 ........ ........ 6,392
Columbia....................... .......... 52,049 23,746 23,746 ....... 28,303 26,786 ........ ........ 1,517
Dade .................... .. ......... 1,992,526 354,436 182,572 171,864 1,638,090 1,510,375 ....... ........ 127,715
DeSoto ............................ 41,303 22,933 22,933 ........ 18,370 16,980 ........ ........ 1,390
Dixie .............. .... .......... 19,431 7,151 7,151 ........ 12,280 9,670 2,600 ... 10
Duval ................. ............ 336,397 156,577 102,361 54,216 179,820 134,470 ........ 3,960 41,390
Escombia .................. .......... 332,430 103,210 85,880 17,330 229,220 162,202 ... 25,000 42,018
Flagler .......... ......... .......... 20,766 8,836 8,836 ........ 11,930 11,747 ............... 183
Franklin ............. .............. 26,985 9,853 9,853 ........ 17,132 17,068 ........ .. ........ 64
Gadsden ................ ............ 78,498 38,872 38,872 ....... 39,626 34,226 3,930 1,000 470
Gilchrist............................... 14,831 5,795 5,795 ........ 9,036 4,620 4,300 ........ 116
Glades ................................ 16,770 4,188 4,188 ....... 12,582 12,491 ........ ........ 91
Gulf. ................................ 40,155 14,263 14,263 ........ 25,892 22,714 3,000 .. ... 178
Hamilton ......... .... .. .. ........... 24,849 11,008 11,008 ........ 13,841 12,167 ........ 1,365 309
Hardee ............... .... .. ........ 46,907 15,815 15,815 ........ 31,092 28,934 500 .... .. 1,658
Hendry ....... ........... .......... .. 51,375 13,715 13,715 ........ 37,660 19,173 ........ ........ 18,487
Hernando. ............................. 26,228 11,549 11,549 ....... 14,679 7,156 7,000 .. .. 523
Highlands ......... .... .. .. .......... 63,477 33,180 33,180 ........ 30,297 29,314 ..... .......... 983
Hillsborough. ............ ............... 1,141,362 176,071 81,201 94,870 965,291 756,134 ...... ........ 209,157
Holmes ................... ......... 29,894 14,839 14,839 ........ 15,055 7,500 7,500 ... 55
Indian River. ............... ........... 62,306 29,696 29,696 ........ 32,610 20,462 3,000 4,500 4,648
Jackson. .............................. 84,526 47,689 38,989 8,700 36,837 32,079 3,000 600 1,158
Jefferson ................ .. ......... 27,522 13,401 13,401 ..... .. 14,121 7,000 6,000 1,000 121
Lafayette ........... ........ ......... 15,063 5,057 5,057 ........ 10,006 10,000 ........ ........ 6
Lake. ...................... ......... 102,685 36,739 36,739 ........ 65,946 63,811 ........ 1,625 510


N





Z
Z
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0


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TABLE 10 (Continued)

FUNDS RECEIVED BY COUNTY HEALTH UNITS FROM STATE BOARD OF HEALTH AND

LOCAL SOURCES FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1965

STATE BOARD OF HEALTH LOCAL FUNDS
COUNTY Total I Board
Funds Total State Federal Total of County Board of Fees and
Commis- Public Cities Miscella- -n
sioners Instruction neous
Lee ............................... $ 115,085 $ 40,500 $ 40,500 $....... $ 74,585 $ 74,063 $....... $... $ 522
Leon ............ .................... 249,517 84,263 71,390 12,873 165,254 109,344 11,393 5,000 39,517
Levy .. .............. . . 33,022 14,448 14,448 .. 18,574 11,313 5,700 1,561
Liberty.......... 16,272 6,926 6,926 .... 9,346 9,330 ........ ........ 16 Z
Madison ............... ... ............ 34,495 17,306 17,306 .. .. 17,189 17,101 ........ ........ 88
Manatee .................... 178,024 56,297 56,297 121,727 103,085 1....8,642
Marion........................... 103,321 44,905 44,905 58,416 46,652 4,000 5,600 2,164 m
Martin ............................ 44,056 23,609 23,609 ........ 20,447 18,439 750 1,258
Monroe............ .............. .. 113,390 47,171 41,891 5,280 66,219 47,862 7,333 4,000 7,024
Nassau ...... ............... ........ 68,997 22,510 22,510 .. .. 46,487 46,090 .......... .397
Okaloosa .............................. 109,678 32,320 32,320 ........ 77,358 53,106 12,000 12,252
Okeechobee. .......................... 24,716 10,194 10,194 ... 14,522 14,199 .323 Z
Orange............................... 520,773 143,957 115,007 28,950 376,816 269,429 20,167 4,220 83,000
Osceola ......... .......... ........ 41,312 21,833 21,833 ... .. 19,479 16,650 2,200 ..629
Palm Beach ........................... 768,869 137,188 110,512 26,676 631,681 509,687 29,415 .. 92,579
Pasco ............................... 45,797 21,316 21,316 ... ... 24,481 21,606 ....... .. ...2,875
Pinellas .............................. 1,124,073 185,474 109,144 76,330 938,599 749,232 .. ......... 189,367
Polk ................................ 468,744 111,811 86,397 25,414 356,933 280,538 43,340 4,800 28,255
Putnam .................................. 83,864 37,788 37,788 ........ 46,076 42,826 ... .............. 3,250 (
Santa Rosa ............................ 60,296 26,345 26,345 ........ 33,951 27,738 ........ 6,213
Sarasota .......... ............... ... 245,958 65,433 62,013 3,420 180,525 151,107 ........ .. 29,418
Seminole ...... .. .......... 96,923 40,195 40,195 .. .. 56,728 38,810 13,749 4,169
St. Johns .......... ............. 54,883 28,585 28,585 ........ 26,298 24,151 1,920 ....... 227
St. Lucie ............. ............... 118,051 47,074 47,074 .... .. 70,977 43,528 .... .. 10,000 17,449 C
Sumter ............................ 31,653 16,647 16,647 ........ 15,006 14,322 ........ ........ 684
Suwannee ...................... ... 36,630 20,520 20,520 ... .. 16,110 15,947 ....... ........ 163 Z
Taylor. .............. ............... 29,441 16,070 16,070 ... .... 13,371 12,750 500 121
Union........... ............ 18,719 8,376 8,376 ........ 10,343 10,319 ........ ...... 24
Volusia ..................... ........ 341,812 115,326 107,766 7,560 226,486 163,652 12,900 ..... 49,934 tj
Wakull ................... ... .... ... 27,543 13,536 13,536 ........ 14,007 14,000 ....... ......... 7
Walton .............................. 47,204 20,073 20,073 ........ 27,131 17,616 7,000 2,400 115
Washington ......... .... .. ...... .. 31,627 15,076 15,076 ..... .. 16,551 16,485 ........ ........ 66
County Health Units, State at Large............ 69,680 69,680 69,680 ....... ..... ........
Totals..................... $11,513,799 $ 3,203,294 $ 2,646,114 $ 557,180 $ 8,310,505 $ 6,890,416 $ 227,197 $ 104,830 $1,088,062
I I I I I I 1,8041 27,9 114,30 1,08W2 C








76 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


BUREAU OF LABORATORIES
NATHAN J. SCHNEIDER, Ph.D., M.P.H.,
Director
WARREN R. HOFFERT, Ph.D., M.P.H.,
Assistant Director
Laboratory services were provided to the county health depart-
ments (CHD) and to other bureaus and divisions of the State
Board of Health (SBH) in support of their broad and varied public
health programs. Similarly, diagnostic and epidemiologic assistance
was provided to licensed practitioners of the healing arts. The
bureau discharged its responsibilities in approving qualified private
and hospital laboratories for performing serological tests for
syphilis on prenatal and premarital patients; it assisted the Bureau
of Narcotics in regulating the sale of narcotics, drugs, cosmetics
and devices in Florida.
The new $240,000 facility for the Pensacola Regional Labora-
tory was completed and occupied in June, and formally dedicated
on August 15, 1965, as the Herbert L. Bryans Building in memory
of the late eminent Pensacola physician and member of the Florida
State Board of Health for over 18 years. Availability of this modern
laboratory enables the redirection of certain procedures such as
tuberculosis bacteriology for the West Florida area, thus speeding
up laboratory findings.
Construction of the new Tampa Regional Laboratory building
was initiated in July, after the 1965 State Legislature had ap-
propriated $75,000 to supplement the $300,000 appropriation of
the previous legislature. The total cost of constructing and equip-
ping this facility will amount to $750,000. Anticipated completion
date is May 1966.
Elsewhere, approximately 1500 square feet of space was allo-
cated to the Miami Regional Laboratory to permit expansion of
the chemistry section for pesticide research studies. This was
needed to provide laboratory support for the Community Studies
on Pesticides in Dade County. With contract funds from the U. S.
Public Health Service (USPHS), a modern pesticide laboratory
was established in the Dade County Annex building. This section
shares quarters with the Dade County Air Pollution Laboratory,
thus complementing the activities of that unit. It must be noted,
however, that despite additional space, the Miami Regional Labo-
ratory remains crowded because of expansion of public health
activities to meet demands of highly urbanized south Florida.
There is an urgent need for a larger and more adequately equipped
facility in Dade County to replace the present Miami Regional
Laboratory building.
Sadly, the year under review saw the passing of Mr. Homer D.
Venters, director of the Tampa Regional Laboratory. Mr. Venters







LABORATORIES


observed the 50th anniversary of his employment with the State
Board of Health on November 1, in apparent good health. The fol-
lowing day, a fulminating pneumococcal infection, which was in-
cubating insidiously even as he was receiving good wishes and
plaudits from his friends and coworkers, struck him down. He did
not live to see the fruition of his heart's desire, viz., completion of
the new Tampa Regional Laboratory facility. Nevertheless, his was
the good fortune of realizing part of an ambition in planning this
facility, as well as knowing that the new building will memorialize
his name. A diamond pin, signifying 50 years of meritorious service
was presented posthumously to his widow on November 18, 1965.

DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES
The nature and extent of diagnostic laboratory services offered
during 1965 are presented in Table 11. A total of 2,637,279 exami-
nations was performed in 1965 as compared to 2,809,275 for the
preceding year. This decrease in number of examinations does not
reflect a lessening in workload because 39,370 more specimens
were submitted in 1965. What seemed an apparent discrepancy, i.e.
more specimens yet fewer examinations, is due to the fact that cer-
tain procedures in syphilis serology were streamlined. In contrast,
increased specimens in bacteriology and virology resulted in a
greater workload because of the added complexity of more sensi-
tive technics. Major increases were noted in the number of exami-
nations of throat swabs for diphtheria and streptococcal infections,
sputum specimens for tuberculosis, cervical and urethral smears for
gonococci, fecal specimens for enteric pathogens, foods for sanitary
quality, chemistry specimens for blood sugar, toxicology, narcotics,
radioactivity and pesticides, and tissues for viral agents.
In sanitary bacteriology, the decrease in the number of dairy
products submitted for examination was due primarily to a reduc-
tion in the number of replicate samples from CHDs. Since Florida
milksheds cut across county lines, every effort has been made to
encourage the sharing of laboratory information as to the quality of
milk distributed to multiple counties. These efforts have resulted in
reducing the number of finished milk samples considered adequate
to maintain surveillance of milk reaching the consumer. There was
a high level of surveillance of raw milk, both Florida produced and
out-of-state shipped milk. This was evidenced by an increase in
the number of raw milk samples tested in 1965.
There was a moderate increase in the number of examinations
of drinking water and that from swimming pools, 209,906 in 1965
as compared to 193,400 in 1964. A total of 13 CHDs has been
approved for testing private water supplies by the membrane filter
(MF) technic; six of these, viz. St. Lucie, Manatee, Charlotte,
Sarasota, Pinellas and Alachua, have also been approved for testing
public waters and swimming pools. Thus the number of potable
samples submitted to the bureau represented only a portion of the







78 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


total examined by public health authorities in Florida. The num-
ber of pollution water examinations continued at virtually the same
level in 1965 with 70,985 tests performed as compared to 71,070 in
1964. Tampa, Miami and Orlando laboratories experienced mod-
erate increases in pollution waters tests. It is anticipated that there
will be more demands for bacteriological and chemical examina-
tions of streams, lakes and water areas used for recreational and
industrial purposes.
The productivity of the radiological chemistry section reached
its full potential during 1965. This section, housed in the Orlando
Regional Laboratory building, served statewide needs. Selected
specimens were tested for content of radionuclides as evidence of
radiation in the environment. These studies were part of a radio-
logical surveillance program carried out by the Division of Radio-
logical and Occupational Health and by the Bureau of Sanitary
Engineering. There was a 6.5-fold increase in output over the
preceding year. Continued productivity at the 1965 level will de-
pend on availability of research funds which have provided salaries
for personnel. Because state and federal public health agencies
must be prepared for the eventuality of increased industrial and
military use of radioactive materials, the capability of the radio-
logical laboratory must be maintained regardless of the present
low levels of radiation in the environment. The technical capabil-
ity of the laboratory was assured by interchanging quality control
specimens with the USPHS Radiological Laboratories.
The results of examinations in SBH laboratories are presented
in Table 12. A total of 737,830 specimens was examined for
syphilis and 32,052 were reactive. Excluding specimens unsatis-
factory for testing, the per cent reactive was 4.4, the same as in
1964, but 6.1 in 1962 and 4.9 in 1960. Continued attention was
given to blood specimens from problem cases of suspected syphilis
and/or biologic false positives. Specimens from 115 problem pa-
tients whose clinical status had been determined were subjected
to the VDRL, Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody (FTA-ABS) and
Treponemal Pallidum Immobilization (TPI) tests. Comparison of
the relative sensitivity and specificity of each test procedure as
presented in Table 13 tend to confirm the experience of others. A
total of 182 sera was submitted to the USPHS laboratories in
Atlanta for TPI testing from the bureau during 1965.
The number of diagnostic specimens found positive for diph-
theria in 1965 was 64 or 0.9 per cent (Table 12). This continues
a downward trend: in 1960, 4.5 per cent; in 1962, 2.6 per cent;
and in 1964, 1.0 per cent. The decline in positives emphasizes the
difficulty in completely eradicating diphtheria and/or other similar
diseases. The proportion of throat specimens positive for strepto-
coccal infections remained about the same as the preceding year,
17.5 per cent. There was a marked increase in the number of throat
specimens positive for other potentially pathogenic organisms, par-







LABORATORIES 79

ticularly staphylococci, pneumococci and H. influenzae. In 1965, 62
per cent yielded such isolations, as compared to only 25 per cent in
1964. The reason for this high rate is not apparent. When found in
healthy individuals, such organisms are considered normal flora.
Many of the throat swabs examined are from sick persons and re-
ports of findings are sent to the physician for interpretation of
clinical significance.
A total of 53,408 sputum and associated specimens was sub-
mitted to the laboratory for tuberculosis and other mycobacterial
cultures. Compared with 46,498 specimens submitted in 1964, this
represented an increase of 15 per cent; due in part to a stepped-up
casefinding and surveillance program by CHDs and the Division of
Tuberculosis Control. Excluding unsatisfactory specimens, there
was a total of 5051 or 9.9 per cent cultures positive for M. tuber-
culosis or atypical mycobacteria, as compared to 7.4 per cent in
1964 and 5.9 per cent positives in 1963. It is believed that a modifi-
cation in the digestion procedure reported in the 1964 annual re-
port accounts for the increased sensitivity of the cultural procedure.
Smear specimens examined for the presence of gonococci (GC)
and associated infections increased from 43,617 in 1964 to 48,058
in 1965. In contrast, there was a decrease in the number of GC
cultures of fluorescent antibody tests from 21,113 specimens in
1964 to 19,345 in 1965. The per cent positive for GC by smear was
16.1 and by culture 8.0. The reliability of the smear test is ques-
tionable, particularly when examining urethral or cervical speci-
mens from females; however, because of the relative ease with
which this type of specimen is taken and mailed to the laboratory,
many physicians continue to depend upon it for diagnosis because
the culture test can only be provided to clinics located in close
proximity to the laboratory.
The number of fecal specimens cultured for enteric pathogens
increased from 54,108 in 1964 to 57,758 in 1965. There were 84
positives for S. typhosa, a decrease from 111 in 1964, and 1330
Salmonellae and 261 Shigellae were isolated in 1965 as compared
to 1067 and 218, respectively, for 1964. This increase may be due
to a greater awareness on the part of physicians. A total of 190
other enteric pathogens were cultured in 1965 as compared to only
83 in 1964. These "other" pathogens included six different entero-
pathogenic serotypes of E. coli as well as members from the Ari-
zona and Edwardsella groups.
A total of 628 blood specimens was examined serologically for
leptospiral agglutinins; 18 or 2.87 per cent were positive. In addi-
tion to specimens from suspect cases, paired sera from patients
with aseptic meningitis of suspected viral etiology, were tested for
a rise in agglutination titer.
Among the miscellaneous examinations, there was a total of 84
darkfield specimens positive for T. pallidum as found in the Dade
County Department of Public Health V.D. Clinic. Results of dark-







80 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


field examinations performed in other CHD clinics were not re-
ported to this bureau. The finding of motile spirochaetes charac-
teristic of T. pallidum in lesions is diagnostic evidence of syphilis.
A total of 2670 miscellaneous bacteriological cultures were sub-
mitted to the laboratory for identification and characterization.
This service is beneficial to smaller laboratories which, because of
limited facilities or lack of specialized reagents, seek assistance in
identifying bacterial isolates.
There were numerous special bacteriological services offered by
the bureau, including bacteriological plate counts on urine speci-
mens, sterility testing on drugs and biologicals, staphylococcal cul-
tures from hospital acquired infections and culturing of imported
novelties (water filled ice balls and stuffed baby chicks) for bac-
terial pathogens.
A moderate increase in the number of saliva specimens sub-
mitted for lactobacillus plate counts was noted. Dentists have used
this service in close consultation with the Bureau of Dental Health
which provided professional interpretation of findings on all speci-
mens reported.
The number of stool specimens examined for intestinal para-
sites decreased moderately during the year. Positive findings for
hookworm, ascaris, enterobius pinwormm) and trichuria decreased.
Table 14 summarizes the trend in findings for two parasitic dis-
eases during the past 15 years. From 1950 to 1965, the overall
proportion of specimens positive for hookworm declined from 18.8
per cent to 4.1 per cent. Most of the decline occurred in West
Florida and the peninsular areas of the state north of West Palm
Beach. For some unexplained reason, the area served by the West
Palm Beach (WPB) laboratory showed a moderate decline from
1955 to 1965 (data for 1950 was unavailable). The observations
on ascariasis differs significantly. In 1950, there were 3.3 per cent
positives statewide and after 15 years, this high level of positivity
remains at 3.6 per cent.
In the chemistry section, 36,808 blood specimens were exam-
ined for various determinations including blood sugar, cholesterol,
hemoglobin, cholinesterase inhibition, phenylalanine, barbiturates,
amphetamines and alcohol. Urine specimens were examined in the
Miami Regional Laboratory for P-nitrophenol, a metabolite of
parathion poisoning, as part of the Community Pesticide studies
being carried out in Dade County. There was a marked increase
in the number of toxicological and narcotics specimens examined in
Jacksonville and Miami laboratories. These specimens represent a
large amount of time since the chemists involved must appear in
court to testify as expert witnesses. There were quite a number of
such specimens from the Tampa area making it highly important
to establish a chemistry section in the new Tampa Regional Lab-
oratory building now under construction.







LABORATORIES 81

The radiological chemistry laboratory carried out analyses of
ground and rain water, air, milk, shellfish, selected tissues and en-
vironmental specimens for radionuclides. There was a marked in-
crease in the number of specimens examined. Utilization of auto-
matic data processing speeded up the needed calculations making
it possible to report final results with a minimum time lag. The
responsibilities assigned to this section were related to the radio-
logical surveillance program of the Division of Radiological and
Occupational Health presented elsewhere in this report. A USPHS
research project concerned with a study of the ratio of Cesium-137
and Strontium-90 in milk was included in the workload of the
laboratory.
Diagnostic services for viral and rickettsial diseases were pro-
vided on a statewide basis from the Jacksonville laboratory. How-
ever, such services were coordinated with studies carried out in the
Tampa Bay area by the Encephalitis Research Center, (See Bu-
reau of Research elsewhere in this report) and in the Dade County
area by the Department of Medicine, University of Miami School
of Medicine. The diagnostic laboratory in Jacksonville accepted
such specimens as were found negative for arboviral agents by
both research laboratories and tested them for other viral agents
associated with central nervous system (CNS) disease. These tests
included animal inoculations and various serological examinations
such as hemagglutination-inhibition, neutralization and comple-
ment-fixation tests. Close liaison was maintained between the
several laboratories to minimize duplication of diagnostic pro-
cedures on suspect encephalitis cases.
Viral and rickettsial findings on 1519 patients examined in 1965
are presented in Table 15. A total of 119 cases, representing 7.8
per cent of the patients studied, yielded positive diagnostic find-
ings of viral etiology and 376 or 21.5 per cent gave equivocal re-
sults. This compares favorably with the experience of most public
health virology laboratories. The efficacy of providing good virologi-
cal service is dependent in part on the astuteness of the clinician
in correctly suspecting disease of viral etiology in his patient and
the submission of adequate specimens collected at the proper stage
of disease for the laboratory to examine. Thus, many of the previ-
ously mentioned equivocal findings did not lend themselves to in-
terpretation because no tissues were submitted for viral isolation;
nor could a rise in antibody titer be demonstrated either because
only a single serum was submitted or because paired sera were
collected too late in the course of illness. In regard to the positive
findings, there was a marked increase in the number of respiratory
infections found; 58 cases in 1965 as compared to only two in 1964.
In contrast, there was a marked decrease in the number of labora-
tory confirmed cases of CNS infections; 49 cases in 1965 as com-
pared to 128 the previous year. Most of this decrease was due to
fewer cases of mumps and Coxsackie infections. The complement







82 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


fixation test study for Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Eaton agent)
was instituted in September and a total of 115 patients was exam-
ined serologically; 10 were found to be positive.
The number of animals examined for rabies totalled 3667; two
less than the previous year. There were fewer positives in 1965; 79
as compared to 105 in 1964. As in the past, most of the positives
were found in wildlife, i.e. raccoons, skunks and bats. There were
only four positive dogs and one cat.
The cooperative laboratory diagnostic and special study pro-
gram established between the SBH and the State Tuberculosis
Board completed the tenth successful year. This arrangement has
contributed immeasurably to the success of the tuberculosis control
program in Florida by providing standardized procedures for the
diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The nature and extent of
the studies performed in the state hospital laboratories are pre-
sented in Table 16. A total of 125,173 laboratory examinations in
1965 as compared to 104,160 in 1964 indicates the trend in tuber-
culosis control in Florida. There was an increase of 15.2 per cent
in the number of diagnostic tuberculosis cultures examined from
patients in the hospitals. Improvements in diagnostic and con-
comitant therapeutic measures have resulted in more cases diag-
nosed and more patients hospitalized and discharged to return to
their homes for final recovery.
SPECIAL STUDIES
The bureau continued its active program of special studies as
listed in Tables 11 and 12, indicative of the wide variety of projects
with which it was concerned.
The identification of enteric pathogens belonging to the Sal-
monella group was continued. A total of 1439 cultures was typed
during 1965 as compared to 1254 in 1964 and 786 in 1960. It is
apparent that there has been an increase in the level of surveil-
lance. According to USPHS data, Florida ranked within the top
10 in incidence of Salmonella reported to the National Salmonella
Surveillance Network. Greater awareness of the role of Salmonella
infections in enteric disease and more sensitive enrichment pro-
cedures may have accounted for this increase in laboratory con-
firmation of Salmonellosis. While Shigellae are also commonly
found in enteric diseases, there is a need to improve bacteriological
technics, particularly by providing more adequate means of pre-
serving the viability of Shigella during shipment of specimens to
the laboratory and a better enrichment procedure more comparable
to that used for Salmonella.
Special studies on diarrheal diseases were conducted in the
Miami Regional Laboratory as part of a research contract between
the Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Uni-
versity of Miami School of Medicine, and the U. S. Armed Forces
Epidemiological Board. Specimens collected from the intestinal







LABORATORIES


tract of normal and sick patients were examined for bacterial and
viral flora. This work is in the terminal year of a three year
contract.
Statewide surveillance for arthropod-borne viral infections was
continued during 1965. These studies, supported by state funds,
complemented the surveillance carried out by ERC Laboratory in
Tampa. A total of 2085 pools of mosquitoes and selected animal
tissues was processed and inoculated into suckling mice; also hu-
man and animal blood specimens were examined for hemaggluti-
nating and/or complement-fixing antibodies against antigens pre-
pared from St. Louis Encephalitis, Eastern Encephalitis (EE),
Western Encephalitis (WE) and California Encephalitis (CE)
viruses. Of two agents identified as EE, one was isolated from
horse tissue and one from chukar partridges. From the 119 se-
lected animal tissues, a Bunyamwera Group (Tensaw-like) agent
was isolated from the brain of a fox collected in Marion County.
There were 59 arboviral agents isolated from 1965 mosquito pools.
Among the mosquito isolations, 26 agents were identified as Cali-
fornia complex, 18 Bunyamwera Group, 7 Hart Park-Like, 6 EE
and 2 WE viruses. In addition, there were 12 agents not yet iden-
tified. These isolations do not include agents recovered from col-
lections made by ERC in Tampa. The mosquito collections sub-
mitted to the Jacksonville laboratory were collected by the Bureau
of Entomology and animal sera by the Division of Veterinary Pub-
lic Health. Counties yielding arboviral isolates included Duval,
Madison, Jefferson, Marion, Gulf, Leon, Polk, Charlotte, Clay,
Alachua, Bay, Walton, Franklin and Citrus.
Continuing studies on the sanitary quality of salad type foods,
a three year research grant funded by the USPHS, was carried out
in cooperation with the Division of Sanitation. Standardized bac-
teriological procedures were established and baseline data as to the
quality of market and processing plant samples were determined.
Quantitative tests included enumeration of total and fecal coli-
forms, coagulase positive staphylococci, anaerobic Clostridium
perfringens and the aerobic standard plate count. In addition, each
specimen was tested for the presence of Salmonellae. Simultane-
ously with the laboratory testing, the Division of Sanitation
studied the sanitation factors associated with processing and mar-
keting of salad type foods since the numbers and kinds of bacteria
are directly related to proper preparation and storage. Prelimi-
nary findings indicated that the general sanitation and quality of
salads studied were good but that bacteria present in small num-
bers could multiply and become pathogenic if such salads were mis-
handled by lack of refrigeration or improper storage. Acceptability
and shelf-life of salads may also be reduced when large numbers
of bacteria are allowed to multiply.
The laboratory was in the final year of a three year study
supported by the USPHS to determine the usefulness of the Sabin-







84 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


Feldman dye test in diagnosing chronic eye diseases by demon-
strating for toxoplasmosis antibody. A total of 386 serum speci-
mens was tested. As reported last year, findings seem to indicate
that dye test results are difficult to interpret because of the wide-
spread presence of antibodies found in apparently healthy adults.
Also, the absence of antibodies or very low titers cannot be re-
garded as ruling out Toxoplasma gondii as the etiologic agent. Be-
cause of the relatively poor vascularization inherent in the eye, an
exacerbation of the dormant parasite may produce tissue damage
but fail to stimulate antibody production. The fluorescent anti-
body procedure was investigated and found to be unsatisfactory in
providing dependable and reproduceable results. Plans were made
to investigate the usefulness of a hemagglutination test as an ad-
junct for diagnosing toxoplasmosis. This part of the study will be
carried out in cooperation with the USPHS Communicable Disease
Center Laboratory in Atlanta.
Mycobacterium studies were supported in part by a research
grant funded by the USPHS. (See Division of Epidemiology re-
port). Aside from the study and characterization of atypical myco-
bacteria cultures from human infections, soil and other environ-
mental specimens obtained in the vicinity of households of index
cases also were cultured. Isolates were studied by several biochem-
ical and bacteriological tests to determine their relationship to hu-
man strains. Unfortunately the available tests were not specific
enough to provide definitive information as to the exact similarity
of human to soil isolates. Further efforts utilizing a newly developed
agglutination test need to be studied to determine the usefulness
of the test in characterizing mycobacteria.
Last year, it was reported that the Miami Regional Laboratory
had established the capability of performing and offering the
Guthrie test to screen newborn infants for detection of early cases
of phenylketonuria (PKU). Stimulated by legislation passed in
1965 authorizing the SBH to promote testing of all newborns, the
number of tests increased from 14,042 in 1964 to 24,923 in 1965.
Plans were made to provide this test procedure in the Jacksonville
laboratory as well as in Miami. When fully developed, this service
will be provided by the Miami laboratory for the southern part of
Florida and by the Jacksonville laboratory for the remainder of
the state. It is anticipated that testing will be carried out also in
most large hospital and private laboratories. The bureau will pro-
vide this service to the medically indigent and where the needs are
not met by private laboratories. It must be emphasized that re-
gardless of where the screening tests are performed, all laboratories
are now required by Florida Statute to report findings of positives
and the total babies tested to the Bureau of Maternal and Child
Health. More importantly, newly detected patients should have
proper therapy as soon as possible in order to minimize brain
damage to the developing infant.







LABORATORIES


Special studies to determine toxin in oysters and airborne pol-
len were carried out on a small scale during the year. Both studies
will be continued as the need and interest remains.
Although not listed separately in the tabular data, each of the
regional laboratories and, in turn, each of the sections within the
central laboratory performed limited special projects during 1965.
These included evaluations of various laboratory procedures
and/or bacteriological cultured technics. Jacksonville, Miami, Tal-
lahassee and West Palm Beach laboratories compared several di-
gestion procedures for culturing M. tuberculosis. The Tampa lab-
oratory was particularly active in evaluating the Thayer-Martin
GC culture medium. The Pensacola laboratory has been occupied
with the move into a new facility and the subsequent adaptation
of the routine procedures; however, tuberculosis bacteriological
culturing was initiated. The Orlando laboratory has been active in
developing and evaluating radiological chemistry methodology as
well as testing for the sanitary quality of foods.
CONSULTATIVE AND EDUCATIONAL SERVICES
Assisted by the USPHS, three technological workshops were
conducted as follows: (1) Enteric bacteriology held at the
Teaching Hospital, University of Florida, College of Medicine,
Gainesville. Five days in length and attended by 20 bacteriologists
and/or medical technologists. (2) Syphilis serology held at the
Teaching Hospital, University of Florida, College of Medicine,
Gainesville. Three days in length and attended by 13 students from
hospital laboratories throughout the state. (3) Clinical chemistry
- held at Barry College, Miami. Three days in length and at-
tended by 21 senior medical technologists from hospital and pri-
vate laboratories.
Technical and consultative guidance were provided to four
county health officers, two hospital staff physicians, nine medical
technicians and 56 sanitarians and water plant operators in the
form of short periods of training in specific laboratory procedures.
A total of 14 additional clinical laboratories was approved to per-
form serological tests for syphilis for premarital and prenatal pa-
tients bringing the overall total to 278 as of the close of 1965.
The bureau carried out registration of 59 medical laboratories
and assisted the Board of Examiners in the Basic Sciences to
license 422 medical technologists and 137 medical technologist di-
rectors as provided by Chapter 483 of the Florida Statutes.
Continuing visits and inspections were made to 18 public health
and commercial dairy laboratories to certify the performance of
bacteriological and related tests in accordance with Standard
Methods and the USPHS requirements for interstate shipments of
milk. In addition, visitation and certification of water testing facili-
ties in five regional public health laboratories, four CHDs and five
municipal water plants were performed.







86 ANNUAL REPORT, 1965


Evaluation specimens for hemoglobin determinations were sent
to 220 public health, hospital and private clinical laboratories. The
comparative findings were circulated among participating labora-
tories and technical assistance was provided when needed.
During the past several years, senior laboratory personnel have
given guidance to several outstanding high school students engaged
in scientific projects. Since 1962, four of these students have re-
ceived national recognition for their work in biochemistry and
enzymology.
Revision 1965 of previously published list of laboratories approved for
premarital and prenatal serology:
ADDED
Analytical Laboratories of Florida, 34711 N. Federal Highway,
Ft. Lauderdale
L. G. Landrum, M.D., 2300 South First Street, Lake City
Palm Springs Medical Laboratory, 801 West 49th Street, Hialeah
James Archer Smith Hospital, Inc., 1220 N. W. 1st Avenue,
Homestead
Gadsden County Hospital, 339 E. Jefferson Street, Quincy
Wauchula General Hospital, 528 N. Main Street, Wauchula
Good Samaritan Osteopathic Hospital, 7171 N. Dale Mabry,
Tampa
Walter R. McCook, M.D., 615-B United Street, Key West
Fisherman's Hospital Laboratory, U. S. Highway I, Marathon
Fred F. Crews, M.D., 300 South Avenue, Ft. Walton Beach
Winter Park Memorial Hospital, 200 N. Lakemont Avenue, Winter
Park
Lake Alfred Medical Center, P. O. Box 1295, Lake Alfred
QRS Laboratory, 500 North 1st Street, Winter Haven
Medical Arts Laboratory, North Causeway, New Smyrna Beach
REMOVED
Professional Laboratories, Medical Arts Building, Cocoa
1333 Medical Laboratory, 1333 S. Miami Avenue, Miami
Bio-Medical Clinical Laboratory, 815 Flagler Street, W., Miami
Christian Hospital Laboratory, 4700 N. W. 32nd Avenue, Miami









TABLE 11

EXAMINATIONS PERFORMED BY FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH LABORATORIES, 1965

Jackson- West Palm Pinellas
Examination ville Tampa Miami Pensacola Tallahassee Orlando Beach County TOTALS

GRAND TOTALS ......................... 947,735 494,871 521,389 116,006 122,512 231,659 150,107 53,000 2,637,279

SEROLOGY
Syphilis ............................. 252,066 232,316 280,990 45,753 32,337 71,675 61,747 ..... 976,884
Agglutination & related tests ................ 1,558 309 717 74 105 91 16 ..... 2,870
Blood typing (Rh) ................. ........ 4,468 4,359 3,957 1,289 945 2,136 1,083 ..... 18,237
DIAGNOSTIC BACTERIOLOGY
Diphtheria & associated infections ......... 32,886 1,196 4,122 200 ..... 50 696 ..... 39,150
Tuberculosis ......... .... ......... 152,700 .24,796 ... 12,416 .. 14,127 .. 204,039
G.C.-smear ............................ 19,200 28,132 27,394 5,324 10,666 3,374 1,346 .. 95,436
--culture ................. ......... ..... 12,500 3,269 1,293 1,912 .. ..... ..... 18,974
-fluorescent antibody.................. 7,250 ..... ... .... ... 7,250
Enteric ................. .............. 80,402 55,008 25,472 13,832 24,708 34,858 6,894 .. 241,174
Blood culture. .................. ....... 568 8 16 192 48 112 200 ..... 1,144
Leptospirosis ........................... 2,488 ..... ...... ..... 2,488
Miscellaneous ............................ 89,553 27,761 5,010 861 1,219 14,160 "4576 143,140 >
SANITARY BACTERIOLOGY
Dairy products ...... .................... 20,796 42,168 23,622 12,510 12,780 11,424 16,716 13,626 153,642
Water, drinking & pools .................... 37,190 38,646 27,088 11,978 11,134 29,390 28,768 25,712 209,906
Pollution ............................. 19,540 8,790 15,795 3,505 2,575 2,795 6,275 11,710 70,985
Food (sanitary quality tests) ................. 2,19 .... 1,043 14 84 3,787 21 7,139
Food poisoning ............................ 302 412 880 180 414 270 .... 16 2,474
Utensils............................. 68 246 .. ..... 40 1,098 51 42 1,545
DENTAL CARIES BACTERIOLOGY. .............. 5,906 ... .... ..... ... ...... ... 5,906
PARASITOLOGY --I
Intestinal parasites ......... .............. 49,556 21,896 9,402 12,098 8,515 11,887 3,419 ..... 116,773
Malaria ............................. 34 20 10 8 4 ..... 76 O
MYCOLOGY .......... ................. 13,347 33 141 69 12 228 63 ..... 13,893
CHEMISTRY
Blood ............... ............... 13,894 10,133 3,500 5,869 1,439 1,438 3,690 ..... 39,963 -
Spinal fluid ............................ 812 ..... 217 1 5 ... ,.. 1,035 r
Urine. 597 ..... ..... 39 420 ..... 1,056
Toxicology & narcotics ............ 223 2 6,718 ..... .... ..... ... 9,141
Drugs & cosmetics ........................ 47 ..... .. 47
Water ................... ........... 3,050 .. 273 .. 3 ..... 1,237 4,563
Other .................................. 4,143 ..... 10,956 ..... ..... ..... 652 15,751
0o
",-











00
00
Co



TABLE 11 (Continued)
EXAMINATIONS PERFORMED BY FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH LABORATORIES, 1965
EXAMINATIONS PERFORMED BY FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH LABORATORIES, 1965 "7


Jackson- West Palm Pinellas
Examination ville Tampa Miami Pensacola Tallahassee Orlando Beach County TOTALS


C


RADIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
Water (ground & precipitation) ............... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 10,032 .10,032
Air ............................ .. .. ........ ........ ..... 3,180 .. .. 3,180
Milk ........................ ........ ...... ... ..... ..... ..... ..... 7,912 7,912 M
Other ................................ ............ ..... 20,104 20,104
VIRAL SEROLOGY -2
Hemagglutination-inhibition ................. 6,024 ......................... ...6,024
Neutralizations......................... 460 460 0
Complement-fixation ............. ...... 24,168 .......... .... .....24,168
VIRAL ISOLATIONS (except rabies) ............. 4,866 .....4,866
Rabies-microscopic ....................... 3,908 4,356 1,760 964 460 1,616 .. ... 13,064
-fluorescent antibody ................. 10,644 6,582 1,908 ..... 690 .. .. 19,824
-mouse inoculation .... ........... 560 ..... .. ..... ..... .... 560
SPECIAL PROJECTS
Salmonella typing ........................ 8,634 ...... .... 8,634
Diarrheal disease studies (AFEB). .............. ...... ...16,258..... 16,258 0
Enterovirus studies .. . ................. .... ..... 1,007 1,007
Arthropod-borne surveillance
Isolations ............................. 10,711 10,711 Ur,
Serology ................................ 45,571 45,571
Sanitary quality salad-type foods .............. 7,060 .. .. ... 7,060
Toxoplasmosis dye test ..................... 5,790 .. .. .. ...... ..... ..... 5,790
Mycobacterium studies. ..................... 1,950 .. .. 1,950
PKU infant screening study ................ .. 192 ... 24,471..... 24,663
Toxin in oysters ......................... 52 .. .. .. .. .. ...... 52
Airborne pollen studies .................... 708 ... ...... ..... ..... ..... .... .. 708