• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Epidemiology
 Tuberculosis
 Venereal disease control
 Malaria control
 Maternal and child health
 Dental health
 Public health nursing
 Local health service
 Malaria research
 Sanitary engineering
 Vital statistics
 Accounting
 Narcotics
 Laboratories
 Health education






Title: Annual report - State Board of Health, State of Florida
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000243/00012
 Material Information
Title: Annual report - State Board of Health, State of Florida
Series Title: Publication - Florida. State Board of Health
Physical Description: v. : ill., ports. ; 23-29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Board of Health
Florida -- State Board of Health
Publisher: State Board of Health.
Place of Publication: Jacksonville Fla
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Public health -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1968.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year for 1893/94 ends Mar. 31; for 189<7>-1968, Dec. 31.
Numbering Peculiarities: Reports for 1923-32 combined in one issue.
General Note: Reports for 1910-<17> issued as its Publication.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000243
Volume ID: VID00012
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Holding Location: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569394
lccn - 07039608
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Annual report - Division of Health, Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, State of Florida

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Letter of transmittal
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Epidemiology
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Tuberculosis
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Venereal disease control
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Malaria control
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Maternal and child health
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Dental health
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Public health nursing
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Local health service
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Malaria research
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    Sanitary engineering
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Vital statistics
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Accounting
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Narcotics
        Page 162
        Page 163
    Laboratories
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Health education
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
Full Text

STATE OF FLORIDA


Forty-Second Annual Report
of the

STATE BOARD OF HEALTH

for the
YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1941



W. H. PICKETT, M.D.
Florida State Health Officer










FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH
Jacksonville, Florida
1942



















His Excellency, SPESSARD L. HOLLAND
Governor of Florida
Tallahassee, Florida


SIR:


I beg to hand you herewith a report of the Florida State Board of
Health for the period of January 1, 1941 to December 31, 1941, inclusive.


Respectfully submitted,


HERBERT L. BRYANS, M. D., President


Jacksonville, Florida
September 1, 1942




















The Honorable HERBERT L. BRYANS, M. D., President
Florida State Board of Health
Jacksonville, Florida


DEAR DR. BRYANS:

I herewith submit the forty-second annual report of the Florida State
Board of Health for the year ending December 31, 1941.

The work of the State Board of Health for the year 1941 was under
the direction of Dr. W. H. Pickett.'


Respectfully submitted,


HENRY HANSON, M. D.
State Health Officer


Jacksonville, Florida
September 1, 1942
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


EPIDEMIOLOGY

TUBERCULOSIS


VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL


MALARIA CONTROL

MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH

DENTAL HEALTH

PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING


LOCAL HEALTH SERVICE

MALARIA RESEARCH

SANITARY ENGINEERING

VITAL STATISTICS

ACCOUNTING

NARCOTICS

LABORATORIES

HEALTH EDUCATION


1


5


9

S22

S97

109

S. 113

S. 116

S124

S130

S157

S159

162

164


S199









EPIDEMIOLOGY

HARRY B. SMITH, M.D., Director

During the year under consideration two outbreaks of communicable
diseases occurred in the state which reached epidemics of minor proportions,
an outbreak of typhoid fever and an outbreak of poliomyelitis. The former
was limited to the east coast of the state while the latter was more or less
statewide in scope.
The epidemic of typhoid, which received detailed study by this Bureau,
was directly traceable to the consumption of oysters from unapproved
sources. These cases occurred in communities along the Indian and Halifax
rivers; Daytona Beach reporting 4 cases, Vero Beach 8, and Fort Pierce 3,
making a total of 15 cases. Each of the cases in Daytona Beach gave a
history of ingestion of raw oysters within three weeks of onset of illness.
In every instance, the oysters were taken from unapproved areas of the
Halifax River where sewage pollution is particularly heavy.
All of the Vero Beach cases, as in the case of the Daytona Beach
cases, gave a history of ingestion of raw oysters taken from unapproved
areas of the Indian River. Investigation of these cases revealed that the
oysters responsible for the outbreak were harvested within a few feet of
the Vero Beach sewer outlet by an individual who was not licensed to
engage in the oyster business. Further investigation of this man's activities
revealed the fact that the oysters so harvested were distributed by vendors
in Vero Beach by house to house canvass.
The three Fort Pierce cases all gave a history of having consumed raw
oysters which were purchased from this same Vero Beach vendor.
A thorough investigation was made of this outbreak by both the Bureau
of Epidemiology and the Bureau of Sanitary Engineering and the necessity
for proper and adequate posting of all waters not approved for the har-
vesting of oysters was emphasized. It is understood that the Bureau of
Sanitary Engineering has printed a supply of metal posters which are not
easily defaced or mutilated and has posted areas from which oysters were
taken that caused this outbreak.
The infantile paralysis outbreak began in the last month of 1940 and
reached a peak in July of 1941. A total of 263 cases was reported for
the entire year of 1941. These may be listed by counties as follows:







2 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


TABLE 1.-POLIOMYELITIS CASES BY COUNTIES FOR THE YEAR 1941.

Alachua 17 Duval 51 Jefferson 1 Nassau 2 Sarasota 1
Baker 1 Escambia 48 Lafayette 1 Orange 10 Seminole 1
Bay 5 Gadsden 1 Lake 3 Osceola 1 Suwannee 3
Broward 5 Glades 1 Leon 10 Palm Beach 5 Taylor 2
Citrus 1 Highlands 1 Levy 1 Pinellas 3 Volusia 9
Clay 3 Hillsborough 7 Liberty 1 Polk 11
Columbia 2 Holmes 1 Manatee 1 Putnam 1
Dade 48 Jackson 1 Monroe 1 St. Johns 2__

As will be noted from the tabulation by age groups, poliomyelitis is
decidedly a disease of childhood with approximately 65 per cent of the
cases occurring in children under 10 years of age and approximately 90
per cent in children under 15 years of age.

TABLE 2.-REPORTED CASES OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO
AGE, SEX AND COLOR

DIPHTHERIA POLIOMYELITIS
I White I Colored I White I Colored \
Age Group M. F. I M.IF Age Group M. F. M. F Itls
0 to 4........ 31 42 4 5 82 0 to 4........ 42 49 10 6 107
5 to 9........ 25 26 6 6 63 5 to 9....... 31 21 4 4 60
10 to 14....... 4 6 1 0 11 10 to 14........ 24 22 2 0 48
15 to 19 ..... 3 3 0 0 6 15 to 19........ 12 6 2 1 21
20 to 29-... 6 8 2 1 17 20 to 29 ....... 5 3 0 0 8
30 to 39........ 1 3 0 0 4 30 to 39....... 4 4 0 0 8
40 to 49........ 1 3 0 0 4 40 to 49........ 2 0 0 0 2
50 to 59-...... 0 1 1 0 2 50 to 59...... 0 0 0 0 0
60 to 69........ 1 0 0 1 2 60 to 69........ 0 0 0 0 0
70 and over 0 1 0 1 2 70 and over.... 0 0 b 0
Age, Sex and Color not given.... 19 Age, Sex and Color not given....... 9
Grand Total ........... ... 212 Grand Total ............................. 263

During the year sporadic cases of the various communicable diseases
occurred throughout the state but with the exception of the outbreaks of
typhoid and poliomyelitis previously mentioned, there was no threat of
an epidemic.
For the first time in the history of the Bureau, a register of typhoid
carriers was set up and a concerted effort is being made to locate carriers
through investigation of sporadic cases and outbreaks of typhoid fever and
through the requirement of at least two negative specimens of feces and
urine before clinical cases of typhoid fever are released from isolation.
During the year 7 residents of the state were found to be chronic carriers
and their names placed on the carrier list. All typhoid carriers so registered
during the year were visited by the health officer at quarterly intervals to
see that the carriers were living at the same address and were not handling
food.








EPIDEMIOLOGY 3


TABLE 3.--CASES OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES REPORTED BY MONTHS
FOR THE YEAR 1941.

DISEASE Jan. eb. 'Mar. Apr. May) June July Aug. Sept.ct. Nov. Dec. Tota
Diphtheria ........... 19 18 22 8 11 7 12 3 2 3 26 28 26 212
Poliomyelitis ............ 12 5 13 12 21 44 66 48 23 17 2 0 203
Scarlet Fever .......... 22 23 24 15 8 7 7 10 19 25 23 22 205
Typhoid Fever 2 5 25 18 22 22 21 24 9 8 5 5 166
Typhus Fever .......... 6 6 12 8 14 20 23 29 33 18 17 10 196
Undulant Fever ..._ 2 0 4 2 0 2 3 0 4 2 2 0 21
Paratyphold ............ 1 0 0 1 1 3 0 1 5 1 1 3 17
Malaria ................... 6 2 6 11 15 16 13 25 13 20 11 7 145
Measles .................... 22 234 4218 3908 2187 381 51 47 13 15 31 64 11261
Tuberculos .......... 61 90 104 69 82 64 70 104 81 66 103 81 981
Whooping Cough _.. 35 32 84 74 115 51 51 91 57 55 59 43 747
Influenza ............. 1132 946 720 558 159 42 58 37 29 72 32 47 3832


For many years health workers in this state have felt the .need for a
Sanitary Code embodying rules and regulations for the control of the
communicable diseases based upon standardized and accepted procedures
and practices. During the year such a Sanitary Code was drafted and at
the end of the year was in the hands of the printer. This Sanitary Code
will soon be distributed to health officers and physicians throughout the
state.
At the beginning of the year the Bureau was badly in need of a more
adequate system of record keeping. A cross index file was installed in
the bureau making it possible to keep a permanent, and easily accessible,
record of all of the cases of communicable diseases reported by counties.
This file is so constructed that additional sections can be added as the
need arises.
During the year the Bureau undertook to make a more detailed and
complete investigation of reported cases of communicable disease. To
this end a complete set of case records was drawn up to be used in making
epidemiological field studies on the more important communicable diseases.
The Bureau has endeavored, so far as personnel would permit, to make
an investigation on all cases of typhoid fever occurring in the state so as
to determine the source of the infection.
In order that a more comprehensive record of the activities of this
Bureau might be available, detailed written report of field trips was required
of all personnel upon the completion of each field visit. These visits are
summarized at the end of each month, showing the work done by the
personnel for that month.







4 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941

At the beginning of the year the staff of the Bureau consisted of only
the director. On February 15, the present director was appointed to direct
the activities of the Bureau. At that time two assistants were added to
the staff but unfortunately both had to be placed in charge of county
health units upon a temporary basis because of the acute shortage of health
officers to direct such units. Thus the Bureau operated for the greater
part of the year with only a director and a secretary.
There is an urgent need for increased personnel in the Bureau in
order that more complete and detailed epidemiological studies of the com-
municable diseases may be made. As soon as conditions will permit, it
is urgently recommended that two assistant epidemiologists be added to
the staff of the Bureau. There is also an urgent need for an additional
clerk to serve as statistician in the Bureau.
The present quarters of the Bureau are much overcrowded and con-
sideration should be given to the matter of providing more room in order
that the Bureau may carry on its work in a more satisfactory manner.










TUBERCULOSIS

LYNNE E. BAKER, M.D., Director

The personnel of the Division of Tuberculosis during 1941 consisted of
a director, x-ray technician and a secretary. On July 1, 1941, Doctor A. J.
Logie resigned to go into private practice and was replaced by the present
director.
During the latter part of 1940 and the first part of 1941 a new x-ray
mobile unit was developed by the former director of the Division of Tuber-
culosis and the x-ray technician. This unit was devised to x-ray large
groups of people in the low income levels, making it possible to x-ray
400 people per day.
This new unit takes photographs of the fluorescent image of the chest
on 35mm films. The miniature films are interpreted by the director of
the Division of Tuberculosis. A report of the interpretation is sent to the
director of the county health unit and to the private physician when designa-
ted by the person x-rayed.
No attempt is made by means of the miniature film to establish a
definite, final diagnosis. Rather, the x-ray surveys are used as a screening
process to detect cases that may have pulmonary tuberculosis. All cases
whose films show some pathology are then referred to the local physician
for further study, including a conventional 14" x 17" film, to establish a
definite diagnosis.
During 1941 a total of 43,638 films were taken by the x-ray mobile
unit. Of this number 38,128 (87.4%) were satisfactory for interpretation.
Steps have been taken to increase the percentage of satisfactory films. By
making changes in technique as well as in the x-ray equipment, the per-
centage of satisfactory films has gradually increased. This is shown in
Table 1, which gives a summary of the results of all the films taken
during 1941.
Another major difficulty to be corrected has been the periodic cessation
of the x-ray program due to a break in some essential part of the equip-
ment of the mobile x-ray unit, which often requires several days to be
replaced. It is hoped that this may be partially eliminated by having the
x-ray equipment inspected regularly each month by an expert from the
x-ray company, who will replace all parts showing wear at the time of
the inspection.






TABLE 1.-STATISTICS ON X-RAY FILMS TAKEN BY MOBILE X-RAY UNrr, 1941.
Films
% Films Films Suspicious Films Films
Number Satis- Satis- Interpreted Showing of Showing Showing
DATE COUNTY Films factory factory as Some Pulmonary Enlarged Other
Taken Films Films Negative Pathology Tubercu- Heart or Pathology
losis Aorta


Feb. 10-26 ................
Mar. 3-8 ..................
Mar. 10-11 ..............
Mar. 13-Apr. 5.........
Apr. 7-30 ..................
May 5-24 .................
May 26-June 6.........
June 9-July 3.............
July 14-20 .................
Sept. 1 ....................
Sept 2-6 .....................
Sept. 8 ......................
Sept. 10-13 ..............
Sept. 16-25 ..............
Sept. 27-Oct. 1.........
Oct. 7-10 ..................
Oct. 11-13 .................
Oct. 14 ......................
Oct. 15 ......................
Oct. 16-18 .................
Oct 21-24 .................
Oct. 27-31 .................
Nov. 3-6 ..............
Nov. 7-8 ...............
Nov. 10-12 ............
Nov. 13-14 .................
Nov. 17-21 ...............
Nov. 24-29 ....... ........
Dec. 1-3 ...................
Dec. 4 .........................
Dec. 5-6 ....................
Dec. 8 ........................
Dec. 11 .......................
Dec. 19-20 .................


Levy-Gilchrist .....
Taylor ................
Indian River .......
Leon ................
Duval ..............
Orange-Osceola .
Broward ..............
Dade ................
Duval ..............
Duval ........ ......
Highlands-Glades
Broward .............
Monroe ................
Migratory Camps
Polk .....................
Nassau .................
Baker ..............
Clay .................
Nassau ...............
Hamilton................
Gadsden ..............
Jackson ...............
Bay ...................
Gulf .................
Franklin ...............
Wakulla ...............
Taylor ...............
Pinellas ...............
Hillsborough .......
Manatee ...............
Pinellas ...............
Glades .................
Lake ....................
Gadsden .............
TOTALS..................


3853
1436
499
4030
5419
2950
958
3994
670
48
750
257
280
1287
2110
1252
761
363
417
905
715
1511
1662
446
543
483
2375
1317
1026
273
544
54
227
223


43638 1


3601
1381
484
3675
3492
1996
575
3762
543
24
148
223
263
1212
2011
1161
702
348
391
881
678
1494
1648
443
540
479
2332
1306
1021
273
542
54
225
220


38128


93.5
96.2
97.0
91.2
64.4
67.7
60.0
94.2
66.1
50.0
19.7
86.8
93.9
94.2
95.3
92.7
92.2
95.9
93.8
97.3
94.8
98.9
99.2
99.3
99.4
99.2
98.2
99.2
99.5
100.0
99.6
100.0
99.1
98.7


3456
1329
460
3622
3343
1941
534
3592
505
21
144
213
250
1165
1940
1136
678
341
383
831
638
1432
1611
432
528
465
2259
1258
998
270
522
54
213
200


36764 1


145
52
24
53
149
55
41
170
38
3
4
10
13
47
71
25
24
7
8
50
40
62
37
11
12
14
73
48
23
3
20
0
12
20


1364


-'-- -' -


,







TUBERCULOSIS 7


Of the 38,128 satisfactory films taken during 1941, a summary of
the interpretations is as follows:
623- (1.6%) Suspicious of pulmonary tuberculosis.
641 (1.7%) Pathology in the heart or aorta.
100- (0.3%) Other pathology.
Unfortunately, all of the data is not yet available on the follow-up
studies of the above cases, so it is impossible at this time to give the exact
number of new cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis discovered by the
mobile x-ray unit.
An analysis was made of the cost per film of the miniature films.
The cost of the original equipment $10,147.31 was prorated over
a five year period. To the operating expenses for 1941 was added the esti-
mated portion of the director's and secretary's salary chargeable to the
x-ray unit. This gave a cost per film, based on the 38,128 satisfactory
films taken during 1941, of $.324. This figure includes the cost and
development of the films, which is approximately $.02 each.
The emphasis of the case finding program has been shifted to the
adult groups. In previous years the case-finding program among children
resulted in the discovery of very few active cases of pulmonary tuberculosis.
The results in Florida were similar to the findings in other states. An
analysis of the deaths from tuberculosis in Florida reveals that less than
2% of the deaths occur in children under 15 years of age. Consequently,
it was stressed that only children who were contacts or suspects should
be included in the x-ray survey; and that by x-raying adults in the low
income groups, a larger number of active cases of pulmonary tuberculosis
could be detected.
A simple, concise card was developed for the recording of active cases
of pulmonary tuberculosis in the county health unit. A similar card was
printed to record suspects or contacts under observation.
Dr. R. D. Thompson, Superintendent and Medical Director of the
State Tuberculosis Sanatorium, was again host to the Annual Tuberculosis
Institute for Directors of County Health Units on December 2-3, 1941.
This year the public health nurses were invited. Through the courtesy
of the Florida Tuberculosis and Health Association, Dr. R. Alec Brown,
supervisor of the Tuberculosis Control Section, State of Louisiana Depart-
ment of Health, was the guest speaker. Unfortunately, all of the counties
were not represented at this institute to hear the very inspiring talks on
tuberculosis given by Dr. Brown, Dr. Thompson and others.
During the year cases of pulmonary tuberculosis found by the Selective
Service System were reported to the State Board of Health. The directors







8 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941

of the county health units were notified of the cases from their' respective
counties, so that all rejectees who were found to have active pulmonary
tuberculosis on re-examination could be hospitalized or isolated. In the
counties having no health units, the state tuberculosis nurse consultant
followed up these cases, urging each one to consult his physician for further
study to determine if active pulmonary tuberculosis was present.
Throughout the year it was stressed that an x-ray film of the lungs
should be included in the physical examination of school personnel. In
the counties in which the county medical society so desired, these films
were taken by the mobile x-ray unit.
Valuable assistance in coordinating all resources for the control of tuber-
culosis in Florida has been given by the Tuberculosis and Public Health
Committee of the Florida Medical Association, the State Tuberculosis
Sanatorium, the Florida Tuberculosis and Health Association and other
official and volunteer agencies, as well as the private physicians throughout
the state. The director is very appreciative of this fine cooperation.









VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL

L. C. GONZALEZ, M.D., M.P.H., Director

The year 1941 was a busy one for the Division of Venereal Disease
Control. With the increased demand placed upon it as a result of the
Selective Service Act and the additions, as well as the complete establish-
ment of military camps, the problems of control created thereby necessi-
tated readjustments in the program. Most of the main activities of the
Division were concentrated in order to provide control facilities as effec-
tive as possible in those areas where military personnel are located. The
suddenness and the frequency with which military camps were organized
in the state created, and are still creating, serious administrative problems
which are accentuated by the fact that the resources at hand are not suf-
ficient to keep pace with them. Despite tremendous handicaps, the activi-
ties performed during the year 1941 have far surpassed those of any
other year and are continuing to increase at a rapid rate.
With the advent of mobilization commercialized prostitution raised its
ugly head and began to contribute serious obstacles to venereal disease
control. This challenge was quickly met the earlier part of the year by
instituting an intensive campaign for the repression of prostitution. The
campaign was begun in the important military areas in the state with all
available weapons at our command.
In the Jacksonville area repressive measures were challenged by the
prostitutes who instituted an injunction suit against the State Board of
Health. The suit was fought in court and ended with a favorable decision
being granted to the State Board of Health. .As a result of the court
decision, rules and regulations re-enforcing the old ones, with addition
of new ones, were formulated in cooperation with the Attorney General's
office and approved by the State Board of Health. The campaign for
the repression of prostitution still continues unabated and is meeting with
a fair degree of success in the large cities.
One of our chief difficulties, that of providing adequate venereal
disease control service throughout the state, is being gradually reduced.
During the year, six new county health units were organized, making a
total of thirty-two counties served with full time health services. Three
other counties have signified their intention of having full time health
units and are to establish such units the early part of 1942. Thus, half
of the counties in the state have provided for venereal disease control.
There remains the other half where venereal disease control service is not
[93






10 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


available, and the extent with which the Division can aid it, is to provide
drugs and laboratory services to private physicians.
The age old question of financial insufficiency received considerable
attention. A request of $75,000 for venereal disease control was made to
the State Legislature. Although the amount requested was not granted,
an increase of $12,000 over the previous appropriation was provided. This
amounted to $50,000. We were fortunate to receive a larger share of federal
funds and some local communities increased their appropriation for vene-
real disease control. Despite these increases, the funds available were not
sufficient to keep pace with the increase in activities.
Personnel--The personnel consists of the following: Director, Assis-
tant Director and Field Consultant, Nurse Consultant, one secretary, 2
senior clerks and 2 junior clerks.
Administration There has been a marked expansion of administrative
responsibilities. Besides performing routine duties of providing record
forms, statistical information, promoting education, providing consultative
service, as well as drugs and informational material to physicians, advising
local health units and taking care of intra and interstate referral corres-
pondence, the Division has assumed the added functions of compiling,
reporting, and analyzing the statistical information received on the examina-
tion of selectees and volunteers, distributing containers and forms to local
selective service boards, establishing close relations with the military, taking
an active part in the campaign to repress prostitution and aiding in the
establishment of new county health units. Due to the increased activities,
the U. S. Public Health Service has assigned seven liaison officers to the
state to perform venereal disease control duties around military areas.
A venereal disease control demonstration unit was organized in the city
of Jacksonville. This unit was established January 1, 1941 with the
express purpose of providing adequate venereal disease control in this im-
portant military area and to be used as an orientation center for the train-
ing of personnel in venereal disease control. Up to the present, three
follow-up investigators and two physicians have been given orientation
training. The unit is sponsored by the city of Jacksonville, county of Duval
with state and federal participation.
Diagnostic and Treatment Services--At the beginning of 19.40, there
were eighty-seven public clinics for the treatment of venereal diseases.
During the year 1941, the number of such clinics increased to 101. The
total increase does not altogether reflect the increase in venereal disease
control, as many small clinics were discontinued and were consolidated into
one large clinic. Graph 1 comparatively illustrates the number of clinics







VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL 11


GRAPH 1. NUMBER OF CLINICS ORGANIZED BY YEAR
1937-1941 INCLUSIVE
200.

180_
160.

140_

120 -

100.

o80 _

60_

40_
20_

0-
1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941


organized in the state since 1937. All the public health clinics
in the state affiliated with county health units are organized with the full
consent and cooperation of the local medical societies and in accordance
with the program prepared by the venereal disease control committee of
the Florida Medical Association and the State Board of Health. In all the
clinics the services of the private physicians are being utilized to a maximum
degree.
The increase in the venereal disease load is reflected in the monthly
average number of patients treated for syphilis in all the clinics in the
state. An average of 12,600 patients was treated monthly in all the clinics.
As can be seen in Graph 2, this average has increased constantly, but
in a more accelerating degree for 1941 than for the previous three years.
Seven thousand fourteen new cases of syphilis who presumably were under
treatment were also reported by private physicians. The number of patients
who are, or have been, under treatment during the year, therefore, is
close to 20,000.
From the beginning of the statewide venereal disease control program,
the emphasis of venereal disease control has been placed on syphilis. There
was to some extent some justification of this attitude three years ago, as
there was little from a public health standpoint that could be offered
public health officials in the control of gonorrhea. With the advent of






12 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


GRAPH 2. MONTHLY AVERAGE OF PATIENTS UNDER
TREATMENT FOR SYPHILIS AT CLINICS, BY YEARS,
1937-1941 INCLUSIVE
13.
12.

10-
9-



6.
5-
4.
3.
2.



1937 1938 1939 1940 1941

sulfonamide drugs, the situation has markedly changed. It is possible now
to attack gonorrhea with the same assurance as syphilis. Not only have
we the weapons to attack gonorrhea, but also because of the present crisis
gonorrhea has become the No. 1 venereal disease problem in our military
area. Being cognizant of this situation, the Division has constantly stressed
the necessity of concentrating a major share of the venereal disease control
efforts on gonorrhea control. Our activity along this line admittedly
began late in the year, but is rapidly gathering momentum. Table 1
illustrates the increase of cases of gonorrhea, as well as other venereal
diseases reported in 1941 over 1940. While there has been a decrease
in the reports of private physicians, the case load in clinics was more than
doubled.
Epidemiological Service There has been some material progress in
the follow-up investigation of delinquent venereal 'disease patients and
their contacts. Although additional personnel have been provided, parti-
cularly in military areas, the increased load created by the examination of
selectees and the multiplicity of problems, of which prostitution is the
major, arising as a result of the emergency, the increase in follow-up per-
sonnel and the stepping-up of their activity have not been able to cope
with the situation with any degree of satisfaction. Only six counties have,
besides the general nursing service, specialized venereal disease control







VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL


TABLE 1.-NEw CASES OF GONORRHEA, OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM, CHANCROID,
GRANULOMA INGUINALE, AND LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM REPORTED AC-
CORDING TO SOURCE OF REFERENCE FOR STATE-1940-1941.

-1940--
S|Lymnphogran-
Gonorrhea Ophthalmia Chancroid Granulomra oulma
Neonatorum Ingulnale Venereum
By Private Phys. 721 10 15 6 5
By Clinics ............ 1,149 7 95 15 16
TOTAL ........ 1,870 17 110 I 21 I 21
-1941--
By Private Phys. 542 11 11 12 16
By Clinics ........... 2,542 2 143 64 33
TOTAL ........ 3,084 13 154 76 49

epidemiologic service. These counties are Dade, Duval, Escambia, Hills-
borough, Leon, and Orange. The other twenty-six counties utilize their
general nursing service for venereal disease case finding and holding. It
is to be noted that the most important military establishments are located
within or near the above six counties.
During the year, a total of 18,697 epidemiologic investigations were
reported by all health departments and other clinics in the state, an increase
of 31.4% over 1940. Table 2 demonstrates these investigations in terms
of delinquency and contact investigations, as well as in terms of results
achieved.


TABLE 2.-CASE HOLDING AND CASE FINDING REPORT OF ALL VENEREAL DISEASES
BY SOURCE AND FOR THE STATE 1941.



TYPE of CLINICS
0 SO 0 r
TP of UNI .S PB,, U PQ PH
Clinics of Full-Time
Health Departments -
(89) 17,031 14,318 7,707 3,082 1,313 1,225
Independent Clinics I
Reporting-(12) 1,383 253 253 1,044 304 304
Total | 18,414 | 14,571 7,960 I 4,126 | 1,617 | 1,529
Apparently individuals appearing voluntarily at clinics are included.

Out of 4,972 selectees found infected with syphilis as of December 31,
1941 from the thirty-two counties having full time health units a total
of 3,426 or 70% have been investigated. Of the latter group 2,525 are
under treatment. In the remaining 35 counties having no health units






14 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


2,494 selectees were found infected with syphilis for the same period of
time. Of this number 222 or 9% were investigated and 188 of this group
were brought under treatment at clinics. The contrast in epidemiologic
investigations between organized and unorganized counties speak eloquently
for the necessity of having full time health organizations to supervise the
venereal disease control activities of a community.
Cooperation with Armed Forces Numerous conferences were held
with military officials, the majority of which were relative to the suppression
of prostitution in adjacent areas. One such conference was held in Panama
City at the suggestion of the military commander of the station located
in that city. The conference resulted in the passage of a city ordinance
aimed against prostitution.
The State Board of Health, through the facilities of the Division,
endeavors to cooperate at all times with the military authorities in the sup-
pression of prostitution and in any other venereal disease control problem
that may arise. All contacts of venereal diseases referred by the military
personnel for investigation have been followed through in all areas where
health services are available. It has been impossible in many instances
to locate such contacts because the information given was meager, but
local health units have devoted a large share of their venereal disease
control services to investigating source contacts of infected military personnel.
During the middle of the year, a statewide meeting of all local health
and law enforcement officials and military officers was called by the
Chairman of the Health and Housing Committee of the State Defense
Council for the expressed purpose of requesting the cooperation of all
these officials to suppress prostitution. Many attended this conference
and the provisions of the 8-point agreement relative to the control of vene-
real diseases adjacent to military areas were thoroughly discussed. Despite
the stand taken by the Army, Navy and public health authorities to sup-
press prostitution, many localities have continued to tolerate prostitution.
Educational and Information Activities-The educational activities of
the venereal disease control program are carried on by the Bureau of Educa-
tion in conjunction with the Division. A more detailed description of
these activities are found in the report of that Bureau. Mainly, the educa-
tional objectives were to provide factual information concerning venereal
diseases through all educational media at our disposal, to aid communities
in setting up venereal disease control services and to acquaint both lay
and professional citizens of the facilities available in the State Board of
Health.
During the month of June the venereal disease section, sponsored by
the Division in the Annual Short Post-Graduate Course offered by the







VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL


Florida Medical Association which was held in Jacksonville, was well-
attended by many physicians in the state. The Division also sponsored a
venereal disease section in the Annual Negro Medical Seminar which was
held in September. The majority of the Negro physicians in the state
attended the seminar.
Four nurses and three physicians were sent for additional training at
the St. Louis and Hot Springs short course venereal disease training centers.
At the legislative session which ended in June two independent pre-
marital bills were introduced without the consultation of the Florida Medical
Association and the State Board of Health. Both premarital bills were
never brought up for a vote. A prenatal bill and a bill making it manda-
tory to instill silver nitrate in the eyes of newborn babies were also pre-
sented with the endorsement of the State Medical Association and the
State Board of Health. Only the silver nitrate bill became a law. The
prenatal bill was unfortunately defeated. Nevertheless, sentiment in favor
of such a law is so great that there is no question that a similar bill will
be enacted into law at the next session of the legislature.
Laboratories Besides the normal increase in serologic examinations,
the state laboratories have performed serologic tests on all selectees and
volunteers called for examination. The latter produced such a tremendous
load on the laboratories that laboratory personnel have had to work over-
time and Sundays throughout the year. Despite the great increase in
volume of work, neither the quality of the tests nor the efficiency of
the laboratory has been sacrificed. The central laboratory has again been
approved by the National Evaluation Study Committee. All branch state
laboratories performing serologic tests are constantly checked with the
central laboratory for efficiency.
Every blood serologic examination receives two independent tests, a
Kahn standard and an Eagle diagnostic. Besides these routine tests, there

TABLE 3.- TYPE AND NUMBER OF EXAMINATIONS PERFORMED BY ALL THE STATE
LABORATORIES IN 1941 WITH A COMPARISON OF SIMILAR EXAMINATIONS PER-
FORMED IN 1939 AND 1940.
e o Year
Type of Examination j 1939 I 1940 ) 1941
Blood Serology ........................... 575,800 685,299 905,466
Spinal Fluid ............................... 3,114 4,321
Darkfleld .............................. ... 250 417
Gonorrhea Smears .................... 31,958 32,491 42,510
Gonorrhea Cultures .... ............. 97 1,731
Chancroid ...................................... 15 20
Granuloma Inguinale .................. 15






16 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


has been a relative increase in quantitation requests. Other services offered
by the laboratories are: spinal fluid examinations, darkfield examinations,
gonorrhea smears, culture examinations and blood level determination of
sulfonamides.
Distribution of Drugs There has been a steady increase in the dis-
tribution of drugs to all sources. In July the policy of allowing local health
departments to purchase drugs for their clinics was altered. During the
latter half of the year, the Division took over the purchase of all drugs
for all the local health departments, as well as for the distribution to
private physicians, hospitals, and other institutions. It was felt that by
centralizing the purchase and distribution of drugs not only would it materi-
ally be more efficient, but also because by one single agency having pur-
chasing power, better bids on drugs could be obtained. This was proved
by the fact that with the exception of mapharsen, the price of which is
standardized, all the other drugs, including distilled water were obtained
at a much cheaper price. It is estimated that over $2,000 has already been
saved, since the centralization of the purchasing of drugs began. The
marked increase in the dosage of drugs distributed this year is due in part
to the addition of local health department requests, which, previous to
July, were made independently. Two hundred sixty-two physicians re-
quested drugs from the Division.
TABLE 4.-DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS AS TO SOURCES AND KIND FURNISHED BY THE
DIVISION THROUGHOUT THE YEAR.
Distributed Distributed to
DRUG to Clinics, Hospitals Total
Private Physicians Others Distributed
Neoarsphenamine 21,230 doses 13,940 doses 35,170 doses
Sulfarsphenamine 500 doses 990 doses 1,490 doses
Mapharsen 31,480 doses 134,262 doses 165,742 doses
Tryparsamide doses 1,280 doses 1,280 doses
Bismuth in Oil 53,520 cc 170,000 cc. 223,520 cc
Sulfathiazole 89,000 gm 89,000 gm
Sulfapyridine 1,000 gm. 1,000 gm
Distilled Water 492,800 cc 430,200 cc 923,000 cc

Morbidity Reports There has been a slight increase over the previous
year in the total number of new cases of syphilis reported. This increase
is due to a greater number of new cases reported by clinics while there
has actually been a slight decrease in the reports of private physicians.
The larger number of cases reported during the year is not to be inter-
preted as indicating an increased incidence in the state, but rather as an
indication that unrecognized cases of syphilis were discovered and reported.
The reports also reflect the greater care clinics and physicians are
giving towards a better diagnosis of syphilis, which is illustrated in Graph







VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL 17

3. The concentration of control activities in those age groups which are
more important to bring under control is also seen in Graph 4. An' in-
crease in the number of young individuals, with a decrease in the older
age groups, was reported in 1941 over 19.40. As generally expected, the
greater number of cases is found in those age groups which are sexually
more active. Sixty-one per cent of the cases reported are in the age group
of 20 to 39. It is to be noted also that the greater proportion of cases
reported is of the Negro race-82% to be exact. The marked prevalence
of venereal diseases among the Negroes and the difficulties encountered in
applying preventive measures in this race constitute the major problem in
our venereal disease control program.






18 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


GRAPH 3. TYPE OF NEW SYPHILIS REPORTED WITH
PERCENTAGE OF EACH-FOR THE STATE,
1940 and 1941


1940-


LATENT
CONGENITAL
PRIMARY
SECONDARY
LATE ACTIVE
CENTRAL
NERVOUS SYSTEM --
NOT STATED I


1941







VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL

GRAPH 4. NEW SYPHILIS REPORTED IN FLORIDA
DURING 1940 AND 1941
SHOWING AGE DISTRIBUTION


0 10 20 40 40
AGE IN YEARS


50 AND OVER


I I I









TABLE 5.-REPORT OF NEW SYPHILIS ACCORDING TO STAGE OF INFECTION WITH RATE PER 10,000 POPULATION, PREGNANCY STATUS, RACE AND
SEX, SOURCE OF REFERENCE AND AGE GROUPS, BY COUNTIES AND FOR STATE 1941.
Source of
BY STAGE OF INFECTION BYRACE AND SEX Reference BY AGE GROUPS

C>O T White Colored Cl Pri- 10 20 30 40 0 5
-COUNTY 3 or vat to to to to to and o
S o S a a y Cn Inst. M.D 9 19 29 39 49 Over
dl Z o M FV M P g I

Alachua ............... 81 55 61 48 1 1 16 191 378 97.9 15 15 1 131 217 4 378 9 36 21 49 161 81 0 16 378
Baker* .................. 9 1 108 118181.2 2 1 7 31 3 23 118 117 1 4 9 26 24 10 4 118 r
Bay* ................ 25 39 50 2 70 4 13 14 241 116.5 4 54 55 4 86 1 241 111 130 10 32 95 70 24 10 241
Bradford* ............ 5 4 82 6123 0 9 45 284325.8 17 29 1 34 4 284 221 63 8 44 122 68 27 15 284
Brevard ................ 11 20 8 2 13 5 7 56 122 75.6 2 4 3 72 122 3 119 4 9 57 31 10 11 122
Broward* .............. 8 12 325 26 296 3 3 15 109 797 200.3 22 31 18 376 370 2 797 707 90 84 72 389 166 57 29 797
Calhoun ............... 1 1 1.2 1 1.2 1 1 1
Charlotte ........... 1 1 4 8 15 29 79.2 1 2 1 11 15 29 14 15 4 1 10 4 1 29 0
Citrus ..........-... 4 4 3 5 1 2 1 20 34.2 4 1 6 9 20 1 19 2 7 5 3 3 20
Clay* ................ 4 42 52 1 1 38 142219.5 11 49 75 142 108 34 21 15 51 39 11 142
Collier ................ 2 36 4 16 58113.7 1 1 38 16 2 8 12 46 26 6 14 9 3 6
Columbia ......... 1 0 8 5 5 3 44 4 4.8 22 9 3716 84 21 63 13 3 22 16 15 15 84
Dade* ............... 471 270 2831,132 251 79 43 82 617 3,228120.6 76 397 3031,2121,270 46 3,228 1,561,663 282 2621,325 824 315 220 3,228
DeSoto ................. 8 7 2 31 16 2 2 68 87.3 2 15 7 25 21 68 68 4 51 28 16 8 7 68
Dixie ................... 4 8 6 1825.6 2 3 4 8 18 18 4 8 3 1 2 18
Duval* .................. 226 256 807 102 848 46 64 72 552 2,973 141.5 54 25 237 1,2131,219 48 2,973 2,232 741 257 334,227 783 278 4 2,973
Escambia ........... 37 36 319 90 199 7 28 765102.5 29 8 87 279 303 11 765 652 11 3 92 384 173 52 25 765
Flagler* ............... 9 4 20 1 43 1 2 81269.3 2 1 40 40 81 69 12 1 2 29 23 9 17 81
Franklin* .............. 27 45 1 10 31 3 117195.3 1 12 13 36 56 117 113 4 3 14 42 29 20 9 117
Gadsden*............... 18 81 3 111 29 1 410 2 259 82.4 13 5 4 93156 1 259 246 13 4 37 117 63 20 18 259
Gllchrist* ....... 17 18 51 5 8 99232.9 5 7 5 32 55 99 99 8 7 35 29 13 7 99
Glades* ............. 1 56 3 20 76 1 1 174 633.9 6 7 74 85 2 174 174 17 19 66 46 18 8 174
Gulf ...................... 59 102 18 51 5 17 252362.5 26 12 10 60 4 252 128 124 12 23100 75 37 5 252
Hamilton* ............ 2 14 51 149 5 2 223228.1 8 3 109 102 1 223 220 3 3 27 74 6 36 27 223
Hardee .................. 1 3 333.5 9 4 11 10 34 34 13 1 12 5 2 1 34
Hendry ............ 1 1 3 5.7 2 1 3 1 2 3 3
Hernando ......... 20 35.5 1 14 5 20 20 5 13 2 20
Highlands* .......... 61 14 2 106 15 4 21228.2 1 3 10 76 117 5 211 151 60 19 27 82 47 27 211
Hillsborough*........ 91 105 573 35 626 10 11 96 280 1,827 101.7 25 225 223 700 668 11 1,827 1,434 393 59 193 739 494 230 112 1,827
Holmes ............... 1 4 63.9 4 1 6 1 5 1 4 1
Indian River ....... 1 2 6 7 4 1 20 47 52.5 I 2 20 25 47 4 43 5 4 20 12 3 3 47
Jackson* .............. 1 6 203 1 23 7101 342 99.3 4 19 40 112 171 342 333 9 96 64 80 58 22 22 342
Jefferson .............. 2 7 2 11293.1 4 5 3 8 66 112 112 1 141 45 6 7 9 112
Lafayette .............. 1 2 1 4 9.1 3 1 44 4 2 4
Lake* .................... 46 15 155 113 1 14 37 382140.2 3 14 9 172 179 8 382 2681 1141 3 54 153 8 30 12 3
Lee ......................... 1 5 3 9 10 1 5 28 62 35.5 6 4 31 21 62 21 60 7 5 18 221 9 1 62
Leon* .................... 6 6 59 68 257 11 31 4381138.4 24 3 15 131 2751 14 438 4271 11 81 581 163 95 31 10 438
68 27 1 311 438 138.4 31 1127







TABLE 5.-REPORT OF NEW SYPHILIS ACCORDING TO STAGE OF INFECTION WITH RATE PER 10,000 POPULATION, PREGNANCY STATUS, RACE AND
SEX, SOURCE OF REFERENCE AND AGE GROUPS, BY COUNTIES AND FOR STATE 1941.- (Continued.)
BY STAGE OF INFECTION BY RACE AND SEX Reference BY AGE GROUPS

COUNTY White Cored Clinic Pri- 0 10 20 30 40 50
d. 0 or vateto to to to to and
SI M F Inst. M.D 9 19 29 39 49 Over
T:i U U g M FI_
Lity 6 57 601 9 21 679 541.0 .248 31 103 679 668 11 175 46 159 130 100 69 679
Liberty ............. 1 12 1 1 1 1
Madison ..... 4 6 4 4 2 4 15 84 51.9 2 9 28 39 84 3 81 2 8 35 25 8 6 84
Manatee ............ 19 2 16 1 8 77 175 67.1 5 2 19 66 6 175 13 162 7 22 63 57 1 11 175
Marion .............. 23 76 11 27 3 1 118 262 83.9 6 9 4 138 102 9 262 5 27 24 24 18 55 19 2 262
Martin .... 14 1 14 8 2 6 4774.7 2 2 20 25 47 22 25 7 7 13 13 2 47
Monroe* 3 2 15 1 12 1 1 3 38 27.0 7 12 10 8 1 38 5 33 4 24 4 4 2 38
oNassau* 12 1 25 4 200 246227.2 1 13 9 90 123 11 246 231 15 25 13 105 62 2 15 246
Dkaloosa ...... .. 3.1 4 4 1 3 4
Okeechobee .......... 1 6 5 1 13 433 8 4 13 1 5 7 1 13
Orange* ........... 21 810 381 108 8 5 1 155 791112.9 12 691 54 335 329 4 79 735 56 37 347 222 86 42 791
Osceola ....... 1 1 46 48 47.4 21 5 25 161 48 36 12 9 4 14 7 11 3 48
Palm Beach 38 39 447 72 405 14 6 13 445 1,479184. 17 53 35 581 793 17 1,479 940 539 57 106 627 450 1621 77 1,479
Pasco ... ..- 2 2 1 2 5 1 66 47.2 1 1 6 29 19 2 66 3 63 1 11132 13 5 4 66
Pinellas* ............. 81 94 2661 118 423 24 14 41 26 1,087118.3 4 72 54 432 520 1,087 759 328 91 9 45 285 51 1,087
Polk...... 26 22 51193 92 3 13 1 91 4 48.6 2 41 45 146 13 6 421 362 5 26 34 152 124 4 37 421
Putnam .................. 1 9 2 2 5 2 3 21 451 24.1 1 3 8 13 20 1 45 2 43 1 8 15 14 7 45
St. Johns ........... 13 8 27 6 1 2 2 59 29.5 2 11 32 59 5 541 3 3 18 19 9 7 59
St. Lucie ........... 11 17 1 8 148 2 30 291929 2 5 741 141 3 229 102 1271 S0 16 84 59 21 19 229
Santa Rosa 3 1 49 2 19 1 1 5 8 50.4 11 12 25 32 1 81 78 3 2 13 20 7 1 81
Sarasota 5 6 16 45 101 1 2 3 54 2331144.7 3 23 161102 91 1 233 92 1 64 8 76 51 231 11 233
Seminole .... 33 16 14 7 46 5 2 1 21ST96.4 4 4 71 82 121 1 215 26 1891 93 10 36 44 22 10 215
Sumter ... 8 11 1 7 1 21 12 431 38.9 5 3 21 1 43 151281 1 3 14 1 41 6 43

40 62 1321 125 81 I 132
Taylor* ......... 11 10 13 1 39 3 4 51 1321114.1 2 9 211 40 62 132 12 7 221 6 53 30 8[ 3 132
Union ............ .......... 2 1 1 .6 3 1 4 1 3 1 2 1 4
Volusia .................. 8 8 8 31 8 2 57 129 24.0 313 1 1 421 55 1291 3 126 201 11 41 28 201 9 129
Wakulla .............. 94 94172.0 1 1 38 51 94 94 93 1 94
Walton* 121 4 2 1 1 5 431 30.2 13 21 12 1 I 431 391 4 10 3 21 4 3 2 43
Washington 1.......2 1.6 2 21 l|l 1 2
Out of State ........ 14 9 7 9 161 74 1 17 31 40 1 21 74 51 23 6 5 2 8 15 12 74
Camp Blanding .. 99 34 11 8 10 1 11 1761-- 82 1 841 10 176| 1761 14 21 122 16 3 176
Naval Air Base....1 22 51 51 271-- 241| 2 1 27 271 2 24 1 27


1.67311,74714,25512,90715,1821 246f 337 55314,432121,3321112.41 41611,87211,5441 8.29719,246 373121,332114,31817,01412,0491 2,04118,50615,33512,1971,204121,332
'Counties having full time health services.










MALARIA CONTROL

JOHN E. ELMENDORF, M. D., Director

In view of the inter-relationship of the activities of the Escambia County
Malaria Department and the new Bureau of Malaria Control in the State
Board of Health, this year's report will be rendered as one report, with
separate supporting sections, covering each division of activities.
During the beginning of the year of 1941, it became apparent that
many of the main objectives which prompted the formation of the demon-
stration unit in Escambia County had reached a degree of accomplishment,
or a stage of stabilization of procedure, which warranted the decision to
attempt the formation of a Bureau of Malaria Control within the or-
ganization of the State Board of Health.
Practical control operations in the city of Pensacola were estimated
as 70% completed.
The county screening program, though still not large in volume, was
organized in such manner that it only needed a continuance of education
and demonstration of the finished products of mosquito proofing and alloca-
tion of county funds for salaries of carpenters, to assure its final suc-
cessful outcome.
The department was functioning successfully for demonstration pur-
poses and as a training base.
The routine procedure for the collection of all field data had been
established and was operating.
Manufacture at the concrete plant of all concrete products needed for
drainage as applied to malaria control had been standardized.
The projects at the Naval Air Station and the new projects at Fort
Barrancas were progressing satisfactorily.
Controlled areas demonstrated almost a complete absence of all anophe-
lines for all seasons of the year.
A W.P.A. drainage project had been placed in operation in February
of 1941, sufficient in funds to last for more than the year 1941.
Plans were in progress for the drainage of the only remaining large
area still left undrained, from the originally planned program of drainage.
There remained to be accomplished another aim of the original con-
cept of the formation of the department; namely, the establishment of a
state-wide bureau for malaria survey and control.
[ 22 ]








MALARIA CONTROL


During the early part of the year, upon receipt of a request to the
Rockefeller Foundation from Dr. Pickett, State Health Officer, Dr. Ferrell
visited Jacksonville to discuss the possibilities of the formation of such a
bureau. As a result of these conferences, it was agreed and approved that
a Bureau of Malaria Control should be incorporated in the organization
of the State Board of Health, with the United States Public Health Service,
the Rockefeller Foundation, and the State Board of Health supporting the
bureau financially.
Dr. Elmendorf continued the direction of the Escambia County project
until July 1, when he was transferred to Jacksonville to assume the duties
of organization and direction of the new bureau.
An engineer, Mr. E. B. Barnawell, previously of the Georgia State De-
partment of Health was secured to serve as Director of the Department
under the administrative direction of Dr. Stebbins of the Escambia County
Health Department and under the technical supervision of the Bureau of
Malaria Control.
One of the particular duties of the new Bureau of Malaria Control is
the continued supervision of the Escambia County project.

BUREAU OF MALARIA CONTROL
A Bureau of Malaria Control was incorporated in the organization of
the Florida State Board of Health on July 1, 1941.
The total yearly budget for this bureau from July 1, 1941, to June
30, 19,42, is $14,800. The finances are provided as follows:*
U. S. Public Health Service................................$6,600.00
Florida State Board of Health............................ 6,600.00
The Rockefeller Foundation .................... 1,600.00 $14,800.00
The personnel of the bureau is to consist of:
A director, ad interim, loaned by the Rockefeller Foundation on a
yearly basis (salary and travel defrayed by the Rockefeller Founda-
tion separate from the budget).
From the budget:
An assistant director, to be trained to assume ultimately the position
of director; a sanitary engineer; an entomologist; a stenographer-clerk.

PROPOSED ACTIVITIES OF THE BUREAU
Collection of all pertinent statistical data on malaria incidence and
mortality in the state of Florida for orientation regarding the actual status
of the disease in the state and for comparison with other states;

*For details, see budget page 91.







24 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


Collection of all available entomological data from all sources indicating
the presence or absence of anopheline mosquitoes in all areas of the state;
Promulgation of all phases of education of the public in fundamental
knowledge of malaria and its control;
Execution of routine annual clinical and entomological surveys cover-
ing all districts where malaria exists;
Formulation of plans for control in accordance with clinical, entomo-
logical and hydrographic findings;
Promotion of actual control activities in localities through local ap-
propriations;
Inauguration and supervision of control works;
Training of a local personnel to continue essential activities;
During the period of the national emergency:
Precedence over all other activities to be given to work at military bases;
Surveys, entomological and clinical, to be performed where and when
desired at the bases;
Assistance in formulation of plans for control, to be furnished when
desired;
Training of military personnel in entomological procedures to be
arranged as well as supervision of all larvicidal programs when requested.

ORGANIZATION OF BUREAU
Office space was secured in the building of the State Board of Health.
Very little new equipment and furnishings had to be purchased, as an
agreement had been made with Dr. Stebbins, Director of the Escambia
County Health Department, whereby a good portion of our previous equip-
ment was transferred to Jacksonville. Sufficient was left in Pensacola for
all needs of the department there.
An assistant director, Dr. R. J. Patterson, was secured and assumed
his duties on July 1. In addition to the general training in all phases of
malariology received at this office, he was sent to Dr. Boyd's laboratory
and to Escambia County for field work. He was also instructed in the
work of the clinical survey and became very adept in this phase of
investigation.
It is unfortunate to report that after four months' training and be-
coming reasonably proficient, he resigned on October 31 to enter private
practice in one of the counties of Florida. At present, there are no
prospects of securing a capable physician to fill this position until July 1,
1942, when one man fairly well qualified will possibly be available.







MALARIA CONTROL


Mr. John A. Mulrennan was transferred from the Escambia County
Unit to occupy the position of entomologist of the state Bureau of Malaria
Control.
All attempts to secure a sanitary engineer have been unsuccessful and,
up until the present time, there are no prospects.
A technician for examination of blood smears was added to the per-
sonnel of the Bureau the first of October. Her salary is paid from the
Bureau of Laboratories.

SUPERVISORY BOARD OF CONSULTANTS
It was decided that a Board of Consultants named from prominent
malariologists in the country should assist the director of the new bureau.
It is planned that the Board will offer their critique relative to work ac-
complished, the measures used, plans for the future and allocation of
funds to the different phases of the Bureau's activities, give general
counsel on all allied activities of the Bureau, and, finally, approve
measures adopted for control.
Over and above the functions here cited, the Board of Consultants
could serve as a Board of Appeal in case of any disagreement in principles
governing the activities of the Bureau, or division of opinion regarding
methods to be used.
The Board of Consultants was named, after approval by the State
Health Officer, and consists of Dr. Mark F. Boyd, Dr. L. L. Williams,
Dr. W. V. King, and Mr. H. A. Johnson. Dr. T. Z. Cason, of Jackson-
ville, was named to represent the medical profession of Florida, but found
it impossible to accept this position and, to the present, no local man has
been found who is qualified for the position and at the same time whose
activities permit his assuming this duty.
A meeting of the Board of Consultants was called for August 23,
1941, to discuss a memorandum which had been prepared for them (see
report on page 84). Due to unavoidable circumstances, only one of the
Board, Dr. W. V. King, could meet with the personnel of the Malaria
Bureau and Drs. Pickett and Patterson on that date. Subsequently, the
memorandum was sent to each member and was approved by them with
only slight modifications.
At this first meeting, the belief was expressed that only one meeting
of the Board should be held each year, preferably during the winter after
the survey was completed and when plans for the following season were
to be outlined. No definite decision was made regarding this point and
accordingly, in view of the small attendance at this meeting, it is deemed









26 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941

TABLE 1.-DIsTRIBUTION OF MALARIA DEATHS BY COUNTIES, STATE OF FLORIDA,
SHOWING TOTAL DEATHS 10-YEAR PERIOD, AVERAGE DEATHS PER YEAR, RATE
PER 100,000 AVERAGE 10-YEAR PERIOD, (1931-1940), RATE PER 100,000 FOR
YEAR 1940.


Population Total Average Rate per 100,000
County Deaths Deaths
1940 10 years 10 years 10-year 1940
Period
Alachua .............. 38,724 89 8.9 24.5 0.0
Baker ................. 6,510 7 .7 10.3 0.0
Bay .................... 20,885 30 3.0 20.5 0.0
Bradford .............. 8,717 14 1.4 15.5 11.5
Broward .............. 40,637 29 2.9 10.3 2.5
Brevard ............... ,16,226 4 .4 2.7 6.2
Calhoun ............... 8,218 35 3.5 44.9 0.0
Charlotte ............ 3,663 7 .7 17.3 0.0
Citrus .................. 5,860 38 3.8 67.7 17.1
Clay ..................... 6,468 6 .6 8.6 0.0
Collier .............. 5,118 3 .3 7.3 0.0
Columbia ............ 16,939 68 6.8 44.5 17.7
Dade ................... 272,116 12 1.2 0.6 0.4
DeSoto ............... 7,792 11 1.1 11.8 0.0
Dixie ................... 7,080 60 6.0 92.1 70.6
Duval .................. 211,946 71 7.1 3.9 2.8
Escambia ............ 75,584 48 4.8 7.9 6.6
Flagler ................ 3,008 5 .5 17.5 0.0
Franklin .............. 5,991 34 3.4 52.8 33.4
Gadsden* ............ 26,952 124 12.4 44.4 3.7
State Hospital .... 4,502 7 .7 17.2 0.0
Gilchrist .............. 4,252 25 2.5 59.3 23.5
Glades ................ 2,749 2 .2 7.4 0.0
Gulf ................... 7,147 9 .9 17.1 28.0
Hamilton .............. 9,781 48 4.8 49.7 40.9
Hardee ............. 10,158 28 2.8 23.4 0.0
Hendry ................ 5,312 8 .8 18.3 18.8
Hernando ............ 5,651 15 1.5 28.1 17.7
Highlands ............ 9,246 3 .3 2.9 0.0
Hillsborough ...... 181,237 79 7.9 4.8 0.0
Holmes ............... 15,499 55 5.5 38.8 19.4
Indian River ..._ 8,983 0 .0 .0 .0
Jackson .............. 34,428 201 20.1 58.9 49.4
Jefferson ............ 12,032 126 12.6 94.9 16.6
Lafayette ........... 4,413 13 1.3 30.0 0.0
Lake ................... 27,255 46 4.6 16.9 3.7
Lee ...................... 17,547 23 2.3 13.9 5.7
Leon ................... 31,904 88 8.8 33.0 18.8
Levy ................... 12,550 68 6.8 52.9 8.0
Liberty ................ 3,752 12 1.2 30.6 0.0
Madison ........... 16,190 97 9.7 59.4 24.7
Manatee ............. 26,255 55 5.5 23.0 7.6
Marion ............... 31,272 137 13.7 44.4 16.0
Martin ................ 6,347 7 .7 12.6 0.0
Monroe ............... 14,117 0 .0 .0 .0
Nassau ............... 10,911 11 1.1 11.7 0.0
Okaloosa ............ 12,911 20 2.0 17.1 0.0
Orange ............... 70,681 25 2.5 4.3 0.0
Okeechobee ........ 3,000 1 .1 2.9 0.0
Osceola ................ 10,137 9 .9 8.8 9.9

*State Hospital Inmates Included 1931-1932.








MALARIA CONTROL


TABLE 1.- DISTRIBUTION OF MALARIA DEATHS BY COUNTIES, STATE OF FLORIDA,
SHOWING TOTAL DEATHS 10-YEAR PERIOD, AVERAGE DEATHS PER YEAR, RATE
PER 100,000 AVERAGE 10-YEAR PERIOD, (1931-1940), RATE PER 100,000 FOR
YEAR 1940 (CONTINUED).

s A e Rate per 100,000
Deaths Average
County Population 10 years Deaths 10-ear
1940 Total 10-years Period 1940

Palm Beach ........ 81,348 27 2.7 4.4 0.0
Pasco .................... 14,119 24 2.4 20.9 7.1
Pinellas ................ 93,226 45 4.5 6.4 0.0
Polk ...................... 86,903 70 7.0 8.3 3.5
Putnam ................ 18,720 36 3.6 19.3 0.0
St. Johns ............ 20,135 13 1.3 6.9 0.0
St. Lucle .............. 12,015 2 .2 2.2 0.0
Santa Rosa ........ 16,117 12 1.2 7.9 0.0
Sarasota .............. 16,223 12 1.2 8.2 6.2
Seminole .............. 22,313 32 3.2 15.0 4.5
Sumter ................ 11,092 42 4.2 39.6 9.0
Suwannee ............ 17,080 79 7.9 47.8 23.4
Taylor .................. 11,591 49 4.9 41.1 0.0
Union .................. 7,094 11 1.1 13.9 0.0
Volusia ................ 53,874 38 3.8 7.7 5.6
Wakulla .............. 5,463 38 3.6 66.5 0.0
Walton ................ 14,269 38 3.8 24.5 14.0
Washington ........ 12,302 38 3.8 30.4 16.3


advisable to have
arranged.


another meeting in the early spring if this can be


PRELIMINARY ACTIVITIES OF THE BUREAU
Pending the time for the inauguration of the clinical survey in late
September, October and early November, the personnel of the Bureau,
consisting of the Director, Assistant Director and Entomologist, was
occupied in the collection of statistical data relative to mortality of malaria,
entomological records pertaining to the epidemiology of malaria through-
out Florida and execution of an entomological survey in as many as
possible of those counties where control works were contemplated.

The mortality data collected covered the following main headings:

Mortality of malaria by counties for two ten-year periods (See Table 1).

Mortality of malaria in all states where malaria exists to a degree of
economic import (see Table 2).

Detailed studies were made in Pensacola as a continuance of previous
yearly studies. For the third year in succession, cases positive for parasites
have been extremely low, both in the splenic positive and splenic negative
groups. (See Table 3).








28 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941

TABLE 2.-MALARIA DEATH RATES*, (TEN-YEAR AVERAGE 1930-1939),
FLORIDA AND CERTAIN OTHER STATES

Data on which this table was based was secured for the National Malaria Society
by the Sub-Committee on Statistics and analyzed by the Bureau of Malaria Control
of the Florida State Board of Health.
United States Average........................ 2.6 North Carolina .................................. 2.1
Arkansas ................._.................... 26.8 Kentucky .............................. .... 1.9
M ississippi .............................. .............. 2.2 Virginia ........................................ .. 0.4
Florida ............................_...............17.3 California .......................................... 0.1
South Carolina ..................................16.2 Iowa ............................................. ..... 0.1
Georgia .............................................. 11.2 M aryland ......................................... 0.1
Louisiana ............................................10.6 M ichigan ............................................. 0.1
Alabama ....................................... 9.4 Nebraska ........................................ 0.1
Texast ...................................... ....... 6.6 N ew York ............... ......................... 0.1
Tennessee ...................................... 6.0 Pennsylvania ........................................ 0.1
*Number per 100,000 estimated population.
tBased on a 7-year average.

Sample entomological surveys were made in the following counties:
Calhoun, Citrus, Gadsden, Jackson, Leon, Madison, Taylor. These en-
tomological surveys conducted during 1941 were necessarily limited to
sample surveys. The area to be covered was too extensive to permit of
continued study to determine densities at different periods. (See Tables 4-9).

Special surveys were also made at the Naval Air Station, Jacksonville,
and Camp Blanding, Clay County; C. C. Camp No. 4448 in Taylor
County. (See reports, pages 70 to 75.)

After offering the services of the Bureau of Malaria to the Com-
manding Officers of the Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, and Camp Bland-
ing, the Bureau was requested by the officers in charge of each organiza-
tion to conduct the survey at these bases. The survey was made through
investigations for both larvae and adults. Adults were captured by light
traps, as no animals were available for animal bait traps.

It is an interesting commentary on the efficiency of the larviacidal work
in each of these bases that, as judged from larval and adult investiga-
tions, larvicidal programs were producing most efficient results. (For detail,
see report, pages 70 to 75.)

The surveys at both of these localities were conducted over a period
of weeks in order to make the sample of the mosquito fauna as comprehen-
sive as possible.









TABLE 3.-SPLENIC SURVEY WITH ASSOCIATED BLOOD EXAMINATIONS, CITY OF PENSACOLA, FALL OF 1941.


City
of
Pensacola



Hallmark .........

E. J. Wilson.....

Brownsville ....

McMillan .........

St. Michael's.....

Yniestra ...........

McReynolds .....

N. B. Cook ......

P. K. Yonge......


Totals ...........


*P. vivax.


Results of Splenic Examination



*04
0 -
I z z a z
x o .
.
0 6 6 6 0 6 6
2 z z z z z z; ^


2896 I


605 I


87

64

33

25

24

77

22

31

33


396


184 |
.


Results of Blood
Examination on Positive Spleen


.E
X
d
Z


5 2291 20.9 581 0
I I i I


0
6
z


-
24
I1
e.w


0.
O
0


581 24 1 I


Results of Blood Exam.
on 5th Neg. Spleen


440 1
I1


439 ]
1









TABLE 4.-ANOPHELINE ADULT AND LARVAE DENSITY, CITY OF TALLAHASSEE AND BLOUNTSTOWN, 1941.

Total Average
Time Number Number Total No. Total No. No., Average No.
Spent Number Stations Stations Female Female Crucians "Quads"
LOCATION Date in Stations Positive Positive Crucians "Quads" perMan-Hr. perMan-Hr.
Captures Inspect- for for from all From All From All From All
_(Minutes) ed Crucians "Quads" Stations Stations Stations Stations

Tallhassee .................. Sept. 11-12 193' 24 4 13 24 1205 7.46 374.61
(Leon County)

Blountstown ........... Sept. 25 43' 5 1 3 5 11 6.98 15.35
(Calhoun County)









Total Total Av.No. Total Number Larvae
Number Number Larvae From Areas Total Species Identified
LOCATION Date Breeding Strokes perand 4th Instar
Areas in All Square Instars 3rd and 4th star
Inspected Areas Meter in
AllAreas 1st I 2nd I 3rd I 4th Crucians "Quads"

Tallahassee ................ Sept. 13 3
(Leon County) 48 136.6 144 355 304 17 4 13
Blountstown .............. Sept. 23 1 2 5 0
(Calhoun County) 30 3.7 5 4 3







TABLE 5.- ANOPHELINE ADULT AND LARVAE DENSITY, CITRUS COUNTY, 1941.

Total Average
Time Number Number Total No. Total No. No. Average No.
Spent Number Stations Stations Female Female Crucians "Quads"
LOCATION Date in Stations Positive Positive Crucians "Quads" perMan-Hr. perMan-Hr.
Captures Inspect- for for from all From All From All From All
(Minutes) ed Crucians "Quads" Stations Stations Stations Stations
Hernando .................. Aug. 4 49' 5 1 5 2 73 2.4 89.4
Floral City ............... Aug. 5 31' 4 0 4 0 8 0 15.5
Inverness .......... Aug. 4 62' 8 2 8 7 63 6.8 60.9
Crystal River ........... Aug. 5 27' 4 0 4 0 25 0 55.5
Old Homosassa ........ Aug. 5 32' 3 0 3 0 383 0 718.1
Homosassa Springs .. Aug. 5 12' 2 0 2 0 18 0 90.0


Totals ............................... 218' 26 3 26 9 570 2.5 160.6


Total Total Av. No. Total Number Larvae
Number Number Larvae From Areas 3rd and 4th Instar
LOCATION Date Breeding Strokes per
Areas in All Square Instars Total Species Identified
Inspected Areas Meter in
All Areas 1st | 2nd | 3rd 4th Crucians "Quads"
Hernando .................. Aug. 4 1 24 134.3 116 118 97 72 3 69
Floral City ................ Aug. 4 1 16 94.0 70 64 30 24 2 22
Inverness .............. Aug. 4 1 40 92.4 96 106 140 120 8 112
Crystal River ............ Aug. 5 1 16 19.5 7 9 14 9 0 23
Old Homosassa ........ Aug. 5 1 16 31.5 16 21 19 7 0 26
Homosassa Springs Aug. 5 1 16 7.0 3 5 3 3 0 6
Totals .............................. 6 1 128 1 288 323 303 235 1 13 | 258
Average for Area 1 21.3 1 71.8 1 48.0 53.81 50.51 39.2 ( 2.2 | 43.0









TABLE 6.-ANOPHELINE ADULT AND LARVAE DENSITY, GADSDEN COUNTY, 1941.

Total Average
Time Number Number Total No. Total No. No. Average No.
Spent Number Stations Stations Female Female Crucians "Quads"
LOCATION Date in Stations Positive Positive Crucians "Quads" perMan-Hr. perMan-Hr.
Captures Inspect- for for from all From All From All From All
(Minutes) ed Crucians "Quads" Stations Stations Stations Stations

Quincy ........................ Sept. 26 148' 14 1 4 1 7 0.4 2.84
Midway ...................... Sept. 27 18' 3 2 1 3 2 10.0 6.66
Greensboro .......... Sept. 26 39' 5 2 0 17 0 26.15 0.0
Chattahoochee .......... Sept. 25 34 4 0 2 0 3 0.0 5.29


Totals ..................................... 239 26 5 7 21 12 5.27 3.01




Total Total Av. No. Total Number Larvae
Number Number Larvae From Areas Total Species Identified
LOCATION Date Breeding Strokes per 3rd and 4th Inst
Areas in All Square Instars
_Inspected Areas Meter in
AllAreas 1st | 2nd I 3rd 4th Crucians "Quads"


Greensboro .......... Sept. 26 1 16 94.5 72 67 32 18 18 0


Total .....................-....-.. 1 16 72 67 32 18 18 0

NOTE: Very dry at time of inspection.








t 9 ST 8 _6 S9S9 -8 -- ----..-. -_ __ gvl9A__v
0 S 2 6 9T 9 -.. .. ................................... S goj

0 0 01 0z 8 O5 8 T .................. uS I------
0 8 g 9 i 11 S 8 T Z'ag "o .......... opuono

,,spBn_,, | sr!onjo _q I P Ig pug I| ST sajviwv
u maja]? seayv papoadsui
.nqsuI qlt pure pJS SavXsa-I amrnb IV TuT s8ajv
~ p" -_ --------------lad BaioG1S 2uipaao.a al NOLLVOoQ'
pai juapI sapoadg S 0oj, U sBxV To aowlJ TaqibmN jaquinN
ua.'IBi .taaqumm IIoJ, ON *A lIqIOl TjOJTi




,9,T .. ........... o......... L
gv'g -'9T _T_ -S 8 81 _____ I______________

00'0 t't 0 z 0 1 ,6 I Idas -*...- ......... spuanS
W't IiT'I Z Z T 8 L tL gZ "da ................ apooo
st'IT SY8 6 Z T t ,g8 t *4da ------.......... aIAo
LZ'8 60'T 8 i t 8 "dS mre...........U .t8
suofiliUn sTIo!WT4S suoPlW8 suolBis ,,spmnZ),, sum!onUO pa (soanumn)
IIV mojaI nHv uoa-l IIv wuoia Ire moi joj Joj -ioadstmI sainTduo
H-TIeRjad ciJH-reWad ,,spvnZ),, Smr.onio aAo.!sof aA.!soA snoInB S uT asa NOIlJVOOYI
,,SP'enb,, sipntIo I1'emaaI aoIUmaA snUOT.'s8 BuoanBlg aqmnN luadg
0oN a.aoV 'oN "*ON IUO ON O IO.L aqmnN aoqumX amGM
aA MIL ____ -O
11.61l uxnoro Nosamvf *~usm(ia avAxyl aMv rmnrV am-iaHa0Nv-'^L UIZV.









TABLE 8.-ANOPHELINE ADULT AND LARVAE DENSITY, MADISON COUNTY, 1941.
Total Average
Time Number Number Total No. Total No. No. Average No.
Spent Number Stations Stations Female Female Crucians "Quads"
LOCATION Date in Stations Positive Positive Crucians "Quads" perMan-Hr. perMan-Hr.
Captures Inspect- for for from all From All From All From All
(Minutes) ed Crucians "Quads" Stations Stations Stations Stations
Madison ................ Aug. 11 92' 9 3 9 14 209 9.1 136.30
Cherry Lake ............. Aug. 12 48' 5 1 4 2 25 2.5 31.25
Sirmons .................... Aug. 12 44' 3 3 3 36 17 49.1 23.18
Greenville .................... Aug. 12 50' 6 3 4 33 13 39.6 15.60
Pinetta ........................ Aug. 12. 25' 3 0 2 0 5 0.0 12.00
Lovett .................. Aug. 13 30' 4 1 2 2 4 4.0 8.00
Lee .............................. Aug. 13 10' 1 1 1 7 5 42.0 30.00

Totals ..................................... 299' 31 12 25 94 278 18.9 55.8



Total Total Av. No. Total Number Larvae
Number Number Larvae From Areas Total Species Identified
LOCATION Date Breeding Strokes per
Areas in All Square Instars 3rd and 4th Instar
Inspected Areas Meter in
AllAreas 1st 2nd I 3rd ) 4th Crucians I "Quads"

Madison ...................... Aug. 11 4 108 30.9 164 181 50 23 6 67
Cherry Lake .............. Aug. 12 2 56 15.1 31 28 22 25 8 39
Sirmans .................. Aug. 12 1 16 19.0 7 9 12 10 18 4
Greenville ............... Aug. 12 2 32 122.0 152 143 105 88 74 21
Pinetta ........................ Aug. 12 2 32 22.8 26 34 16 15 12 19
Moseley Hall .............. Aug. 13 1 16 20.5 9 12 13 7 12 8

Totals ...................................... 12 260 | 389 407 218 I 168 130 158
Average for Area ................I 21.7 36.4 | 32.4 33.9 18.2 1 14.0 1 10.8 | 13.2







TABLE 9.-ANOPHELINE ADULT AND LARVAE DENSITY, TAYLOR COUNTY, 1941.
Total I Average
Time Number Number Total No. Total No. No. Average No.
Spent Number Stations Stations Female Female Crucians "Quads"
LOCATION Date in Stations Positive Positive Crucians "Quads" perMan-Hr. perMan-Hr.
Captures Inspect- for for from all From All From All From All
(Minutes) ed Crucians "Quads" Stations Stations Stations Stations

Mandalay .................. Aug. 15 32' 1 1 1 5 218 9.37 408.75
Perry ........................ Aug. 15 16' 2 2 2 6 27 22.50 101.25
Salem ................... Aug. 14 7' 1 0 1 0 25 0.0 214.29
Carbur ........................ Aug. 14 10' 1 0 1 0 24 0.0 144.00
Dead Man's Bay ........ Aug. 14 17' 2 1 2 2 10 7.06 35.30


Total ................ ................. 82' 7 4 7 13 304 9.51 222.44


Total Total Av. No. Total Number Larvae
Number Number Larvae From Areas Total Species Identified
LOCATION Date Breeding Strokes per
Areas in All Square Instars 3rd and 4th Instar
Inspected Areas Meter in
AllAreas 1st | 2nd 3rd 4th Crucians "Quads"

Perry ........................ Aug. 15 4 32 71.0 96 90 62 36 11 36
Salem C.C.C. .............. Aug. 14 1 40 66.8 108 97 76 53 8 45
Dead Man's Bay........ Aug. 14 1 16 16.5 12 9 7 5 4 8


Total ........................................ 6 88 216 196 145 94 23 89


Average for Area............. 14.7 59.0 36.0 32.7 24.2 15.7 3.8 14.8







36 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


The surveys at the military bases offered an excellent opportunity to
instruct the personnel encharged with the entomological surveys at these
bases as well as to inform the foreman of the gangs conducting larvicidal
operations regarding some of the fundamentals of the manner of conducting
mosquito investigations and the most effective manner of the application of
larvicide.
During the course of the survey, the advantage of drains permanently
lined with concrete linings was stressed as well as the necessity of making
provision in the bottom of the ditches for a small channel to concentrate
and remove quickly all residual water as contrasted with storm flow.
The entomological investigations for the whole state, as conducted
during the summer months, has demonstrated that, if detailed studies are
desired, the bureau will need a larger staff of entomologists during the
summer months to make conclusive investigations for determination of
densities of anophelines to serve as a yardstick for measuring results of
control work and for other scientific purposes. This cannot be accomplished
with the present staff of the Bureau and at the same time permit the
performance of routine investigations throughout the whole state. During
the summer months it may be possible to secure college men to work in
this branch at moderate salaries.

SUPERVISION OF WORK IN ESCAMBIA COUNTY
During the summer and early fall, repeated visits were made to Escambia
County to assist Mr. Barnawell in his orientation in his work and his
relations to the officials and to inspect the progress of activities, both of
the drainage program as well as the mosquito proofing program in the
county.

SPECIAL TRAINING OF PERSONNEL IN ENTOMOLOGICAL PROCEDURES
AND IDENTIFICATION OF LARVAE AND ADULTS
During the summer and fall, the facilities of this office and its per-
sonnel was placed at the disposal of the State Health Officer for the
training of the engineers who were accredited by the United States Public
Health Service, through Dr. L. L. Williams, to the Engineering Bureau
of the State Board of Health. These engineers as assigned were trained
in the office in the procedures used in the identification of the mosquitoes
common to Florida, as well as given field instruction.

THE CLINICAL SURVEY
The clinical survey, associated with its natural complement, entomolo-
gical investigations, was conducted this summer and fall to the extent that







MALARIA CONTROL


the available personnel and time permitted. Once again the month of
October, with the last week in September and the first week in November,
appeared from all evidence to be the period of greatest incidence of the
disease in Florida and was accordingly selected as the period for clinical
investigation.
The clinical investigations consisted of the examination of school chil-
dren between the ages of five to twelve, inclusive, by means of splenic
examination with a blood smear taken on each case with positive spleen
and on each fifth case found negative to this enlargement.
During the early stages of the survey, Dr. Elmendorf worked together
with Dr. Patterson, the assistant director of the bureau, demonstrating
splenic examinations and the details of conducting the splenic and blood
surveys. As soon as Dr. Patterson was qualified, the examiners divided into
two groups in order to cover the field more quickly. With the resignation
of Dr. Patterson on October 31, the remainder of the survey was performed
by Dr. Elmendorf.
In continuation of the records secured in Pensacola over the last four
years, a comprehensive survey of 2,896 children was made in the schools
of Pensacola in order that records on this investigation might be complete.
Nine counties throughout the state of Florida were examined and the
following table demonstrates the general results of this survey. (For detail,
see Table 10.)
SPLENIC EXAMINATIONS.
Io Number Number Number Per cent
County Examined Positive Negative Positive
Citrus ....................... 385 146 239 37.9
Leon .............................. 656 228 428 34.7
Gadsden ..................... 708 231 477 32.6
Taylor ...................... 587 186 401 31.6
Madison ...... ............ 571 153 418 26.8
Jackson ........................ 804 207 597 25.7
Jefferson ...................... 374 95 279 25.4
Escambia ........................ 2896 605 2291 20.9
Bradford ....................... 623 99 524 15.8
Totals ........................ 7604 1950 | 5654 25.6

Bradford County was included in the survey because of its proximity to
Camp Blanding and, since mortality rates have always been low in this
county, it afforded an opportunity to check the value of splenic findings
here against the other counties with much higher rates. It is interesting
in this association that the results of splenic findings in Bradford are the
lowest for any county examined.
The results of the surveys in all the counties show a rather high in-
cidence of splenic enlargement and it would appear that this situation may







38 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


result in the not distant future in a considerable increase in clinical mani-
festations of malaria in Florida.
It is interesting that once again blood positives on splenic positives is
extremely low as well as blood positives on children negative to splenic
examination. From 1,950 cases positive for splenic enlargement, 189,4
blood smears were examined and only 14 were found positive. From
5,654 children negative to splenic enlargement, 1,082 blood examinations
were made and 3 were positive.
The contention is raised by some that the failure to find parasites is
an indication that the splenic enlargement is not caused by malaria, but
in view of the findings in Pensacola where blood positives dropped from
22 percent in 1937 to 4.6 percent in 1938 to 0.0 percent is 1,939, the writer
believes that these spleens are caused by malaria but parasites are not demon-
strable at certain periods, seasons, or years.
The blood findings in the State Board of Health Laboratories at
Pensacola, Tallahassee, Tampa, Jacksonville, and Miami are shown in
Tables 11 and 12. The findings in these tables represent the results of
blood examinations for malaria parasites from cases who were sick and
had examinations made to determine the presence or absence of malaria
parasites. They are, in general, referred to the laboratories by local phy-
sicians, but in some instances come to the laboratory of their own volition.
The district which is most nearly comparable to Pensacola is Talla-
hassee. It is interesting that the Tallahassee area was the only one to show
any appreciable increase in percentage of blood positives for 1941, as con-
trasted with 1940, and that Pensacola, over this period, showed a decrease
in incidence as compared with 1940 and dropped below the incidence for
Tallahassee.
The test of the effectiveness of malaria control drainage activities in
Pensacola will become apparent when the next epidemic period of malaria
occurs in Florida. As judged by entomological findings in controlled
areas, it would be expected that Pensacola would show considerably less
incidence than other comparable localities.
The increase in percentages of blood positives in Tallahassee this year
and a lowered incidence in Pensacola is, of course, only suggestive.
An experiment is planned to demonstrate whether continued parasitic
infection, undemonstrated by blood smears, is the cause of persistent
splenomegaly.
Cases of splenomegaly will be selected where three or more children
with enlarged spleens reside is the same household. These children will
be divided into two groups by houses. Splenic and blood examinations










TABLE 10.- SPLENIC FINDINGS WITH ASSOCIATED BLOOD EXAMINATIONS, BY COUNTIES IN FLORIDA, FALL OF 1941
Results of Blood Results of Blood Exam.
Results of Splenic Examination Examination on Positive Spleens on 5th Negative Spleen


County 2 2

Locality

Citrus 0 0 6 6 6 6 0 6 0 6 g

Hernando ........ 21 10 4 5 1 11 47.6 10 0 10 1 0 1
Homosassa...... 71 33 14 16 2 1 38 46.5 32 0 32 1 6 0 6
Floral City ...... 40 16 7 7 2 24 40.0 15 0 15 1 4 0 4
Crystal River ..71 27 15 11 1 44 38.0 27 0 27 8 0 8
Lecanto ............ 53 10 6 3 1 43 18.9 10 0 10 8 0 8
Inverness ........ 129 50 21 24 5 79 38.7 48 0 48 2 16 0 16
Totals ..........| 385 1 146 | 67 [ 66 | 12 1 239 | 37.9 142 0 142 | 4 I43 0 43



Bradford
Lawt ........... 162 34 18 12 4 128 20.9 34 0 34 23 0 23
Hampton ........ 78 11 4 6 1 67 14.1 11 0 11 13 *1 12 7.7
Starke ........ 383 54 31 16 7 329 14.1 54 0 54 64 0 64
Totals ........ 623 99 1 53 34 12 | 524 15.9 99 0 99 I 100 J 1 99 1.0
p. vivax.









TABLE 10.-SPLENIC FINDINGS WITH ASSOCIATED BLOOD EXAMINATIONS, BY COUNTIES IN FLORIDA, FALL OF 1941.-(Continued.)

Results of Blood Results of Blood Exam.
Results of Splenic Examination Examination on Positive Spleens on 5th Negative Spleen

County > .<
and > Z; >
Locality :. '

Gadsden 6 6 6 6 6 o d d

Federal Roads 28 13 10 3 15 46.4 13 *1 12 7.7 3 0 3
Midway ............ 16 6 4 1 1 10 37.5 6 0 6 2 0 2
Havana ........... 156 58 29 24 5 98 37.2 58 tl 57 18 0 18
Quincy ............ 245 80 60 16 4 165 32.7 77 t3 74 3 3.9 32 1 31 3.1
Chattahoochee 129 38 22 14 1 1 91 29.4 37 0 37 1 17 0 17
Greensboro ...... 134 36 23 12 1 98 26.8 29 0 29 7 24 0 24
Totals .......... 708 231 148 70 12 1 477 32.6 220 5 215 11 2.271 96 1 95 1.0
*No. 1 Spleen, P. malaria.
tP.D.I., Spleen, P. vivax.
$3 P.D.I. Spleens, P. vivax, 2 P. falciparum.

Jackson
Marianna ........ 190 52 26 24 2 138 27.4 52 0 52 26 0 26
Alford ............. 128 33 14 18 1 95 25.8 32 2 30 1 6.3 18 0 18
Graceville ........ 129 33 16 16 1 96 25.6 33 0 33 19 0 19
Sneads ............ 196 50 20 29 1 146 25.5 49 0 49 1 26 0 26
Cottondale ...... 161 39 10 23 5 1 122 24.2 38 5 33 1 13.2 23 0 23
Totals ..........1 804 1 207 ( 86 [ 110 | 9 1 2 597 25.7 204 7 197 1 3 | 3.4 112 0 | 112 1
Cottondale: 2 No. 1 Spleens, P. vivax; No. 2 Spleen, P. vivax; 2 No. 2 Spleens, P. falciparum.
Alford: No. 1 Spleen, P. vivax; No. 1 Spleen, P. falciparum.







TABLE 10.- SPLENIC FINDINGS WITH ASSOCIATED BLOOD EXAMINATIONS, BY COUNTIES IN FLORIDA, FALL OF 1941.-(Continued.)

Results of Spleni Examination Results of Blood Results of Blood Exam.
Results of Splenic Examination Examination on Positive Spleens on 5th Negative Spleen


County ( 0 a-
and a .
Locality M M 410 --

Madison o d o o o o6 o 6 o 6 6 S 6

Pinetta .......... 125 50 21 24 5 75 40.0 49 0 49 1 13 0 13
Greenville .... 120 43 18 19 5 1 77 35.8 43 0 43 14 0 14
Madison ........ 152 43 23 18 2 109 28.3 43 0 43 40 0 40
Enterprise ... 70 7. 4 2 1 63 10.0 7 0 7 9 0 9
Lee .................... 104 10 9 1 94 9.6 9 0 9 1 18 0 18
Totals ..........1 571 153 1 66 1 72 12 2 11 418 26.8 151 | 0 151 2 | 94 0 94








Jefferson
Monticello ...... 183 37 20 14 3 146 20.2 35 0 35 2 30 0 30
Wacissa .......... 42 17 7 8 2 25 40.5 17 0 17 5 0 5
Bethel ........... 36 12 6 6 24 33.3 12 0 12 4 0 4
Waukeenah .... 24 8 3 5 16 33.3 8 0 8 3 0 3
Lamont ......... 30 9 4 3 2 21 30.0 9 0 9 4 0 4
Aucilla ............ 59 12 7 4 1 47 20.3 12 0 12 9 0 9
Totals ..........1 374 95 | 47 | 40 8 1 279 25.4 1 93.| 0 93 21 1 55 | 0 55









TABLE 10.-SPLENIC FINDINGS WITH ASSOCIATED BLOOD EXAMINATIONS, BY COUNTIES IN FLORIDA, FALL OF 1941.-(Continued.)

Results of Splenic Examination Results of Blood Results of Blood Exam.
Examination on Positive Spleens on 5th Negative Spleen

County 1 r -
and > (U >
Locality .| "" Q "
^ ( Z '- 4g e' ( 0 -
Taylor 8 o 8 o o o '6 8 8 o 8
z z z z z z z z w z z
Pine Grove ...... 21 11 4 6 1 10 52.4 11 0 11 2 0 2
Cabbage Grove 48 23 17 5 1 25 47.9 23 *1 22 4.3 5 0 5
Steinhatchee .. 42 20 10 8 2 22 47.6 20 0 20 3 0 3
Pleasant Grove 30 14 7 5 2 16 46.7 12 0 12 2 3 0 3
Salem .............. 66 28 15 12 1 38 42.4 27 0 27 1 6 0 6
Shady Grove .. 42 16 12 4 26 38.1 16 0 16 5 0 5
Perry ................ 338 74 54 18 2 264 21.9 72 tl 71 2 1.4 47 0 47
Totals .......... 587 186 119 58 | 9 | 401 31.7 181 2 179 5 1.1 71 0 71
*Cabbage Grove: P.D.I. Spleen, P. vivax
tPerry: P.D.I. Spleen, P. falciparum


Leon
Caroline I
Brevard ...... 199 78 34 35 9 121 39.2 75 0 75 3 22 0 22
Sealey
Memorial .... 259 60 31 24 5 199 23.2 59 0 59 1 29 0 29
Woodville ........ 63 30 11 14 5 33 47.6 30 0 30 6 0 6
Miccosukee .... 42 23 13 9 1 19 54.8 23 0 23 3 0 3
Chaires ............ 51 19 13 5 1 32 37.3 19 0 19 6 0 6
Fort Braden .... 42 18 11 6 1 24 42.9 17 0 17 1 5 0 5
Totals ..........1 656 I 228 1 113 93 | 22 | 428 34.8 223 0 223 5 1 71 0 71
____ ____ __ 3j 0223 5~ 711 171









TABLE 11.-RESULTS OF BLOOD EXAMINATIONS FOR MALARIA PARASITES AS PRACTICED ROUTINELY IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF HEALTH -BY YEARS.
Jacksonville 1932 | 1933 1934 1935 I 1936 1937 ) 1938 1939 1940 1941
Positive 156 910 2,104 1,115 1,172 700 227 193 201 127
Negative 5,404 7,380 22,580 16,916 13,988 14,180 13,853 13,317 14,329 10,481
Total 5,560 8,290 24,684 18,031 15,160 14,880 14,080 13,510 14,530 10,608
% Positive 2.80 10.97 8.52 6.18 7.73 4.68 1.61 1.42 1.38 1.19
Miami
Positive 3 4 1 8 10 2 5 1 7 3
Negative 235 234 527 411 437 434 357 271 319 386
Total 238 238 528 419 447 436 362 272 326 389
% Positive 1.26 1.68 0.19 1.90 2.02 0.45 1.38 0.36 2.14 0.77
Tampa
Positive 132 430 542 647 335 220 71 30 18 20
Negative 1,938 2,304 3,287 3,587 3,055 3,666 2,253 2,404 2,377 1,795
Total 2,070 2,734 3,829 4,234 3,390 3,886 2,324 2,434 2,395 1,815
% Positive 6.37 15.72 14.15 15.28 9.73 5.65 3.05 1.23 0.75 1.10
Tallahassee
Positive 90 352 507 278 371 219 55 69 108 280
Negative 1,392 1,743 2,264 2,112 2,213 2,229 1,817 1,754 2,257 2,533
Total 1,482 2,095 2,771 2,390 2,584 2,448 1,872 1,823 2,365 2,813
% Positive 6.07 16.80 18.29 11.63 14.35 8.85 2.93 3.78 4.56 9.95
Pensacola
Positive 28 51 79 119 279 120 75 86 81 32
Negative 453 533 678 560 855 1,010 1,027 932 1,014 929
Total 481 584 757 679 1,134 1,130 1,102 1,018 1,095 961
% Positive 5.82 8.73 10.43 17.23 24.60 10.61 6.80 8.44 7.39 3.32








TABLE 12.- RESULTS OF BLOOD EXAMINATIONS FOR MALARIA PARASITES AS PRACTICED ROUTINELY IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE FLORIDA t
STATE BOARD OF HEALTH--BY MONTHS.

1932 Jacksonville Miamit I Tampa Tallahassee Pensacola
I Pos Neg Total % Post Pos Neg Total % Post Pos Neg Total % Posj Pos Neg Total % Pos| Pos Neg Total % Pos
Jan. 7 394 401 1.74 0 29 29 0.00 12 143 155 7.74 1 96 97 1.02 1 19 20 5.00 z
Feb. 12 377 389 3.08 0 21 21 0.00 7 206 213 3.28 1 91 92 1.08 1 30 31 3.22
Mar. 9 368 377 2.38 0 7 7 0.00 5 128 133 3.76 6 84 90 6.66 0 55 55 0.00
Apr. 2 367 369 0.54 0 16 16 0.00 4 164 168 2.381 6 117 123 4.87 3 35 38 7.89
May 7 477 484 1.44 0 32 32 0.00 5 187 192 2.60 2 94 96 2.08 3 40 43 6.97
June 14 524 538 2.60 0 21 21 0.00 11 225 236 4.66 1 136 137 0.73 0 48 48 0.00
July 11 652 663 1.65 0 19 19 0.00 5 210 215 2.32 10 161 171 5.84 2 70 72 2.77 d
Aug. 21 668 689 3.04 0 21 21 0.00 19 188 207 9.17 10 141 151 6.62 2 52 54 3.70 M
Sept. 19 501 520 3.65 1 22 23 4.34 10 138 148 6.75 16 105 121 13.22 5 36 41 12.19 '
Oct. 17 400 417 4.06 1 16 17 5.88 17 131 148 12.16 18 179 197 9.13 10 36 46 12.74 0
Nov. 26 345 371 7.00 0 15 15 0.00 27 110 137 19.70 14 141 155 9.03 1 18 19 5.26
Dec. 11 331 342 3.21 1 16 17 5.88 10 108 118 8.47 5 47 52 9.61 0 14 14 0.00
Total 156 5,404 5,560 2.80 3 235 238 1.26 132 1,938 2,070 6.37 90 1,392 1,482 6.07 28 453 481 5.82

1933 | I I
Jan. 6 310 316 1.89 0 8 8 0.00 17 102 119 14.28 8 92 100 8.00 0 15 15 0.00
Feb. 10 290 300 3.33 0 8 8 0.00 9 107 116 7.75 9 95 104 8.65 0 15 15 0.00
Mar. 1 356 357 0.28 0 12 12 0.00 6 153 159 3.77 8 93 101 7.92 0 27 27 0.00
Apr. 5 347 352 1.42 0 29 29 0.00 7 125 132 5.30 11 101 112 9.82 2 23 25 8.00
May 8 465 473 1.69 3 28 31 9.67 11 185 196 5.61 7 156 163 4.29 0 32 32 0.00
June 27 757 784 3.41 0 14 14 0.00 31 212 243 12.75 18 155 173 10.40 3 45 48 6.25
July 97 917 1,014 9.56 0 18 18 0.00 58 263 321 18.07 73 193 266 27.44 9 63 72 12.50
Aug. 137 1,018 1,155 11.86 0 16 16 0.00 51 278 329 15.50 36 124 160 22.50 5 94 99 5.05
Sept. 176 881 1,057 16.65 0 30 30 0.00 56 244 300 18.66 78 225 303 25.74 11 82 93 11.82
Oct. 171 844 1,015 16.84 0 14 14 0.00 58 254 312 18.59 49 281 330 14.84 13 75 88 14.77
Nov. 202 642 844 23.93 1 26 27 3.70 80 186 266 30.07 42 149 191 21.99 6 44 50 12.00
Dec. 70 553 623 11.23 0 31 31 0.00 46 195 241 19.08 13 79 92 14.13 2 18 20 10.00

Total 910 7,380 8,290 10.97 4 234 238 1.68 430 2,304 2,734 15.72 352 1,743 2,095 16.80 51 533 584 8.73










611 1911T 068'g

S'89601 TET
21 81TS 9SS
ZI 06'PT 9L
T 168'91 VZT
K IN68 91S
LT tnPT 9LS
9 1T-6 902
T LFL 18S
T OLIS 801
0 6V'ST 9g1
s SL'9 t01
0 90"O ST


STT'g 8LA

LIt PT
TO 99

S0o TS
SS OTS
8SLZ 8S
09S TS

601 LT
A6 A
OVI 8


9'6g 22~

L0"8T L92
8'PT L99
60'ST1 VI
L'2LT 81
99'61 6TV
9T'~1 92U
00'ZT 098

T'TT TT81
gP.'* Thi


L899'

S81
10~
61T
102
962
8SM
911
282
808
9Lg
291


611

9g
22


SS

92
92
9S


111

9S

L2
ZE
z2
61
99
90
12

06


8T'9
55-S
19'6
21'9
g'6
8S2S
21'9
26'L
96'"
LLIP
!,I'
1A'1
s,'P
T^s-^


TS0'8 916'91 TTII'

gLO'g T96'1 TIT
S8L'T TT9'T ZLT
999'1 t9g'T ZOT
nL'T LSs'1 1ST
T08'T1 OL'T L6
0O9'T 099'1 00T
988'T 9LZ'T OTT
ZS9'T 9V'1T 9L
L1'1 8Le'1 69
SS6 188 IT
8Sgg' 9TL'T Zg
I.RO'T fie.'T R^


"AON
"o30
Inda
.Snr

aunr

"jdy


*isre


S'OT LAL 8L9 6L 16'-8T TLL'Z S9g'' LOg ST-'t 6M8'S LS~'S Z \9 6T'0 8 AS L9 Z-'8 189'Z 08'Z 0T'I WIjro,
- I--------------------------------I
M9' O9 60 TI 9'"TI TIT L6 K1 O'PT O3 88T1 S 00'0 g9 9 0 9s'6 S99 T69 T9 "oaa
8OS'0 S8 99 LT 1'2S 9C S 161M S S 6"O 9 12 699 99 00'0 9S 9S 0 0'2T1 66 098 921 'AON
S9'LZ 601 6L 09 S9L'82Z 99 89 OT 01 L'2 1 901 tSS ZL 00-0 P zt 0 6'21T Lg:' ST1'Z 'PZ 100
OL'tT 89 89 1OT L9*12 I 681 Z9 Z'LT 601 8SS TL 00O0 19 Ti 0 STOT LO'S Z8T'S S S 'daSS
98W' S01 66 t L8'6I 1TS LC 29 ZL'8I 8S2 9S Z8 00-0 9 I 9t 0 T168 680'8 896'g TILZ "nV
9Z'8 601 OOT 6 66'T1 LLZ TPZ 92 tL'V1 LO LtS 09 00'0 A9 A9 0 t69 TL'T OZL'T TIT .9nt
t'i A8 s 8 2 6g'LI 99Z OZZ 9 ITO'TTII 962 6U 00"0 29 S9 0 8S'L 2S2'1 9SZ'1 96 eunr
88'9 LIP T 2 66'1 TP9Z ZZ SS TT'TT ZI'II ~ 82 00"0 N le 0 TI' S1'1T LLT'T 99 XTBH
Z6'1 Zg Ig 1 19961 6ZZ :PST 9 6'9 9SZ ZZZ 00'0 6U 61 0 ZO' 686'T 606'T 08 "**dv
00"0 6Z 6Z 0 g6'9I TO0 691 ZS L"*8 LTZ 86T 6T1 Z'Z T 18 'L T 01'S 6ST1' 99Z XU"r.
00'O Oz o 0 101'TT 9S1 TT 91t 8'L 181 89T 1 T 00'0 ZZ ZZ 0 PE'L MZV'Z g '' 8AT *Za
00'9 Oz 61 T PT'OT 8ST1 1T :T OZ'ZT STZ L81 9Z 00'0 6Z 6Z 0 LS'9 PZS'T O 'T T8 *resr
*sod vO. *P 1so "sod Is O "0 N *so -sso od M01 fN so&d sI S TOJ "sod "sod ImOJ.L ;siN sod
1% 1% 0% 0%
iousueo I assini Vi wdunm, iurmn gnTAuost" MR61

ponuu oo-*ISHXNOJW oa HIvvoH ao Mvr9vo aYLS
varaoi 3HjL O SaHXOLVaOAvM 3Ha NI AiHaNifnol aflO aid sv isvav SYS d Svifvf a sNoVvNiyO SNOINaooNWX ao sOOnsa[ a-dz SQ g V.Lf


C2ZLT

SC'8

09'"2
AS'8S
00"O0
F'OU
6T'8
'28g

00"0
68'L
00"0


6L9

9g

991
TPL
OL
S8
19
8S

T8
8S
M7


09S



98

9S
99
99


9g
L9
Zp

1,7


_








TABLE 12. RESULTS OF BLOOD EXAMINATIONS FOR MALARIA PARASITES AS PRACTICED ROUTINELY IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF HEALTH BY MONTHS. Continued.

1936 Jacksonville Miami Tampa Tallahassee Pensacola
% % % % % >
SPos. Neg. Total Pos. Pos. Neg. Total Pos. Pos. Neg. Total Pos. Pos. Neg. Total Pos. Pos. Neg. Total Pos. z
Jan. 78 1,150 1,228 6.35 0 37 37 0.00 6 212 218 2.75 11 124 135 8.14 1 20 21 4.76 Z
Feb. 44 752 796 5.52 0 33 33 0.00 10 176 186 5.37 8 103 111 7.20 2 18 20 10.00 c
Mar. 21 818 839 2.50 0 32 32 0.00 11 241 252 4.36 13 147 160 8.12 4 30 34 11.76
Apr. 46 1,765 1,811 2.54 3 34 37 8.10 20 257 277 7.22 10 119 129 7.75 6 41 47 12.76
May 61 1,205 1,266 4.81 1 41 42 2.38 27 274 301 8.97 14 198 212 6.59 7 56 61 11.47
June 116 1,248 1,364 8.50 0 25 25 0.00 48 327 375 12.80 45 244 289 15.57 22 96 118 18.64
July 147 1,309 1,456 10.09 0 47 47 0.00 55 364 419 13.12 73 325 398 18.34 23 118 141 16.31 1
Aug. 151 1,591 1,642 9.19 6 32 38 15.78 38 305 343 11.07 18 135 153 11.76 42 112 154 27.27 O
Sept. 146 1,466 1,612 9.05 0 47 47 0.00 38 294 332 11.44 52 305 357 14.56 38 109 147 25.85 P
Oct. 197 1,151 1,348 14.61 0 47 47 0.00 40 280 320 12.50 91 252 343 26.53 84 124 208 40.38 -
Nov. 96 764 860 11.15 0 24 24 0.00 23 165 188 12.23 28 163 191 14.65 40 85 125 32.00
Dec. 69 769 838 8.23 0 38 38 0.00 9 160 169 5.32 8 98 106 7.54 10 7.5 46 56 17.85
Total 1,17213,98815,160 7.73 10 437 447 2.02 335 3,055 3,390 9.73 371 2,213 2,548 14.351279 855 1,134 24.60
19371 1 ___
Jan. 33 875 908 3.63 0 37 37 0.00 7 202 209 3.34 13 143 156 8.32 5 41 46 10.86
Feb. 58 790 848 6.83 1 30 31 3.22 14 158 172 8.13 10 127 137 7.29 2 30 32 6.43
Mar. 43 1,017 1,060 4.05 0 36 36 0.00 19 210 229 8.29 17 140 157 10.82 7 60 67 10.44
Apr. 52 1,202 1,254 4.14 0 40 40 0.00 16 231 247 6.47 18 302 320 5.62 4 55 59 6.77
May 46 1,426 1,472 3.12 0 24 24 0.00 21 283 304 6.90 19 240 259 7.36 12 104 116 10.34
June 79 1,483 1,562 5.05 0 38 38 0.00 41 513 554 7.40 17 264 281 6.04 14 132 146 9.52
July 101 1,664 1,765 5.72 1 30 31 3.22 22 531 553 3.97 23 142 165 13.93 7 172 179 3.91
Aug. 101 1,534 1,635 6.17 0 53 53 0.00 28 381 409 6.84 42 274 316 13.29 17 121 138 12.31
Sept. 56 1,472 1,528 3.66 0 53 53 0.00 19 449 468 4.06 34 256 290 11.74 14 113 127 11.02
Oct. 63 1,089 1,152 5.46 0 40 40 0.00 22 403 425 5.17 22 184 206 10.67 27 81 108 25.00
Nov. 48 944 992 4.83 0 24 24 0.00 7 174 181 3.86 2 51 53 3.77 8 65 73 10.95
Dec. 20 684 704 2.84 0 29 29 0.00 4 131 135 2.96 2 106 108 1.85 3 36 39 7.68
Total 700 14,180 14,880 4.68 2 434 436 0.45 220 3,666 3,886 5.65 219 2,229 2,448 8.85 120 1,010 1,130 10.61








TABLE 12.- RESULTS OF BLOOD EXAMINATIONS FOR MALARIA PARASITES AS PRACTICED ROUTINELY IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE FLORIDA
STATE BOARD OF HEALTH- BY MONTHS.--Continued.

1938 Jacksonville Miami j Tampa Tallahassee I Pensacola
% % %P %1 %
SPos. Neg. Total Pos. Pos. Neg. Total Pos. Pos. Neg. Total Pos. Pos. Neg. Total Pos. Pos. Neg. Total Pos.
Jan. 9 783 792 1.01 0 28 28 0.00 1 155 156 0.64 2 88 90 2.22 0 29 29 0.00
Feb. 11 886 897 1.22 0 38 38 0.00 3 184 187 1.60 2 86 88 2.27 0 50 50 0.00
Mar. 13 1,196 1,209 1.07 0 45 45 0.00 7 180 187 3.74 2 118 120 1.66 1 74 75 1.33
Apr. 14 1,132 1,146 1.22 1 29 30 3.33 10 210 220 4.54 4 156 160 2.50 2 87 89 2.24
May 24 1,414 1,438 1.66 0 20 20 0.00 8 233 241 3.31 4 232 238 1.69 2 114 116 1.72
June 24 1,449 1,473 1.62 0 27 27 0.00 3 213 216 1.29 10 213 223 4.48 9 137 146 6.16
July 27 1,426 1,453 1.85 0 27 27 0.00 2 205 207 0.99 5 215 220 2.27 13 105 118 11.01
Aug. 30 1,649 1,679 1.78 3 38 41 7.31 16 220 236 6.77 7 298 305 2.29 11 129 140 7.85
Sept. 25 1,412 1,437 1.73 1 41 42 2.38 6 210 216 2.77 4 125 129 3.10 14 121 135 10.37
Oct. 27 976 1,003 2.69 0 25 25 0.00 7 147 154 4.54 6 159 165 3.63 13 87 100 13.00
Nov. 12 877 889 1.34 0 19 19 0.00 4 177 181 2.20 8 94 102 7.84 7 69. 76 9.21
Dec. 11 653 664 1.65 0 22 22 0.00 8 119 127 6.29 1 33 34 2.94 3 25 28 10.71
Total 22713,85314,080 1.61 5 357 362 1.38 71 2,253 2,324 3.05 55 1,817 1,872 2.93 75 1,027 1,102 6.80
1939 ___
Jan. 3 880 883 0.33 0 21 21 0.00 1 158 159 0.62 1 41 42 2.38 0 36 36 0.00
Feb. 4 893 897 0.44 0 23 23 0.00 3 167 170 1.76 0 71 71 0.00 3 40 43 6.97
Mar. 6 1,030 1,036 0.57 0 25 25 0.00 0 200 200 0.00 1 110 111 0.90 1 45 46 2.17
Apr. 6 894 900 0.66 0 15 15 0.00 3 201 204 1.47 2 123 125 160 0 46 46 0.00
May 16 1,343 1,359 1.17 0 20 20 0.00 2 263 265 0.75 0 139 139 0.00 3 43 46 6.52
June 10 1,509 1,519 0.65 0 24 24 0.00 1 210 211 0.47 1 139 140 0.71 2 99 101 1.98
July 18 1,378 1,396 1.28 0 32 32 0.00 3 246 249 1.20 8 187 195 4.10 4 148 152 2.63
Aug. 25 1,456 1,481 1.68 0 32 32 0.00 2 221 223 0.89 9 171 180 5.00 4 137 141 2.83
Sept. 31 1,197 1,228 2.52 0 19 19 0.00 5 246 251 1.99 11 191 202 5.44 5 117 122 4.09
Oct. 44 1,142 1,186 3.70 0 22 22 0.00 8 235 243 3.29 22 185 207 10.62 34 81 115 29.56
Nov. 22 1,021 1,043 2.10 1 23 24 4.17 1 142 143 0.69 10 289 299 3.34 22 80 102 21.56
Dec. 8 574 582 1.37 0 15 15 0.00 1 115 116 0.86 4 108 112 3.57 8 60 68 11.73
Total 19313,31713,510 1.42 1 271 272 0.36 30 2,404 2,434 1.23 69 1,754 1,823 3.78 86 932 1,018 8.44








TABLE 12.- RESULTS OF BLOOD EXAMINATIONS FOR MALARIA PARASITES AS PRACTICED ROUTINELY IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE FLORIDA 1
STATE BOARD OF HEALTH--BY MONTHS.--Continued.

1940 Jacksonville Misami ___ __ Tampa Tallahassee Pensacola
%% % % >
| Pos. Neg. Total Pos. Pos. Neg. Total Pos. Pos. Neg. Total Pos. Pos. Neg. Total Pos.. Pos. Neg. Total Pos. 2
Jan. 8 602 610 1.31 0 21 21 0.00 0 243 243 0.00 1 85 86 1.16 4 42 44 9.09 Z
Feb. 2 709 711 0.28 0 12 12 0.00 3 227 230 1.30 2 80 82 2.44 2 52 54 3.70 C
Mar. 8 1,130 1,138 0.70 0 18 18 0.00 1 147 148 0.67 1 158 159 0.62 1 59 60 1.85 >
Apr. 16 1,468 1,484 1.07 0 20 20 0.00 2 152 154 1.29 4 168 172 2.32 2 61 63 3.17 t
May 33 1,422 1,455 2.26 0 25 25 0.00 2 222 224 0.89 0 181 181 0.00 2 46 48 4.16
June 21 1,563 1,584 1.32 0 38 38 0.00 1 296 297 0.33 6 231 237 2.53 4 86 90 4.44 m
July 25 2,050 2,075 1.20 1 28 29 3.44 4 352 356 1.12 11 255 266 4.13 8 101 109 7.33 '
Aug. 20 1,477 1,497 1.33 1 34 35 2.85 0 252 252 0.00 23 289 312 7.37 13 170 183 7.10 0
Sept. 21 1,107 1,128 1.86 4 24 28 14.28 3 169 172 1.74 24 231 255 9.41 28 199 227 12.33 d
Oct. 26 1,073 1,099 2.36 0 41 41 0.00 0 115 115 0.00 22 203 225 9.77 12 110 122 9.83 1
Nov. 15 910 925 1.62 1 33 34 2.91 1 97 98 1.02 9 97 106 8.49 3 61 64 4.68
Dec. 6 818 824 0.72 0 25 25 0.00 1 105 106 0.94 5 279 284 1.76 2 27 29 6.89
Total 20114,32914,530 1.38 7 319 326 2.14 18 2,377 2,395 0.75 108 2,257 2,365 4.56 81 1,014 1,095 7.39
1941_ 1 __I I
Jan. 5 621 626 0.79 0 22 22 0.00 1 84 85 1.17 1 131 132 0.75 0 28 28 0.00
Feb. 2 562 564 0.34 0 19 19 0.00 2 83 85 2.35 8 71 79 10.12 0 45 45 0.00
Mar. 11 655 666 1.65 1 24 25 4.00 2 111 113 1.76 8 119 127 6.29 3 57 60 5.00
Apr. 7 709 716 0.97 0 41 41 0.00 2 133 135 1.48 31 192 223 13.90 3 50 53 5.66
May 13 942 955 1.36 0 36 36 0.00 1 161 162 0.61 33 337 370 8.91 6 101 107 5.60
June 9 1,043 1,052 0.85 0 42 42 0.00 1 166 167 0.59 20 325 345 5.79 4 113 117 3.41
July 16 1,170 1,186 1.34 1 39 40 2.50 2 216 218 0.91 56 323 379 14.77 4 115 119 3.36
Aug. 11 1,514 1,525 0.72 0 37 37 0.00 2 257 259 0.77 8 254 262 3.05 4 146 150 2.66
Sept. 10 1,123 1,133 0.88 0 42 42 0.00 2 190 192 1.04 54 286 340 15.88 1 120 121 0.82
Oct. 16 963 979 1.63 1 28 29 3.44 0 192 192 0.00 43 227 270 15.92 0 97 97 0.00
Nov. 10 637 647 1.54 0 32 32 0.00 4 95 99 4.04 13 169 182 7.14 1 33 34 2.94
Dec. 17 544 561 3.03 0 24 24 0.00 1 107 108 0.92 5 99 104 4.80 6 24 30 20.00

Total 12710,48110,608 1.19 3 386 389 0.77 20 1,795 1,815 1.10 280 2,533 2,813 9.95 32 929 961 3.32







MALARIA CONTROL


will be made on all. One group will be treated adequately with quinine,
the other left untreated. Periodic splenic and blood examinations will be
made subsequently on all, to demonstrate the effect of treatment on the
spleen as compared with the untreated group.

W. P. A. ASSISTANCE
Before the declaration of war by the United States, it was practically
impossible to secure W. P. A. assistance for drainage- projects unless
these projects were associated with military bases. Since the declaration
of war, the Director of the Bureau has been informed that absolutely no
drainage projects except those of a defense nature will be considered.
In association with this decision, however, we were informed that in
all probability a new W. P. A. project for malaria control in Pensacola for
1942 could be written.

FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ASSISTANCE
The State Director of the Farm Security Administration was approached
to the end of securing funds for a screening program in all counties where
malaria was found to be a problem as demonstrated by the clinical survey
and where Farm Security Loan clients resided. The proposed cooperative
program was outlined to function in the same manner as the similar work
being conducted in Escambia County, where the County Malaria Depart-
ment cooperates with the Farm Security Administration. It was planned
that the Farm Security Administration supply funds for mosquito proofing
the houses of their clients.
During the interval between the time when this proposition was sub-
mitted and the time when a probably satisfactory resolution was to be made,
again the declaration of war made it impossible for the agency to consider
the proposal at this time.

PROJECTED IMMEDIATE FUTURE ACTIVITIES
Clinical and entomological studies have been terminated in eight dif-
ferent counties in sufficient detail to permit of the inauguration of plans
for control work.
Clinical survey material could not be secured before the period, October
and November, of the present year when these surveys must be made.
Nearly all local budgets in Florida operate on a fiscal year beginning
September or October 1. Before control works can be inaugurated, finances
must be secured from local appropriating bodies.
An attempt to secure such finances will be made in the following
counties: Taylor, Gadsden, Leon, Madison, and Jefferson.







50 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


From experience to date relative to promotion of activities for funds
for local control, it is believed that difficulties may be encountered be-
cause of the war demands on finances and because budgets for the fiscal
year, October, 1941, to September, 1942, were operative before the status
of malaria in the communities throughout the state could be known.
It has been impossible to complete general and basic studies for evalua-
tion of types of control in any county since the Bureau has had no engineer-
ing staff to study the possibility of drainage or make estimates of the cost
of such drainage.

ESCAMBIA COUNTY MALARIA DEPARTMENT
t
JANUARY 1-DECEMBER 31, 1941
The Escambia County Malaria Department functioned with a reduced
personnel from January, 1941, as Mr. D. B. Lee, the engineer, was transfer-
red to Jacksonville at the beginning of the year to assume charge of the
directorship of the Bureau of Engineering in the State Board of Health.
In July, both Dr. Elmendorf and Mr. Mulrennan were transferred to
Jacksonville to serve as director, ad interim, and entomologist, respectively,
of the new Bureau of Malaria Control of the State Board of Health.
The new director for the Escambia County Malaria Department, Mr.
E. B. Barnawell, sanitary engineer, assumed charge of his duties on the 1st
of July and functioned as director for the remainder of the year.
The transfer of personnel was accomplished with no interruption in
the work of the Escambia County department. The transition of the
department from one supervised by personnel of the Rockefeller Foundation
Field Staff to that of a division of the local health service, was effected
with no curtailment in the programs of draining, screening, training of
personnel and collection of routine data. Mr. Barnawell was assisted
throughout the summer and fall by Dr. Elmendorf and Mr. Muirennan
as well as by visits from Mr. Lee and local assistance rendered by Dr.
Stebbins, director of the Escambia County Health Department.
FINANCIAL
The allocation of all funds by both City and County correspond to a
fiscal year, October 1 to September 30, with tentative budgets approved in
July. Presentations were made to both City and County some months
prior to July, 19.41, relative to funds for malaria control for the ensuing
fiscal year, with the result that the City voted $4,000 and the County
$2,000 for malaria control operation for their fiscal year, October 1, 1941,
to September 30, 1942, thus assuring the continuance of operations of
the department at least to the degree that any assurance can be given







MALARIA CONTROL


relative to City and County affairs. The sum of $3,000 was requested
from the County, but it was impossible to secure that amount this year.
However, the total of $6,000 is sufficient to continue the activities of the
department.
A special item of $2,000 was included in the budget of the Rocke-
feller Foundation to assist in defraying the expense of $3,000 corresponding
to Mr. Barnawell's salary and travel.
The total allocation of funds for the malaria activities of Escambia
County are, then, as follows:

1. Salary local director of malaria unit at $200 per month............$2,400
2. Travel for local director of malaria unit at $50 per month........... 600
3. Local works of drainage and fill and possibly emergency
larviciding ............................. ............ ....................................... 3,500
4. County screening program ............................................... .. 1,500

$8,000
Source of funds:
City of Pensacola .................................................................$ 4,000.00
County of Escambia ....... ......................... ............ 2,000.00
Rockefeller Foundation ............ ............. ....................... 2,000.00
$ 8,000.00
The salary of the local director, Mr. Barnawell, is administered entirely
by the State Board of Health, as both City and County send $500 each
yearly to augment the sum of $2,000 sent by the Rockefeller Foundation
to the State Board of Health for this end. These sums have already been
paid to the State Board of Health for the fiscal year, 1941-1942. The
balance of the local funds, $3,500 from the City and $1,500 from the
County, are administered locally, payments for materials and labor being
made directly by City and County authorities against receipts presented
and countersigned by the local director of the malaria department.
To develop the program in accordance with plans and needs, it will
be necessary in the future to secure a larger proportion of funds from
the County for the prosecution of mosquito proofing. The sum of $2,000
is not sufficient to permit of a normal development of this program,
especially as $500 of this sum is devoted toward the salary of the local
director. Furthermore, in the future, when the cooperation of the Rocke-
feller Foundation ceases, the portion of the salary of the local director of
$2,000, now being contributed by the Rockefeller Foundation, will have to
be absorbed by the local agencies.







52 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


At the present time, the demand for screening is in excess of the
financial ability of the department to meet this demand. An ultimate
budget of $5,000 yearly from the County should be secured to meet ade-
quately the demands of this program.
The local situation existing between County and City at the present
time is such that neither agency will permit funds to be transferred to
defray expenses of execution of works falling within the jurisdiction of
the other.
The finances for labor on the drainage and fill program were supplied
throughout the year, almost entirely by a W. P. A. project of $43,982.00,
which began to function February 24, 1941, and which, at the end of
the year, still had a considerable balance in its favor.
A new project will soon be submitted to W. P. A. for the continuance
of the remainder of the work of drainage and fill left to be completed
in Pensacola.

PRESENT ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT
Since July 1, the entire full-time personnel of the malaria department
consisted of the sanitary engineer, Mr. Barnawell. Dr. Stebbins, director
of the Escambia County Health Unit, is immediately in charge of the
activities of the department. It is a fixed obligation of the personnel
of the Bureau of Malaria Control to supervise the work of the county
malaria department and to give advice and counsel. The local director re-
ports to the Bureau of Malaria Control with the knowledge and approval
of Dr. Stebbins.
Secretarial assistance is rendered by the secretary of the local County
Health Unit and incidental office expenses are defrayed from the corres-
ponding item of the budget of the County department.
It is planned in the future that the sanitary engineer, now in charge
of the department and engaged only in work of malaria control, shall
become the sanitary engineer for Pensacola and Escambia County, embracing
all works corresponding to engineering in public health.

CONTINUANCE OF SURVEYS (CLINICAL AND ENTOMOLOGICAL)
In continuation of the procedure of the last four years, a clinical
survey was performed in all white schools in Pensacola. All children
attending school between the ages of five and twelve were examined for
splenic enlargement. Also blood smears were taken from all children
with splenomegaly and from each fifth child found negative for splenic
enlargement. In all, 2,896 children were examined in this survey. (See
Table 3, page 29.)







MALARIA CONTROL


TABLE 13. PRESENCE AND ABSENCE OF ANOPHELINES
OVER A FOUR-YEAR PERIOD IN AREAS BEFORE AND
AFTER PERMANENT CONTROL MEASURES.
CITY OF PENSACOLA



AREAS SEWERAGE DRY DOCK HATTON FOUNDRY SPEARMAN SQUATTER- KUPFRIAN
VILLE PARK






l Ln Al] [AA]A] RLAI
00









PRESENCE OF ANOPHELINES ABSENCE OF ANOPHELINES
CONTROL INCOMPLETE CONTROL COMPLETE, PERMANENT



PRESENTATION OF DATA BASED ON WEEKLY ROUTINE CAPTURES DURING
BREEDING SEASON FOR THREE AND ONE-HALF YEARS; LAST SIX MONTHS OF
1941 BASED ON TWO CAPTURES (AUGUST AND OCTOBER).

Each area where control work has been completed shows a complete absence of anophe-
lines as measured by larval collections and routine adult captures.

Squatterville and Kupfrian Park, uncontrolled to date, show presence of anophelines.








TABLE 14.-AVERAGE PER MAN-HOUR FEMALE ANOPHELINE PRODUCTION, DIFFERENT CONTROL AREAS IN PENSACOLA,
1938, 1939, 1940 AND 1941.

AREAS CONTROLLED PARTIAL CONTROL NO CONTROL
S Sewage 4 Dry Dock Hatton I Foundry Spearman Squatterville I Kupfrian Park
Anophelines C Q C Q C Q C Q C Q C Q C Q



34.3 2.9 54.7 3.6
1938 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.19 9.2 0.39 1.05 0.21 1.09 0.65


1939 0.0 0.14 0.76 0.0 7.9 14.2 4.8 0.66 7.9 4.4 121.9 2.9 58.6 32.0


1940 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.01 0.0 6.9 1.6 43.2 3.5 87.9 40.6


1941 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0.0 0.0 0.0 10.7 0.51 8.6 1.5

"" / 107 0.1 8. 1I


Controlled Areas: Sewage Disposal, Partial Control, 1938; Final Control, End of 1939; Dry Dock, Partial Control,
1938; Final Control, End of 1939.
Partial Control Areas: Hatton Area, 95% Controlled During 1940; Foundry Area, Controlled During 1940; Termi-
nated, End of 1940; Spearman Area, Controlled End of 1940.
No Control Areas: Squatterville, Partial Control, 1941; Kupfrian Park, yet to be Controled.








MALARIA CONTROL


Beginning with the advent of the breeding season in the spring,
routine entomological studies were made until the end of June, when the
department was transferred to the new assignment in Jacksonville. Follow-
ing this transfer, two complete surveys were made by Mr. Mulrennan,
one in August and one in October, the latter date just prior to the close
of the breeding season.
Though routine catches were made at the regular catching stations,
beginning with the first of March, the first anophelines to be found were
three females and one male A. crucians captured at the locality known as
Squatterville on April 22. Anopheles quadrimaculatus first made
their appearance in the capture practiced on July 5 at Station Number 2,
Squatterville. (For dates of the first appearance of anophelines by years,
see Tables 13-16.)
It is to be regretted that for lack of personnel during 1937, routine
captures were not made before the effects of control work became ap-
parent in the Sewage Disposal and Drydock areas. Accordingly, results
cannot be evaluated by comparison with the same area. However, in the
case of Squatterville and Kupfrian Park, data is available for three years
before control work was instituted and in this instance, the effects of
drainage on presence and destiny of anophelines can be measured directly
against the same production area. (See Table 16.)


TABLE 15. -NUMBER OF INSPECTIONS AND ANOPHELINE FEMALES CAPTURED
FROM TWENTY-FOUR STATIONS, PENSACOLA, 1941.


Numbr N umber of Number of ber
of Females Hours
MONTH Inspec- Females Captured Captured per Spent in
tions Man-Hour Capture
Crucians I "Quads" Crucians "Quads"
March ................ 4 0 0 0.0 0.0 10.8
April .................. 5 6 0 0.44 0.0 13.6
May .................. 3 5 0 0.58 0.0 8.6
July ................. 1 21 3 7.0 1.0 3.0
August .............. 1 18 3 6.2 1.03 2.9
October ............ 1 0 0 0.0 0.0 2.7

TOTAL .... 15 50 6 ............ ............ 41.6






TABLE 16.-TOTAL NUMBER OF ANOPHELINE FEMALES CAPTURED ON ONE INSPECTION MONTHLY OVER A PERIOD OF FOUR YEARS
FROM AREAS IN PENSACOLA.
AREAS Sewage I Dry Dock Hatton I Foundry B apearman Squatterville I K. Park
Anophelines C I Q C Q C | Q | C Q C Q | C Q C Q
March 24 .............. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 6 0
April 21................ 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0
May 12 .................. 0 1 0 0 6 0 3 0 1 0 13 0 7 0
June 23 ............ 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 1 10 0 2 0
July 27 ................ 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 11 3
August 25 ............ 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 51 19
September 30 ...... 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 15 4 1 1
October 28 ............ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0
March 23 ............. 00 0 0 0 0 0I 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
April 26 ............... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0
May 18 .................. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 0 0
June 22 .............. 0 0 3 0 7 0 1 0 0 0 10 0 7 0
July 22 .............. 0 1 2 0 7 3 0 0 0 0 58 1 112 39
SAugust 24 ............ 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 10 1
September 14 .... 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 22 8 12 0 15 19
October 12 .......... 0 0 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 3 6 1 4 1


March 26 ............ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
April 1-30 ............ O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
May 31 ................. 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 4 0 3 0 17 1
SJune 27 ............. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 3 0
SJuly 25 ............... 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 1 11 0 92 37
August 16 ............ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 2 12 2 150 92
September 20 ...... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 42 18
October 11 ........ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0

March 1-31 .......... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
April 30 .............. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0
May 22 .................. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0
o June* .................... ............ ............ .. ........ .. .............. .. ................... ............ ........... ..... ............ .................. .......................
pJuly 5 ............... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 1 12 2
August29 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 13 3
September* ............ ....................... ............ .. ..............................
October 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
*No catches made during the months of June and September.


z


t4


0



'.







MALARIA CONTROL


MAP 1. SHOWING DRAINAGE LINE, CONTOURS AND
SHADED FILL WORK IN SQUATTERVILLE AREA
! I II II 1 11 "





.13th ST.





S "\ \ 12th ST.

SI I- I- I- I


Shaded area is filled 0" to 30". Approximately 30 percent
of all fill areas complete with sub-drainage laid. 24" line
90 percent complete.

CONTROL OPERATIONS
Drainage As heretofore, control operations are being effected by the
Use of permanent concrete-lined drains and fill in the city of Pensacola
and by a mosquito proofing program in the county.
As stated in the report for 1940, page 7, two main areas, Kupfrian
Park and Squatterville, remained to be drained before the completion of
the general drainage program in Pensacola was terminated.
The drainage of the Squatterville area was begun the 1st of March of
this year and at the end of the year was approximately 90% completed.
In this area, it is difficult to make an exact evaluation of the percentage
of work accomplished and that remaining to be accomplished to eliminate
it as a breeding area, as the quality of the soil to be drained is peculiar
to this one district.
Experimental wells were placed in this area and readings made for
over a year before drainage operations were begun. The readings of
the water levels in these wells before, during, and after rains indicated
that the soil was of an impervious nature.
In executing the drainage work of this department, it has always
been a main principle to establish the main and surely necessary central







58 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


drainage system first and then, after evaluating the effectivity of this system,
as judged by experimental wells, to plan the remaining installation in
accordance with the actual and demonstrated needs to maintain the area
in a non-breeding condition. Studies have indicated that the soil in
Squatterville is not adequately described by the commonly accepted ter-
minology "impervious soil". The soil is almost comparable to concrete
in its capacity to prevent water seeping through to drainage lines. For this
reason, it has been necessary to plan for grading of the fill for the surface
run-off, installation of sub-soil lateral drainage lines and possibly for
an interceptor line located in accordance with the interpretation of well
readings on the slope which leads down to the accumulation of standing
water below.

MAP 2. KUPFRIAN PARK AREA (PROPOSED)


0
N
M
L
K
.J

H
G
F
E
D


STREET -J LJLJLII JLJL .J 1 1
STREET IWW Z11E]


STREET IWDFF-D

STREET ]W LZ FT
STREET HD==] -- F_1
STREET
STREET moO r- Em F
, STREET I-IF-IT[] -IE L

STREET] -1 F IDE


T I tlI-1 I I 1 II II lr-
,n US S US S US US In .


PROPOSED 24" W 0 m 2
CONCRETE PIPE u oU 2 <
At Strong and "C" Streets, the system discharges into a
City storm sewer system. At approximately "E" and Moreno
Streets a gate will be installed to hold the water during
storm conditions in the natural reservoir located there.







MALARIA CONTROL


It is estimated that there is sufficient balance left in the present
W. P. A. project, which started to function in February, 1941, to terminate
the major portion of work still left to be performed in Squatterville.
(See Map'1).
The area of Kupfrian Park, which is the only large district remaining
to be drained, has been studied completely from a topographical stand-
point and complete plans made for the permanent elimination of this
region from the standpoint of mosquito breeding. (See Map 2).
Once Squatterville is complete, the drainage program in Kupfrian
Park will be opened. A large proportion of concrete products necessary
for installation in this area have already been manufactured and are being
manufactured continuously, so that no delay will be occasioned when
work is ready to begin. It has not been thoroughly determined as yet
whether this work will be accomplished through a W. P. A. labor project
sponsored by the City of Pensacola, with the local Malaria Department
supplying all materials, or whether a special and new project will be entered
into with the W. P. A. and sponsored by the State Board of Health.
An interesting feature of the proposed drainage plan for Kupfrian
Park is the installation of a dam and a gate at a spot which can serve
as a natural reservoir. This device has been made necessary because a
storm sewer already installed is being utilized as a discharge point for
the drainage line from this area. As the additional volume of water
from this new water shed would overtax the existing storm sewer during
periods of rain, it has been arranged that this extra volume of water will
be held back in the reservoir during these periods and the gate opened
only when the storm sewer can accommodate the additional volume. The
gate will be operated by the maintenance man.
Fill Work-The district known as the Peterson Tract, which was reported
as having a drainage system installed, still needed some fill and grading
to remove storm waters. A large portion of this fill had been accomplished
previously by the United States Department of Rivers and Harbors dredge
which, at our request, had pumped their dredgings into the area. As this
had not been sufficient to eliminate completely the area as a mosquito-
breeding locality, it was arranged that street sweepings hauled by the
Street Cleaning Department of Pensacola be accumulated here over a
period of months. Spreading of this accumulated earth by W. P. A. labor
converted this area into one which no longer bred mosquitoes. (See Map 3).
Due to the impervious quality of the soil in the locality of Squatterville,
a certain amount of fill and grading was necessary. This was accom-
plished by removing sand by wheel barrows from the slope of the nearby
slope and moving it to the low-lying spots. (See Map 1).








60 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941

During the year, the following permanent works were effected in
Pensacola:
Squatterville Area;
Standard and heavy duty 24" pipe laid....................2,140 linear feet
4-inch sub-soil tile installed............................... 722
Panama invert line .................................. ................... 2571/2
6-inch sub-soil line.................................... ................ 649
Corrugated metal culvert .............. ..................... 45
Fill Work:
Peterson Area ...................................................4,616 cubic yards
Squatterville Area .................................... ..... 2,222
Concrete Plant:
Pipe made during the year:
24" pipe ............................... .............9,875 linear feet
Inventory of concrete plant as of December 31, 19.41:
Units Linear Feet
24" standard pipe ............. .................................... 550 1325
24" heavy duty .......................................... 35 871/2
18" standard pipe ....................................... 448 1344
Panama inverts ........... ....... ........................... 238 714
6" sub-soil ................................................ ........... 1800 1800
4" sub-soil ---............3............... ....... .......- ..... .... 3022 3022
Sidewalls ............ ................. ............. ................. 255 6371/2
MAP 3. PETERSON STREET AREA
Drainage was completed in 1940; final and indicated fill work
was completed in 1941. Map shows complete drainage- line
and shaded areas, representing fill to the five-foot contour.



L STREET


NI-


"11 K STREET










All drainage structure complete Full circle pipe.
Fill areas 85 per cent complete ---- Paved invert.







MALARIA CONTROL


Military Bases-Permanent control work was continued at the Naval
Air Station in Pensacola and new projects were opened at Fort Barrancas
and Chevalier Field, also in Pensacola. The Escambia County Malaria De-
partment was invited to assist in supervision and in giving counsel for
the works to be effected in these two localities.
The local director of the department, Mr. Barnawell, performed pre-
liminary mosquito surveys preparatory to establishing mosquito control
projects at Tyndall Field, Panama City; Eglin Field, Valparaiso; and at
Fort Barrancas and the Naval Air Station in Pensacola.
Special entomological studies were conducted by Dr. Elmendorf at
Eglin Field and Panama City. (See reports on pages 76 and 80.)
Fort Barrancas Redoubt Area:
Malaria control ditches lined with concrete products:
24" concrete pipe laid.............................................................. 66 feet
Inverts, 1/2 of 24, laid....................................................... ... 473
Inverts laid, Panama ..................................... ..................... 554
Inverts, 1/3 of 18", laid............................................................ 428 "
6" sub-soil ................................................................................ 491
Total feet, concrete lining..................................................2012 feet
Naval Air Station, Chevalier Field:
Flat slab paving .................................................................. 900 feet
Concrete products manufactured at Fort Barrancas under supervision of
local Director:
24" standard pipe ........................................................ 1861 linear feet
18" standard pipe ........................................................ 606
6" sub-soil pipe ....................................................... 2045
1/3 of 18" inverts.. ................ ................................... 4347
1/3 of 24" inverts....................................................... 9
Sidewalls ....................................................................... 2934
Total feet, concrete lining....................................11802 linear feet
It is to be noted with interest that the work of concrete-lined ditches
originally started several years ago at Fort Barrancas under the direct
supervision of the Escambia County Malaria Department is being con-
tinued by both Army and Navy, not only in the Pensacola district, but
in the other areas throughout Florida.
Mosquito proofing of houses in the county-Subsequent to the original
studies made in Pensacola and Escambia County in 1937, it was determined
that the economic situation of Pensacola warranted drainage and fill as a
method of malaria control. This program was, therefore, adopted to the
exclusion of mosquito proofing. It was further decided that larviciding
would be used only as an emergency measure.
With reference to control work in the county, it was decided, if and
when drainage was economically sound, this would be practiced, but that







62 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


otherwise mosquito proofing would be relied upon as the chosen method of
control, with larviciding if emergency conditions should demand. Though
all localities were studied with the idea in view of the possibility of
drainage, no area was found where drainage could be considered from
the economic standpoint and where such a project could serve as a com-
prehensive control measure in place of screening. Accordingly, the means
of control adopted for the county originally was and has continued to be
one of mosquito proofing.
There is one exception to this statement and that is the region of
Warrington. Warrington, geographically, is a suburb of Pensacola, but,
politically, it is entirely county. A drainage program could be executed

MAP. 4. COUNTIES IN FLORIDA WHERE ANOPHELES
CRUCIANS ADULTS AND LARVAE HAVE BEEN COLLECTED


The information from which this spot map was pre-
pared was secured from records of surveys made
over the period 1928-1940 by Dr. W. V. King,
Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, and from additional surveys made by the
Bureau of Malaria Control, State Board of Health,
1938-1941.







MALARIA CONTROL


MAP 5. COUNTIES IN FLORIDA WHERE ANOPHELES
QUADRIMACULATUS ADULTS AND LARVAE HAVE BEEN
COLLECTED.


The information from which this spot map was
prepared was secured from records of surveys made
over the period 1928-1940 by Dr. W. V. King,
Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, and from additional surveys made by the
Bureau of Malaria Control, State Board of Health,
1938-1941.


with good effect in this general region. That it has not been accomplished
is due to lack of finances from county sources. If finances, in addition
to those necessary for the screening program, could be made available by
the county, a drainage program should be projected for this locality.
The mosquito proofing program was continued in accordance with
the plans of previous years. The department made contact with house-
owners, convinced them of the advisability of mosquito proofing their
houses, made measurements and listed materials necessary on special forms.
The owners purchased materials and delivered them to the Malaria De-
partment's workshop. Here the screen doors were made according to
measurement. When sufficient had been completed from any one district


.dr-i"









64 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


to warrant a trip, they were then hauled by "pick-up" truck or trailer to
the houses in question and applied by the carpenters of the Malaria
Department. While engaged in the work of application of products, the
personnel make contacts in the same region in attempts to secure more
applicants for mosquito proofing of their dwellings.

As the funds advanced by the county for the fiscal year of October 1,
1940, to September 30, 1941, were limited to $2,000, there was only a
small balance left for the screening project after paying $1,250 to the
State Board of Health for the county's appropriation of the general $6,000


MAP 6. ANOPHELES LARVAE SURVEY MADE BY STATE

BOARD OF HEALTH AND ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

COUNTIES OF FLORIDA -1932


Percentages of A. crucians and A. quad
in Counties Noted
County Percentage
A. crucians
Jackson .................................. 75
Leon ...................................... 18
W akulla ................................ 40
Alachua ................................ 67
Levy .................................... 33
Marion ................................... 73
Citrus ... .... ......... ........ ....
Sumter .................................... 20
Lake ................................. ....
Hernando .......................... ....
Seminole ................................. 95
Brevard ................ ........... 100
Orange ................................... 95
Pasco ....................................... 100
Hillsborough................................ 96
Polk ....................................... 100
Osceola .................................. 79
Indian River ......................... 92
St. Lucie ............................... 97
Martin ........... ............. ..... 99
Palm Beach .......................... 96
Manatee ................................. 26
Hardee .............................. 52
Sarasota ............................. 92
DeSoto ................................... 58
Charlotte ................................. 79
Lee ................................... 95
Highlands ............................... 95


rimaculatus

A. quadri.
maculatus
25
82
60
33
67
27
100
80
100
100
5


4
5
4
21
8
3
1
4
74
8
42
21
5
5


Percentage of anopheles larvae
at various localaties.


id


entified from collections







MALARIA CONTROL


budget to cover expenses of personnel, etc., of the Escambia County
Malaria Department.
In view of the limited finances, it was possible to open only one center
for screening in the county and, as work still remained to be performed
in.Century and because of its proximity to the office of the Farm Security
Administration, Century was chosen for the center for screening activities
this year.
The Farm Security Administration being well satisfied with the results
of the mosquito proofing program performed as a cooperative project
last year between their administration and the Malaria Department, entered

MAP 7. COUNTIES IN FLORIDA WHERE THE VARIOUS
ANOPHELINE ADULTS AND LARVAE HAVE BEEN COL-
LECTED


KEY TO SPECIES-
* Anopheles punctipennis
+ Anopheles walker
* Anopheles atropos
o Anopheles barber
0 Anopheles crucians var. bradteyi
C Anopheles crucians var. georgianus


The information from which this spot
map was prepared was secured from rec-
ords of surveys made over the period
1928-1940 by Dr. W. V. King, Bureau of
Entomology, U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, and from additional surveys
made by the Bureau of Malaria Control,
State Board of Health, 1938-1941.


*1%.*.*'







66 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


upon the same arrangement this year. The Administration agreed to supply
all materials for mosquito proofing the houses of all their loan clients,
residing in Escambia County, if the Malaria Department would furnish
the labor and supervise the work of manufacture, installation of products
and approving of accounts of materials purchased.
With the change in the Escambia County Malaria Department to a
personnel of one person, the Sanitary Engineer, and with two-thirds of
the salary and travel corresponding to this position paid by the Rocke-
feller Foundation, the contribution of both City and County to the over-
head expense of the department was reduced from $1,250 each year to
$500 yearly for the present year. Accordingly, for the fiscal year of
1941-1942, $1,500 is available for the mosquito proofing program in
the County or double the amount of the year 1940-1941. At the present
time, the program is being continued throughout the entire year. Con-
tacts are being made throughout the winter and screening is being per-
formed for such owners as desire mosquito proofing. Previously, the
work was limited largely to the summer months and early fall. This was
believed indicated, as the demand for screening had not then reached
the proportions existing at present and there were not enough screened
houses to warrant the part-time services of a carpenter for maintenance
during periods of the year when new screening jobs were not requested.

REPORT ON MOSQUITO PROOFING PROGRAM FOR THE YEAR:
Houses screened during the year:....................-......... .......... 101
Number of doors made and applied in above houses................ 299
Number of windows screened by tacking on wire...................... 647
Number of windows screened with frames.................................. 143
Total cost for labor on mosquito proofing project................$1,361.60
Rent of truck for transportation of men and products........ 245.24
Gas and oil .......................................... ........ .. .............. 119.63
M miscellaneous ............................................. .......................... 10.33
Total ..... .............................................................$1,736.80
Cost of labor per house................. ...... ............$.. 13.48 plus
Cost of transportation per house......................................... 2.42 "
Cost of gas and oil per house.............................. .......... 1.18 "
M miscellaneous cost per house........................................................ .10 "
Total cost per house (Average)...........................................$17.19

The mosquito proofing has now reached a stage where it will be able
to progress to the extent that finances for its prosecution are made available.
The preliminary period of education and demonstration of products
has produced a demand which is at present limited merely by available
finances.
Every effort is being made to increase the contribution by the county
for the next fiscal year, October 1, 1942, to September 30, 1943. A








MALARIA CONTROL


minimum of $3,000 should be made available for this program and pre-
ferably, to cover the county adequately, this sum should be raised eventually
to $5,000.

SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES
Moving pictures of the control work in Escambia County were shown
at a County School and a fifteen-minute discussion of malaria control by
screening was given over the local radio station. Lectures and addresses
were given to clubs and Red Cross groups.
The routine educational program was conducted, as heretofore, through
personal interviews with house-owners during the process of convincing
them of the necessity of supplying materials for mosquito proofing of
houses.

TRAINING BASE
The department functioned as an observation post and training base
during the course of the year, though, due to the transfer of the depart-
ment to Jacksonville, it was not used to as great an extent as in preceding
years. During the year, twenty-three visitors and trainees were shown
the work of the department.

SPECIAL CONCLUSIONS FROM YEAR'S ACTIVITIES
Mosquito proofing has been made a practical financial proposition by
offering all labor for manufacture, listing materials necessary and super-
vising work of manufacture and installation with the owner purchasing
the materials.
Experimental wells are an essential for correct planning and subsequent
evaluation of a drainage program.
The relationship of blood positive findings to splenic enlargement
as well as the yearly variances of parasite positive cases needs further
study and elucidation.







68 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


REPORT OF AN ENTOMOLOGICAL SURVEY
CONDUCTED AT NAVAL AIR STATION
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, 1941

NOTE: It is unfortunate, in entomological surveys, that a sample taken over a
limited period of time does not necessarily represent the complete mosquito fauna of
the area being investigated. To be conclusive, areas should be investigated at opportune
intervals over a period of at least a year. A short period, corresponding to the
time of taking a sample may present special climatic circumstances such as extreme
degrees of wind, rain, heat, cold, drought, presence of temporary control measures,
etc., which can materially influence the results of the survey and, though furnishing
actual facts on the negative or positive side for the interval of time involved, would
not necessarily indicate conditions maintaining throughout the year during the entire
mosquito breeding season.

A mosquito survey was made by the Bureau of Malaria Control of the
Florida State Board of Health at the Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida,
covering a period from August 20 to September 4.
The survey was conducted utilizing the procedures of larval inspection
of water areas and adult captures, the latter effected through the means
of mosquito light traps stationed at strategic positions and allowed to
function throughout the night.
A general topographical survey was first made of the Naval Air Station
grounds to ascertain areas of collected waters. Subsequently, an inspection
of these waters was made to determine the presence or absence of mosquito
larvae. The larval inspection was limited to determining the presence or
absence of anopheline larvae, whereas in the adult captures all species
captured were identified.
Table 17 indicates the results of inspection of all areas where stand-
ing water was found, presumably propitious for breeding. The results
of the inspection of these areas for anopheline breeding is recorded in
that table. It is of utility to note that Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae
were found in the large areas on the extenuation of the road leading
past the Officers' Quarters where a roadway is being made by filling.
The fact of finding A. quadrimaculatus in this district, though few in
number, can not be ignored, but this finding is of greater import as it
demonstrates that A. quadrimaculatus can breed readily at the station and
it is only by the efficient and detailed work of larviciding that this breeding
is being curtailed throughout the station. A cessation of larviciding could
result in greatly increased density.
During the course of the survey, practically no water areas were visited
where evidences of recent oiling were not apparent. Larviciding is nat-
urally a temporary measure and must be repeated at ten-day intervals
throughout the entire breeding season and for as many years as control








MALARIA CONTROL


work may be desired. Further, larviciding is only as efficient as the
supervision to insure that all water areas are adequately covered and at
suitable intervals by the larviciding squads. It can be stated that with
no reservation the larvicidal work at the Naval Air Station, as evidenced
by results during the period of this survey, was most efficacious.
Table 18, showing adult captures by the light trap at various stations,
corroborates the findings of the larval collections; namely, that there were
relatively few mosquitoes "on the wing" and very few anophelines. In
both instances where A. quadrimaculatus were found, Junior Bachelor
Officers' Quarters and Senior Bachelor Officers' Quarters, breeding areas
had been found contiguous to these localities which were actually breeding
anophelines.
It is known and accepted that A. quadrimaculatus is an efficient malaria
carrier in the southeastern portion of the United States. The role of
A. crucians has not been as satisfactorily defined to date. It is generally
accepted that it is not a formidable carrier of the malaria plasmodium,
but its presence cannot be entirely neglected when it occurs in considerable
density.
Of the mosquitoes captured in the light traps, other than anophelines,
Culex (Melanoconion sp.) was the most consistently found and in the
greatest density. These mosquitoes breed under conditions somewhat similar
to those found in anopheline breeding areas.
During the period covered by the survey, no salt marsh breeding mos-
quitoes were found. However, as the writer has observed these in the near
vicinity, their presence would be expected at the Naval Air Station at cer-
tain seasons.


TABLE 17.---ANOPHELINE LARVAE COLLECTED FROM NAVAL AIR STATION, JACK-
SSONVILLE, FLORIDA

LARVAE
DATE STATION
1941 TATIInstars I Species T,
1 2 3 4 C Q IP IMisc. "
August 20 ................ 1 1 ................ .. 2 ...... .......... ......
August 20 ................ 2 ....... ......... ....... 1 1 ........ .............. ......
A ugust 20 ............... 3 1 ................ ........ ........ .............. .......... ......
August 20 .............. 4 5 4 5 9 3 11 ...... .......... 8
August 20 ................ 5 ....... 12 ........ .................... ... .......... .








70 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


Conclusions:
1. There was very slight evidence of any mosquito breeding within
the grounds of the Naval Air Station.
2. Light trap captures revealed the presence of a few anophelines and
a very low density of all mosquitoes found.
3. Evidence was apparent at the time that oiling as a larvicide measure
was being performed efficiently.
Recommendations, General:
1. Plans for permanent control of mosquito breeding areas should be
made if the Naval Air Station is to be a permanent or semi-perma-
nent institution.
2. These plans should take the form of a drainage system lined with
concrete products and in certain instances associated fill work.
3. Mosquito eradication drainage should be associated, in so far as
possible, with other drainage projects being conducted for other
practical ends.
4. Drainage ditches for mosquito eradication should always be in-
stalled at the lowest effective elevations, to be determined by the
available point of discharge and the necessary gradients to be used.
Such planning will permit in the future of the drainage of additional
areas if and when they may be subsequently found to need drainage.
5. Malaria drainage is designed especially for the elimination of
residual waters and for this reason should have narrow rounded or
"V" shaped bottoms lined with concrete' products to facilitate the
easy removal of water and to prevent clogging with vegetation.
TABLE 18.-LIGHT TRAP RECORD FOR NAVAL AIR STATION, JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA.
Anopheles Culex Uranotaehla Ardes Psoro-
phora

STATION 2 "1 S

.......................................... 1 3 .... .... 3 2
______________ M (FIM F FIMI M I MFI MIFItIFIMI FMFM IF
August 20, 1941 -- -
1..... 13 3 2
2 ...... ............ .... ... ... 1...... 3 .....2 2. ...... 2 .....
August 21, 1941
3. .......................................... 1 2 1 1 4 2................ ...
4. ... ...... .............f....... .. ... ........ .. .. ... ............ ...... .. ...... .....
August 27, 1941 -
5. ..................... ... ......... ... ...... ............ ..........
5. .* -.-- I I .
August 28, 1941 '.


September 3 19413
10. g .. 41 1 ...... ................ .. ...I
September 4, 1941


September 4, 1941
11. ........................ ... ............... 3 ......
12. ....................................... .. ...... ...... 1 2 4............ ..... ......








MALARIA CONTROL


REPORT OF AN ENTOMOLOGICAL SURVEY
CONDUCTED AT CAMP BLENDING
SEPTEMBER AND OCTOBER, 1941
ALSO ASSOCIATED CLINICAL STUDIES MADE IN SURROUNDING TERRITORY

NOTE: It is unfortunate in entomological surveys that a sample taken over a
limited period of time does not necessarily represent the complete and possible
mosquito fauna of the area being investigated. To be conclusive, surveys should be
conducted at opportune intervals over a period of at least a year. A short period,
corresponding to the time of taking a sample, may represent special climate circum-
stances such as extreme degrees of wind, rain, heat, cold, drought, or presence of
temporary control measures, etc., which can materially influence the results of the
survey and, though furnishing actual facts on the positive or negative side for the
interval of time involved, would not necessarily indicate conditions maintaining
throughout the year and during the entire mosquito breeding season.

A study of the mosquito fauna was made by the Bureau of Malaria
Control of the Florida State Board of Health, cooperating with the Sanitary
Corps at Camp Blanding, at intervals during the months of September
and October. A clinical survey was made in schools of the neighboring
territory during the month of November.
The study was performed by utilizing the procedures of larval inspec-
tion of water areas and by adult captures, the latter effected through the
means of mosquito light traps stationed at strategic positions and allowed
to function throughout the entire night.
Arrangements for the study were made by Dr. John E. Elmendorf,
Jr., Director of the Bureau of Malaria Control, and Colonel L. R. Poust with
the approval of Colonel L. A. Kunzig. Mr. John A. Mulrennan, Entomo-
logist of the Bureau of Malaria Control, assisted by Dr. R. J. Patterson, co-
operated with Lt. J. E. Webb in performing the actual works of investigation.

INSPECTION FOR LARVAE
On September 17 and 18 the water areas present at Camp Blanding
were visited and inspected for the presence of mosquito larvae.
In the area designated at D-2 on the map, a survey area with numerous
pot holes, two larvae were found and identified as A. crucians and two iden-
tified as A. quadrimaculatus.
In Area AB-3, five first instar and two second instar anopheline larvae
were collected.
In Area AB-2, one first instar anopheline larva was collected.
All of these areas, as well as the others visited, were being oiled by a
W. P. A. crew who had performed their work effectively. The larvae that
were found were collected in those small areas where the oil had not
completely penetrated.










TABLE 19.-MosQUITo LIGHT TRAP RECORD, CAMP BLENDING, 1941.

URANOTA- PSORO-
ANOPHELES AEDES CULEX ENA PHORA

DATE AREA LOCATION 3
'B0 ," E -
& a s
_______I_____________Jg s g MS i g5 M

M F M P M F M F M FMFMFMF M FM PIF MF
Sept. 17 AB- Trap No ................... ..... ......... ........ ........ ....... ........ ...... 28 ..................... ... .. ........ ........ 3 4 ..... ...... .. .....
Sept. 17 AB-1 Trap No. 2 ....................................... ....... ........ ........ ....... ... .... 21 78 .......................... ........ 7 10 .... .........
Sept. 19 AB-1 South ......................................... ...... ...... ..... ..... ........... 14 1 3 ..... ................... ............ ........ 1 5
Sept. 29 AB-2 South end of Area ................ .......... 3 ........ ........ ............................... 43 253 ........ ........ ...................... ........ 2 7 ........ ........ ........ 2
Sept. 9 BC-1 South ........................................ ..................................... ........ ........ ............ 3 9 ....... ........ ...... 1 1 2 7 ........ ........ ........ 2
Sept. 20 BC-1 North ................................. .............. ........ ... ........ ....... .. .......... ... ... ... ........ 2 1 ... ..
Sept. 22 BC-2 Reception Center North ...... .......... 1 ........ ........ ........ ........ ...... ........ 4 27 ........ ........ ........ 4 ........ ........ .......... 3 ........ .. ........... 11
Sept. 22 BC-2 Reception Center South ...... ......... 3 ........ ....... 1 5 ............... 30 68 ....... ......... ... ... ........... .......... 5 ........ 1 15 102
Sept. 23 BC-3 Hdq. 103rd F. A. South............................. ........ .................. ........... 2 7 ........ ........ ..... ........ ........ ........ ........ 5 47
Sept. 23 BC-3 116th F. A. North.................. .......... 1 ........ ........ .......... ....... ........ 4 32 ................ ........ ........ 1 2 10 27 ........ ....... 1 9
Sept. 26 CD-1 155th Infantry South......................... ..... 1 2 4 ....... 2 2203* ........ ...................... 2 7 5 20 ........ ....... ........ 12
Sept. 2 CD-2 129th Infantry South ...................... ......... ..... ..... ........ ...... ..... ........ ........ 22 43 1 .............. ......... ... ......... .......... 2 ........ ..... ......... 3
Sept. 29 CD-2 156th Infantry North .......... ......... ........................ ............... ... ...... 14 53 ........ .................. ..... ........ 5 1 5 ........ ....... 2 28
Sept. 30 CD-3 U. S. Post Office South...... .................. ...................................... ........ 4 17 ........ ........ ........ ........ 1 5 .......... ........ ............... ....... 9
Sept. 30 CD-3 106th Ord. Company North.. .......... 4 ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ 7 23 ........ ...... ....... ........ 1 6 .................. ........ ........... 22
Oct. 1 CD-4 103rd Infantry North .......... .......... ........ ........ ............................. ........ 5 30 ........ ..... .... ................ 2 4 ........ .......................... ........ 7
Oct. 1 CD-4 169th Infantry South .................................................................. ........ 4 3 1 ........ ...................................... 1.............. ..... 2
Oct. 2 D-2 South at Motor Pool ............ .......... ........ .... ........ ........ .... ........................... 4 1 ........ .. .... ....... .. .. 1 .......... 1 ........ ........ ........ 9
Oct. 2 D-2 North CCC Area ................... 7 17 ............... ................ ....................... ....... 5 ........ ... ........ ........ 2 2 .......... 1 ................ ........ 7
Oct. 3 D-3 South No. 2 Incinerator... ........................... ............................. 3 5 ............... ............................. .. .......... 2 .............. ...... 1
Oct. 3 D-3 North Cath.-in-the-Plnes .... ......... ..................................... 1 7 ........ ........ 14 .......... 2 .............................. 17


NOTE: Collection from BC-4.North and South were destroyed by ants.
*Figure represents male and female specimens.








MALARIA CONTROL


A large amount of ditching was being executed throughout the camp,
and, if lined with concrete linings with special provision being made
for removal of residual waters such as can be accomplished by installing
a small invert in the bottom of the ditch, excellent permanent work of
drainage for mosquito control may be anticipated.
Table 19 indicates the results of the adult captures which were made
from September 17 to October 3. This table shows, whereas various mosqui-
toes were captured which could possibly constitute a nuisance element
for the camp, that the number of anophelines was very low, only one A.
quadrimaculatus in the twenty-one captures made. A. crucians was more
plentiful. Attention should be called to the fact that, whereas A. crucians
is not commonly considered to be an efficient vector of malaria, still it can-
not be completely exonerated from being, under certain circumstances, a
potential carrier. Mayne first reported the experimental infection of A.
crucians with P. vivax and P. falciparum. Mayne and various observers have
noted natural infections of A. crucians. On the other hand, it is known and
accepted that A. quadrimaculatus is an efficient malaria transmitter in the
southeastern portion of the United States.

CLINICAL SURVEY
A clinical survey was conducted in the schools of Starke, Hampton,
and Lawtey. Children between the ages of five and twelve years were
examined for splenic enlargement with blood smears taken on all children
showing such enlargement and with blood smears in addition taken from
each fifth child negative to such enlargement. The examination was
made by Dr. John E. Elmendorf, Jr. The survey was performed on
November 19 and 20, 1941. In all, 623 children were examined and
99 found with splenic enlargement, representing 15.8%. This clinical
finding corresponds to the relatively low findings evidenced in mortality
rates by counties.
As compared with other counties surveyed this fall, this incidence
of the presence of malaria as evidenced by splenic enlargement is low.

TABLE 20. -ANOPHELINE LARVAE COLLECTED FROM CAMP BLENDING, FLORIDA.

DATE LOCATION LARVAE
141 AND TYPE Instars Species No. REMAKS
14 STATION I3 4 0 0 P1_ S_
1I 1 2 1 3 1 4 C I Q I P Misc. Str.
Sept. 17 Area D-2 .................... 4 2 2 ........ ............... Swampy, pot holes
Sept. 17 Area AB-3.. 5 2 ........ ........ ........ ....................... 40 Small pond
Sept. 17 Area AB-2.. 1 ................ ... ........ .......................... Swampy; ditches
--- :-








74 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


REPORT OF AN ENTOMOLOGICAL SURVEY
CONDUCTED AT C.C.C. CAMP NUMBER 4448,
TAYLOR COUNTY.

At the request of Mr. John N. Cone, Taylor County Sanitary Officer,
an anopheline survey was made at the Civilian Conservation Camp No. 4448,
located about five miles south of Salem in Taylor County.
This camp was established in the California Creek swamp. The pur-
pose of the camp is to build roads and to do reforestation, which work
is under the Forestry Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
The supervision of the camp is under the direction of the U. S. Army.
The location of the camp site is on a slightly elevated strip of flat-
woods land that is in the shape of a horse shoe, the back of the shoe being
bounded by a road on the west side of the camp. Close to the camp a
tremendous swamp exists. On the north side of the camp, the water
approaches approximately to within fifty feet of the barracks used by the
Forestry Service personnel. On the east side, the water is about 200 feet
from the buildings and on the south side, about 100 yards from the buildings.
Adult captures were made in four representative types of buildings.
(1) Administration Building (2) No. 4 Barracks, approximately 120 feet
long by 20 feet wide, and housing approximately forty boys (3) Truck
shed (4) Forestry Service Barracks.
In the Administration Building, one hundred yards more or less from
the swamp, eight Anopheles quadrimaculatus females, engorged with blood,
were captured.
SThis building is poorly mosquito proofed. There were two holes about
the size of a cup in the top of the screen door on the front of the building.
There was a crack under the front door about one-half inch wide. The
door did not fit well and had one-fourth inch weather stripping for door
stops. Under the eaves and at the juncture of the siding and roof, there

TABLE 21.- ANOPHELINE LARVAE COLLECTED FROM TAYLOR COUNTY
C. C. C. CAMP 4448, SOUTH OF SALEM.

Date Location Larvae
and Remarks
1941 Type Instars Species I No.
Station 1 2 I 3 4 C Q PIMisc.IStr.
From swamp Breeding was
From swamp heavy, edge
area around heavyedge
Aug. 14 the camp 108 97 76 53 8 45 40 swa or-
at N.W. cor-
ner of the
Camp site.







MALARIA CONTROL


were openings from one-eighth inch to one inch wide running down each
side of the building.
In No. 4 Barracks, a total of 573 female Anopheles quadrimaculatus
and nine female Anopheles crucians were counted on the inside walls of
the barracks. All of the anophelines were engorged with blood, and a
good percentage were gravid.
In the truck shed, that was approximately 80 to 100 feet long by 14
feet high by about 20 feet wide, it was estimated that approximately 1,000
to 1,500 anophelines were on the walls and in the top. A. quadrimaculatus
predominated in the shed 10 to 1.
In the personnel quarters of the U. S. Department of Agriculture
Forestry Service, only one Anopheles crucians was captured. This building
was infinitely better mosquio proofed than any of the other buildings where
Anopheles mosquitoes were captured. There was one thing very evident, and
that was that the crack around the top was practically mosquito tight, al-
though it was not perfect. There were some small holes in the floor as well
as some in the end of the building near the top, where apparently electric
wires came through at one time.
It was reported that these buildings were moved from the Miami area
and reconstructed. They appear to be a portable type of building.
Anopheline larvae were found breeding in all the water areas adjacent
to and for a distance of about 300 yards in the swamp. Inspections into
the swamp were made for approximately 300 yards. The greatest breeding
was found around the edge of the swamp where the underbrush and
trees had been cleared away.
The density of the larvae were sixty-seven per square meter, with
85% Anopheles quadrimaculatus.

TABLE 22.- ANOPHELINE LARVAE COLLECTED FROM TAYLOR COUNTY
C. C. C. CAMP 4448, SOUTH OF SALEM.
Location ANOPHELINES
Date and ____AOH NS Time spent
1941 Type Crucians I Quads I Puncts Misc.
Station M |I F M I F | M I F Species_
Adminis-
tration
Aug. 14 Building ........ .-------......... ........ 8 .............. .............. 20 minutes
Truck Estimated
Aug. 14 Shed ........ 5 ........12000 .................. 35 minutes
No. 4 5- I spent in
Aug. 14 Barracks ........ 9 ........ 573 ....... .... ......... counting
Personnel I
Aug. 14 Barracks ........ 1 ........ ........ ....... .................... 15 minutes







76 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


REPORT OF AN ENTOMOLOGICAL SURVEY
CONDUCTED AT EGLIN FIELD,
VALPARAISO, FLORIDA 1941
Subject-To secure information on the extent of the mosquito problem,
both disease-bearing and pestiferous, involving the Eglin Field area, and
to submit such recommendations as are possible for the control of mosquitoes.
Inspections were made by Dr. John E. Elmendorf, Jr., of the Rocke-
feller Foundation, acting Director of the Escambia County Malaria Depart-
ment, with Mr. John A. Mulrennan, entomologist for the department, ac-
companied by Capt. J. W. Williams of the Medical Corps of Eglin Field.
Inspections were made on two days, May 2nd and May 18th, 1941.
These inspections cannot be considered as exhaustive and do not con-
stitute a complete mosquito survey; they should better be termed a recon-
naissance. The available time of the Escambia County Malaria Depart-
ment's personnel did not permit of a complete mosquito survey.
The areas to be inspected were determined on the advice of Capt.
Williams regarding the locations of water areas which were considered
to be potential breeding areas for mosquitoes, and from the additional
information made available relative to these areas by the data presented
on the serial photographic map of Eglin Field and its environs.
The approach to the subject was through the means of inspection of
water areas for larval forms of the mosquito and also the capture of adult
specimens. It must be remembered that inspections performed in the
spring do not necessarily represent total facts for the entire summer when
breeding almost invariably becomes much more prolific and produces
species which are not found during the months of spring.
The finding of mosquito larvae in.a certain area definitely inculpates
that area as a breeding spot, but does not necessarily indicate it as a cause
of a nuisance to a locality unless the species of larvae found be identified
and the habits of the adult known, or unless adult capture reveals the
presence of this same species in and around the habitations involved when
it may be assumed through presumptive evidence that the producing area
is actually constituting a nuisance.
Adult captures are most important in a study directed toward mosquito
control. By the identification of adults captured, in accordance with a
well-oriented plan, their flight habits, their potential breeding areas, as
well as their predilection for blood meals, whether animal or human, can
be determined. If the predominance of mosquitoes captured represent a
salt-marsh species capable of flights of twenty-five miles, the problem of
control, from the standpoint of ridding a given locality of a nuisance, may
be greatly complicated. If all species identified through capture through-







MALARIA CONTROL


out the year df breeding represent mosquitoes having a flight range of
only a mile or so the control problem will be greatly simplified.
It. would be without scientific basis and with very little hope for
successful outcome to apply larvicides, (oil, paris green or special solutions)
to potential breeding areas unless they be proven by the presence of
larvae to be mosquito-producing areas and unless, at least, presumptive
evidence indicates that these areas produce the mosquitoes causing the
actual nuisance and, furthermore, unless it be known that additional mos-
quitoes contributing toward the nuisance, in predominating numbers, are
not coming from areas at great distance from the locality where control
is being exercised.
INSPECTION
As far as the evidence of the aerial photographic map would indicate,
all water areas within a mile radius of the Field were visited and Inspection
made for the larval form of the mosquito.
All areas of importance found breeding at this early period of the
breeding season were found to the southeast of the main road leading
from Fort Walton to Valparaiso, whereas areas to the northwest were
found without breeding at this time, or with so little breeding that it
would not constitute, without a considerable increase throughout the warm
summer months, a nuisance which would demand, in its present state,
any great attention.
On a map of Eglin Field are marked in red those places which were
found with mosquito larvae and bearing the identifying numbers: 1, 3, 4,
and 5. Number 2 was marked as an area where drainage has already been
commenced.
It is interesting to note that in Areas 1, 3, 4, and 5, larvae of Anopheles
mosquitoes were found which, in addition to their capacity as a nuisance,
can also be potential carriers of the malaria parasite.
Although the season is still early to gather comprehensive information
from adult captures, these captures were made at one point, and here the only
mosquito captured was that known as Mansonia perturbans, a species which
is not involved in disease transmission, but which is a voracious biter. (See
notation later under "Recommendations" regarding further study of this
species, as well as continuance of adult captures.)
RECOMMENDATIONS
1. A person from Eglin Field, preferably one who will remain at
least throughout the summer months, should be selected and sent to Pen-
sacola for a period of a week, Monday to Saturday, inclusive, to be trained in
the manner of conducting ordinary entomological inspection.







78 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


He should be trained in:
Recognition of mosquito larvae;
Differentiation of anopheline larvae from other kinds;
Manner of computing the density of larvae as they occur, at different
seasons and in different localities;
Manner of making adult captures and rough identification of
species found; (Use of mosquito traps);
When larvicidal work should be utilized and how this should be
performed.
2. Larval inspections and adult captures should be continued through-
out the whole breeding season, May to September, inclusive, the work
executed by above-mentioned trainee, with the following ends in view:
a. Determination of relative importance throughout the season of
breeding areas already located.
b. Decision if, when, and where larvicidal work should be instituted.
c. Identification of species most important to area and all species
involved.
d. Recognition of all breeding areas responsible for the mosquito
population of the area.
e. Density of different adult species throughout the season to be
utilized as a gauge of efficiency of control works.
3. A concrete plant should be established for the making of concrete
products for the permanent lining of drainage ditches, both 24" concrete
pipe and thirds of 24".

Equipment Indicated
1 24" all-steel tongue and groove concrete pipe form with "header"
and 40 ring pallets. Form 212 feet long, wall 2 inches thick. Ap-
proximate price with pallets, $200.00.
1 18" pipe form, 3 feet long, walls 1 5/8 inches thick, "header"
and 40 ring pallets. Approximate price, $175.00.
1 Hand Tile Machine with adaptation for making 4" and 6" tile. Ap-
proximate price, $150.00.
A location for the plant should be selected near to the area where
the greatest amount of ditch lining is to be performed and at the same
time accessible for carting of cement, sand and gravel and where running
water is available. There should be a shed or adequate protection for
the housing of cement and a covering for the sand as well.
Cement, sand and gravel can be ordered in advance of manufacturing
in the approximate ratio of cement 1, sand 2, pea gravel 3. One car-
load of cement (132 barrels or approximately 19 cubic yards), $326.00;
40 cubic yards of sand at the price of sand in the locality; 60 cubic yards
of pea gravel at the cost of gravel in the locality. (Note: One-half car-
load of cement can be ordered if storage space is limited.)







MALARIA CONTROL


Entomological Equipment
Entomological equipment should include:
5 Headlee light traps, approximately $25 each......................$125.00
10 Storage batteries for above at $12 each................................ 120.00
4 Adult capture tubes at $1.50 each................................. 6.00

4. A man, preferably foreman of the concrete plant, should be sent
to Pensacola to be trained at the concrete plant in the manner of making
these concrete products as used for malaria drainage ditches.
5. All edifices to be constructed at the Field should be constructed
in a complete mosquito proof manner and all existing temporary quarters,
barracks, tents, etc., should be mosquito proofed.
6. A further and more detailed study of the breeding places of the
species Mansonia perturbans should be made in order that special control
work for this species may be instituted since control for Mansonia perturbans
involves a procedure somewhat different from other species. Drainage
work should be commenced at areas marked on map as No. 1 and No. 3.
The work already started at Area No. 2 should be continued. Brushing
and engineering surveys would be the first steps toward such a work
of permanent control.
7. The mosquito trap should be used immediately and in different
parts of the reservation, for example:
1 night near the Officers' Club
1 night back of the new Barracks
1 night near the Medical Dispensary Building
1 night at different localities to the northwest and across the
landing field.







80 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


REPORT OF AN ENTOMOLOGICAL SURVEY
CONDUCTED AT FLEXIBLE GUNNERY SCHOOL,
PANAMA CITY, FLORIDA 1941
Subject-Inspection of the site and environs of the Flexible Gunnery
School to determine the problem of mosquito control and offer plans for
a solution thereof.
During the days of June 2 and June 3, in association with Mr. Wingate
Green, an inspection was made of the site and environs under considera-
tion. It should first be explained that this inspection could not cover all
detail, as the time of the writer, Dr. Elmendorf, was limited and only
two days could be devoted to this purpose.
The normal approach to an understanding of a mosquito problem
directed toward control is through an inspection,
First, to determine what the problem is
Second, the cause of the problem
Third, a solution for the problem
Adult mosquitoes constitute the problem; it is, therefore, logical to
know what mosquitoes are present in the area where control is desired.
This is accomplished by adult captures, accomplished through the medium
of capture stations and also mosquito traps. This work demands time,
but once accomplished and the mosquitoes identified, the life habits of
those mosquitoes become manifest, including two points of great as-
sistance in defining the problem: namely, their spot of predilection for
breeding and their flight range. With this knowledge at 'hand, the
investigator will know what types of water areas he should investigate
and also how far away from the area to be controlled he should look
for the breeding places. It is to be remembered that different species
have flight ranges that vary from a few hundred yards to as much as
twenty-five miles and also that all species of mosquito larvae are not
appreciably affected by an application of a film of oil on the surface.
In a recent inspection, where oiling was contemplated, the writer found
that the only species at the time, found in the barracks, were adult
Mansonia perturbans, which do not breathe, by making contact with the
surface of the water but which receive their oxygen through attaching
themselves to the roots or stems of waterplants. Accordingly, application
of oil on the surface of the water does not produce an effective control
for this species.
Unless it be known that no salt-marsh mosquitoes are causing the
annoyance, which can be determined by adult collection, control work







MALARIA CONTROL


by application of larvicide or drainage may approach 100% efficiency
in and around the area to be controlled and still the nuisance will exist
if the mosquitoes are being produced in far-off salt-marsh areas.
In the inspection made at Panama City, it was impossible to find
any adults at the time of the inspection. No mosquito traps were avail-
able for placing at strategic points and time did not permit for an average
entomological reconnaissance.
Accordingly, the next subject was investigated, namely, the possible
cause of the problem accomplished through searching for water areas and
investigation of these areas for larvae of mosquitoes.
Owing to the extreme dry season which has been experienced recently,
only small water-containing areas were located, though there was distinct
evidence that many more and larger areas had recently contained water,
presumably spots favorable for mosquito breeding.
In four locations, larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes were found in their
earliest instars or stages, but were too young to permit of species identifica-
tion. None of these areas were of any significance at the present time
from the standpoint of constituting a mosquito nuisance, although their
presence indicated that breeding was possible and that, a point of more
significance, possibly potential malaria-bearing Anopheles were present
around and even inside the reservation.

INSPECTION
The inspection was made by following the main highway and running
off to the south and the north as far as the terrain would permit and taking
samples of all water areas as well as by taking the road, marked with red
pencil on the aerial photograph map, and continuing along the road from
the site where building is now being commenced eastward to within a mile
and a half of the eastern end of the army reservation. Here again, all water
areas encountered were sampled.
As previously stated, breeding in all areas was, at that time, negligible
in the areas surveyed and it is believed that a fair sample of the area
involved was visited on which to base valid conclusions for the base and
its immediate environs.
The entire expanse of the district is a flat plain which is crossed by
numerous old open ditches running approximately northward into the Bay
and southward into the Gulf; the dividing line between the direction of flow
is apparently the highway leading to Port St. Joe. Evidence was continuously
found of areas which had previously held water and which were at the
time of inspection, dry.







82 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


RECOMMENDATIONS:
1. It is believed that the crew which has at present been organized
for oiling could better devote their time in clearing pathways through-
the brush at indicated spots so that potential breeding areas could be
easily reached.
2. The person in charge of mosquito control should thoroughly orient
himself on the whole terrain and mark on a map all areas of water existent
at present, those where larvae are found, and also those which probably
will hold water after rains. All of them should be marked with distinc-
tive markings.
3. A person should be available, trained in the minimal basic know-
ledge of entomology, in order to be capable of recognizing the general
classifications of larvae and adults and possess basic knowledge, also, of
trapping and catching adults. Sufficient knowledge could in all probability
be secured through training which could be given at Escambia County
in the period of a week to ten days.
4. A boat should be available for more easy access and subsequent
inspection of these areas lying contiguous to the Bay and where roadways
do not exist.
5. A general topographical survey should be complete for the whole
district in order that elevations indicating available fall can be determined
for general districts.
6. A close understanding of plans should exist between those engaged
in mosquito control and those planning the general storm-drainage system
ot the whole terrain. Frequently, it may be possible to tie the drainage
of residual waters and waters in themselves not detrimental to the mechanical
operation of the base but of importance from the mosquito eradication
standpoint, into the general drainage system being planned.
7. Traps should be immediately available. These'should be located
at strategic points around the habitations, or localities selected for future
habitations, and also around breeding areas for the routine weekly collections
and identification of adults.
8. One week after the first rains, the person in charge of the mos-
quito control should visit all areas which he, in the interim, has visited
and noted on his spot map and see in actuality how many contain water
and how many are actual breeders of mosquitoes. At such time, if
permanent control work is impossible, larvicide (oiling) can be utilized
on a rational and practical basis, especially if the identification of the
larvae found indicate that they are a species whose flight range permits
of their reaching the area where the nuisance should be abated.







MALARIA CONTROL


9. Minimal entomological equipment should be immediately secured:
a. Traps -Headlee light trap (New Jersey or its equivalent)
and, if possible, some animal bait traps as well. Six traps at
$25 and 10 strong batteries, 6 volts, at $12.50 each.
b. Adult capture tubes 6
c. Small glass vials for carrying larvae to base 2 gross.
d. Large-mouth dropping pipettes for collection of larvae 6.
e. Pasteboard pill boxes for carrying adults after capture 2 gross.
f. Entomological belts for carrying vials 3.
g. Six-ounce tins of chloroform for killing adults 2.
h. Small entomological magnifying glasses 3.

It should be noted in association with entomological collections of
larvae or adults that specimens from each distinct locality should be so
labelled that their exact point of origin will subsequently be known; for
that reason, necessity of vials and pill boxes in order that all collections
may be separately and distinctly labelled.
10. In the construction of all temporary buildings, especially those
used for night work or sleeping quarters, these should be completely
mosquito proofed.
11. Assuming that some permanent work in the nature of concrete-
lined ditches will be undertaken, it is recommended that some equipment
and materials be secured for the manufacture of such products. The
process of manufacture can be demonstrated by the Escambia County Malaria
Department at Pensacola.
Hand tile machine with 4" and 6" adaptations for the
manufacture of sub-soil pipe. ...-...............................................................$200.00
1 Tongue and groove 24" pipe form for manufacture of concrete
pipe 21/2' long with 2" wall, with collapsible inner core...............-...$ 55.08
30 Ring pallets for the above at $5.23, price...-........................................$156.90
1 Ring header for finishing top of pipe form 24" x 2";
price .................................. .......................... ........................$ 4.95
1-18" tongue and groove pipe form with 1 5/8" wall,
3' long; price ........................................... .....................................$ 54.00
1-18" ring header for above; price............... ................ 3.10
45 Pallets for the above, 16" x 1 5/8" at $5.03..............................$136.35
It would be suggested as well that the following materials be ordered:
1 carload of cement
40 cubic yards of sand
60 cubic yards of pea gravel
12. A locality should be selected for a concrete plant where piped
water is available and where a shed for storing of cement and sand is
already present or can be built. This plant should be situated in such
location that materials can be easily deposited there and at the same time
be close to the area where the major portion of the manufactured products
are to be used.







84 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


PRINCIPLES, AIMS, ORGANIZATION AND SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES
OF THE BUREAU OF MALARIA CONTROL AS OUTLINED
AND APPROVED BY THE BUREAU'S BOARD OF
CONSULTANTS*

POINTS TO BE DISCUSSED

1. Discussion of general plans for operation of Bureau.

2. Should the routine activities of malaria investigation and control
take second place this year to the indicated and requested work of
mosquito control at military bases?

3. Is the schedule for routine activities of the malaria control pro-
gram approved.

4. The concept of the purposes of the Malaria Bureau warrants the
inclusion of the following branches of service within the depart-
ment:
An agency for the education of the general public and interested
officials relative to malaria control program and for promoting
the ends of malaria control;
An organization to conduct routine and special scientific investiga-
tion;
A planning body for types of control to be selected;
A nucleus to serve in training of local personnel;
A supervisory body for investigative works in progress;
An active supervisory agent of all control works in progress
except drainage and fill which, when selected as a control
measure, will be supervised in its technical execution by the
Bureau of Engineering.

5. Advisability of incorporating research problems in routine activities
of department and review of projected research program with
corrections, deletions or additions as indicated.

6. Discussion of publicity program.

7. Review of the budget with suggestions, if any, for future modifica-
tion.

*Dr. W. V. King, Mark F. Boyd, Mr. H. A. Johnson, and Dr. L. L. Williams,
Papers presented at first meeting, August 23, 1941.







MALARIA CONTROL


ROUTINE DUTIES OF THE FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF
HEALTH'S BUREAU OF MALARIA CONTROL

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
The purpose of the Bureau of Malaria Control is to investigate malaria
incidence and intensity throughout the state of Florida as well as to study
the associated entomological and engineering facts; to make special studies
in localities where control work is economically possible, studies sufficiently
detailed to permit of plans for control being formulated, together with
estimates of annual funds required, to supervise and effect the inaugura-
tion of such works as well as their continued operation; to train the local
health personnel in the manner of conducting the routine procedures; to
conduct a general campaign of education; to assist the local health officer
in presenting facts directed toward securing the funds necessary for the
prosecution of the work, always remembering that with long-time planning
and patience, malaria can be erradicated by a scientific application of
funds which, though perhaps moderate, are annually devoted toward this end.
The Bureau of Malaria Control should assist the local officials in pre-
liminary studies, financial estimates, plans for control, supervision of works
of control and training of local personnel; whereas, the locality should pro-
vide the local personnel for training and provide the funds to defray the
expense of the actual control works to be effected in their locality.

PRELIMINARY ACTIVITIES OF THE BUREAU OF MALARIA CONTROL
1. Secure all available statistical information on mortality and morbi-
dity of malaria for as many years as possible and make suitable maps
indicating the present and known status of malaria by cities and counties in
Florida.
2. Secure all available entomological data from the State Board of
Health, Dr. W. .V King's laboratory, and special entomological studies,
conducted by established agencies, revealing the presence or absence of
anopheline mosquitoes by areas.
3. Secure all available maps of all counties of Florida, including
those which have topographical or contour data, where these may exist.
4. Send special circular letter to all county health departments and
to selected physicians and institutions requesting history and definite in-
formation relative to malaria in their locality. The circular letter would
carry with it a special questionnaire indicating the type of information
desired.







86 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


I. ROUTINE ACTIVITIES RELATED TO SURVEYS
ORIENTATION STUDIES AND ACTIVITIES
1. Entomologist:
a. Indicate on maps all entomological data already available related
to anopheline breeding by counties and localities.
b. Make sample adult captures and larval collections at suitable
periods of the year in areas propitious for anopheline breeding, beginning
in those areas where statistical data and history prove or suggest the
presence of malaria and where the economic situation of the locality would
indicate that actual control would be desired, giving special attention to
areas which answer the above stipulations and where a survey has already
been requested. As tentative work has been commenced in Tallahassee,
Quincy, and Marianna, these districts could be logical points for beginning
such a survey. (See page 24 for exception of Emergency Activities.)
c. Record all data secured on maps with suitable designation to
indicate species of larvae and adults found and, where possible, estimates
of density.
NOTE: Maps eventually should be prepared, in detailed studies, showing monthly
variations.
d. In every locality where a health organization exists, the entomo-
logist should make a special effort to have one of the personnel of the
local department, designated by the local director of health, accompany
him in order that local personnel may receive training in this phase of
the subject at the earliest possible time.
2. Engineering Department. (Engineer to be named with mutual approval
of the State Health Officer and Directors of the Malaria and Engineering
Bureaus. From the administrative standpoint the engineer will be under
the director of the Bureau of Malaria Control, while from the stand-
point of the technical phases of his engineering plans and execution of
drainage and fill programs when selected as a means of control, he will
be supervised by the Bureau of Sanitary Engineering.)
a. Insofar as may be possible and especially in those areas where
statistical evidence and history indicate the presence of malaria, complete
maps of the district (county, municipality, military base) should be secured
or should be prepared, always bearing in mind that the areas of immediate
interest are those where control work is indicated, desired and economically
possible. On these maps should be located all the topographical data
possible, including water courses, ponds, lakes, permanent standing water,
with relative elevations of the important water areas and elevations of
potential discharge points.








MALARIA CONTROL


b. Secure and note data relative to the geological formation by
areas or districts.
c. Secure and index complete listing of equipment necessary for
malaria control operations, indicating where secured and prices.
d. Analyze Escambia County data and that available in the State
Board of Health, Engineering Bureau, noting costs of materials, labor,
amount of materials necessary per unit of district, area, or in case of
screening of windows, doors, etc., of the following types of permanent
control:
24" closed drainage system standard pipe
18" closed drainage system standard pipe
24" closed drainage system heavy duty pipe
1/3 of 24" (invert) drainage system with and without sidewalls
Panama invert drainage system with and without sidewalls
6" Panama invert drainage system with subsoil drainage
4" Panama invert drainage system with subsoil drainage
Construction of standard manholes
Construction of standard sandtraps
Costs of various larvicides and cost of application per area
Costs of materials necessary for screening; cost of labor for manufacture and
labor for installation.
3. Director of Bureau (Clinical Side)
a. Compile and analyze all statistical data secured and make maps of
the state for presence and intensity of malaria.
b. Indicate on maps the relationship of historical, statistical and
clinical data to entomological findings.
c. Make splenic and associated blood examination throughout the
state and in specially selected areas especially at the height of malaria
incidence, note data secured on appropriate maps.
d. Determine from above data, from engineering studies, associated
studies, and from the economic status of the locality, the types of control
which are indicated.
e. Take assistant malariologist on all trips and train him in the
manner of organization of the Bureau as well as the technique of specific
procedures.
f. Arrange for suitable disposition of time of local county health
department personnel, to be devoted to malaria control.
g. Formulate plans to effect a better reporting of malaria deaths
and, if possible, malaria morbidity. Make special plans for facilitating blood
examinations.
h. Organize an educational program operating closely with the de-
partment of public relations and through the medium of moving pictures,
conferences at schools, clubs and health meetings, and by personal inter-
views.







88 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


II. SPECIAL ROUTINE ACTIVITIES (Survey and Control)
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
1. It is a principle of the Florida State Board of Health that no
individual disease control activity be instituted in a locality, unless an
established health organization exists in that locality. The one exception
to the rule is control work made necessary from an emergency standpoint,
such as would occur in case of epidemics, national defense needs or
other similar situations.
In accordance with this principle, malaria control work would not
be inaugurated in localities which did not have county health units un-
less emergency conditions demanded such work.
NOTE: This decision by the State Board of Health is based upon the
principle that special health activities should not supersede the more important
phase of general health programs. In case of the Malaria Department, acceptance
of this decision is doubly indicated, as the Malaria Department must train local
personnel to carry on the continued execution of the control program. Without
a local health unit, there would be no personnel available for training.
2. The expansion of actual control activities will be gradual, the
department assuming the obligation of such works only to the extent that
the available time of their personnel will permit of original studies,
training of local personnel and subsequent supervision of organized
activities.
3. Selection of areas for inauguration of control works will be based
upon the prevalence, incidence and intensity of malaria, the interest of
the populace and officials and the economic situation of the locality.
4. It is the aim of the malaria bureau to function, especially as re-
gards control activities, in the closest collaboration with the epidemio-
logical, engineering and local health departments.

DETAIL OF ACTIVITIES IN ESTABLISHING OF CONTROL OPERATIONS
1. The personnel of the clinical and entomological branches will
execute original studies to define the malaria problem. If the extent of
malaria problem warrants control, the Bureau's engineer will prepare
maps, if these are not already available, including sufficient detail to
permit of an evaluation of a drainage program, both from the stand-
point of practicability, as well as finances involved. During these pre-
liminary studies, local personnel will be offered training in all the branches
of the survey.
2. Once the type of control to be employed has been selected, and
the finances have been roughly estimated, the officials will be approached
with the end in view of securing annual finances for the execution of
the work.
3. With finances approved by the locality, control work will be
begun with the state Bureau of Malaria Control inaugurating the control op-







MALARIA CONTROL


erations and continuing in the training of local personnel until such time as
local personnel may be competent to carry on the prosecution of the
work with periodical supervision offered by the state Bureau of Malaria
Control.
4. Where and when possible, the cooperation of all Federal agencies
will be utilized to the utmost in carrying forward the works of control,
such assistance for example as W. P. A. labor for drainage, N. Y. A.
assistance for manufacturing screening products, F. S. A. donation of
materials for screening houses of their loan clients.
5. When a drainage program is selected as the approach to the
control of malaria, the engineering plans, as prepared by the Depart-
ment's engineer, will be submitted by the Bureau of Malaria Control to the
Board of Health's Bureau of Sanitary Engineering for any additional sug-
gestions that this department may see fit to recommend.
If and when works of actual control are instituted which involve
measures closely related to engineering practice, such as drainage or fill,
it is expected that the Bureau of Sanitary Engineering will collaborate
closely with the Bureau of Malaria Control and will render such technical
assistance to the malaria engineer as may be indicated or requested for the
proper execution of the engineering work involved.
It will be the obligation of the Bureau of Malaria Control in relation
to indicated arrangements with officials, to take all steps necessary and to
make all arrangements preparatory to the inauguration of any such engineer-
ing phases of control, to relieve the engineering bureau of any such re-
sponsibilities during the course of the work, and to be responsible to
the officials regarding the correct and economic disposition of their funds
used in control as well as to accept responsibility for the results of the
measures they have recommended.
The Bureau of Sanitary Engineering is not expected to accept responsibi-
lity for general malaria control measures, recommended and decided upon
by the Bureau of Malaria Control. It is desired that the Bureau of Sanitary
Engineering may find it possible together with their other activities to
cooperate fully with the Bureau of Malaria Control in these engineering
phases of control and to assist the malaria engineer both in the original plans
for drainage and fill as well as during the period of installation of any
such measures or systems.
6. When the operations in any locality selected for control are suf-
ficiently advanced to permit, the personnel of the Bureau of Malaria Control
will withdraw and continue with the routine study of the malaria prevalence
and intensity in the state of Florida, or institute studies for additional
control operations in other localities, if these are indicated, returning at
intervals for supervision of established control works.








90 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


III. SPECIAL, IMMEDIATE OR EMERGENCY ACTIVITIES OF THE
BUREAU OF MALARIA CONTROL
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Florida has been selected as one of the localities for the establishment
of military bases with the end in view of preparing for national defense.
The medical department of the military branches are at present utilizing
freely the state health organizations for the control of mosquito breed-
ing, both the noxious and disease-carrying varieties. Accordingly, it may
be considered as necessary and advisable for the period of the emergency
to postpone the adoption of the routine activities of the Bureau of Malaria
Control, as herein outlined, and direct the activities of the Bureau toward
the problem of general mosquito control.
If this view of the temporary service of the Bureau be accepted,
the following recommendations for the functioning of the Bureau would
be given:
1. The general scope of activity of the Bureau should be pre-
liminary studies of military localities to define the mosquito problem,
both the noxious and disease-bearing varieties; submit plans for the solu-
tion of the various problems involved; draw up lists of equipment nec-
essary for the various phases of the work; train a local personnel to execute
the routine studies indicated; supervise the effects of control work and
indicate further measures of control to be deducted from a continued
study of each locality. Entomological studies, especially, will assist in the
evaluation of the additional mosquito problems arising with changing
seasons as well as in scientific determination of the results accomplished
by the control works instituted.
2. It is believed that the supervision of actual control operations in
the situation of the National Emergency should be carried on as at present
is the case; namely, that the engineering bureau continue with the
execution of control work in larviciding and associated works in military
bases. In the future, they would be assisted in this work by the studies
made and reports rendered by the Bureau of Malaria Control containing in-
formation which would afford orientation regarding the recommended
measures of control as well as an evaluation of the results produced by
the methods being employed, and the possible use of additional measures,
when indicated.
3. The areas to be selected for study would be chosen by the State
Health Officer on the basis of the relative importance of the area as
represented to him by the military authorities.
NOTE: The Board of Consultants for the Bureau of Malaria Control to be named
by the State Health officer will convene as early as may be possible after July 1,
1941, to review the outline of activities of the Bureau and to give their
recommendations regarding principles governing the activities of the Bureau as
well as offer specific recommendations related to details of procedure.








MALARIA CONTROL


At the first meeting of the Board, approximate dates for meetings
throughout the year will be decided upon. It is recommended that they
convene not less than once or more than four times a year.
The function of the Board of Consultants is to assist the Director of
the Bureau of Malaria Control in the effective operation of his Bureau by
offering their critique regarding the work accomplished, the measures
used, plans for the future, and allocation of funds to different phases
of the bureau's activities, to give general counsel on all allied activities
of the bureau, and to register their approval of measures finally adopted.

BUREAU OF MALARIA CONTROL BUDGET
JULY 1, 1941 TO JUNE 30, 1942

Budget No. 68729,
Date: June 27, 1941
Item Total
No. Description Allotment
PART I- STATE SERVICE
1 Salary and Travel of Director (Dr. J. E. Elmendorf,
Jr.-To be paid direct by the Rockefeller Foundation)
2 Salary of Assistant Director............................................ $3,300.00
3 Salary of Sanitary Engineer.................................................... 2,700.00
4 Salary of Entomologist ................................................. 2,700.00
5 Salary of Stenographer-Clerk .............................................. 1,200.00
6 Travel of Assistant Director, Sanitary Engineer and Ento-
mologist ........... ....... .... ................. ................ .. 3,000.00
7 Adjustment of salaries and travel as necessary and special
services on perdiem basis .................. .............. ............... 800.00
8 Equipment and Supplies ........................................................ 600.00
9 Contingencies .............................................................. 500.00 $14,800.00
SOURCE OF FUNDS:
U. S. Public Health Service .................... 6,600.00
State Board of Health................................ 6,600.00
Rockefeller Foundation .......................... 1,600.00


PART II-PENSACOLA CITY & ESCAMBIA COUNTY SERVICE
10 Salary of Sanitary Engineer ................................ ... $2,400.00
11 Travel of Sanitary Engineer .................................................... 600.00 3,000.00


.SOURCE OF FUNDS:
City of Pensacola and County of Es-
cambia (1) ....................................... .. $ 1,000.00
Rockefeller Foundation ........................... 2,000.00

$ 3,000.00
$17,800.00
(1) It is understood that the City and County will
also finance the necessary labor and material for
a continuation of the drainage and screening meas-
ures at an annual approximate cost of $5,000 or
more.







92 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAM OF MALARIA CONTROL
The theme of the program at the outset should be general in nature,
stressing at every opportunity the fact that malaria is not controlled by
proprietary medicines, but by application of selected procedures after
scientific study. There appears to be widespread misconception in Florida
of this basic truth.
I. Relations with Groups and Organizations
A. Relations with Medical Society
1. Endorsement of the Malaria Control Program by the Florida
Medical Association should also be solicited at the first possible
opportunity.
2. Secure place for articles in medical journals, as indicated under
"Health and Medical Bulletins".
3. Consultant service on diagnosis of malaria cases should be
offered private physicians.
4. Issuance of periodic mimeographed bulletins to the medical
profession of Florida relative to the progress of the Malaria
Control Program, giving them any specific data secured through
investigations, such as morbidity reports, statistics from other
states as related to Florida, and results of the splenic survey.
5. Provide for lectures on malaria by authorities at Annual Short
Course for Physicians.
6. Participation in annual meeting Florida Public Health As-
sociation, with the ultimate purpose of developing a malaria
section of the Association.
7. Provide a scientific exhibit at the Florida Medical Association
convention and Florida Public Health Association convention.
(See Exhibits).

B. Staff Relations, State Board of Health
1. Periodic lectures, demonstrations and motion pictures on malaria
control by the director for members of the staff.
2. Mimeographed bulletin to the staff of the State Board of Health
units relative to the findings of the Bureau of Malaria Control.
3. Copies of all new malaria pamphlets and other memorandums
should be distributed as issued to members of the staff.

C. Official Organization Relationship
Farm Security, Home Demonstration, State Welfare Board,
and local W. P. A. offices should be supplied with informa-
tion concerning the program, and a sample of pamphlets that
might be available for distribution by case workers.







MALARIA CONTROL


D. County Commissioners, School Boards, and Florida League of
Municipalities.
It would be of value for the Bureau to have representation
on the annual program of the County Commissioners' state meet-
ing, and also that of the County School Board members, County
Superintendents, and the Florida League of Municipalities.

E. Nurses
Lectures could be given before nursing groups and at the
annual meeting of the State Nurses' Association.

F. Red Cross
Talks at regional meetings.

G. State Board of Health and Board of Consultant Relations
1. Copies of all pamphlets and reports to be furnished members
of the State Board of Health, the State Health Officer and
Assistant State Health Officer, and members of the Bureau's
Board of Consultants.
2. Periodic reports of progress to each of these.

H. School and College Relationship
1. Talks, practical demonstrations, motion pictures before health
education, economics, biology, and sociology classes as institu-
tions of higher learning at both summer and winter sessions.
2. As program shifts to more specific phases, a simplified version
of the above should be applied to secondary schools and to
teachers' meetings.
3. Talks before annual meeting of the Health and Physical Edu-
tion sections of the Florida Education Association.

II. Relations through Publications and Other Publicity Media
A. Press
1. General releases for the Associated Press, twice a month, be-
ginning immediately.
2. The same type of release for magazine, trade papers and civic
publications.
3. Releases of a more specific and simple nature for weeklies,
semi-weeklies, high school and college papers.
4. Feature articles from time to time as warranted.








94 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


B. Health and Medical Bulletins
1. Articles in Florida Health Notes and the Florida and the South-
ern Medical Journal as space is available.. (See Medical Rela-
tions).
2. Development of some phases of the program which would be
acceptable to Survey Graphic, Hygeia and similar national pub-
lications.
3. Popular type data for the State-Wide Public Health Committee
Bulletin and Florida Health, which is predominantly a lay
medium.

C. Exhibits
1. Preparation of duplicate exhibits of a general nature, to send
around state for local display.
2. Scientific exhibits at State Conference of Social Work, Florida
Federation of Women's Clubs, Florida Congress PTA, State
Chamber of Commerce and, indicated above, at the Florida
Medical Association and the Florida Public Health Association.
3. Demonstrations in schools.
4. Suggestions for exhibits that school children might construct.

D. Radio
1. Interviews or round-table discussions in localities visited by the
Director of the Bureau.
2. Transcriptions would be more practical and adaptable to wide
coverage.

E. The Office
A permanent and periodically changing demonstration, or ex-
hibit, should be maintained in the office of the Bureau of
Malaria Control and memorandum of changes should be issued
to all staff members.

F. Library
A section for malaria books should be set aside and plainly
marked. Notices on new books, articles of special interest
should be sent to staff members of central office and county
health units.

G. Civic and Industrial Relationship
Talk on "Economic Disease No. 1" before annual conven-
tion of State Chamber of Commerce, Junior Chamber of Com-
merce and industrial groups.







MALARIA CONTROL


H. Intensive Local Campaign
1. Talks, demonstrations, and motion pictures at meetings of local
governmental officials.
2. Talks, practical demonstrations, and motion pictures at schools,
civic clubs, PTA's, Women's Clubs, and Chamber of Commerce.
3. Malaria study program by PTA and Women's Clubs.
4. Talks to medical society, explaining program.
5. Personal conferences with all editors and radio managers.
6. Talks before civic, fraternal, and religious and social groups.
7. In rural sections, Saturday night motion pictures on the Court
House square, with Director of Bureau on hand to answer
questions.
8. Training of all health board personnel in area to enable them
to talk knowingly of the program.
9. Talks and motion pictures at Negro churches.
10. Envelope stuffers for industrial payrolls.
11. Talks, demonstrations, and motion pictures at teachers' meet-
ings.
12. Use of exhibits, posters, and pamphlets as indicated.
13. Books on malaria on display at local library; reviews in the
newspapers.
14. Newspaper articles in daily or weekly press, radio programs,
use of any industrial house organs, high school papers, and
other available media.

This intensive campaign of education should be divided into two phases:
1. Securing of financial cooperation of the locality in the campaign.
2. Maintenance of interest during opening periods of the work itself
and while it is in progress.

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES OF THE BUREAU OF MALARIA CONTROL
The following program is outlined in the belief that in the practical
execution of all field work valuable information can be secured and new
conclusions can be deduced from a careful planning of the data to be
collected, recorded and by the selection of certain subjects for special
investigation. These special subjects, whose study is not too time-consum-
ing nor too difficult of accomplishment, should bear a close relationship
to the routine work of the bureau and should be carried on simultaneously
with this work.







96 ANNUAL REPORT, 1941


CLINICAL
1. Study of blood positives as related to splenic positives in the
same groups over successive years.
2. Relation of density of anopheline mosquitoes and blood posities
to clinical manifestations of the disease,
3. Study of persistence of splenic enlargement as found under natural
conditions and when influenced by treatments. Control groups for treat-
ments should be selected by dividing families, half with splenic enlarge-
ment in each house remaining untreated and half treated.
4. Investigations of Anopheles crucians as an active malaria vector
under natural conditions.

ENTOMOLOGICAL
1. Continued studies of densities of anophelines by season and by
year and relation to clinical manifestations of disease.
2. Study of factors associated with variations in breeding throughout
the year and in different potential breeding spots in the same locality.
3. Observations and habits of the vector species in localities where
actually found.
4. Continuation of observation on effectiveness of different types
of traps.

ENGINEERING
Experiments with small invert for ditch linings.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs