• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 A glance back
 A statewide system - organizat...
 A statewide system - finance
 Kindergarten through high...
 Community colleges
 Vocational education
 Universities
 Role of the department of...
 Significant developments in public...
 Back Cover














Title: Florida's public education program, 1971-72
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000240/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida's public education program, 1971-72
Physical Description: 87 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: [1972]
 Subjects
Subject: Public schools -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000240
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 00578728
lccn - 72612585

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Foreword
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    A glance back
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    A statewide system - organization
        Page 8
        Page 9
    A statewide system - finance
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Kindergarten through high school
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Community colleges
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Vocational education
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Universities
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Role of the department of education
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Significant developments in public education in Florida
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text










i .9i




~* __


1971-72


Fia.
L
136
Ub
19/1-72
U.2


^".:j
'1

,,'Itl 2



".'. :,
6": **











I I
,<;i.l

'F^

-. '' '' .



'I'


fr- ,


-~ *- ;~ Zj b


FLORIDS~'S


PUBLIC

EDULAT KN


PROGRAM~






DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
TALLAHASSEE FLORIDA
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN. COMMISSIONER


H^H i w


*L~-L


;.e





































































FLORIDA'S PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM is published by the
Florida Department of Education and funded by Title V, Elementary
and Secondary Education Act, Public Law 89-10. Additional copies
may be obtained from Publications and Textbooks, 317 Knott Build-
ing, Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida 32304.

























A

A


1971-72


'






""
'' '

...
.
i.
i I

..-. ~







..e ..
.~. ,


-,, ,


;~*rp
~c r~
;.
...~

~.1
i
'
I
j-lL
r h
)r
I"

')
h.~~
'* (


DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

TALLAHASSElE FLORID-
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN. COVM'AMSIONER


FLORIDA'S




PUBLIC



EDUCATION




PROGRAM


Y
















/ 7/- 7a








Foreword



Florida advances into a new decade of educational progress with pride
in past achievement and confidence in future gains.
Never before have parents demanded the quality of education Florida
parents are expecting today for their children. Never before have schools
been under such penetrating and concerned examination from the lay
public. And the results of this overall public interest and knowledge are
showing up in net gains for the children in our state.
We have moved into new programs of instruction and we have adopted
new concepts in teaching and in building and in administration. We are
continuing to experiment and to research and to study so that innovations
which prove to be worthy may be expanded and increased to bring
broader educational benefits to more and more students.
We seek constantly to improve and we know that we will. Our progress
in the sixties was significant. Our goals in the seventies are set high so that
everyone in education must make a mighty reach. We are determined to
accomplish our goals, for the children of Florida.





Floyd T. Christian



















Florida's
Public Education Program



I. A Glance Back .............. ................... 4
II. A Statewide System Organization . . . . 8
III. A Statewide System Finance . . . .. 10
IV. Kindergarten through High School . . . .... 30
V. Community Colleges .... . . ........... 36
VI. Vocational Education .......... . . . . .......54
VII. Universities ............... ................... 65
VIII. Role of the Department of Education . . . .... 70
Significant Developments In Public Education In Florida . ... 80


































I. Florida's Public Education Program


A Glance Back


Public education in Florida dates
back a century and a half, to 1822,
when Florida became a territory.
At that time, every sixteenth sec-
tion of land in each township was
reserved for the maintenance of pri-
mary schools. However, for ten years
there were no schools in Florida ex-
cept for a few conducted at Spanish
missions.
In 1823, a year after Florida be-
came a territory, Congress enacted
legislation reserving townships of land
-called "seminary lands"-for two
higher education institutions. These
early seminaries were the "ancestors"


of today's University of Florida and
Florida State University.

Early Efforts
In 1831 the Florida Education
Society was formed in Tallahassee and
branch societies were organized
throughout the state. The FES at-
tempted, in its first year, to operate a
few public schools in St. Augustine
and a manual-labor school in Talla-
hassee. Both schools were dependent
on public subscription, which was
unsteady, and the projects were
abandoned.
But these early groups were pio-


7Z''







neers in the concept of free public
education and they met strong opposi-
tion from people of wealth and in-
fluence who regarded public schools
and pauper schools as one and the
same.

In 1839 the territorial government
attempted to establish a public school
system. Three trustees in each town-
ship were named to oversee and lease
school lands, using proceeds to sup-
port public schools. A new law set
aside two percent of the territorial tax
and auction duties "for the education
of orphan children of the county to
which the funds belong." But there is
no record of the law being im-
plemented.
Another attempt was made in
1844, with county sheriffs being given
the authority and duties of the trust-
ees. This did not work, and trustees
were restored with provisions made for
their election by the people. A year
later, judges of county courts were
appointed as superintendents of com-
mon schools.
In a search for sources of revenue,
the territorial assembly authorized the
use of lotteries to raise funds for
Quincy Academy and a school in St.
Augustine, but not much is known of
the results.

Until 1845, the only true public
schools in Florida were in Franklin
and Monroe Counties. In 1845, when
Florida became a state, interest in a
state public school system gained
impetus. Control of school lands was
taken from the counties and reverted
to the State Registrar of Public Lands
and in 1848 the state was authorized
to sell school lands, using the proceeds
to set up a permanent state school
fund.


First System in 1849
In 1849 the first real state school
system was authorized. The State
Registrar of Lands was designated as
State Superintendent, county judges
were to be county superintendents,
local boards of trustees were to be
elected by the taxpayers. In 1851,
counties were authorized to levy taxes
for schools, up to $4 per child, but
only Franklin and Monroe Counties
are on record as taking advantage of
the law.
In 1853 county commissioners
were delegated to act as county school
boards.
The Constitution of 1868 provided
for the same state school officials we
have today: a State Superintendent
(now Commissioner) and a State
Board of Education, composed of Cab-
inet officers.
The Constitution also set up a state
school tax of one mill, with counties
required to raise locally an amount
equal to one-half of the state's contri-
bution. It also provided that children
could not be counted, for state fund
distribution purposes, unless they at-
tended school at least three months of
each year. This was the first time a
minimum school term was established,
and the first time the state offered an
incentive for raising local funds for
schools.
In 1885, the drafters of the Consti-
tution wrote:
"The Legislature shall provide
for a uniform system of public
free schools, and shall provide
for the liberal maintenance of
the same."
A special state school tax, of one
mill, was included in that Constitu-
tion, along with the following pro-
vision:
"Each county shall be required







to assess and collect annually for
the support of public free
schools therein, a tax of not less
than three mills, not more than
five mills on the dollar of all
taxable property in the same."
Maximum county millage was
raised to seven mills in 1904 and to
ten mills in 1918.
The "New Law," the School Law
of 1889, spelled out in detail the
powers and duties of school officials,
providing uniformity among county
school systems.


Higher Education
Eight public institutions in Florida
offered education beyond high school
until the late 1800's. In 1905, the
Florida legislature passed the Buckman
Act (Henry Holland Buckman) which
abolished the state's miscellaneous col-
leges, seminaries, normal schools and
institutes and replaced them with a
three-institution system of higher
learning: a state university (University
of Florida), a college (now Florida
State University) and a normal school
(now Florida A and M University).
These three institutions were placed
under a Board of Control, forerunner
of the present Florida Board of Re-
gents, which directs operation of the
present nine state universities.

Conference for Education
Between 1892 and 1920 many
changes occurred in education and
much of this progress was sparked by
the Conference for Education in Flor-
ida, an organization of laymen and
teachers whose aim was the improve-
ment of all schools in Florida.
First state compulsory attendance
law was enacted in 1919, and in the
same session the Legislature passed a


uniform public curriculum law, setting
minimum requirements. Florida's
program of vocational education ex-
panded with passage of the federal
Smith-Hughes Act in 1917 and in
1927 the state's program of vocational
rehabilitation began.
In the early 30's, Florida schools,
like those in most states of the nation,
suffered financially during the Depres-
sion years. Increased state aid could
not offset the losses from local sources
and many school systems were unable
to meet their current operating costs,
with some counties defaulting on
school building bonds when local
revenue declined.
The 1937 Legislature passed the
School Code of 1939 which removed
old conflicts in school laws and also
approved other laws relating to educa-
tion which reorganized and improved
the school program.
Following World War II, Florida
schools faced a multitude of accumu-
lated crises. Salaries were too low,
buildings were in need of repair, addi-
tional classrooms were desperately
needed. Enrollments were expanding
rapidly and a breakdown in the state's
school system threatened unless
speedy action was taken.

MFP in 1947
A Florida Citizens Committee on
Education was given the task of figur-
ing out a solution. Appointed by the
Governor and approved by the 1945
Legislature, the committee made an
intensive, two-year, study. Their study
and leadership resulted, in 1947, in
enactment of a comprehensive school
financing plan-the Minimum Founda-
tion Program-which is still in opera-
tion today, with changes and improve-
ments.
In 1955 the Community College








Advisory Board was created and
charged by the Legislature with recom-
mending a long-range plan for estab-
lishment and coordination of a system
of two-year post-high school insti-
tutions.
In 1957 the State embarked on a
statewide, planned program to bring
junior college educational oppor-
tunities to every area in the state.
Funds were provided for four existing
junior colleges and for establishment
of six new ones. Today there are 27
community colleges in the state, with
the 28th to open soon.
In early 1968 a special session was
called for the improvement of educa-
tion, following a "crash" study by the
Governor's Commission for Quality
Education. And in February of that
year, immediately following the end of
that session, the Florida Education
Association called for a statewide
teacher walkout, based on FEA com-
plaints about the legislative program.
The walkout lasted about three weeks,
and by the end of a month, most of
the state's teachers were back in their
classrooms.

Unified System
The 1969 Legislature, in its general


reorganization of state government,
placed all of Florida's tax supported
schools-from kindergartens through
universities-in a single, unified system
of public education.
The State Board of Education,
under this reorganization, is respon-
sible for the entire education system in
the State. The Commissioner of Edu-
cation, a member of the Board of
Education, is the chief education
officer of the State.
The new Constitution, approved by
the voters in 1968, provided that the
Board of Education would consist of
the entire Cabinet, seven members,
instead of the previous five members
(omitting the Comptroller and the
Commissioner of Agriculture). The
Constitution also changed the title of
the Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion to the Commissioner of Edu-
cation.
For administrative purposes, the
Department of Education presently is
organized into four divisions: Division
of Elementary and Secondary Educa-
tion; Division of Community Colleges;
Division of Vocational Education;
Division of Universities. Each of these
is headed by a Director, except for
Universities, which is directed by the
Board of Regents.





























II. Florida's Public Education Program

A Statewide System Organization


All of Florida's tax supported edu-
cational institutions-from kindergar-
ten through graduate school-operate
in a single, unified education system in
which the State Board of Education
(Cabinet) is the policy making body
and the Commissioner of Education,
who is a Cabinet officer, is the admin-
istrative officer.
Cabinet members-all elected offi-
cials of state government-are: the
Governor, Secretary of State, Attor-
ney General, State Treasurer and In-
surance Commissioner, Comptroller,
Commissioner of Agriculture and
Commissioner of Education.
Within this unified system, educa-
tion institutions and programs operate
in four divisions of the Department of
Education, each headed by a director.


These divisions are:
Division of Elementary and
Secondary Education
Division of Vocational Educa-
tion
Division of Community Colleges
Division of Universities
In the case of the Division of
Universities, the Board of Regents acts
as the Director, and the Chancellor is
the BOR's administrative officer. The
nine-member BOR is composed of lay
citizens, appointed by the Governor.
Advisory bodies for two of the
divisions are appointed by the State
Board of Education, upon nomina-
tions by the Commissioner. They in-
clude the Vocational Education Advi-
sory Council and. the State Commun-
ity College Council.








Each community college (27 in
operation, 28 authorized) has its own
board of trustees, appointed by the
Governor, which guides the college
operations.
Florida's 67 school districts are the
state's 67 counties and each district
operates its own schools with an
elected school board and an elected or
appointed superintendent in charge.


(District voters determine, by refer-
endum, whether the superintendent is
elected or appointed.)
This pattern of school administra-
tion has proved to be economical as
well as efficient, with Florida one of
the few states not faced with the
problems of small school districts with
resulting overlapping of administrative
and financial effort.


PEOPLE OF FLORIDA


STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION

COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION


I I I I
DIVISION OF DIVISION OF DIVISION OF DIVISION OF
ELEMENTARY AND VOCATIONAL COMMUNITY UNIVERSITIES
SECONDARY EDUCATION EDUCATION COLLEGES

DISTRICT F DISTRICT
SCHOOL BOARD COMMUNITY BOARD OF
COLLEGE REGENTS
TRUSTEES
DISTRICT
SUPERINTENDENT COMMUNITY UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE UNIVERSITY
COLLPRESIDENT PRESIDENT
PRESIDENT PRESIDENT








I' I


III. Florida's Public Education Program

A Statewide System Finance


Financing of public education in
Florida-from kindergarten through
the graduate school-is a three-way
partnership between the school dis-
tricts (counties), the State and the
Federal government.
But it has not always been so.
In the early years, after Congress
recognized Florida as a U.S. territory
in 1822, financing of the common
schools, as they were termed, was left
up to each township. This financial
assistance was very meager, with the
income from every 16th section of
land in each township set aside for the
maintenance of schools.
Gradually through the years, more
and more state assistance has been


provided and in the past half century,
federal aid has begun to play a greater
role in the over-all financial picture.
Revenue for financing public educa-
tion is produced from various taxes
levied by the counties, the state and
the federal government. At the district
level, the sole source of funding is the
ad valorem (property) tax. At the state
level, the major sources of money are
the sales tax, a portion of the gasoline
tax, driver license fees, a levy on horse,
dog and jai alai wagering, and the
motor vehicle license tax.
In recent years, the trend has been
for the State to assume more of the
responsibility for financing K-12 and
community college education.


Ia


C"-~p~ :I
1 b~C ~I~







In the 1970-71 school year, elemen-
tary and secondary schools received 56
percent of their financial assistance
from the State, 35 percent from the
county level and 9 percent from the
Federal government.

Citizens Committee
Today's state-district financial part-
nership developed as a result of a
major study conducted by the Florida
Citizens Committee on Education
from 1945 to 1947.
This Committee, which sought
counsel from hundreds of educators
and lay citizens, recommended a plan
which was written into law by the
1947 Legislature under the name of
the Minimum Foundation Program,
the "formula" which Florida still uses
for the distribution of state education
funds to the 67 district school
systems.
Spelled out in this landmark legisla-
tion were the major elements of a
minimum state public school program,
as envisioned by the Committee and
the Legislature:
1. A uniform system of free public
education, funded by joint ef-
forts of the State and local
districts, to be:
Available year round to every
child regardless of where he
lives or his racial background.
For instruction in grades one
through twelve and also in
kindergarten, junior college,
vocational centers and contin-
uing education programs.
Staffed by professional,
trained personnel.
Directed by professional ad-
ministrators and supervisors.
Adequate in physical facili-
ties.
Serviced by transportation


programs.
Equipped with adequate ma-
terials.
Determination of the cost of this
program is based on the reason for
existence of any school program-the
student. Financing is calculated on the
number of children to be served, and
the kinds of services to be provided.
State support varies from county to
county, according to student popula-
tion (average daily attendance) and
scope of the educational program
(vocational, exceptional child, adult
general education, summer enrich-
ment, kindergarten, community col-
lege).
Core of the instructional program is
provided through the Minimum Foun-
dation Program: salaries, materials,
facilities, student transportation. And,
as needs have changed and services
have expanded, provision for financing
additional programs and services has
been through new legislation to amend
or change the MFP.


Three Steps Involved
The Minimum Foundation Program
involves three steps:
1. Calculate cost of providing mini-
mum educational opportunities,
including funds for teachers'
salaries, education improvement
expense, transportation, other
current expense and capital out-
lay.
2. Calculate the sum which coun-
ties must supply toward meeting
this cost.
3. Provide state funds as necessary
to make up the difference re-
maining between calculated need
and the amount the county must
provide.







PERCENT OF REVENUE RECEIPTS BY SOURCE*

Racing
Federal State Commission Local
Year (%) (%) (%) (%)


1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70


2.69
3.36
4.00
4.14
4.03
6.23
4.46
4.31
3.62
3.78
3.47
3.82
3.67
3.21
4.05
5.50
5.07
5.88
13.31
12.54
11.75
8.78
9.54


52.27
49.63
50.29
49.89
48.64
52.54
50.73
50.57
52.98
50.86
57.71
54.77
54.87
51.52
50.05
49.07
51.08
49.17
40.97
39.94
40.87
55.76
54.42


3.15
2.64
2.39
2.49
2.76
3.00
2.40
2.16
2.45
2.43
1.84
1.76
1.70
1.57
1.50
1.41
1.43
1.50
1.46
1.34
1.30
1.12
1.13


41.89
44.37
43.32
43.48
44.57
38.23
42.41
42.96
40.95
42.93
36.98
39.65
39.76
43.70
44.40
44.02
42.42
43.45
44.26
46.18
46.08
34.34
34.91


* Junior College not included after 1956-57.


MFP- HOW IT WORKS


Basic Instruction Units
Learning skills emphasized in Flor-
ida schools are provided for in MFP
through "basic instruction units."
These units are the basic measure of
educational need in a school district.
They are calculated directly from aver-
age daily attendance (ADA) in grades
1-12 for the previous year.
The number of pupils per instruc-
tion unit ranges from 17 to 27, de-
pending on the size and location of a


school in relation to the next nearest
school. In sparsely settled areas where
small, isolated schools must be main-
tained, an instruction unit is allowed
for less than 27 pupils. A basic instruc-
tion unit is allowed for every 27 pupils
in schools of 300 or more pupils.
There is one exception to this
formula: by action of the 1965 Legis-
lature, the number of first grade pupils
required to earn one instruction unit
was reduced and is now two less pupils
than for grades 2-12.







REVENUE RECEIPTS BY SOURCE*

RACING
YEAR TOTAL FEDERAL STATE COMMISSION LOCAL


1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70


75,240,458.58
86,117,183.50
95,800,350.40
103,020,648.01
115,989,413.40
117,183,272.56
147,751,055.98
166,422,204.90
192,613,427.77
210,279,492.46
286,382,675.15
305,510,202.59
330,598,514.25
355,568,132.35
394,056,408.87
431,498,265.14
487,554,528.18
522,145,180.59
640,364,160.77
698,873,336.58
809,917,406.94
1,026,572,701.29
1,128,489,811.47


$ 2,023,171.78
2,890,497.79
3,831,028.53
4,264,987.21
4,676,632.54
7,303,492.13
6,594,995.39
7,171,136.30
6,982,906.45
7,947,415.49
9,944,051.27
11,674,511.03
12,142,775.95
11,420,922.82
15,949,050.25
23,720,606.93
24,716,646.47
30,701,074.75
85,204,126.19
87,649,059.36
95,110,697.79
90,113,590.02
107,599,720.48


*Junior College not included after 1956-57.
* Junior College not included after 1956-57.


$ 39,329,875.33
42,737,376.07
48,177,404.72
51,396,449.54
56,419,399.08
61,566,196.14
74,946,172.02
84,164,119.70
102,044,722.93
106,949,832.34
165,279,919.31
167,325,295.83
181,410,876.76
183,186,126.07
197,251,367.84
211,743,827.01
249,057,211.61
256,754,938.84
262,383,608.12
279,090,730.16
331,031,731.86
572,465,811.49
614,138,600.62


$ 2,373,005.06
2,278,265.76
2,287,807.64
2,566,237.77
3,194,745.86
3,520,610.80
3,549,332.22
3,591,051.47
4,717,509.54
5,119,706.69
5,251,558.33
5,375,867.95
5,614,361.95
5,597,838.30
5,902,981.63
6,096,367.79
6,955,413.61
7,837,957.84
9,333,650.39
9,398,410.90
10,544,084.90
11,497,928.75
12,793,044.53


$ 31,514,406.41
38,211,043.88
41,504,109.51
44,792,973.49
51,698,635.92
44,792,973.49
62,660,556.35
71,495,897.43
78,868,288.85
90,262,537.94
105,907,146.24
121,134,527.78
131,430,499.59
155,363,245.16
174,953,009.15
189,937,463.41
206,825,256.49
226,851,209.16
283,442,776.07
322,735,136.16
373,230,892.39
352,495,371.03
393,958,445.84








STATE AND COUNTY COST OF
MINIMUM FOUNDATION PROGRAM*

Year State Local Total


1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71


$ 38,688,054
42,000,000
47,498,000
50,718,643
55,650,469
56,173,642
65,454,707**
70,996,441**
84,652,594
91,930,081
117,355,026
125,534,439
127,108,747
130,777,076
142,228,421
148,995,827
179,642,924
186,837,615
195,227,217
202,578,154
233,303,101
469,932,089
503,977,994
557,494,532


$ 11,265,604
11,963,964
13,564,167
14,799,518
15,540,000
17,356,681
18,561,024
20,263,015
21,677,389
23,167,955
25,866,825
31,071,402
38,387,051
43,217,833
53,648,022
56,327,571
59,143,418
62,104,336
62,465,437
64,649,691
67,006,103
84,151,353
88,598,966
125,905,521


* Capital outlay and debt service not included after January 1, 1953 when
funds were earmarked by constitutional amendment. (Junior College not
included after 1956-57.)
** Adjusted to include deficit appropriation by 1955 Legislature.


Ratio Units

When, for any reason beyond the
control of the school board, the ratio
between the total average daily atten-
dance and the total average daily
membership in the entire county for
one year is below the ratio for any two
of the preceding four years the average


ratio for the highest two of the pre-
ceding four years is used as the basis
for calculating the number of instruc-
tion units.
These units are termed "ratio
units" and are in addition to basic
units earned by average daily atten-
dance. Ratio units protect a county
against a sudden decline in units as a


$ 49,953,658
53,963,964
61,062,167
65,518,161
71,190,469
73,530,323
84,015,731
91,259,456
106,329,983
115,098,036
143,221,851
156,605,841
165,495,798
173,994,909
195,876,443
205,323,398
238,786,342
248,941;951
257,692,654
267,227,845
297,309,204
554,083,442
592,576,960
683,400,053







result of low average daily attendance
caused by weather, epidemics or other
emergencies.

Kindergarten Units
Florida's present kindergarten prog-
ram dates back to a 1938 study which
found that 30 percent of all white
children and 50 percent of all black
children required two or more years to
complete the first grade.
Provision for a kindergarten prog-
ram in each county, at the county's
option, was included in the original
Minimum Foundation Program. How-
ever, the 1968 special session directed
all counties to offer a kindergarten
program by 1973, with classes to be
implemented as rapidly before then as
facilities and personnel would permit.
Prior to 1971-72, to be eligible for
kindergarten units under the MFP, a
county was required to increase its
required local effort for grades 1-12 by
$3,000 per kindergarten unit (not to
exceed five percent of the 1-12 re-
quired local effort). Beginning with
the 1971-72 school year, this addi-
tional local effort is not to be re-
quired, with State funds being in-
creased to make up the difference.
In addition, the county must
employ properly trained teachers and
provide adequate physical facilities.
An average daily attendance of 25
pupils (a minimum of 20 in each
session in half-day kindergartens) is
required to earn a kindergarten unit.

Exceptional Child Units
The original MFP provided for
special instruction units for classes of
exceptional children-those who are
emotionally or mentally retarded,
physically handicapped, have vision or
hearing difficulties or have superior
intelligence.


Subsequent Legislatures continued
to make allocations for this type of
instruction. In 1968, for the first time,
the special session provided sufficient
units for exceptional child education
in all counties ready to use them.
One unit is earned for each group
of ten or more exceptional children to
be taught as a special class; for each
qualified member of the instructional
staff devoting full time to special
instruction for children from regular
classes; for each 900 hours of instruc-
tion provided hospitalized or home-
bound students; and for each group of
ten or more exceptional children of
pre-school age requiring special prepa-
ration before they can enter school.
The 1970 Legislature provided
funds specifically for 25 exceptional
child units to be used for the gifted
child program.
The average daily attendance of
children in full-time exceptional child
classes is not counted toward the basic
instruction unit.
A special allocation of state funds is
provided for constructing and equip-
ping facilities for exceptional children.

Vocational Education Units
The importance of offering occupa-
tional as well as academic education
for this State's young people and
adults was recognized by the framers
of the original MFP, which provided
special instruction units for vocational
education.
Vocational education units are
approved on a current basis (on
planned programs for the current year
rather than attendance for the pre-
vious year as is the case when deter-
mining most other types of units). In
general, one instruction unit is allowed
for each vocational class maintaining
an average daily attendance of 50
15







GROWTH IN UNITS



0 @0

La n d


21.80
40.19
17.52
56.55
124.73
189.54
146.50
79.32
8.68
105.92
97.90
671.05
115.89
122.25
6.35
48.31
153.51
71.92
30.14
195.84
79.87
621.17
437.60
530.11


46.50
70.50
55.50
54.00
51.00
65.00
68.00
71.00
52.00
57.00
68.00
85.00
85.00
110.90
120.00
119.65
129.00
134.90
135.00
135.00
135.00
739.00
1,133.10
1,345.36


85.60
124.00
136.00
154.00
233.00
310.00
438.00
507.50
625.00
730.00
840.00
935.00
935.00
935.00
1,050.00
1,050.00
1,150.00
1,199.20
1,274.00
1,387.00
1,432.00
1,980.00
2,540.00
3,135.00


1,853.31
1,942.98
2,037.99
2,007.85
2,224.40
2,341.77
2,560.38
2,782.79
3,037.73
3,274.05
3,573.35
3,907.58
4,164.71
4,426.09
4,724.88
4,952.28
5,247.60
5,487.54
5,756.66
5,951.13
6,144.60
6,479.54
6,794.22
7,117.48


148.80
147.50
154.50
157.00
156.50
164.00
166.00
169.50
177.00
185.50
196.10
204.00
204.00
204.00
223.70
228.00
231.00
236.70
242.50
246.50
249.00
579.00
638.00
659.50


* Included with Industrial prior to 1964-65.


percent of that required for a basic
instruction unit in the same school.
The 1970 Legislature provided a
Vocational Improvement Fund de-
signed to assist educators at the dis-
trict level to establish innovative pro-
grams of vocational education, provide
staff development programs for voca-
tional teachers, counselors and occupa-
tional specialists, and recruit students
and place them in jobs. Priority for


funding innovative projects was to be
given those districts involving many
community resources. The 1971 Legis-
lature voted to defer funding of the
vocational improvement fund.
The 1970 Legislature provided a
new method of computing vocational
units, taking into consideration the
number of full-time equivalent stu-
dents and varying levels of cost cate-
gories for different courses.


1947-48
194849
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71


14,095.39
14,640.32
15,308.00
15,995.00
16,867.00
17,503.00
18,846.44
20,413.00
22,160.00
23,734.26
25,909.86
27,770.00
30,361.92
32,390.93
34,579.89
36,332.89
38,196.00
40,021.00
41,433.00
42,577.00
43,821.00
44,891.00
46,204.98
47,177.13









0
C) *


00





160.60 190.80 383.72 15.82 34.00
177.00 227.40 418.78 11.40 43.00
> >E a > uU



180.92 260.80 509.45 28.52 40.00
189.00 283.80 564.47 133.96 35.00
160.60 190.80 383.72 15.82 34.00
177.00 227.40 418.78 11.40 43.00
180.92 260.80 509.45 28.52 40.00
189.00 283.80 564.47 133.96 35.00
194.00 296.10 590.85 195.44 91.00
200.32 312.60 600.93 209.66 103.00
209.50 339.70 554.16 87.74 295.40 150.00
213.00 359.68 446.58 230.81 337.88 183.00
216.80 384.00 494.00 249.55 397.22 289.95
223.10 414.00 520.10 276.40 440.00 531.18
226.08 440.00 520.10 272.21 420.79 632.98
231.15 475.80 520.10 267.04 440.00 921.77
237.03 531.80 560.00 288.00 440.00 1,337.52
241.09 577.00 560.00 288.00 440.00 1,551.11
245.57 645.90 650.00 339.00 475.00 1,926.87
258.58 694.00 616.44 64.85 339.00 500.00 2,548.64
262.13 397.00 646.00 78.44 445.39 516.00 3,404.05
270.86 712.00 671.00 96.00 519.00 529.00 4,549.68
294.35 857.57 640.60 193.16 678.04 497.10 6,045.46
313.34 886.20 784.09 229.53 835.86 556.00 7,007.77
335.25 960.66 935.20 274.81 935.86 596.00 7,840.86
350.49 1,073.39 1,134.07 317.00 1,220.98 656.00 8,570.51

** Includes Diversified Occupations Programs beginning 1969-70.


Implementation for vocational
units, in these cost categories, other
than those in elementary and secon-
dary schools, will begin with the
1972-73 fiscal year and implementa-
tion in elementary and secondary
schools will be effective with the
1973-74 school year.
The same 1971 legislative act also
provided for the allocation of instruc-
tional units for occupational special-


ists, based upon one unit or propor-
tionate fraction of a unit for each 20
vocational education units or fraction
thereof.
The State Board of Education is
required to give priority to vocational
capital outlay needs at the secondary
level in all allocations of federal funds.

General Adult Education Units
The 1947 MFP included provisions







for basic adult education. Generally,
this minimum has been expanded until
the adult program now offers instruc-
tion leading to either an elementary
school certificate or a high school
diploma.
The minimum class size for an
instruction unit in adult general educa-
tion is 15 students in ADA.
In addition to State funds as pro-
vided in the MFP, the federal Adult
Education Act, as amended, provides
funds for adult basic education for
grades one through eight. A recent
amendment to this act extends the
program to cover all adults who have
not completed a high school education
but emphasis remains on grades one
through eight. Other congressional acts
provide additional funds for various
vocational programs. These funds do
not replace State and local funds but
supplement them.
Approximately one in every ten
high school diplomas issued annually is
awarded to an adult.

Special Teacher Services Units

The MFP recognizes that a school
must offer many services to its stu-
dents which are not provided by basic
instruction units. It also recognizes
that a school, like any enterprise in-
volving a number of people, must have
someone to provide direction to pro-
grams and activities. The original MFP
created administrative and special in-
structional service units, changed to
Special Teacher Services Units (STS)
in the 1968 special session. One STS
unit is earned for each eight basic and
special instruction units.
Each district school board deter-
mines how it will use its STS units and
submits plans to the Department of
Education. Among personnel author-


ized under the program are principals,
librarians, guidance counselors, deans,
teachers of physical education, art,
music, and industrial arts, remedial
reading specialists, teachers for special
instructional projects, visiting teachers,
coordinators of district-wide summer
educational enrichment programs and
psychologists.

Supervisors of Instruction
To assure the district superinten-
dent of competent staff assistance in
planning educational programs, the
MFP provides supervisory units for the
employment of curriculum and in-
struction specialists.
Each district is allocated one super-
visory unit for each 100 basic and
special units. The first earned super-
visory unit must be utilized for a
general supervisor of instruction. Addi-
tional supervisory units may be used
for general or special area supervisors.
Personnel approved for supervisory
units must meet stringent age, physical
fitness, certification and experience
requirements.

Enrichment Programs
While school is generally thought of
as being "out" in the summer, children
grow and learn during the summer
months as well as during the regular
180-day school session. Florida was
the first state to provide a summer
enrichment program on a statewide
basis.
Recognizing this, the MFP provides
up to a 20 percent increase in the
annual allocation of salaries for teach-
ers and principals who are employed
during the summer months.
The summer enrichment program is
in operation in all of Florida's 67
districts. The program may include






MFP SALARY VALUE OF INSTRUCTION UNITS
The values of instruction units for salaries depend upon the professional qualifications of the persons employed to fill the
instructional positions. (This is not a state salary schedule. All counties go beyond this allocation, which is for 10 months.)


Certificate Requirements
Rank I Doctor's Degree
Required
Rank IA 6 Years College
Required
Rank II Master's Degree
Required
Rank III Bachelor's Degree
Required
Rank IV Between 3 and 4
years of college
preparation
Rank V Between 2 and 3
years of college
preparation
Rank VI Less than 2 years
of college
preparation


1947-48 1953-54 1955-56 1957-58* 1961-62* 1963-64** 1967-68
Value Value Value Value Value Value Value

$3,600 $3,950 $4,150 $4,450 $4,650 $5,000 $5,393.75


1968-69***
Value

$7,700


- 7,000


3,000 3,350 3,550 3,850 4,050 4,400 4,793.75

2,550 2,900 3,100 3,400 3,600 3,950 4,343.75


1,600 1,950 2,150 2,450 2,650 3,000 3,000.00


1,400 1,750 1,950 2,250 2,450 2,800 2,800.00


6,300

5,300


3,000


2,800


1,000


* $300 added to the value of each unit sustained by. a teacher in Rank III or above who holds a continuing contract; an
additional $300 added if such teacher has ten years of continuous efficient teaching service in the public schools of Florida.
** $400 added to the value of each unit, in Rank III or above, sustained by persons on continuing contract and an additional
$400 to units sustained by persons on continuing contract with ten years efficient teaching service in Florida public schools.
*** A new certificate rank was created, Rank IA, and two new salary steps, continuing contract plus seven and fifteen years,
established. $400 added for continuing contract, an additional $400 for CC plus seven years service, an additional $400 for CC
olus ten years and an additional $600 for CC plus 15 years.







day camping, dramatic productions,
field trips, library services, music, and
special events, such as tournaments
and hobby and talent shows.
The 1959 Legislature amended the
MFP to permit salary funds (up to 35
percent of the total available) for
summer academic instruction. Pre-
viously, this summer instruction was
supported entirely through fees.

Education Improvement Expense
Continuous improvement in its
statewide system of education has
been a constant goal in Florida.
In 1968, the Legislature added to
the MFP a provision for a broad,
non-categorical effort to improve the
quality of education in each district.
The Legislature allocated $1,720 per
instruction unit to finance this effort,
termed the Education Improvement
Expense Fund (EIE).
These funds are to be used in the
most effective method possible by the
counties to improve educational pro-
grams, with major emphasis being
given to personnel development and
inservice training.

Instructional Salaries
The MFP formula for allocation of
funds to districts for instructional
salaries is geared to the educational
training of a teacher and years of
service. Under a system of ranks, the
more formal training a teacher has, the
higher the amount of money is allo-
cated for salaries to the district by the
State.
In 1970-71, 99.9 percent of the
state's 72,904 teachers held four-year
degrees and of these 28.4 percent have
advanced degrees.
All teachers with regular teaching
certificates must receive a minimum


annual (ten-month) salary of $5,300,
with all districts supplementing this.
While the school year is 180 days for
students, teachers are employed, under
contract, for 196 days.

The 1971-72 MFP allocation for
the various certificate ranks and the
educational requirements are:
Rank I, an earned doctor's degree,
$7,700.
Rank I-A, a sixth year of college
study at the post-master's level, in a
program planned by the institution
of higher learning consisting of a
planned sequence of at least 30
semester hours of graduate credit,
$7,000.
Rank II, an earned master's degree,
$6,300.
Rank III, an earned bachelor's de-
gree, $5,300.
Rank IV, three to three and nine-
tenths years of college preparation,
$3,000.
Rank V, two to two and nine-
tenths years of college preparation,
$2,800.
A Rank VI certificate, based on less
than two years of college training,
is provided for in state law but no
state funds are allocated for such a
certificate.
An additional $400 is allocated for
teachers in Rank III or above under
continuing contract (attained after
three years of satisfactory service in a
district and upon reappointment by
the district school board for a fourth
year). Another $400 in MFP funds is
allocated for teachers under continu-
ing contracts with seven and again
with ten years teaching service in
Florida public schools. After 15 years
of satisfactory service, an additional
$600 is allocated per teacher.
In 1970, for the first time, all Rank







III teachers in all 67 districts were paid
a minimum of $6,000.

Transportation

The original MFP provided $1,100
per transportation unit and the 1953
Legislature raised this to $1,250 per
unit.
The 1968 special session provided a
new and more equitable formula for
financing transportation based on the
number of pupils transported, number
of miles traveled and a density factor
for pupils transported.
Annual payments to counties for
transportation vary from $10 per pupil
where there is a large number of pupils
transported to $20 per pupil where
smaller numbers of pupils are trans-
ported. In addition, districts receive
allocations for mileage, varying from
$61.20 per student per mile annually
in high student density areas to $43.20
per student per mile annually in low
student density areas. Special pay-
ments are made to the districts for
transporting physically handicapped
students.
About 30 percent of the pupils
attending Florida public schools are
transported at public expense. Pupils
are counted ... for state transporta-
tion purposes ... only if their home is
two or more miles from their school.
Some districts transport students living
less than two miles from school but
the costs are paid from local funds and
not MFP appropriations.
There are more than 4,600 school
buses in the state and more than 70
percent of the drivers are women. The
buses travel more than a quarter of a
million miles daily, going to and from
school.
In the last decade, more than 1,700
buses have been purchased by the
districts through a voluntary pool-


buying plan, coordinated by the De-
partment of Education. This has re-
sulted in a considerable financial sav-
ing for the counties.

Other Current Expense
Other current costs of schools, such
as materials and supplies, custodial
service, building maintenance, system-
wide administration and insurance, are
met in part by the MFP through an
allocation for Other Current Expense.
The landmark 1947 MFP provided
$300 per instruction unit for other
current expense. In 1955, this was
increased to $325 per unit, with an
additional $25 earmarked for instruc-
tional materials.
In the 1968 special session, this
allocation was increased to provide a
total of $1,050 per unit by transfer-
ring to this fund the $550 per unit of
the County School Sales Tax Fund,
already going to the districts, and
adding an additional $175. Of this,
$100 was earmarked for instructional
materials.
The 1970 Legislature increased this
allocation by $1,100 per unit, to
$2,150. Under the 1970 statute, the
allocation was scheduled to increase
$1,100 each year until it reaches
$5,450 in 1973-74 and thereafter.
Because the State was in a severe
financial bind, the 1971 Legislature
funded this provision at only $550 per
unit, rather than $1,100, bringing
Other Current Expense total unit value
to $2,700.
However, to help make up for a
portion of this loss, the 1971 Legisla-
ture appropriated-on a one-time-only-
basis-$14.7 million, to be distributed
to the districts on the basis of ADA,
rather than on the normal unit basis.
This allocation is known as the 1971
ADA Supplement.
























'4->-


Recalculation Funds
If the average daily attendance in
any district for the first two months of
a school year shows an increase over
the ADA in the district for the first
two months of the previous school
year, the Department of Education has
the authority to increase the state
portion of MFP funds by the percent-
age of increase in ADA.
These additional amounts are
known as recalculation funds.
Whereas funds for salaries, transpor-
tation, other current expense and EIE
are distributed to the districts in 12
approximately equal monthly pay-
ments beginning. July 15 each year,
recalculation funds are distributed to
the districts, 35 percent in January, 35
percent in February and the balance in
March each year.

Laboratory Schools
Laboratory schools are operated as


part of teacher preparation programs
at four state universities-the Univer-
sity of Florida, Florida State Univer-
sity, Florida A&M University and Flor-
ida Atlantic University.
These schools are funded 100 per-
cent by the State, with allocations per
pupil being computed on the same
basis as for the district in which the
university is located. Payments are
made directly to the university and are
in lieu of payments of State funds to
the district school board for the opera-
tion of the laboratory school.

School Facilities
The MFP makes provision for the
State to assist districts in financing
school construction.
Included in the program is $400 per
instruction unit which districts can use
either for current construction or for
debt service on bonds issued to finance
construction.







The $400 per unit for capital out-
lay and debt service is guaranteed from
motor vehicle license fees, originally in
1952 for a period of 30 years, by a
constitutional amendment. This provi-
sion was further amended in 1964 to
pledge this support until the year
2000.
It also provides that the State
Board of Education shall, at the re-
quest of a district school board, issue
bonds to finance construction, with
the bonds secured by the motor vehi-
cle license fees accruing to the county.
To further assist the counties in
meeting classroom needs, the 1957
Legislature established the School
Construction Fund. This provided
$200 for each additional pupil in ADA
each year, if the amount were matched
with local funds. The 1968 special
session increased the per pupil alloca-
tion to $800, with county matching
funds required for only $200 of this.
The 1970 Legislature removed the
matching requirement.
While the statutory authorization
was left at $800 per pupil, the 1971
Legislature appropriated only $200
per student for capital outlay.
If funds available through normal
Federal, State and local funds are not
sufficient to meet construction and
other capital outlay needs, district
school boards may ask the registered
voters of a county for authority to
issue bonds. The bonds are then re-
tired, usually over a period of 20
years, from local funds.

School Sales Tax Fund
In 1949, a special session of the
Legislature authorized Florida's first
sales tax, a limited 3 percent levy,
which was increased to 4 percent by
the 1968 special session.
Originally, none of the sales tax


collections were earmarked for educa-
tion specifically but some of the sales
tax monies were appropriated by the
Legislature for education.
In 1957, to meet rising needs, the
Legislature began setting aside sales
tax funds specifically for education.
The first collections of sales tax
revenue were earmarked to be re-
turned to district school boards on the
basis of instruction units used in com-
puting funding under the MFP. These
funds were distributed at the rate of
$550 per instruction unit to be used
for any school purpose. In 1967, the
Legislature increased this to $1,050,
with the $500 increase going to coun-
ties to use for Social Security and
retirement fund matching for school
personnel.
Prior to this, the Legislature had
made a direct appropriation for these
purposes.
In the 1968 special session, $550
per unit was transferred to the MFP
allocation for Other Current Expense,
leaving $500 per unit for allocation
from the trust fund to assist counties
in meeting retirement requirements.

Driver Education Fund
All secondary schools are required
to provide a course of study and
instruction in the safe and lawful
operation of motor vehicles. In most
counties, automobiles used for instruc-
tion are provided without charge by
major automobile dealers.
The course of study and the em-
ployment of instructors must be ad-
ministered in accordance with regula-
tions of the State Board of Education.
Each district is entitled to one
driver education unit, or proportionate
fraction, for courses in which each of
125 students is provided a minimum
of 30 hours of classroom instruction







and an average minimum of six hours
of actual driving experience.
Fifty cents of the fee paid by
Florida drivers for their driver licenses
supports this program. No other state
funds are used for this purpose.

State Textbook Funds
The importance of textbooks for
students was acknowledged by the
State in 1939 when a program was
instituted for the State to furnish free
textbooks.
The Florida Cabinet, acting as the
State Board of Education, enters into
contracts with publishers for furnish-
ing books to the counties.
Textbooks are selected to be placed
on the adoption list by various subject
area committees and recommendations
made for adoption to the State Board.
Funds for purchase of textbooks
are provided by legislative appropria-
tions.
The textbook statutes were
amended by the 1971 Legislature to
provide that a district school board
may use up to 10 percent of its state
textbook allocation for instructional
materials not on the State's list of
adopted books. Books with large type,
for the use of students with impaired
vision, may also be purchased.
The current allocation for text-
books for students in grades 1-3 is
$5.16 each per year; grades 4-6, $5.30;
grades 7-9, $5.70; and grades 10-12,
$6.40.
Pupils are required to reimburse the
county for books which are lost or
severely damaged through negligence.


The State School Fund
The Constitution of 1885 estab-
lished the State (Permanent) School
Fund, with monies to be derived from:
24


The proceeds of all lands granted
to the State by the United States
for public school purposes and
donations to the State.
Legislative appropriations.
The proceeds of escheated prop-
erty or forfeitures.
Twenty-five percent of the sales
of public lands which are owned
by the State.
Until adoption of the Constitution
of 1968, the principal of the State
School Fund was inviolate. Only the
accrued interest could be distributed
to districts for use in school programs,
with distribution based on ADA.
However, the Constitution of 1968
made a major change in the State
School Fund. The principal no longer
was inviolate, under Article IX, Sec-
tion 6, of the Florida Constitution,
which reads:
"The income derived from the
State School Fund shall, and the
principal of the fund may, be
appropriated, but only to the sup-
port and maintenance of free public
schools."
Monies from the State School Fund
are distributed to the local districts as
a part of the K-12 MFP and not
separately distributed.

Federal Programs
Approximately 9 percent of the
funds spent on public school educa-
tion in Florida comes from the Federal
government.
The State Board of Education is
responsible for prescribing regulations
covering all contracts or agreements
made with Federal agencies for funds,
services, commodities or equipment by
tax-supported schools or institutions
and school systems under its control
or supervision.
All funds accruing from contracts








entered into by a district school board
and a Federal agency, pursuant to
regulations of the State Board, must
be accounted for as prescribed by the
State Board.
The state's Commissioner of Educa-
tion is responsible for recommending
ways of cooperating with the Federal
government on any phase of the edu-
cational program in which he feels
cooperation is desirable. It is his duty
to recommend policies for administer-
ing funds appropriated from federal
sources and apportioned to the State
for any educational purpose.
District school systems receive
funds from the Federal government
directly and also through the State as a
distribution agency. Funds in the sec-
ond category are called flow-through
money.
Federal school funds received by
local school systems may be provided
and administered by various agencies,
such as the Department of Health,
Education and Welfare, Department of
Labor, Veterans Administration, De-
partment of Interior, Office of Econo-
mic Opportunity, Department of De-
fense and Department of Agriculture.
Some of the congressional acts
under which district school systems
receive Federal funds directly are:

Title I, Elementary and Second-
ary Education Act of 1965, Pub-
lic Law 89-10: provides grant
funds for special programs for
educationally deprived children.
Title II, ESEA, P.L. 89-10: pro-
vides grant funds for school
library resources, textbooks and
other instructional materials.
Title III, ESEA, P.L. 89-10: pro-
vides grant funds for supplemen-
tary educational centers and ser-
vices or Projects to Advance
Creativity in Education (PACE).


* Title VI, ESEA, P.L. 89-10: pro-
vides grant funds for education
of handicapped children.
* Title VII, ESEA, P.L. 90-247:
provides grant funds for bilin-
gual education programs.
* Title VIII, ESEA, P.L. 90-247:
provides grant funds for dropout
prevention program.
* Title III, National Defense Edu-
cation Act, P.L. 85-864, and
Section 12, National Fine Arts
and Humanities Act, P.L.
89-209: provides matching grant
funds for strengthening instruc-
tion in critical areas.
* Title IV, Civil Rights Act, P.L.
88-352: provides grant funds to
facilitate equal educational
opportunities.
* Economic Opportunity Act
(Follow Through), P.L. 88452:
provides grant funds for pro-
grams in the primary grades in-
tended to reinforce gains child-
ren made in Head Start and
other similar pre-school pro-
grams.
* Vocational Education Act of
1963, P.L. 88-210, and its 1968
amendment (exclusive of state
vocational education funds):
provides matching grant funds to
strengthen vocational education
programs.
* Adult Basic Education Act, P.L.
89-750: provides matching grant
funds to encourage and expand
basic education programs for
adults.
* National School Lunch Act of
1964, P.L. 79-396: provides
funds and commodities for the
operation of school breakfast,
snack and lunch programs.
Federal Communications Act,
P.L. 87-447: provides funds for







educational television facilities.
School Assistance (construction
and current operations) in Fed-
erally Affected (Impact) Areas,
P.L. 81-815 and 81-874: pro-
vides funds for areas having large
concentrations of federal civilian
and military personnel.
Other federal legislation under
which public schools and colleges and
universities receive financial assistance
include the Higher Education Facilities
Act of 1963 (P.L. 88-204); Manpower
Development and Training Act of
1962 (P.L. 415); Civil Defense Act
(P.L. 81-920); Veterans' Readjustment
Assistance Act of 1952 (P.L. 82-550)
and the Education Professions Devel-
opment Act (P.L. 89-329).
This is just a partial listing of the
hundreds of federal laws relating to
the financing of education.

District Revenue
Assessed property valuations are
established by county tax assessors
who are elected by popular vote in
each county. Three members of the
board of county commissioners and
two members of the school board in
each county serve as the board of tax
equalization for the county, with the
authority to equalize individual asses-
sment values fixed by the tax assessor.
The Department of Revenue
examines county assessment rolls for
disparities or errors. State law estab-
lishes factors which are to be consider-
ed in determining property valuation
and requires all tax assessors to assess
all property in such a manner as to
secure a just valuation.
County tax assessors are required to
prepare assessment rolls based on 100
percent valuation.
Each district school board is
authorized to levy a maximum of ten


mills ($1.00 on each $1,000.00 of
non-exempt value) on the total non-
exempt assessed valuation of the
district for support and maintenance
of schools. The first $5,000 of the
value of a person's homestead is
exempt from property taxes and, ef-
fective in 1972, the first $10,000 of
the value of a home owned by an
individual more than 65 years of age
will be exempt from property taxes,
provided he has lived in Florida a
minimum of five years.
The tax levied by a school board is
termed the non-voted millage since it
is levied without a vote of the people.
The levy is usually made for general
purposes but a maximum of two of
the ten mills may be set aside, upon
approval of the state's Commissioner
of Education, as a special reserve,
earmarked for capital outlay.
The 1971 Legislature amended the
statutes to provide that all registered
voters may cast ballots in an election
to fix a levy beyond the 10-mill ceiling
for specified purposes. These levies are
effective for two years and to continue
this school tax beyond two years,
another election must be held.
Any district school board desiring
to participate in the MFP must levy a
minimum of 4 mills on non-exempt
assessed property in the district.
A district school board may exceed
the 10-mill limit, without a vote of the
people, for certain specific purposes:
required debt service, commissions to
tax assessor and tax collector for
assessing and collecting taxes for
school purposes, any deficit in state
funding of required retirement match-
ing, any decrease in Federal Forest
Funds for the prior year as related to
the levels of funding for 1969-70, any
decrease in federal impact funds (P.L.
81-874), to replace any deficiency in

































the school district's entitlement to
Cuban Refugee Funds, P.L. 87-510, or
Migrant and Refugee Assistance Act of
1962, and the cost of liability insur-
ance due to waiver of sovereign im-
munity.
However, to provide funds for local
capital improvements, a school board
must go to the people in an election
for approval. All registered voters are
eligible to cast ballots in these elec-
tions, which once were limited to only
freeholders.
District budgets are prepared by the
superintendent and his staff and sub-
mitted to the district school board for
approval. Each district's annual budget
must be submitted to the state Com-
missioner of Education for approval.
If, in the opinion of the Commis-
sioner, the submitted budget does not
meet the educational needs of the
district, he can return the budget to
the district for revision.


The financial activities of all school
districts are subject to an annual audit
by the state auditor general. The
auditor general is required to report
any instances of shortages, defalca-
tions and irregularities disclosed by the
audit to the legislative auditing com-
mittee, the Governor and the State
Comptroller.
It is the duty of the Comptroller to
adjust, settle or cause to be adjusted
and settled all accounts and claims
which the proper district authorities
have failed to settle or adjust. In some
cases, an account or claim may be
certified by the Comptroller to the
State Attorney General for prosecu-
tion.
Local school officials are subject to
removal from office by the Governor
for violation of the law and are person-
ally liable for any amounts improperly
spent.

Community College MFP
The State Community College
Minimum Foundation Program,
established in 1957, is very similar to
the parent program for elementary and
secondary schools, except the
Community College MFP is financed
virtually 100 percent through state
appropriations and allocations.
Prior to 1957, however, the two-
year colleges were financed through
the original MFP and prior to 1971,
counties having community colleges
were required to provide local funds to
assist in the support of the college.
The Community College MFP allo-
cates funds through units, based upon
the average daily attendance of stu-
dents and the educational attainment
of the teachers.
One unit is allowed for each 12
students in ADA, up to the first 420
students, then one for each 15







students in ADA in academic pro-
grams.
One unit is allocated for each ten
students in ADA in occupational pro-
grams. And one transportation unit is
authorized for each 30 students in
ADA transported at public expense.
One administrative unit is allowed
for each eight instruction units and
one student personnel services unit for
each 20 instruction units.
Educational requirements for the
various teacher ranks in community
colleges are the same as for K-12
teachers. Basic community college sal-
ary allocations are different, however:
Rank I, $6,700.
Rank II, $6,100.
Rank III, $5,700.
An additional $300 is allocated for
teachers in Rank III or higher under
continuing contract and another $300
for such teachers with ten years satis-
factory service in Florida. An allot-
ment of five percent of the total salary


allocation is earmarked for staff and
program development.
Student matriculation fees, set by
the State Board of Education, cannot
exceed $129.50 per semester or
$103.50 per quarter for Florida
residents. Fees for non-Florida resi-
dents cannot exceed $200 per semes-
ter or $133 per quarter. Some of the
colleges use money raised through the
fees to supplement the state salary
allocations.
Federal funds also play a key role
in financing community college
operations.

The University System
While the Legislature is mainly re-
sponsible for providing adequate fund-
ing for operations and capital outlay
needs in the State University System, a
great share of the revenue comes from
Federal funds, student registration fees
and tuition charged out-of-state stu-
dents. No tuition is charged to Florida
residents.


State University
System Allocations


Operations


Construction


General Revenue & Bond Revenue
Incidental Revenue Amendment Revenue Appro- Federal
Appropriations Programs Certificates priations Funds


$ 44,898,669
59,013,173
76,309,884
83,544,681
108,248,257
140,667,030
163,592,269
186,935,000
220,822,949


$23,520,000
,23,520,000
21,750,000
21,750,000
15,875,000
15,875,000
13,250,000
13,250,000
18,550,000


$ 5,043,000
5,043,000
5,240,000
5,240,000
775,000
775,000
2,420,000
25,000,000


$6,571,000
6,571,000
56,000
56,000
312,521
312,521
592,580


$2,355,674
2,355,674
6,301,376
6,301,376
5,845,872
5,845,873
1,334,519


1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72







Unlike the elementary and second-
ary school Minimum Foundation Pro-
gram, no local revenue derived from
property taxes is utilized in financing
the state's public universities.
Operating funds are appropriated
by the Legislature in a lump sum and
distributed by the Division of Universi-
ties, based upon the number of full-
time equivalent students and the
number of academic and non-academic
positions at each institution of higher
learning.
In a step significant because of
what was to follow, the 1961 Legis-
lature-for the first time-allocated
$15.50 of each student's registration
fee to retire a $21,000,000 revenue
certificate issue to finance capital
improvements.
In 1963, the Florida Constitution
was amended to permit the State to
issue bonds to finance construction of
higher education facilities, including
universities, community colleges and
area vocational-technical education
centers. These revenue certificates are
retired from funds derived from the
tax on gross receipts of utility com-
panies.
The revised 1969 Florida Constitu-


tion terminated this authority but the
provision was restored in a constitu-
tional Higher Education Bond Amend-
ment, approved by the voters in
November 1969.
The 1969 Legislature earmarked an
additional $2.50 of each student's
registration fee for capital im-
provements and the 1970 Legislature
added an additional $10 of the regis-
tration fee to the capital outlay fund,
authorizing the issuance of
$25,000,000 in revenue certificates to
finance University System construc-
tion.
The 1971 Legislature earmarked an
additional $10 of the registration fee
for capital outlay and authorized the
issuance of $28,000,000 in capital
outlay revenue certificates.
The 1971 Legislature also approved
the sale of $35,000,000 in bonds for
capital outlay, under authority of the
1969 Higher Education Bond Amend-
ment. Capital outlay projects, financed
by proceeds from the gross receipts
tax, for 1971-72 included: universities,
$18,550,000; community colleges,
$13,300,000; and area vocational-
technical education centers,
$3,150,000.
































IV. Florida's Public Education Program

Kindergarten through High School


Florida provides broad educational
opportunities for children in Grades
K-12 through a flexible program based
on statewide minimum academic
standards and supplemented at the
district level to meet individual com-
munity needs.
In addition to the academic offer-
ings in language arts, mathematics,
science and the social studies, Florida
schools offer a wide range of oppor-
tunities in the arts, foreign languages,
physical education and health training,
education for exceptional children and
a variety of remedial programs to meet
the needs of the disadvantaged.
Vocational and technical training is
available to students from the middle


school or junior high levels on. Gifted
students are offered multiple oppor-
tunities to take special work at college
and university campuses, along with
their regular classes.
More and more attention is being
given to individualizing instruction and
buildings are being constructed with
the instructional needs considered in
the drawing of educational specifica-
tions. Florida is one of the few states
where educational specifications are
prepared before the architectural
drawings.
Innovative and experimental pro-
grams are constantly being introduced
throughout the State, and evaluated
carefully for possible expansion or







increase. Research and development
are everyday happenings in Florida's
school picture.

Pilot Projects
Some school districts are trying out
extended school year plans and others
have pilot projects in differentiated
staffing. Flexible scheduling, non-
graded schools, computer-assisted in-
struction and instructional television
are common experiences in Florida
schools. Middle schools are growing in
number, open space structures are
appearing in many new school build-
ings. Guidance programs have been
expanded in recent years and school
media centers are practical learning
centers in the schools.
Most counties in Florida are en-
larging their curricular offerings in
Black Studies, integrating the materials
and concepts into existing Social
Studies units and courses.

Kindergartens Statewide
A statewide kindergarten program
will be completed in Florida by 1973,
according to a 1968 legislative man-
date.
Florida has an education program
for its exceptional children, covering
all areas of exceptionality, including
the gifted, with state and federal, as
well as local, funding.
Florida is a leader in developing
education programs for the children of
migrant workers in the state, with
opportunities available for children of
prekindergarten age through all the
grades.
And Florida maintains a special
school, in St. Augustine, for training
deaf and blind children.

Summer Programs
Florida was the first state to pro-


o O
12 0





w -


vide a statewide summer education
enrichment program in its public
schools. More than half of the state's
school children return to school for
some period during the summer, to
participate in such activities as day
camping, theater, field trips, library
services, music, swimming, driver edu-
cation and special events. Summer
academic instruction is available too,
in this state-funded program.

Job Entry Program
Two additional plans for high
school graduation were approved by
the State Board of Education in 1971.
One is the job entry program,
which permits students to accumulate
credits for successful employment,
after completing 1 1th and 12th grades.
Jobs must be approved by the district
school board.
Also approved is a student perform-
































ance program, where students may
graduate after fulfilling needs and
objectives as measured by perform-
ance, without regard to credits or
length of time in school. Guidelines
must be drafted by each district board.

Basic Course
A basic minimum in course require-
ments is outlined by the State and
each county implements and supple-
ments this minimum to accommodate
the academic needs of the students.
All students who expect to be
licensed to drive before the age of 18
are required to take driver education.
All high school students are re-
quired to take a unit in Americanism
versus Communism and one year of
American History.
Basic academic requirements are:
Grades 7-9:
Language arts 3 years


Mathematics 2 years
Physical education 3 years
Science 2 years
Social studies 2 years

Grades 10-12:
Language arts 2 credits (years)
Mathematics 1 credit
Physical education 1 credit
Science 1 credit
Social studies 2 credits (to in-
clude American History and
Americanism versus Communism)

Certification
Florida recognizes that its teaching
force is the most important ingredient
in its educational program, and certifi-
cation procedures have been estab-
lished to ensure high standards.
Teachers are ranked according to their
educational qualifications and pay
grades are set in the same fashion.







Teachers may raise their ranks, and
their income, by obtaining advanced
degrees during their teaching years.
School districts, with encourage-
ment and financial support from the
State, are engaged in numerous pro-
grams of inservice training for
teachers. These supplement on-campus
university courses which teachers also
take for renewing certification or up-
grading their professional standing.
Textbooks are provided at State
expense for all grades and all pro-
grams. Areas for textbook adoption
are recommended, each year, by the
Courses of Study Committee and text-
book titles are recommended to the
Board of Education by State Text-
book Councils. The Board of Educa-
tion determines the textbook adop-
tions, after studies and actions by
these statewide committees of profes-
sional and lay citizens. Florida has
used multi-ethnic illustrated textbooks
since 1965.
Bus transportation is provided at
State and county expense for those
students living beyond safe walking
distance from their assigned schools.


Compulsory Attendance
Florida law requires that all child-
ren between the ages of 7 and 16
attend school regularly, with certain
legal exceptions. A birth certificate or
other valid evidence of age is required
for admission to kindergarten or first
grade. A child must be five years of
age on or before January 1 of the
school year in which he enters kinder-
garten, and six years of age on or
before January 1 of the school year in
which he enters first grade. The law
requires also that children be vaccin-
ated against specified communicable
diseases.
Non-resident pupils may attend
Florida public schools, but tuition fees
of $50 each are charged. Exceptions
are children of military service person-
nel or of civilian workers at federal
military installations and children of
migratory agricultural workers.
Tuition fees are waived for parents
who have signified, legally, their
intention to become permanent res-
idents of Florida.
State law requires all schools to
provide a school term of 180 days for
students.





Florida Schools, 1969-70

Percent of Current
Instructional Number Expense
Number of Personnel of Per Pupil in
Instructional in Rank II Enrollment School Average Daily
Counties Address Positions or Higher K-12 Centers Attendance


Alachua
Baker
Bay
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
Dade
De Soto
Dixie
Duval
Escambia
Flagler
Franklin
Gadsden
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes


Gainesville
Macclenny
Panama City
Starke
Titusville
Ft. Lauderdale
Blountstown
Punta Gorda
Inverness
Green Cove Springs
Naples
Lake City
Miami
Arcadia
Cross City
Jacksonville
Pensacola
Bunnell
Apalachicola
Quincy
Trenton
Moore Haven
Wewahitchka
Jasper
Wauchula
LaBelle
Brooksville
Sebring
Tampa
Bonifay


1,082
123
920
198
2,971
5,503
115
199
212
433
463
343
11,633
153
83
5,789
2,333
63
89
546
62
58
168
135
179
161
188
352
4,655
144


37.94%
22.77
22.11
31.25
25.42
32.79
27.93
34.31
29.90
19.52
38.86
24.61
30.19
11.76
11.77
27.21
19.31
17.19
23.26
29.14
20.69
29.10
18.83
18.40
14.87
24.03
22.16
27.77
20.10
23.36


24,231
2,697
20,024
4,252
68,144
122,619
2,253
4,415
3,950
10,274
10,462
7,332
262,065
3,172
1,718
133,116
49,985
1,315
1,820
11,208
1,148
1,064
3,255
2,490
4,082
3,518
4,315
7,094
113,044
3,008


$ 658.38
651.22
626.43
740.72
656.46
786.98
843.91
869.39
880.77
595.29
977.76
704.83
823.79
685.11
797.82
630.22
668.68
676.94
725.62
623.08
856.81
1,036.48
753.39
791.86
719.21
675.33
745.27
722.17
666.77
726.02





Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake
Lee,
Leon
Levy
Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
Washington


Total 69,895 27.54% 1,551,339 1,829 $728.20


Monticello
Mayo
Tavares
Fort Myers
Tallahassee
Bronson
Bristol
Madison
Bradenton
Ocala
Stuart
Key West
Fernandina Beach
Crestview
Okeechobee
Orlando
Kissimmee
West Palm Beach
Dade City
Clearwater
Bartow
Palatka
St. Augustine
Fort Pierce
Milton
Sarasota
Sanford
Bushnell
Live Oak
Perry
Lake Butler
DeLand
Crawfordville
DeFuniak Springs
Chipley


149
41
828
1,040
1,127
193
55
201
900
865
306
498
298
1,318
141
3,690
282
3,671
521
4,067
2,730
496
344
571
474
1,078
919
191
229
204
73
1,710
99
199
164


28.57
23.81
22:54
27.60
36.77
22.11
36.54
28.80
28.46
24.58
30.47
26.98
19.58
15.67
24.46
26.54
25.09
37.24
20.48
29.92
22.65
23.01
24.37
24.40
18.21
38.56
23.82
24.87
18.89
22.07
27.54
29.13
25.01
17.44
20.48


3,032
812
16,945
21,937
22,346
3,677
990
3,484
18,918
18,073
6,617
11,994
6,430
29,883
3,602
90,242
6,291
73,375
13,134
89,092
59,325
10,619
7,537
12,398
10,351
20,872
23,130
3,981
4,405
4,297
1,473
35,956
1,874
4,384
3,285


725.23
881.57
745.21
722.32
751.83
803.27
967.43
681.08
777.86
733.85
751.65
730.23
645.50
592.84
686.26
656.29
675.45
882.96
597.97
737.35
678.30
661.32
717.70
694.96
691.43
879.40
582.93
706.32
765.33
702.37
758.84
729.05
881.68
697.97
863.99


(- Total


69,895 27.54% 1,551,339


1,829 $728.20


,

































V. Florida's Public Education Program

Community Colleges


Florida's statewide network of
two-year community colleges is built
on the original stated goal of the
Council for the Study of Higher Edu-
cation, which in 1955 issued a report
urging the development of a system to
provide programs "appropriate to a
broader range of educational needs
than can be met in a university pro-
gram."
When the authorized 28th com-
munity college opens (Hernando-
Pasco) the State master plan will be
completed, and the programs will be
available within commuting distance
of more than 99 percent of the State's


population.
Implementation of the community
college plan has brought substantial
changes in patterns of attendance in
the State's post-high school education
programs. More high school graduates
are able to continue their education
than in the past, in university-parallel
freshman and sophomore courses and
in occupational or technical programs.
The concept of the community
college encourages each institution to
develop its course offerings to accom-
modate the particular needs of the
community it serves. Thus a wide
variety of course offerings exists in the







State and, properly, all community
colleges do not offer the same pro-
grams.

Three Major Functions
Florida's community colleges have
three major functions:
1. Freshman arid sophomore pro-
grams which parallel the state
university studies.
2. Occupational or vocational-
technical education.
3. Adult education offerings.

Compensatory Program
The 1969 Legislature recognized
the need for special programs for
disadvantaged students in the State's
community colleges, and allowed
funding formula changes to provide
for lower class ratios, in an effort to
bridge the gap between high school
and college for the affected students.
Compensatory programs in the
community colleges are planned to
meet academic and personal needs of
disadvantaged students. They provide
special instruction in the areas of
remediation, development of com-
petencies and change of attitudes and
are offered for both credit and non-
credit. Programs combine guided
studies, remedial classes and counsel-
ing.

Articulation Agreement
In 1971 an articulation agreement
was made between the Divisions of
Community Colleges and Universities
which provides for acceptance, by
upper division universities, of the


Associate of Arts degree for admission
to junior standing.
The agreement also provides a for-
giveness policy and the acceptance of
"D" grades in determining grade point
averages.
Follow-up studies of this agree-
ment, along with experimental pro-
grams, are planned with a special
committee named to work on mutual
problems.

SBE Directs
All the community colleges are part
of the State's system of public edu-
cation and the State Board of Edu-
cation establishes the framework with-
in which the colleges operate.
The State Community College
Council is made up of seven members,
appointed to four-year terms by the
SBE. The Council is responsible for
establishing statewide policies regard-
ing operation of community colleges,
and for making recommendations on
these to the director of the Division of
Community Colleges.
Within the Department of Edu-
cation, the Division of Community
Colleges (organized in 1957) is respon-
sible for coordination of college pro-
grams and implementation of recom-
mendations and regulations of the
SBE.
Each community college is govern-
ed by a District Board of Trustees,
composed of from five to nine mem-
bers, depending upon the number of
counties served. Members are appoint-
ed by the Governor, and approved by
the Board of Education, subject to
confirmation by the Senate.







FLORIDA COMMUNITY COLLEGES


Brevard Community College
Cocoa, Florida 32922
Maxwell C. King, President
(Brevard County)

Broward Community College
S. W. Davie Road
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33314
Hugh Adams, President
(Broward County)

Central Florida Community College
P. O. Box 1388
Ocala, Florida 32670
Henry E. Goodlett, President
(Marion, Citrus, Levy Counties)

Chipola Junior College
Marianna, Florida 32446
Raymond M. Deming, President
(Jackson, Holmes, Calhoun,
Washington Counties)

Daytona Beach Community College
P. O. Box 1111
Daytona Beach, Florida 32015
Roy F. Bergengren, President
(Volusia, Flagler Counties)

Edison Junior College
Fort Myers, Florida 33901
David G. Robinson, President
(Lee, Charlotte, Collier Counties)

Florida Junior College at Jacksonville
1246 Cumberland Road
Jacksonville, Florida 32205
Benjamin R. Wygal, President
(Duval, Nassau Counties)


Florida Keys Community College
Key West, Florida 33040
John S. Smith, President
(Monroe County)

Gulf Coast Community College
Highway 98
Panama City, Florida 32401
Richard E. Morley, President
(Bay, Gulf Counties)

Hillsborough Community College
P.O. Box 22127
Tampa, Florida 33622
Morton S. Shanberg, President
(Hillsborough County)

Indian River Community College
3209 Virginia Avenue
Fort Pierce, Florida 33451
Herman A. Heise, President
(St. Lucie, Indian River, Martin,
Okeechobee Counties)

Lake City Community College
Lake City, Florida 32055
Herbert E. Phillips, President
(Columbia, Baker, Dixie, Gilchrist,
Union Counties)

Lake-Sumter Community College
Leesburg, Florida 32748
Paul P. Williams, President
(Lake, Sumter Counties)







Manatee Junior College
26th Street West
Bradenton, Florida 33505
Samuel R. Neel, President
(Manatee County)

Miami-Dade Junior College
Miami, Florida 33156
Peter Masiko, Jr., President
(Dade County)

North Florida Junior College
Highway 90 and Turner Davis Drive
Madison, Florida 32340
Stephen T. McMahon, President
(Madison, Taylor, Hamilton, Jefferson,
Lafayette Counties)

Okaloosa-Walton Junior College
Niceville, Florida 32578
J. E. McCracken, President
(Okaloosa, Walton Counties)

Palm Beach Junior College
4200 Congress Avenue
Lake Worth, Florida 33460
Harold C. Manor, President
(Palm Beach County)

Pensacola Junior College
Pensacola, Florida 32504
T. Felton Harrison, President
(Escambia, Santa Rosa Counties)

Polk Community College
999 Avenue H., N.E.
Winter Haven, Florida 33880
Frederick T. Lenfestey, President
(Polk County)


Seminole Junior College
Sanford, Florida 32771
Earl S. Weldon, President
(Seminole County)

South Florida Junior College
Avon Park, Florida
William A. Stallard, President
(Highlands, Hardee Counties)

St. Johns River Junior College
5001 St. Johns Avenue
Palatka, Florida 32077
Charles W. LaPradd, President
(Putnam, Clay, St. Johns Counties)

St. Petersburg Junior College
P.O. Box 13489
St. Petersburg, Florida 33733
Michael M. Bennett, President
(Pinellas County)

Tallahassee Community College
444 Appleyard Drive
Tallahassee, Florida 32304
Fred W. Turner, President
(Leon, Wakulla, Gadsden Counties)

Valencia Community College
P. O. Box 3028
2908 West Oak Ridge Road
Orlando, Florida 32802
James F. Gollattscheck, President
(Orange County)


Santa Fe Junior College
P. O. Box 1530
Gainesville, Florida 32601
Joseph W. Fordyce, President
(Alachua, Bradford Counties)

























FLORIDA


COMMUNITY COLLEGES


1. PENSACOLA JUNIOR COLLEGE
Pensacola, Florida
2. OKALOOSA-WALTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
Niceville, Florida
3. GULF COAST COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Panama City, Florida
4. CHIPOLA JUNIOR COLLEGE
Marianna, Florida
5. TALLAHASSEE COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Tallahassee, Florida
6. NORTH FLORIDA JUNIOR COLLEGE
Madison, Florida
7. LAKE CITY COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Lake City, Florida
8. FLORIDA JUNIOR COLLEGE
AT JACKSONVILLE
Jacksonville, Florida
9. SANTA FE JUNIOR COLLEGE
Gainesville, Florida
10. ST. JOHNS RIVER JUNIOR COLLEGE
Palatka, Florida
11. CENTRAL FLORIDA COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Ocala, Florida
12. DAYTONA BEACH COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Daytona Beach, Florida
13. SEMINOLE JUNIOR COLLEGE
Sanford, Florida
14. LAKE-SUMTER COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Leesburg, Florida


15. HERNANDO-PASCO COUNTIES
Tentative opening: Fall, 1972
16. ST. PETERSBURG JUNIOR COLLEGE
St. Petersburg, Florida
17. HILLSBOROUGH COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Tampa, Florida
18. POLK COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Winter Haven, Florida
19. VALENCIA COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Orlando, Florida
20. BREVARD COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Cocoa, Florida
21. INDIAN RIVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Fort Pierce, Florida
22. SOUTH FLORIDA JUNIOR COLLEGE
Avon Park, Florida
23. MANATEE JUNIOR COLLEGE
Bradenton, Florida
24. EDISON JUNIOR COLLEGE
Fort Myers, Florida
25. PALM BEACH JUNIOR COLLEGE
Lake Worth, Florida
26. BROWARD COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
27. MIAMI-DADE JUNIOR COLLEGE
Miami, Florida
28. FLORIDA KEYS COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Key West, Florida
























i7 18 USt LA
16 POLK 2
0INDIAN
RIVER
MANATEE HARDEE 2 F
2 ST. LUC]
HIGHLANDS
01, DE SOTO MARTIN
CHARLOTTE GLADES

LEE 'ENORY PALM BEACH
bV LE25
BROWAROD
COLLIER

MONROE DADE /
2 7 0o



2 8, ..







FLORIDA PUBLIC COMMUNI-
ATTENDANCE BY CATEGORY Al



Non-Credit Enrollment
Terminal
Adult Occupationa
College Men Women Men Wore

Brevard 834 962 1,342 9
Broward 166
Central Florida 580 1,651 743 9
Chipola 541 449 416 1
Daytona Beach 2,704 5,985 1,806 2,0
Edison 1,500 2,111 641 5
Fla. JC at Jax. 4,658 7,089 2,233 2,7.
Florida Keys 69 1
Gulf Coast 868 941 619 1
Hillsborough 629 1,0
Indian River 1,067 1,697 525 6
Lake City 828 552 672 4
Lake-Sumter -
Manatee 620 8
Miami-Dade 3,196 4,368 -
North Florida 929 1,142 228 1
Okaloosa-Walton 802 829 1,580 91
Palm Beach 153 327 599 31
Pensacola 3,763 3,913 5,905 3,2
Polk 275 277 242 3
St. Johns River 1,397 1,011 262 1
St. Petersburg 408 550 475 2'
Santa Fe 440 1,153 1,175 2,3'
Seminole 205 179 143 1'
South Florida 30 122 185 2!
Tallahassee 84
Valencia 80 100

Sub-Total 25,258 35,408 21,359 19,0:








COLLEGE ENROLLMENT AND
SEX AND PERSONNEL REPORT 1969-70


Instructional Personnel Non-Instructional
Total Total Personnel
Enrollment Equivalent Full Part Total
Men Women F-Time P-Time F-Time Time Time FTE


150 223.20
60 246.00
6 85.00
5 84.00
412 261.00
23 73.00
551 446.00
12 26.40
18 98.00
42 131.00
160 90.00
75 89.70
15 46.00
34 96.66
226 971.00
3 85.10
168 128.25
41 216.00
150 369.00
38 136.00
10 80.00
66 418.00
39 219.75
101 130.00
14 27.50
18 66.50
24 89.00


139
180
48
48
88
51
230
26
55
44
51
43
26
93
743
44
69
139
218
80
56
275
161
23
10
43
38


139.00
4 182.00
48.00
48.00
4 90.00
6 54.00
13 242.00
26.00
55.00
50 72.00
9 54.00
43.00
1 26.50
10 98.00
119 802.00
5 46.00
40 72.25
26 156.00
2 219.00
80.00
13 60.00
170 311.00
42 194.00
- 23.00
6 13.00
1 43.50
38.00


115,084 4,240


2,461 4,932.06


3,021


521 3,235.25


7,109
5,539
2,958
1,752
6,503
3,179
12,359
1,139
4,463
6,616
3,149
2,776
796
2,475
26,051
1,223
4,521
5,142
14,199
2,755
1,979
8,156
2,823
2,304
525
1,918
5,014


5,037
3,600
3,982
1,273
9,369
3,368
13,264
487
2,730
5,309
3,539
1,506
664
2,308
20,487
1,260
2,744
4,186
10,460
2,695
1,283
5,970
3,808
1,385
641
1,138
2,591


137,423
| F



I"



i;


I


\I







FLORIDA PUBL
Fall and A


Fall Enrollments
% Inc
No. of No. of College Colleg
Year Areas Colleges Total Credit Credit


194748
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72e,
1972-73e
1973-74e
1974-75e
1975-76e
1976-77e
1977-78e
1978-79e
1979-80e
1980-81e

eEstimated.


-


957
781
1,233
1,261
1,860
2,339
4,470
5,736
12,592
14,398
20,944
29,593
38,210
50,051
59,243
74,662
89,441
98,454
112,898
130,669
147,823
159,491
173,015
186,538
200,062
213,585
227,109
240,632
254,156
267,679
281,203


-

957
781
1,233
1,261
1,860
2,339
4,470
5,064
8,880
11,008
15,780
22,116
29,355
38,491
45,974
58,426
70,850
78,597
89,648
99,539
107,847
117,861
127,939
138,016
148,093
158,170
168,247
178,324
188,402
201,203
208,556







COMMUNITY COLLEGES
II Enrollments
S1980

Annual Enrollments Instructors
No. of
College Full-Time % Change Full-time
Total Credit Equivalent in FTE Equivalents

800 800 -
\ 1,143 1,143 874 58
1,434 1,434 1,107 27 70
1,375 1,375 1,040 -6 74
1,164 1,164 896 14 68
1,407 1,407 1,083 21 66
1,676 1,676 1,233 14 76
2,516 2,516 1,797 46 95
3,757 3,757 2,201 22 124
5,218 5,218 2,816 28 145
7,224 7,224 3,601 28 259
13,303 11,514 6,198 72 480
23,436 14,068 8,052 30 649
36,846 21,533 11,955 48 860
46,281 28,974 16,310 36 1,112
56,607 37,904 21,380 31 1,368
78,642 51,808 28,987 36 1,666
104,777 66,888 39,390 36 2,063
124,964 81,239 51,353 30 2,517
160,812 103,822 68,668 34 3,347
188,413 115,033 77,447 13 3,716
213,549 136,819 87,020 12 4,530
252,507 159,028 96,134 10 4,932
267,226e 168,544e 107,868e 12e 5,371e
293,414 184,882 118,162 10 5,801
319,603 201,219 129,022 9 6,149
345,791 217,557 139,728 8 6,579
371,980 233,894 150,435 8 7,040
398,168 250,231 161,142 7 7,603
424,357 266,569 171,848 7 7,983
450,545 282,906 182,555 6 8,302
476,733 299,244 193,261 6 8,551
502,922 315,581 203,968 6 8,722
529,110 331,918 214,675 5 8,984






























FLORIDA PUBLIC COMMUNITY COLLEGES
REPORT OF TECHNICAL AND TERMINAL-
OCCUPATIONAL ENROLLMENTS
1969-70


s .a stm M 5
PROGRAMS: U" 0 ML a -
.0 I) x 0 o 0
Two Years or More > 0 -
Credit Full-Time 6,857 845 2,461 5,573 15,736
Non-Credit Full-Time 35 1,518 -0- 1 1,554
Credit Part-Time 5,245 1,113 2,010 5,520 13,888
Non-Credit Part-Time 409 866 42 375 1,692

One Year or Less
Credit Full-Time 10 127 -0- 120 257
Non-Credit Full-Time 158 2,588 506 183 3,435
Credit Part-Time 200 228 12 128 568
Non-Credit Part-time 1,519 23,207 425 2,711 27,862
TOTALS 14,433 30,492 5,456 14,611 64,992
















7/


^^^^^^^^^H ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ __^^^^^^^ __^_ ..i...(' .. *^"- -





m ii^.^36^
I &






Sn "" Z ^"- ", "- *".,'" -.




,- -,,+, ( a r'" '-,,/. .*^ -^ ^ ,)y, o .^.. 0 ., .
.., .*- L -* .
**v^^;; ^-ai^^^,^F,; ,,^-,


,' ,< j n ,
..JY ^ ;.*Y -,




-.~3 i ** ; ,.. & .
I, .l-4, *
J.1: ,j-w 4~ ~Q
a k; a
-. r'.. $IuI ', e i s
r -.~ c,Ct %*-~? Yw I: '
A r 9 :~ **
.. lkt .
7, 5r I' .,
ii '







ENROLLMENT
FLORIDA COIh


Freshman Sophomore
Full Part Full Part
Junior College Time Time Time Time

Brevard 2,184 2,275 769 713
Broward 2,695 1,773 1,386 620
Central Florida 662 92 389 78
Chipola 579 163 294 67
Daytona Beach 1,091 351 598 333
Edison 656 216 333 120
Fla. JC at Jax. 2,403 2,256 991 719
Florida Keys 218 230 56 109
Gulf Coast 799 389 528 136
Hillsborough 889 1,648 404 993
Indian River 664 390 341 56
Lake City 567 290 290 74
Lake-Sumter 439 173 203 56
Manatee 1,053 486 579 154
Miami-Dade 9,783 4,612 6,535 3,684
North Florida 587 40 346 36
Okaloosa-Walton 691 602 384 259
Palm Beach 1,874 1,055 1,191 615
Pensacola 1,948 1,224 1,172 704
Polk 1,297 625 616 276
St. John's River 583 153 285 53
St. Petersburg 4,251 2,501 2,212 576
Santa Fe 1,785 508 717 240
Seminole 1,091 471 459 145
South Florida 191 108 93 32
Tallahassee 772 371 492 253
Valencia 1,250 805 657 357

TOTAL 41,002 23,807 22,320 11,458

(1) % represents percent increase or decrease over Fall, 1969 enrollment.

(2) Total enrollment less students enrolled in more than one category.

(3) Enrollments in non-college-credit vocational and adult programs.







FALL, 1970

1lUNITY COLLEGES


Un- College Level TOTAL (2)
classi- Enrollment NON-CREDIT Enrollment
fled No. %(1) Enrollment No. %(1)


200
603
284
49
105
102
291
356
157
13
225
91
303
213
3,336
199
242
759
364
663
107
88
45
90
16
212
147


6,141
7,077
1,505
1,152
2,478
1,427
6,660
969
2,009
3,947
1,676
1,312
1,174
2,485
27,950
1,208
2,178
5,494
5,412
3,477
1,181
9,628
3,295
2,256
440
2,100
3,216


6.63
20.11
15.24
-6.87
5.85
6.33
5.48
12.15
-6.30
22.73
8.27
2.02
25.43
7.07
5.99
-0-
6.14
2.50
7.87
11.55
-.76
3.74
22.26
14.69
17.02
13.76
25.97


.1 J
9,260 107,847 8.35 40,582 147,823 13.13%


726
361
1,766
699
6,093
1,594
8,579
27
39
1,237
1,496
847
-0-
767
5,590
454
1,427
428
4,676
336
156
189
1,587
796
447
-0-
265


6,807
7,438
3,271
1,849
8,571
3,021
14,963
996
2,030
5,184
3,172
2,159
1,174
3,252
33,513
1,662
3,542
5,916
10,086
3,803
1,337
9,817
4,747
3,052
880
2,100
3,481


9.14
25.75
44.03
3.70
9.09
67.37
.05
10.67
-14.78
61.19
23.91
-6.62
25.43
19.96
14.09
2.66
8.19
3.50
4.89
7.37
12.35
3.24
18.62
54.38
36.22
13.76
36.35


40,582 147,823 13.13%


9,260 107,847 8.35







FLORIDA PUBLIC COMMUNITY
AND ATTENDANCE B

196


No. of
.f FRESHMAN
Grads.
During Part-Time Full-Time
College Year Men Women Men Women

Brevard 766 2,323 1,551 1,355 741
Broward 1,971 2,205 1,722 1,441 816
Central Florida 245 170 188 745 454
Chipola 333 111 61 352 367
Daytona Beach 380 300 255 730 400
Edison 241 159 160 401 222
Fla. JC at Jax. 622 1,802 1,816 1,974 940
Florida Keys 103 482 144 181 96
Gulf Coast 230 826 389 1,071 624
Hillsborough 255 3,439 3,180 2,188 925
Indian River 273 569 460 495 263
Lake City 280 438 126 382 180
Lake-Sumter 115 227 80 264 260
Manatee 459 470 493 751 478
Miami-Dade 3,804 4,083 4,074 7,768 4,054
North Florida 264 20 27 399 309
Okaloosa-Walton 251 936 395 469 281
Palm Beach 804 1,023 1,056 1,427 850
Pensacola 726 1,369 979 1,331 925
Polk 511 627 693 482 212
St. Johns River 180 104 154 321 174
St. Petersburg 1,836 1,904 1,849 3,036 1,731
Santa Fe 663 192 284 1,036 733
Seminole 368 526 404 769 314
South Florida 79 76 81 135 58
Tallahassee 226 404 316 567 299
Valencia 365 1,405 834 1,752 843

TOTAL 16,350 26,190 21,771 31,822 17,549







COLLEGE ENROLLMENT
CATEGORY AND SEX

-70



SOPHOMORE
SOPHOMORE College Credit
Part-Time Full-Time Unclassified Enrollment
Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women TOTAL

589 304 624 333 192 243 5,083 3,172 8,255
676 461 793 435 258 135 5,373 3,569 8,942
115 102 400 250 205 353 1,635 1,347 2,982
29 40 254 187 49 55 795 710 1,505
238 147 439 248 286 262 1,993 1,312 3,305
110 78 260 140 108 156 1,038 756 1,794
482 340 675 346 736 227 5,669 3,669 9,338
67 36 61 34 285 83 1,076 393 1,469
356 242 652 369 261 219 3,166 1,843 5,009
260 121 95 17 5 9 5,987 4,252 10,239
35 53 227 121 231 263 1,557 1,160 2,717
84 36 179 69 193 116 1,276 527 1,803
49 33 136 93 120 198 796 664 1,460
119 107 368 257 147 89 1,855 1,424 3,279
2,464 1,817 5,700 2,676 2,871 3,523 22,886 16,144 39,030
25 15 225 146 116 222 785 719 1,504
347 133 292 134 260 126 2,304 1,069 3,373
472 414 729 514 1,123 988 4,774 3,822 8,596
616 462 756 486 459 416 4,531 3,268 7,799
567 397 246 173 342 653 2,264 2,128 4,392
73 78 309 142 83 84 890 632 1,522
506 392 1,627 953 200 250 7,273 5,175 12,448
136 151 779 574 274 200 2,417 1,942 4,359
161 97 419 142 81 75 1,956 1,032 2,988
18 27 67 45 15 13 311 224 535
214 156 371 172 278 183 1,834 1,126 2,960
536 262 1,069 412 172 140 4,934 2,491 7,425

9,344 6,501 17,752 9,468 9,350 9,281 94,458 64,570 159,028







FLORIDA PUBL
1970-71 SALARII


Range 9-9% Months
College Low High Median Mean

Brevard $8,000 $19,500 $10,185 $10,275
Broward 8,343 23,000 -
Central Fla. 6,700 17,043 8,933 8,933
Chipola 6,500 17,533 9,445 9,323
Daytona Beach 7,560 19,000 -
Edison 8,200 20,000 -
Fla. JC at Jax. 7,442 21,000 -
Fla. Keys 7,900 18,000 -
Gulf Coast 7,700 17,500 9,200 9,316
Hillsborough 8,190 23,100 9,750 9,344
Indian River 7,200 19,800 11,880 11,880
Lake City 7,503 18,200 -
Lake-Sumter 8,190 17,760 8,190 8,835
Manatee 6,000 23,976 -
Miami-Dade 8,477 31,500 10,263 10,580
North Florida 7,700 17,500 -
Okaloosa-Walton 7,987 19,977 -
Palm Beach 8,280 22,721 12,210 12,293
Pensacola 6,612 22,000 -
Polk 8,000 18,500 9,000 9,000
St. John's River 6,947 16,500 9,836 9,473
St. Petersburg 8,372 22,360 12,376 11,711
Santa Fe 7,500 21,013 7,900 8,394
Seminole 8,500 17,500 -
South Florida 8,000 16,967 -
Tallahassee 7,500 19,584 11,520 11,068
Valencia 8,108 19,000 -

STATEWIDE 6,000 31,500 12,210 11,065


*Includes nine through twelve months instructional and administrative personnel

Data Include all professional personnel except presidents.

SOURCE: Data provided by colleges.








COMMUNITY COLLEGES
BY COLLEGE



10-10 Months 11 Months 12 Months All Personnel*
Median Mean Median Mean Median Mean Median Mean

$12,128 $12,064 $13,600 $13,696 $14,200 $14,525 $12,116 $12,210
12,417 12,662 17,063 17,063 15,501 16,012 12,798 13,201
10,023 9,939 14,035 13,888 10,997 10,920
14,433 13,945 11,939 11,634
11,210 10,962 13,831 13,821 11,210 11,686
9,692 9,692 11,532 11,532 13,500 12,907 9,988 10,673
9,803 9,877 9,927 10,464 13,821 13,849 11,184 11,397
10,658 10,633 15,500 15,597 11,355 11,791
13,118 12,596 14,574 15,057 9,800 10,551
11,458 11,277 14,107 14,364 12,251 12,096
10,500 10,744 12,000 11,978 15,875 15,485 11,300 11,825
9,236 9,461 9,424 9,543 13,444 13,167 10,059 10,731
10,550 10,562 14,540 15,283 10,600 11,210
12,100 12,086 16,296 15,277 12,300 12,946
-- 12,698 12,999 18,000 18,031 12,430 12,922
9,325 9,314 10,340 10,742 12,240 12,618 9,800 10,224
10,405 10,241 13,182 13,311 11,793 11,776
19,478 19,290 12,580 12,939
10,587 10,966 12,572 13,100 11,073 11,536
10,250 10,500 13,750 13,000 15,500 16,500 12,125 12,250
9,566 9,579 12,837 12,411 9,975 10,423
16,987 16,996 12,376 13,356
9,917 10,156 10,329 10,345 12,267 13,066 10,998 11,542
10,090 10,198 14,500 14,010 10,430 11,190
9,109 9,495 14,164 13,851 9,655 10,511
14,745 14,993 11,840 11,982
10,553 10,422 14,621 14,309 11,097 11,560

10,553 10,798 12,698 12,883 14,107 14,698 12,116 12,068

















\,


VI. Florida's Public Education Program

Vocational Education


Importance of occupational as well
as academic education was recognized
in Florida in 1947, when the original
Minimum Foundation Program pro-
vided for special instruction units for
vocational education.
In succeeding years, the program
has grown toward serving the needs of
all citizens, with greater expansion
made possible by the State's use of
increasingly available State and Fed-
eral funds.
The 1970 Legislature enacted bills
which broadened the definition of
vocational education, mandated that
the State Board of Education adopt


minimum standards for a compre-
hensive vocational education program,
established multi-level funding formu-
las, mandated evaluation of output of
programs, increased vocational coun-
seling services, and placed responsibil-
ity on school boards for vocational
training of youth under 19 years of
age, whether or not they are still in
school.

Advisory Council
Florida State Advisory Council on
Vocational and Technical Education is
composed of 21 citizens, appointed by







the State Board for Vocational Edu-
cation (Cabinet) and represents man-
agement, labor, education and the
general public. The Council advises the
State Board on policies, evaluates pro-
grams and is a liaison with the public.
Florida's comprehensive vocational
education program is offered in in-
structional components and serves all
pupils, including those considered to
be disadvantaged or handicapped:
Grades 1-6: emphasis is on the
relationship of the world of work to
the on-going instructional program,
with students learning about the wide
range of jobs in our society and the
roles and requirements involved.
Grades 7-9: provides occupational
exploratory experiences, including in-
dustrial arts and vocationally oriented
home economics; provides direct
job-related instruction for students
who may leave school prior to
graduation.
Grades 10-12: direct job-related in-
struction for all pupils; pre-technical
instruction, including technically
oriented industrial arts, to prepare
those who will enroll in an advanced
or highly skilled post-secondary pro-
gram; instruction in vocationally orien-
ted home economics; special courses
for disadvantaged or handicapped;
activities in vocational youth organi-
zations.
Post-secondary: organized full-time
programs of preparation for gainful
employment, for those who have grad-
uated from or left high school and
who seek to earn a certificate or an
associate degree.
Adult: training or retraining to in-
sure stability or advancement in em-
ployment to adults who are employed
or seeking employment; vocationally
oriented home economics designed to
prepare adults to be homemakers or
homemaker-wage earners.


High School Equivalency Testing
Florida's State High School Equiv-
alency Testing Program provides for
issuance of a diploma to those who are
18 years of age or older and who have
demonstrated, through tests, an edu-
cational competence and background
at the high school graduation level.
This diploma constitutes legal
equivalent of a high school diploma
and can be accepted by employers and
colleges as such.
There are 45 approved testing
centers in Florida, administered by
local school boards and community
college boards of trustees.

Exemplary Programs
Exemplary vocational programs to
serve urban disadvantaged and handi-
capped youth have been implemented
in demonstration school centers in
four counties: Dade, Duval, Escambia
and Hillsborough and a fifth is sched-
uled for Orange County.
Students enrolled in the programs
are between 13 and 17 years of
age, with special learning needs. Staffs
of the non-graded program are design-
ing and testing instructional materials,
providing special counseling and oc-
cupational orientation and developing
techniques for teaching and counseling
students with special problems.
In the exemplary program, com-
munity resources and activities are
utilized and three of the programs are
located in designated Model Cities
areas. Evaluation of the program is
being conducted by the University of
West Florida.

Area Schools
Florida has 39 area vocational edu-
cation schools, including 25 area
vocational-technical centers, 13 de-








apartments of community colleges and
one department of a comprehensive
high school.
These 39 schools are located so that
approximately 95 percent of the
state's population is within commuting
distance.
Area vocational education schools
include these types:
1. A specialized high school used
exclusively or principally to pro-
vide vocational education to
persons preparing to enter the
labor market.
2. The department of a high school
which provides vocational edu-
cation in no less than five dif-
ferent occupational fields for
those preparing to enter the
labor market.
3. A technical or vocational school
for those who have completed or
left high school.
4. The department or division of a
community college or university
which provides vocational edu-
cation in no less than five occu-


national fields, leading to im-
mediate employment but not
necessarily leading to a bac-
calaureate degree.
Area vocational-technical centers
are administered by county school
boards, as are high schools or depart-
ments of high schools. Departments or
divisions of a community college are
administered by the college trustees.
Adult General Education
Adult Education programs offer ac-
celerated education with enrollment at
any time of the year, courses planned
to meet individual and group needs,
continuous individual counseling, and
credit based on attainment regardless
of length of time spent in class.
Courses are offered in the major
areas of literacy, elementary and high
school subjects, Americanization, cit-
izenship, cultural education, parent
and family life education. There are
also special classes in survival edu-
cation, in man-made or natural disas-
ters.


HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENTS IN VOCATIONAL
AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION, 1969 AND 1970

1969 1970

Agricultural Education 18,315 19,826
Distributive Education 3,415 4,163
Health-Related Occupations Education 173 599
Home Economics Education 102,819 118,508
Office Occupations Education 7,316 8,141
Technical Education 787 839
Trades & Industrial Education 15,814 25,942
Diversified Cooperative Training 4,106 3,706
Work Experience 3,053 4,372








POST-SECONDARY ENROLLMENTS IN VOCATIONAL AND
TECHNICAL EDUCATION, 1969 AND 1970

1969 1970

Agricultural Education 1,287 1,713
Distributive Education 18,371 15,581
Health-Related Occupations Education 4,894 7,022
Home Economics Education 2,234 4,075
Office Occupations Education 35,430 61,031
Technical Education 14,241 17,229
Trades & Industrial Education 7,170 11,581


ENROLLMENTS IN VOCATIONAL- TECHNICAL
EDUCATION IN FLORIDA SCHOOLS, 1970
























ADULT PREPARATORY AND SUPPLEMENTAL ENROLLMENTS IN
VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION, 1969 AND 1970

1969 1970

Agricultural Education 771 887
Distributive Education 24,907 24,324
Health-Related Occupations Education 2,386 3,201
Home Economics Education 49,363 47,622
Office Occupations Education 43,330 39,356
Technical Education 3,821 5,824
Trades & Industrial Education 38,477 48,478





ADULT GENERAL EDUCATION
ENROLLMENT
1969-70



High School level 121,451
Elementary courses 58,240
Personal or community
Service classes 66,775

Total enrolled 246,466








AREA VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL CENTERS
Administered By County School Boards


BAY COUNTY
Thomas P. Haney Area
Voc-Tech Center

BRADFORD COUNTY
Bradford-Union
Voc-Tech Center

BROWARD COUNTY
Sheridan Vocational
Center

COLLIER COUNTY
Collier County Area
Voc-Tech Center

CITRUS COUNTY
Withlacoochee Area
Voc-Tech Center

DADE COUNTY
Lindsey-Hopkins
Education Center

ESCAMBIA COUNTY
George Stone Voc
Tech Center

HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY
Tampa Bay Area
Voc-Tech Center

LAKE COUNTY
Lake County Voc-
Tech Center

LEE COUNTY
Lee County Voc-
Tech Center

LEON COUNTY
Lewis M. Lively Area
Voc-Tech Center


Michael Zekas, Director
Baldwin Rd. & Hwy. 77
Panama City 32401

Lawrence T. Oglesby, Director
901 N. Orange Street
Starke 32091

Glen S. Sanderson, Director
5400 Sheridan Street
Hollywood

Lewis E. Predmore, Director
Collier County Courthouse
Naples 33940

Carl Rehwinkel, Director
P. O. Box 208
Inverness 32650

John T. Coursey, Director
1410 N.E. Second Avenue
Miami 33132

John E. Christian, Director
Route 8, Box 252
Longleaf Drive, Pensacola

Boyd Wilborn, Principal
6410 Orient Road
Tampa 33610

Kenneth Bragg, Director
2001 Kurt Street
Eustis 32726

Howard Scherman, Director
3800 Michigan Avenue
Ft. Myers

Donald Sanders, Director
500 Appleyard Drive
Tallahassee 32304







MANATEE COUNTY
Manatee County
Voc-Tech Center

ORANGE COUNTY
Mid-Florida
Tech Institute

PALM BEACH COUNTY
North Technical
Education Center

PASCO COUNTY
Pasco County Compre-
hensive High School

PINELLAS COUNTY
Pinellas County
Education Center

POLK COUNTY
Polk County Voc-
Tech Center

ST JOHNS COUNTY
St. Augustine
Tech Center

SARASOTA COUNTY
Sarasota County
Voc-Tech Center

SUWANNEE COUNTY
Suwannee-Hamilton
Voc-Tech Center

TAYLOR COUNTY
Taylor County Area
Voc-Tech Center

WASHINGTON COUNTY
Washington-Holmes
Voc-Tech Center


Joe Leatherman, Principal
2915 57th Avenue, West
Bradenton 33505

Donald Mapel, Director
2900 W. Oak Ridge Road
Orlando 32809

Norman Lemstrom, Director
7071 Garden Road
Riviera Beach 33404

Omar Ergle, Director
115 County Courthouse
Dade City 33525

Lawrence W. Cunningham, Dir.
6100 154 Avenue, North
Clearwater 33516

Maynard Travis, Director
Rt. 1, Box 71-E
Bartow 33830

Ralph Upton, Director
P. O. Box 500
St. Augustine 32084

Harry Holmbraker, Director
4748 Beneva Road
Sarasota 33581

H. Wilson Suggs, Director
Pinewood Drive
Live Oak 32060

Lewis Griner, Director
P. O. Box 780
Perry 32347

Wayne Saunders, Director
Chipley 32428

































AREA VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL SCHOOLS
Administered by Community College Boards of Trustees


ALACHUA COUNTY
Santa Fe Corn.
College, Voc-Tech

BREVARD COUNTY
Brevard Com. College
Voc-Tech Division

COLUMBIA COUNTY
Lake City Com. College
Voc-Tech Division

DUVAL COUNTY
Fla. Com. College at
Jax., Voc-Tech Div.

HIGHLANDS COUNTY
South Fla. Cor. College
Voc-Tech Division


Robert E. Shepack, Assoc.
Dean, Occupational Studies
P. O. Box 1126, Gainesville

L. N. Donnell, Dean, Tech &
Vocational Education
Cocoa 32924

Herbert Attaway, Dean of
Technical Div., Rt. 1, Box 45
Lake City 32055

Eric R. Mills, Dean
Career Ed., Cumberland
Campus, Jacksonville 32205

Donald Farrens, Dean, Voc-
Tech Div., P.O. Box 845
Avon Park 33825


Area Vocational-Technical Schools Continued on Page 64

























FLORIDA AREA VOCATIONAL-
TECHNICAL CENTERS



AREA CENTERS

O DEPARTMENTS OF
COMMUNITY COLLEGES

IN ADDITION TO THOSE INDICATED,
ADDITIONAL CENTERS HAVE RECENTLY
BEEN DESIGNATED IN DADE, BROWARE
PALM BEACH AND PINELLAS COUNTIES


























































63








JACKSON COUNTY
Chipola Com. College
Voc-Tech Division

MADISON COUNTY
N. Fla. Cor. College
Voc-Tech Division

MARION COUNTY
Central Fla. Corn.
College, Voc-Tech

MONROE COUNTY
Fla. Keys Cor. College


OKALOOSA COUNTY
Okaloosa-Walton Cor. Col.

SEMINOLE COUNTY
Seminole Com. Col.
Voc-Tech Div.

ST. LUCIE COUNTY
Indian River Cor. Col.
Voc-Tech Div.

VOLUSIA COUNTY
Daytona Beach Corn.
College


Frederic L. Howell, Dean
Voc-Tech Ed.
Marianna 32446

Lewis M. Tucker, Director
Box 419
Madison 32340

J. H. Walters, Director of
Applied Sci., P. O. Box 1388
Ocaia 32670

Howard G. Fowler, Director
Tech. Ed.
Stock Island, Key West 33040

J. E. McCracken, President
Niceville 32578

Joseph B. White, Director
Voc-Tech Ed.
Sanford 32771

Burgess A. Meadows, Director
Voc-Tech Education
3209 Virginia Ave., Ft. Pierce

John H. Smiley, Dean of
Applied Sciences
P.O. Box 1111
Daytona Beach 32015





























VII. Florida's Public Education Program

Universities


Florida's University System in-
cludes nine universities whose com-
bined enrollment is expected to reach
more than 180,000 by 1980. Seven of
these universities are in operation and
two more, at Miami and Jacksonville,
are scheduled to open in 1972.
Two existing institutions-Florida
Atlantic University at Boca Raton and
the University of West Florida at
Pensacola-operate at the upper and
graduate levels. The two new ones will
also be upper level institutions.
The State University System, form-
ally established in 1905, is governed
by a nine-member Board of Regents,
appointed by the Governor, who re-
present geographical areas of the state.
All BOR actions are subject to final
review by the State Board of Educa-
tion.


The Regents' professional staff is
headed by a Chancellor and three
vice-chancellors.
Admissions
Students who have graduated from
accredited high schools with satisfac-
tory grade averages in all academic
subjects, who have attained scores at
the 60th percentile or higher on the
Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Test-
ing Program, are eligible for admission
to the state universities.
For out-of-state students, admission
may be made on the basis of a series of
tests judged to be equivalent. Provis-
ions are also made, in some cases, for
graduates of non-accredited high
schools and for students who show
academic promise but who do not
meet standard entrance requirements.







Students in good academic standing
may transfer from the lower division
of one state university to the lower
division of another, or from a com-
munity college prior to graduation,
provided the latter would have been
qualified to enter the university as a
freshman.
Applicants to upper division univer-
sities must have successfully com-
pleted the first two years of college
work at a community college or con-
ventional four year institution.

Calendar
Institutions operate under a quarter
calendar plan, with four terms of
eleven to twelve weeks in length, in
each year. Calendars are arranged so
that the first quarter closes immedi-
ately prior to Christmas and opening
dates of each term are essentially
uniform throughout the State Univer-
sity System.

Student Costs
Florida residents pay registration
fees of $190 (undergraduate) or $240
(graduate) per quarter and out-of-state
students pay a total of $540 and $590


per quarter in fees and tuition. There
is a late registration fee of $25. These
fees are subject to change by action of
the Legislature.
Residence halls and food service
plans are available at existing univer-
sities.
Student Financial Aid programs are
in operation at all state universities
and are available to full-time students
with proven financial need.

Continuing Education
Adult citizens in Florida may enroll
in programs of credit and non-credit
instruction in the Continuing Educa-
tion program of the State University
System. These are available through
off-campus courses, short-term confer-
ences on or off-campus, or corres-
pondence study. A catalog of home
study courses may be obtained from
the Department of Correspondence
Study, Room 706 Seagle Building,
Gainesville, Florida 32601.
Each university has an operating
Division of Continuing Education and
state-wide coordination is the responsi-
bility of the Board of Regents' Office
of Continuing Education.


FLORIDA'S STATE UNIVERSITIES


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Stephen C. O'Connell, President

Location Gainesville, Florida 32601
Founded -1853
Campus size 2,000 acres
Enrollment 20,768
Faculty 1,400
Physical plant value $174,810,515
Total degrees awarded 70,000
Academic divisions Colleges of Agri-
culture, Architecture and Fine Arts,


Arts and Sciences, Business Admin-
istration, Dentistry, Education,
Engineering, Health Related Profes-
sions, Journalism and Communi-
cations, Law, Medicine, Nursing,
Pharmacy, Physical Education and
Health, University College (enrolls
all freshmen and sophomores),
School of Forestry and the Grad-
uate School (all academic disci-
plines).







FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Stanley Marshall, President

Location Tallahassee, Florida 32306
Founded 1857
Campus size 330 acres
Enrollment 17,000
Faculty 1,152
Physical plant value $100,000,000
Total degrees awarded 56,645
Academic divisions Colleges of Arts
and Sciences, Education and Law;
Schools of Engineering Science,
Home Economics, Library Science,
Music, Nursing and Social Welfare.
Graduate programs in all academic
divisions except nursing.



FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL AND
MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY
Benjamin L. Perry, Jr., President

Location Tallahassee, Florida 32304
Founded 1887
Campus size 381 acres
Enrollment 4,260
Faculty 264
Physical plant value $28,000,000
Total degrees awarded 14,429
Academic divisions College of Arts
and Sciences, Schools of Education,
Agriculture and Home Economics,
Pharmacy, Technology, Nursing.



UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA
M. Cecil Mackey, President

Location Tampa, Florida 33620
Founded 1960
Campus size 1,670 acres
Enrollment 14,244
Faculty 750
Physical plant value $54,000,000


Total degrees awarded 8,232
Academic divisions Colleges of Basic
Studies, Business Administration,
Education, Engineering, Liberal
Arts, Medicine, Nursing. Master's
programs in 50 fields of study,
doctoral programs in marine bio-
logy, chemistry and education.



FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY
Kenneth R. Williams, President

Location Boca Raton, Florida
33432
Founded 1964
Campus size 1,200 acres
Enrollment 5,057
Faculty 286
Physical plant value $25,000,000
Total degrees awarded 6,759
Academic divisions Colleges of Busi-
ness and Public Administration, Ed-
ucation, Engineering, Humanities,
Science, Social Science. Graduate
programs in same fields.



UNIVERSITY OF WEST FLORIDA
Harold Bryan Crosby, President

Location Pensacola, Florida 32504
Founded 1967
Campus size 1,000 acres
Enrollment 3,000
Faculty 224
Physical plant value $15,000,000
Total degrees awarded 1,293
Degree Programs Liberal arts and
sciences, fine arts, business fields,
programs leading to professional
certification for teaching. Graduate
programs in English, history, bio-
logy, elementary education, busi-
ness, aeronautical systems.







FLORIDA TECHNOLOGICAL
UNIVERSITY
Charles N. Millican, President

Location Orlando, Florida 32816
Founded 1968
Campus size 1,227 acres
Enrollment 3,600
Faculty 172
Physical plant value $10,000,000
Total degrees awarded 16
Academic divisions Colleges of Busi-
ness Administration, Education,
Engineering and Technology,
Humanities and Social Sciences,
Natural Sciences. Limited graduate
programs in Business Administra-
tion and Education.



FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL
UNIVERSITY
Charles E. Perry, President

Location Miami, Florida 33144
Founded 1965
Opening September 1972
Enrollment expected 4,500
Academic divisions planned Colleges
of Arts and Sciences, Schools of
Education, Business, Health and
Social Services, Technology, Ad-


ministrative and Planning Sciences,
Hotel and Food Services. Centers
for: Urban and Environmental
Studies; International Studies; also
planned. Graduate programs to be
offered in Education and Business.



UNIVERSITY OF NORTH FLORIDA
Thomas G. Carpenter, President

Location Jacksonville, Florida
32202
Founded 1965
Opening September 1972
Campus size 1000 acres
Academic divisions planned Colleges
of Arts and Sciences, Education,
Business. Graduate programs to be
offered in Business and Education.


For further information regarding the State
University System, write:
Corporate Secretary
Florida Board of Regents
107 W. Gaines Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32304








0 Florida State
SFlorida A & M University of \
North Florida

University of 9
7 Florida






Florida 0
Tech
0
University of
South Florida







LOCATION OF INSTITUTIONS IN Florida
THE STATE UNIVERSITY SYSTEM Atlantic

University of West Florida Pensacola
Florida A and M University Tallahassee Florida
Florida State University Tallahassee International
University of North Florida Jacksonville
University of Florida Gainesville
University of South Florida Tampa
Florida Technological University Orlando ^
Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton ,,
Florida International University Miami o, 0













w000


VIII. Florida's Public Education Program

Role of the Department of
Education


Goals for public school education
in Florida, officially adopted by the
State Board of Education in the spring
of 1971 are:

GOALS FOR STUDENT
DEVELOPMENT

I. Communication and Learning
Skills.
All students shall acquire, to the
extent of their individual physical,
mental, and emotional capacities, a
mastery of the basic skills required
in obtaining and expressing ideas
through the effective use of words,
numbers, and other symbols.

II. Citizenship Education.
All students shall acquire and con-
tinually improve the habits and


attitudes necessary for responsible
citizenship.
IH. Occupational Interests.
All students shall acquire a know-
ledge and understanding of the op-
portunities open to them for pre-
paring for a productive life, and
shall develop those skills and abili-
ties which will enable them to take
full advantage of those opportuni-
ties-including a positive attitude
toward work and respect for the
dignity of all honorable occupa-
tions.
IV. Mental and Physical.
All students shall acquire good
health habits and an understanding
of the conditions necessary for the
maintenance of physical and emo-
tional well-being.


-~-=-f-~c_







V. Home and Family Rela-
tionships.
All students shall develop an appre-
ciation of the family as a social
institution.

VI. Aesthetic and Cultural Appre-
ciations.
All students shall develop under-
standing and appreciation of human
achievement in the natural sciences,
the social sciences, the humanities
and the arts.

VII. Human Relations.
All students shall develop a concern
for moral, ethical and spiritual
values and for the application of
such values to life situations.
At the same time, the Board of
Education also adopted:


ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS

Development of Strategies.
The Department of Education shall
insure that instructional strategies
developed for use in the state system
of public education are designed to
maximize the probability that all stu-
dents will achieve appropriate educa-
tional objectives.
Implementation of Strategies.
Instructional and administrative
strategies shall demonstrate maximum
efficiency and effectiveness in the
achievement of appropriate objectives.
Evaluation.
The performance of the state
system of public education shall be
evaluated in terms of the achievement
of its students and the efficiency of its
processes.


The role of the Department of
Education is in the development and
implementation of these strategies, in
every area and activity of the public
school education program, to achieve
the above stated goals for student
development in Florida.
In this role, the Department is
designed for both service and leader-
ship to professional personnel and to
the citizens of Florida. Staff members
are constantly examining and revising
their services to accommodate chang-
ing local conditions as well as to
acknowledge and utilize emerging con-
cepts and trends on the national edu-
cation scene.
The Department provides consult-
ant and other services to local school
districts in the areas of federally
funded programs, public information
services, school administration, re-
search services, educational television
and radio, all academic areas, all voca-
tional and technical education areas,
pupil personnel services, school fi-
nance and business management, food
and nutrition services, desegregation
plans and procedures, migrant educa-
tion, school facilities, school bus trans-
portation, teacher recruitment and
others.
The Professional Practices Council
provides staff assistance at the school
district level when investigation of
complaints regarding teacher compe-
tence is necessary.

Free Textbooks
Free textbooks are provided to all
Florida students and textbook
adoptions are approved by the State
Board of Education after being recom-
mended by the State Textbook Selec-
tion Council. This Council, as well as
the Courses of Study Committee, is
composed of professional and lay per-







sonnel appointed statewide. The
Courses of Study Committee makes
recommendations to the Board of Ed-
ucation in regard to new textbook
adoptions, publication of curriculum
guides and policies in the areas of
curriculum development. Distribution
of textbooks, production and distri-
bution of guides and other publica-
tions is the responsibility of the De-
partment.


A direct financial aid to school
districts is the Education Improvement
Expense program, funded by the 1968
Legislature and planned for locally
selected and implemented programs
for improvement of education. Plans
are formulated by counties annually,
and approved by the Department ac-
cording to criteria established by the
State Board of Education.


NUMBER OF INSTRUCTIONAL POSITIONS BY RANK*
Rank


Year

194748
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71


I

22
72
116
178
232
310
392
469
556
565
507
519
509
499
471
461
449
441
423
388
379
353
356
361


II

1,663
2,170
2,654
3,144
3,712
4,389
5,136
5,880
6,718
7,587
8,474
9,364
10,256
10,974
11,329
12,098
12,724
13,222
14,053
14,410
15,909
16,940
18,464
20,000


III

10,026
11,295
12,825
13,990
14,742
15,694
16,933
18,263
19,817
21,406
23,552
25,704
27,711
29,535
31,091
33,901
36,548
38,285
40,607
42,726
44,258
48,181
50,458
51,759


IV

1,829
1,680
1,348
1,054
852
695
602
569
505
515
501
426
357
371
206
220
180
151
147
189
201
179
103
65


V

1,468
1,074
674
385
335
252
199
185
154
156
126
94
97
84
38
227
213
367
383
383
92
64
49
27


Total

15,974
16,954
17,877
18,855
19,903
21,374
23,287
25,378
27,760
30,237
33,163
36,116
38,941
41,477
43,141
46,919
50,123
52,471
55,620
58,104
60,844
65,959
69,847
72,452


* Junior College not included after 1956-57.




































Teacher Certification
Every person holding an instruc-
tional position in any public school in
Florida is required to have a valid
certificate and the Department of Edu-
cation is the sole administrator of this
certification process.
Most certification regulations in
Florida have been developed by the
Teacher Education Advisory Council,
whose membership includes statewide
professional and lay representation.
Teaching certificates are issued accord-
ing to training received:
RANK I Advanced post graduate,
based on an earned doctor's degree.
RANK I-A Advanced post grad-
uate based on completion of a sixth
year of college study at the post-
master's level.


RANK II Post graduate based on
an earned master's degree.
RANK III Graduate based on an
earned bachelor's degree.
RANK IV Temporary based on
90 or more semester hours of accept-
able college credit.
RANK V Temporary based on
60-89 semester hours of acceptable
college credit.

Accreditation
Florida law requires that the De-
partment of Education classify or ac-
credit all public schools and in 1971
this process was changed dramatically
to evaluate and measure learning
achievement of students and, thus, the
instructional process itself.
This contrasts with previous accre-
ditation measurements which were
pointed more toward facilities and
equipment than toward process and
product.
Revision of the state accreditation
standards was begun in 1966 and
proposed standards have been tested
thoroughly at all academic levels. The
standards developed are intended to
stimulate involvement and utilization
of a systems approach to school eval-
uation.
Florida's accreditation program is
considered to be a major step forward
in meeting the demand for accounta-
bility.

Research and Development
Florida's Legislature has funded a
program of educational research and
development, which is planned to pro-
duce new techniques and products for
constructive change in education. Two
advisory groups work with DOE staff
in the ERD program, which encom-
passes three targets: development of
assessment techniques, more careful







delineation of teaching competencies
and improved teacher training tech-
niques, development and application
of advanced techniques of individual-
ized instruction.

Right-To-Read
A Right-To-Read Task Force in the
Department is coordinating state level
activities in this national effort. The
cross-divisional Task Force includes
staff members from adult education,
teacher education, elementary and
secondary education, educational
media, language arts, early childhood
education and higher education.
The total right-to-read effort has
four major components: planning,
development and communication;
assessment of reading achievement;
identifying available resources and
concentrating them on the improve-
ment of reading; providing training for
personnel (professional and non-
professional, paid and volunteer).

Teacher Recruitment
A teacher recruitment section in
the Department of Education assists
county school systems in their search
for qualified teachers. This office col-
lects and analyzes data to determine
educational manpower needs of each
school in Florida and also makes pro-
jections of manpower needs in the
State, for long range planning.
The recruitment staff maintains
liaison with teacher training institu-
tions throughout the United States
and assists them in designing programs
to analyze the effectiveness of their
programs.

Schoolhouse Systems Project
Plans for new school buildings must
be approved by the Department of


Education before such buildings may
be erected. Department staff assists
local school districts in determining
building needs, both present and
future, and in selecting sites.
In 1966, Florida initiated the
Schoolhouse Systems Project, which
utilizes mass bidding and volume pur-
chasing of major components for co.n-
structing a number of schools at one
time. SSP has achieved reductions in
construction cost and time, despite
rises in cost of materials and labor
since 1966.

Drug Abuse Education
Florida is engaged in a massive
educational effort to combat drug
abuse and a State consultant in drug
abuse education coordinates the train-
ing program for supervisors and teach-
ers, and continually updates and ex-
pands the materials available for class-
room use.
Students in all Florida's schools,
and at all grade levels, are given infor-
mation on drug abuse as well as on the
dangers of tobacco and alcohol. Dis-
semination is integrated into many
curriculum offerings and not in a
single course at a single grade level.

Environmental Education
Recognizing the threat to our envir-
onment and the need for rapidly in-
creasing emphasis and knowledge in
the field of ecology, Florida has an
environmental education consultant
who directs a statewide program de-
signed to reach every child in the
public schools.
Schools and school organizations
have been enthusiastic participants in
Earth Day observances and have taken
the lead in many communities in
promoting conservation practices.








Technical Assistance Program
DOE's federally funded Technical
Assistance Program assists local school
districts in solving problems incident
to or resulting from school desegrega-
tion. TAP consultants have provided
assistance in development of plans for
physical desegregation, in determina-
tion of zone lines, bus transportation
routes, etc.
With the advent of the elimination
of a dual school system, and physical
desegregation in Florida schools for
the most part accomplished, the pro-
gram's major responsibility now is in
the area of human relations. (In
1970-71, 90.4 percent of all students
in grades K-12 were attending desegre-
gated schools, in Florida).

Migrant Education
Florida administers a broad pro-
gram of education for children of
migrant workers, including pre-
kindergarten experience, remedial
help, counseling and many other ser-
vices. The State's efforts have been
models for other states and have
served several research programs.
The migrant education program
also reaches into the homes and com-
munities of the children.

Community Schools
Seventy community schools in
eight counties serve as the beginning of
a statewide community school pro-
gram. A Department of Education
Task Force survey shows that 41
school districts are interested in pro-
viding this service, with State assist-
ance, for more than 170 community
schools.
These schools become community
centers, after regular school hours, and
their programs and activities are plan-


ned to accommodate area needs and
interests.

Research
Department of Education staff
members in the Bureau of Research
collect, monitor, evaluate and dissem-
inate a continuous flow of data regard-
ing all areas of public school education
in the state. Compilations and inter-
pretations are made available on en-
rollment, expenditures, academic
achievements, and others, in annual
and comparative reports.

Special Schools
Florida's School for the Deaf and
Blind in St. Augustine is part of the
State's public school system and re-
ceives attention and assistance from
the Department staff.
The Department cooperates with
other State government agencies in
providing services and/or materials to
educational programs in correctional
institutions.

Food and Nutrition Services
Programs administered by DOE's
Food and Nutrition Services have en-
countered growth and varied changes.
The section administers funds for food
service in non-profit child care centers,
summer enrichment or recreation pro-
grams and private schools in addition
to the 1,800 lunch and 252 breakfast
programs in 1,805 Florida public
schools (FY'71). Food and Nutrition
Services administers funds to 162
Early Childhood Education units to
provide breakfast, supplements and
lunch to 3,240 four and five-year-old
children.
The awareness of the nutritional
contribution made by the school feed-
ing programs has brought about legisla-



































tive action. At the Federal level, P.L.
91-248 was adopted May 14, 1970.
The law particularly mandates meeting
the needs of the economically needy
children. Additional Federal funding
resulted. At the State level,
$2,750,000 (FY'71) was appropriated
to help supplement meals for these
needy children.
Florida Statutes further state that
no district shall be eligible to receive
funds (EIE) until it has implemented a
school lunch program providing free or
reduced price lunches to economically
needy children. During FY'71 approxi-
mately 40,000,000 lunches were
served to 222,135 economically needy
children in Florida. Approximately
2,889,720 breakfasts were served to
16,925 economically needy children.
The Federal act, P.L. 91-248, also


includes mandating nutrition educa-
tion. The USDA Regulations, Part
210, current as of September 4, 1971,
read as follows:
".... participating schools shall
serve lunches that are nutritionally
adequate, as set forth in these
regulations, and shall also coordin-
ate the school's health-education
activities with the formation of
good eating habits in the lunch-
room to the end that participating
children will gain a full understand-
ing of the relationship between
proper eating and good health."
The type of program, number of
programs and pupils participating in
each for FY'71 were as follows: (ADP
indicates average number of students
participating each day.)








Type of Program
Public Schools
Breakfast
Special Milk
Lunch

Private Schools
Breakfast
Lunch
Milk

Child Care Centers

Summer Enrichment
or Recreation


Pr



*1.
1.


To assist in the fina
of the above program
$24,555,500 Federa
$2,750,000 State funds
For FY'70, 12,89
personnel at a labor co
$32,200,000 were nee
children in 1,747 public
To prepare and serv
lic schools, equipment
FY'71 Food and Nui
administered Fede
$718,182 to assist 217
districts to update,
renovate equipment ii
grams and purchase
new programs.

Student Financial Aid 1
In 1970 the Depart
tion conducted a comp
of student financial ai
needs in Florida. The
ducted by the College I
nation Board and inch
ited institutions of hig
Florida, public and pri,
found that a financial b


No. tional opportunity exists. In 1970 the
ograms ADP Florida Legislature defined the objec-
tive of a State program of student
252 31,600 financial aid to be to provide equal
,565 access to post-secondary educational
,800 830,561 opportunity and in addition the Legis-
lature established the policy that
financial aid be awarded on the basis
of financial need.
1 32
46 11,500 The 1971 Florida Legislature en-
117 acted legislation which made substan-
tial changes in the State scholarship
172 10,865 and loan programs. The intent of this
legislation was to phase out existing
categorical-type scholarships, awarded
126 32,671 on the basis of professional goals
without regard to financial need, and
to increase substantially the student
loan funds awarded on the basis of
incial operation financial need. As a result of this
ms in FY'71, legislation, no new awards will be
d funds and made after July 1, 1971 for General
were used. Scholarship Loans for the Preparation
7 school level of Teachers, Scholarship Loans for the
st of more than Preparation of Teachers of Excep-
ded to feed the tional Children and Florida Nursing
schools. Scholarship Loans. Students currently
e meals in pub- on these programs will be continued
is needed. For for the duration of their eligibility.
trition Services Florida Student Loans constitute
ral funds of the major State program of student
7 schools in 41 financial aid. These loans are granted
modernize and to Florida students for full-time under-
n existing pro- graduate study in any accredited Flor-
equipment for ida institution of higher learning, pub-
lic and private. Students may borrow
up to the cost of tuition, and/or
Trust Fund registration fees, books and housing
ment of Educa- not to exceed $1,200 per year. The
rehensive study awarding and amount of loans is based
d programs and on the student's financial need. Repay-
study was con- ment of Florida Student Loans and
Entrance Exam- interest at the rate of four percent
ided all accred- begins six months following the date
'her learning in of graduation or termination of full-
rate. The study time study. Recommendations for
arrier to educa- loans are made to the Department of




























Education by the institutions. Loans
are granted and administered by the
Department.
Loans are financed from three
sources: General Revenue, a trust fund
which collects repayments of loans, a
fund supported by a portion of stu-
dent fees collected at public univer-
sities and community colleges ($3.00
per quarter, $4.50 per semester).

Educational Accountability
Provision was made by the 1971
Legislature for the establishment of
educational accountability in the pub-
lic school system of Florida. Under the
plan, the Department of Education
annually will establish uniform state-
wide educational objectives for each
grade level and subject area; will de-
velop and administer a statewide asses-
sment system based on criterion-
referenced tests and non-referenced
tests; will make an annual public re-
port by grade and subject area for each
district and for the State, including
analysis and recommendation concern-


ing costs and differential effectiveness
of instructional programs; will collect
district reports from local school
boards, beginning with 1973-74; will
develop, by 1973-74, accreditation
standards based on the attainment of
the established educational objectives.
During 1971-72, the assessment will
apply only to reading. In 1972-73,
writing and mathematics will be in-
cluded and by 1973-74 all subject
areas will be implemented.

Public Information Services
Education information is dissemi-
nated to professional educators and
the public through DOE's Office of
Public Information Services, which
publishes a weekly newsletter, Monday
Report, distributed to department
staff and district superintendents; a
magazine Florida Schools, distributed
five times a year to teachers and
administrators, colleges and universi-
ties and concerned lay citizens; and
occasional special publications (such as
Florida's Public Education Program).
The office also serves as a resource
for the State's news media and pro-
vides legislative information and inter-
pretation on education issues.

Regional Center
Panama City is the site of the first
Department of Education Regional
Center, established in 1970 to provide
consultant services to schools in West
Florida.
The Center is staffed by consultants
in reading, elementary education,
physical education, driver education,
and exceptional child education.

Retirement System
Florida's teacher retirement system
is not administered by DOE, but by







the Department of Administration's
Division of Personnel and Retirement.
Funded by teacher contributions,
matched by State funds, the system
provides retirement income deter-
mined by a formula which considers
length of teaching service and years of
best salary.
Non-Public Schools
The Department of Education has
no legal role in the supervision or
regulation of non-public schools, al-
though private schools are required to
register with the Department for infor-
mational purposes only.


The 1971 session of the Legislature
created the State Board of Indepen-
dent Colleges and Universities, which
will operate as an independent body
under the State Board of Education,
and authorized this board to regulate
and license institutions of higher learn-
ing which award degrees. Beginning
January 1, 1972, all such institutions
will be required to register and receive
approval from this new board in order
to operate in the state. All colleges and
universities which are accredited by
approved regional or national accredit-
ing agencies are exempt from this
ruling.


GROWTH IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENT

Junior
Year Kindergarten Grades 1-12 College Total


1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70


2,236
3,215
3,024
2,945
2,966
3,550
3,473
3,708
2,486
2,869
3,140
3,688
3,619
5,132
5,435
5,711
5,770
6,640
9,290
10,387
10,534
31,641
47,790


446,672
466,958
491,205
522,854
553,970
598,708
645,136
697,776
752,907
823,759
895,880
959,222
1,016,842
1,075,742
1,131,502
1,188,975
1,241,966
1,280,675
1,321,262
1,366,382
1,416,638
1,454,791
1,503,549


1,143
1,434
1,375
1,164
1,407
1,676
2,516
3,757
5,218
7,224
13,303
23,436
36,846
46,281
56,607
78,642
104,777
124,964
160,812
188,413
213,549
252,509


448,908
471,316
495,663
527,174
558,100
603,665
650,285
704,000
759,150
831,846
906,244
976,213
1,043,897
1,117,720
1,183,218
1,251,293
1,326,378
1,392,092
1,455,516
1,537,581
1,615,585
1,699,981
1,803,848





























Significant Developments

In Public Education In Florida


1819-U.S. and Spain reach agree-
ment, granting title to East and
West Florida to United States.

1821-Andrew Jackson received the
Floridas from Spanish authori-
ties at Pensacola on July 17,
and was appointed Governor of
the Floridas.

1822-Unified government of Florida
established March 30, with
President Monroe signing into
law an act providing for a Gov-
ernment and a Legislative Coun-
cil of 13 citizens, appointed by
the President. Virginian William
P. DuVal named Territorial
Governor of Florida.

1823-Congress enacted legislation al-
locating land for two institu-


tions of higher learning in Terri-
tory of Florida.

1831-Florida Education Society
founded in Tallahassee, with
major objective of arousing in-
terest in public education, a
new idea which many people-
especially the wealthy and in-
fluential-opposed in principle.

1839-Territorial government attempt-
ed to implement a public school
system, naming three trustees in
each township to administer
and lease school lands, with
proceeds used to support public
schools.

1844-County sheriffs replaced school
land trustees but this proved
impractical and trustees were







almost immediately restored
and provisions made for their
election by the people, rather
than appointment by territorial
government.

1845-Florida admitted to the Union,
with Congress granting two ad-
ditional townships for semin-
aries, one east and one west of
the Suwannee River.
Judges of county courts ap-
pointed superintendents of
common schools but few
schools were in operation.
Control of school lands was
taken from counties and vested
in the State Registrar of Public
Lands but there was little in-
come from the lands.

1849-First state school system au-
thorized, with State Registrar
of Lands designated as State
Superintendent and county
judges designated superinten-
dents.

1851-Florida, following up Congress'
action, authorized seminaries
east and west of Suwannee
Rivei.
For first time, counties received
authority to levy taxes for
school operations but few did.
1853-East Florida Seminary opened
in Ocala.
County commissions assumed
added duty of acting as school
boards.

1857-West Florida Seminary opened
in Tallahassee.

1866-East Florida Seminary moved
to Gainesville.


1868-Constitution established a state
school system, with State
Superintendent of Public In-
struction designated a separate
officer.

1884-Florida Agricultural College
opened in Lake City.

1885-New Constitution adopted,
creating a State Board of Edu-
cation, providing for a uniform
system of free public schools,
and authorizing a tax of three
to five mills on all property in
each county to finance schools.

1887-State Normal School for Col-
ored Students, opened in Talla-
hassee.

1904-Maximum county property tax
allowed by Constitution was
raised to seven mills.

1905-Buckman Act, passed by Legis-
lature, created Board of Control
for operation of universities,
making it responsible to State
Board of Education. Act also
abolished state-supported semi-
naries, colleges and institutions
for white students, replacing
them with the Florida Female
College and the University of
the State of Florida.

1906-University of the State of Flor-
ida moved to Gainesville from
temporary quarters in the for-
mer Florida Agricultural Col-
lege in Lake City.

1909-University of the State of Flor-
ida changed to University of
Florida.
Florida Female College became







Florida State College for
Women.
Colored Normal School became
Florida Agricultural and Me-
chanical College for Negroes.

1917-Legislation enacted to permit
state to take full advantage of
Federal Smith-Hughes Act for
promotion of vocational educa-
tion.

1918-Maximum county millage for
schools permitted by Constitu-
tion raised to ten mills.

1919-Legislature enacted first state
compulsory attendance law,
applying to all children between
ages of 8 and 14.
Uniform curriculum law adopt-
ed by Legislature, establishing
minimum requirements, replac-
ing laws of 1903 and 1905
which had been aimed at im-
proving common school curri-
cula.

1920's-Vocational education expand-
ed through full use of Federal
Smith-Hughes Act funds first
provided in 1917.
Evening trade and extension
classes for out-of-school youths
and adults made available for
first time.

1927-Appropriation for vocational
rehabilitation program ap-
proved by the Legislature.
Educational Survey Commis-
sion created by Legislature.

1929-Educational Survey Commis-
sion completed study, recom-
mending Board of Control be


increased from five to nine
members, with full responsi-
bility for higher education
being placed with the Board.

1931-Race track betting legalized and
taxed by Legislature, with
counties sharing equally in pro-
ceeds, with some counties allo-
cating some of receipts for sup-
port of public schools.

1933-Palm Beach Junior College, first
public two-year institution, en-
rolled first students.

1937-Codification, reorganization
and improvement of laws relat-
ing to education mandated by
Legislature.

1939-"Florida School Code" enacted
into law by Legislature.
Teacher retirement system es-
tablished by Legislature.

1941-Constitutional amendment
adopted, eliminating all state















~A




<1


~* C~t


property taxes, including the
one-mill tax allocated for the
state teachers' salary fund and
three-fourths of a mill levied for
state textbook fund.

1945-Florida Citizens Committee on
Education appointed by Gov-
ernor and resolution endorsing
study approved by Legislature.

1946-Tallahassee branch of Univer-
sity of Florida authorized by
Board of Control at Florida
State College for Women.
National School Lunch Act ap-
proved by Congress.

1947-Comprehensive report by Flor-
ida Citizens Committee on Edu-
cation issued, with Legislature
enacting significant Minimum
Foundation Program, establish-
ing MFP Fund, more than
doubling amount of state finan-
cial aid for schools, and estab-
lishing every county as a school
district.


Florida State College for
Women renamed Florida State
University and made coeduca-
tional.
University of Florida made co-
educational.
-St. Petersburg Junior College, a
private institution since 1927,
joined state system.
Chipola Junior College, a public
institution, enrolled first stu-
dents.

1948-Pensacola Junior College, a pub-
lic institution, enrolled first stu-
dents.

1949-Medical school authorized by
Legislature at University of
Florida.

1951-Board of Control expanded
from five to seven members by
Legislature.

1952-Constitution amended to allow
pledging of motor vehicle taxes
for school construction.







1953-Status of Florida A. & M. Col-
lege for Negroes changed to
Florida A. & M. University by
Legislature.

1954-Council for Study of Higher
Education in Florida (A.J.
Brumbaugh report) created by
Board of Control.

1955-Community College Council
authorized by Legislature to
make study and recommenda-
tions concerning public junior
colleges.
Three new state universities-in
Escambia, Hillsborough and
Palm Beach counties-
authorized by Legislature.

1957-State embarked on full-scale,
statewide, planned community
college program, designed to
bring post-high school educa-
tional opportunities to all Flor-
ida's youth and adults. State
funds provided for four existing
junior colleges and six new jun-
ior college areas established by
Legislature, with colleges to
operate under authority of local
school boards.
Division of Community Junior
Colleges established in State De-
partment of Education.
Gulf Coast Junior College, first
of new state-funded junior col-
leges, enrolled first students.
Act adopted by Legislature,
providing funds for school con-
struction to be allocated to
counties on the basis of $200
per pupil increase in average
daily attendance for the last
completed school year over the
next previous school year;


counties required to provide
matching funds.
County School Sales Tax Trust
Fund established by Legisla-
ture, providing $18,000,000
annually for distribution to
counties.
State Educational Television
Commission created by Legisla-
ture to design, construct and
operate a television microwave
network.
First appointive school superin-
tendent in state named in Pinel-
las County.

1958-Central Florida, Daytona
Beach, Manatee, North Florida
and St. Johns River junior col-
leges enrolled first students.

1960-University of South Florida,
authorized in 1955, opened at
Tampa.

Brevard, Broward, Indian River
and Miami-Dade junior colleges
enrolled first students.

1961-Legislature enacted a voluntary
competence award program
which provided $400 annual
salary increase for each teacher
electing to participate who was
evaluated in the top 30 percent
of all teachers in a county and
who had achieved a score of
600 or more on Common
Examination of National Teach-
er Examination or other recog-
nized comprehensive examina-
tion. Score of 500 or more on
NTE Common Examination re-
quired for a teacher to be issued
regular teaching certificate or to
achieve continuing contract.







Legislature authorized junior
colleges in four new areas.
State Junior College Advisory
Board created by Legislature, to
make recommendations on jun-
ior college policy to State
Board of Education.
Governor's Committee on
Quality Education created by
Legislature to evaluate curricu-
lum in Florida schools and to
make recommendations for im-
provement.

1962-Edison, Lake City, and Lake-
Sumter junior colleges enrolled
first students.

1963-Teacher competence award, en-
acted in 1961, repealed by Leg-
islature.
Professional Practices Commis-
sion established by Legislature
with a broad representative
membership, representing all
work levels and district areas of
educational responsibility, to be
appointed by State Board of
Education. Commission was
made legal agency through
which recommendations for
standards of professional con-
duct of teachers, ethics, en-
trance into and continuance in
teaching service would be chan-
neled through State Superinten-
dent of Public Instruction to
State Board of Education.
Legislature authorized junior
colleges to operate on ex-
tended, year-round basis.
Legislature established a new
type of educational institution
known as Area Vocational
Technical Center to provide
post-secondary education


broadly based in vocational and
technical offerings and includ-
ing adult general education.
Six-mill required local financial
effort was eliminated by Legis-
lature and the counties' share,
collectively, of total MFP cost
was set at 25 percent of the
total state and county cost of
the MFP for previous year.
Legislature authorized new in-
stitution of higher learning for
Central Florida.
Seven-member Board of Con-
trol changed to a nine-member
Board of Regents by Legisla-
ture.
Constitution amended to au-
thorize sale of state bonds-to
be retired from utilities gross
receipts tax-to finance con-
struction at elementary and sec-
ondary schools, universities,
community colleges and voca-
tional-technical education cen-
ters.

1964-Florida Keys, Okaloosa-Walton
and Polk junior colleges en-
rolled first students.
Florida Atlantic University,
authorized in 1955, opened in
Boca Raton.

1965-A chancellorship for State Uni-
versity System authorized by
Legislature.
Legislature authorized new
state degree-granting institu-
tions for Dade and Duval coun-
ties.
Legislature approved School of
Veterinary Medicine and Col-
lege of Dentistry at University
of Florida and Medical Center







at University of South Florida.

1966-Florida Junior College at Jack-
sonville, Santa Fe, Seminole,
South Florida and Tallahassee
junior colleges enrolled first stu-
dents.

1967-University of West Florida, au-
thorized in 1955, opened at
Pensacola.
Valencia Junior College en-
rolled first students.
Select Council on Post-High
School Education created by
Legislature to develop plans and
goals for meeting needs of edu-
cation beyond high school.
Governor established Commis-
sion for Quality Education in
Florida as a task force charged
with developing a master plan
for future educational program
of the state.
1968-First special session of Legisla-
ture completely devoted to edu-
cation called by Governor, with
gains including: appropriation
for 1968-69 school year in-
creased by $258,769,994, in-
cluding $103,629,251 non-
categorical aid to counties
under new Education Improve-
ment Expense fund and addi-
tional $58,154,764 for K-12
teacher salary increases; 10-mill
ceiling set on local property
taxes for public school support;
3-mills set as local required ef-
fort to participate in MFP; kin-
dergartens and exceptional
child education programs man-
dated for all counties by 1973;
and junior colleges placed under
district Boards of Trustees,
rather than school boards.


Dissatisfied by action of special
session, Florida Education
Association called nation's first
statewide teacher walkout.
Hillsborough Junior College en-
rolled first students.
Florida Technological Univer-
sity, authorized in 1963,
opened at Orlando.
New Florida Constitution rati-
fied by voters, expanding state's
commitment for "a uniform
system of free public schools"
and "other public education
programs that the needs of the
people may require;" changing
title of Chief State School Offi-
cer from Superintendent of
Public Instruction to Commis-
sioner of Education; expanding
State Board of Education to
seven, to include all members of
the State Cabinet and the Gov-
ernor; abolishing school trustees
and vesting district school au-
thority in the county school
board; permitting contiguous
school districts to combine into
larger administrative units; au-
thorizing school boards to levy
up to 10 mills and above 10
mills if authorized by a vote of
the electors; and permitting
every county, by referendum,
to authorize the district school
board to appoint the district
school superintendent.
1969-Structure of state government
reorganized, with many agen-
cies being consolidated. Reor-
ganization Act brought all edu-
cation, from kindergarten
through graduate school, under
the broad umbrella of the State
Board of Education and Com-
missioner of Education. Depart-







ment of Education was reorgan-
ized into four divisions: Ele-
mentary and Secondary Educa-
tion, Vocational Education and
Community Colleges, each
headed by a director; Division
of Universities, headed by
Board of Regents.
Legislature created educational
research and development pro-
gram designed to develop meth-
ods of increasing learning with-
out increasing costs, using pilot
schools to test alternative prac-
tices.
Miss Barbara Goleman of Miami
Jackson High School selected as
National Teacher of the Year
by Council of Chief State
School Officers and Look Maga-
zine, the first Floridian to be so
honored.

1970-Legislature set four-mills as
local required effort for partici-
pation in MFP.

Vocational counseling for stu-
dents mandated by Legislature
as part of an over-all program
placing greater emphasis on vo-
cational education, including a
Vocational Improvement Fund
to provide greater financial
assistance for vocational educa-
tion.


Legislature approved commun-
ity school program, based on
philosophy that schools should
be closely related to the needs
of the community, should pro-
vide for the needs of all people,
and should be open day and
night and including summer.
Legislature authorized develop-
ment of an evaluation proce-
dure for an objective assessment
of public education programs.
Legislature called for greater
emphasis on drug abuse educa-
tion and environmental educa-
tion.
Pilot study of all-year schools
funded by Legislature.

1971-Higher education scholarship
program revamped and expand-
ed by Legislature to provide for
increased scholarships on basis
of financial need and eliminat-
ing those based upon profes-
sional goals.
Local required effort for parti-
cipation in MFP raised to 4
mills by Legislature.
Distribution of Racing Commis-
sion revenue to counties frozen
by Legislature at 1970-71 lev-
els, with excess in future years
to be paid into General Reve-
nue fund.















DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
TALLAHASSEE FLORIDA
FLOYD T. CHRISTIAN, COMMISSIONER


BULK RATE
U. S. POSTAGE
PAID
Tallahassee, Fla.
Permit No. 77
r- 4- I--------




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs