Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Chapter 1: Point of view
 Chapter 2: Roles of art person...
 Chapter 3: Promoting and planning...
 Chapter 4: Scopes and sequence...
 Chapter 5: Facilities, materials,...
 Chapter 6: Evaluation
 Chapter 7: Membership in professional...
 Appendix 1: Art books for junior...
 Appendix 2: Bibliography for...

Group Title: Guide, art for Florida secondary education
Title: A guide
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000231/00001
 Material Information
Title: A guide art for Florida secondary schools
Series Title: Its Bulletin
Alternate Title: Art for Florida secondary schools
Physical Description: ix, 192 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1965 [i.e. 1964]
Subject: Art -- Study and teaching -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 186-192.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000231
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Holding Location: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01730201

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
    Chapter 1: Point of view
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Chapter 2: Roles of art personnel
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Chapter 3: Promoting and planning the art curriculum
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Chapter 4: Scopes and sequences
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Forming and constructing
            Page 38
            Objectives to be emphasized
                Page 38
                Page 39
                Page 40
                Page 41
                Page 42
                Page 43
            Handweaving and stitchery
                Page 44
                Page 45
                Page 46
                Page 47
                Page 48
                Page 49
                Page 50
                Page 51
            Industrial design
                Page 52
                Page 53
                Page 54
                Page 55
                Page 56
                Page 57
                Page 58
                Page 59
                Page 60
                Page 61
                Page 62
                Page 63
                Page 64
                Page 65
                Page 66
                Page 67
                Page 68
                Page 69
                Page 70
                Page 71
                Page 72
                Page 73
                Page 74
                Page 75
                Page 76
                Page 77
                Page 78
                Page 79
                Page 80
                Page 81
            Theater arts
                Page 82
                Page 83
                Page 84
                Page 85
                Page 86
                Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
        Displaying and communicating ideas
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
        Observation and appreciation
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
        Graphic arts or printing
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
    Chapter 5: Facilities, materials, and equipment
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
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        Page 139
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        Page 144
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        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    Chapter 6: Evaluation
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
    Chapter 7: Membership in professional organizations
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    Appendix 1: Art books for junior and senior high school libraries
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
    Appendix 2: Bibliography for teachers
        Page 191
        Page 192
Full Text

A Guide
Florida Secondary Schools

State Department of Education
Thomas D. Bailey, Superintendent
Tallahassee, Florida


T WO CURRICULAR needs have long been evident to Flor-
ida art teachers. In schools where art is already recog-
nized and taught as a valuable aspect of education in present-
day society, a plan for strengthening and enlarging the
offerings and improving instruction is necessary. In the con-
siderable number of schools where no formal art instruction
exists, the need to institute art programs taught by experi-
enced and competent teachers is even more pressing.
The Florida Art Education Association for more than a
decade now has been the voice through which these needs
have been identified and made known. Speaking through this
organization, the combined voices of art educators in the
State have been heard and heeded. It was this organization
which originally proposed the development of a guide to teach-
ing art in Florida secondary schools and which solicited the
assistance of the State Department of Education with the
project. The Department of Education was pleased to join
in the effort and to lend its support and encouragement.
Much progress in the teaching of art in Florida has already
been made. The planned program of art instruction which is
reflected in the state accreditation standards for Florida
schools represents a giant step forward in shaping art in-
struction. The recent addition of an art consultant, the first
in the history of Florida education, to the staff of the Depart-
ment of Education is an outgrowth of art teachers' interest
in and demonstrated need for assistance and direction at the
state level. The growing number of art programs being in-
stituted in Florida schools and taught by trained art teachers
can be attributed in a large measure to the enthusiasm art
teachers have always demonstrated for their specialty and
their growing influence on those who are responsible for
shaping the curriculum. And perhaps most importantly, this
guide, developed by individuals who are active in the teaching
of art, is expected to provide the greatest single impetus the
program has received.

Since the first announcement was made that a secondary-
art guide was being developed for use in Florida schools, the
Department of Education has received inquiries almost daily
about the progress of the work and has accumulated a large
number of requests for copies of the guide. This pioneering
effort in providing a useful instructional aid to art teachers,
which has already engendered national as well as state-wide
interest, is destined to have an important and far-reaching
effect on art instruction.
This guide serves the dual purpose of providing assistance
for the art teacher and encouraging administrators to add art
instruction to the curriculum in the school where none exists.
It is a guide for administrators and supervisors as well as
teachers. It gives a comprehensive picture of the scope of art
and what public schools can realistically be expected to accom-
plish in this important curriculum area.
To develop a curriculum guide requires time, patience, and
ingenuity. It also requires resources and facilities. Even with
these ingredients in full supply, the development of a good
guide is no mean feat. When a group working under serious
limitations in a majority of these areas still comes up with a
superior job, as in this instance, the result is a major pro-
fessional accomplishment. Florida can well be proud of the
teachers who had the imagination, foresight, and courage to
undertake and complete this ambitious project.
Art teachers can look forward to regular use of this guide
in their work. Much improvement in art instruction has al-
ready come about as teachers, administrators, and supervisors,
working together to write, revise, and evaluate the guide have
exchanged information, gained new insights, and experienced
professional growth. It is generally agreed that art teachers,
as they go about developing their own instructional programs
which are suited to the needs of their students, will find in-
creasingly useful the teaching-learning suggestions offered

State Superintendent of Public Instruction

IT WOULD BE impossible to single out for acknowledgment
and appreciation the more than one hundred individuals,
mostly members of the Florida Art Education Association,
who have generously contributed their time and professional
interest to the preparation of this first Florida secondary-art
curriculum guide. A deep debt of gratitude is due all the art
educators who worked under the guidance of the State Depart-
ment of Education, as members of various groups in different
parts of the State to plan, develop, evaluate, and revise the
various sections of the guide. Each chapter with its different
parts was an outgrowth of the combined efforts of these
To the members of the state-wide curriculum guide com-
mittee, who with unflagging energy and selfless application
have borne for many months a heavy share of the responsi-
bility for developing and publishing this guide, must go special
recognition and appreciation. The Committee comprised Mr.
Charles C. Benbow, Instructor of Humanities, University of
Florida; Mr. Anthony R. Borrowes, Teacher of Art, Palmetto
High School, Palmetto; Mrs. Lila S. Brouillette, Art Super-
visor, Gulf County Schools; Mrs. Doris Cameron, Teacher of
Art, Wilson Junior High School, Tampa; Mr. Richard Jones,
Principal, Boca Ciega High School, St. Petersburg; Mrs. Sara
T. Maddox, Teacher of Art, Sunset Elementary School, Miami;
Mrs. Dorothy C. Rowlett, Supervisor of Art, Duval County
Schools; and Dr. Julia B. Schwartz, Professor of Art Educa-
tion and Constructive Design, Florida State University.
Grateful acknowledgment is also extended to five individ-
uals selected by the Committee to review the material in the
guide from different points of view for soundness, accuracy,
and freshness. Members of this special committee were Miss
Marian V. Davis, Instructor, P. K. Yonge Laboratory School,
University of Florida; Mr. Al Hurwitz, Supervisor of Art,


Dade County Schools; Mr. Richard Jones, Principal, Boca
Ciega High School, St. Petersburg; Dr. Marylou Kuhn, As-
sociate Professor of Art Education and Constructive Design,
Florida State University; and Mr. Harold E. Sutton, Associate
Professor of Art Education and Constructive Design, Florida
State University.
This project has been a joint effort of the Florida Art
Education Association and the State Department of Education.
The cooperative efforts of these two agencies stand as a monu-
ment to what can be accomplished by two state organizations
working cooperatively to improve and support instruction in
the public schools of Florida. The finished guide is the result
of numerous contributions by many people in both of these
State Department of Education personnel to whom special
recognition should go for professional support and leadership
include Dr. Fred W. Turner, Director of the Division of
Instructional Services; his predecessor, Dr. Sam H. Moorer;
and Mr. John P. McIntyre, former Curriculum Specialist in
the Department of Education. Special recognition is also
due Dr. Joseph W. Crenshaw, Assistant Director, General
Education and Curriculum, Division of Instructional Services,
who reviewed the material, made helpful editorial contribu-
tions, and assumed major responsibility for publication of the
Other members of the State Department of Education who
assisted with lay-out, printing, and distribution are Mr. J. K.
Chapman and Mr. Howard Jay Friedman.
The format, including lay-out and style of type, follows a
pattern set by the State Department of Education for all
state curriculum guides. Miss L. Rose Arnold designed the



IN 1956 THE EXECUTIVE Committee of the Art Section
of the Florida Education Association, under the chairman-
ship of Dale Summers, established a research interest group.
This group surveyed the status of art in the Florida senior
high schools by studying records of the Florida State Depart-
ment of Education and the results of a questionnaire sent to
all senior high school art teachers. Dr. Sam Moorer, then
Director of Instructional Field Services for the Florida State
Department of Education, gave his active support to the work
of this group. The needs uncovered by this survey were pre-
sented at the Fourth Annual Work Conference of the Florida
Art Education Association. A research steering committee,
chaired by the late Carolyn Grumbly, continued the project
following the work conference. From the efforts of this
committee and the continued interest of Dr. Moorer developed
the recognition of a need for an art guide for the secondary
schools of Florida. Thus the Secondary Art Curriculum Guide
Committee was formed by the State Department of Education
at the request (and largely from the membership) of the
Florida Art Education Association.
During the following five years, members of the Florida
Art Education Association from every part of Florida con-
tributed original ideas, wrote drafts, rewrote material, and
critically and conscientiously reviewed the work. The Second-
ary Art Curriculum Guide Committee met each year semi-
annually to consider the materials as they developed and to
make further plans.
As the state-wide committee worked with over one hun-
dred persons-teachers, supervisors, principals, and univer-
sity personnel-considering the objectives, methods and pro-
cedures, evaluative processes, needs, interests, concerns, and
problems of the young people with whom they were working,
all personnel involved became more conscious of their own


importance and their personal relationship to the total edu-
cational process. They also broadened their understandings
and insights into art as education in Florida secondary schools.
The net result was professional growth and development for
all concerned.
The guide as presented is designed to continue to stimulate
the professional growth not only of those directly concerned
with its development but also of many others who have not
yet had a part in it. The guide was written not only for the
professional art educator-in this case, the art teacher, art
consultant, or art supervisor-but also for the principals,
general supervisors, classroom and subject-matter teachers,
school board personnel, parents, and other members of the
community interested in the education of adolescents.
As a publication, the guide is hopefully flexible enough so
it can be used to promote the growth of faculties in all second-
ary schools, regardless of the stage of development of their
art program. It is meant to be helpful not only to the beginner
but also to the experienced art teacher.
Insofar as possible, material included in the guide was
derived from authentic research studies. The material em-
phasizes art education for all youth in our society. It reflects
a view of art which is consistent with sound contemporary
thinking. The material points up art education in relation to
problems and resources of the various communities in Florida,
taking into consideration the background and experience of
the art teachers, school supervisors, administrators, and other
school personnel.
The Secondary Art Curriculum Guide Committee in its
initial approach to the development of a guide asked various
persons interested in art education two questions:
1. What are some ways in which a secondary art curricu-
lum guide may be profitably used ?
2. What significant needs of secondary art teachers should
be met by the guide?
Many other criteria guided the Committee as it developed
the guide. These are included here to indicate to the user
the guiding principles which influenced the committee:
1. The guide suggests numerous possibilities from which


appropriate choices may be made in the light of special
needs in a teaching or school situation.
2. The guide is a general indication of direction, not a
pattern or prescription to be followed blindly.
3. The guide is flexible enough that individual teacher and
departmental needs may be met; for example, the se-
quence of art activities for any one class is left to the
discretion of the individual teacher.
4. The guide includes suggestions of sources of ideas to
which the teacher or other users of the guide may turn
for desired or needed supplementary information.
5. The guide is intended to motivate the person using it to
try new and increasingly appropriate teaching proce-
6. The guide is meant to stimulate teachers and school
leaders in fostering sound art and education concepts
and practices.
7. The guide furnishes broad criteria by which an existing
art program can be evaluated.
8. The guide extends and enriches the background of in-
formation and understandings of all using it.
9. The guide suggests instructional materials and criteria
for use in selecting materials.
In summary, the guide was developed to help teachers and
other art personnel find answers to such significant questions
1. Why art for adolescents ?
2. What are the objectives of art education in Florida?
3. How is learning measured in an art class?
4. What is included in a secondary-school art course?
5. What art courses should be offered in a Florida second-
ary school?
6. What are the duties of an art teacher and art supervisor
in the secondary school program?
7. How can the principal help the art program?
8. What materials and books should an art teacher use?


Table of Contents

CHAPTER I Point of View 1
CHAPTER II Roles of Art Personnel 18
CHAPTER III Promoting and Planning the
Art Curriculum 26
CHAPTER IV Scopes and Sequences 35
1. Forming and Constructing 38
a. Architecture 38
b. Handweaving and Stitchery 44
c. Industrial Design 52
d. Jewelry .58
e. Mosaics 64
f. Pottery 68
g. Sculpture 76
h. Theater Arts 82
2. Drawing 88
3. Painting 94
4. Displaying and Communicating Ideas 106
5. Observation and Appreciation 114
6. Graphic Arts or Printing 120
CHAPTER V Facilities, Materials, and Equipment. 126
CHAPTER VI Evaluation 165
CHAPTER VII Membership in Professional
Organizations 180
APPENDIX 1 Art Books for Junior and Senior
High School Libraries 186
APPENDIX 2 Bibliography for Teachers 191



Point of View

THE CENTRAL CONCERN of this guide is art for the
secondary-school student. From this concern arises a num-
ber of questions. What is the significance of art in human
development? What is known about adolescence? What im-
plications for art in education are there with respect to the
human growth and development process? In this chapter a
general discussion of these questions will be followed by a
section devoted to a more detailed presentation of the relation-
ship of art to the teenager. The nature and value of art edu-
cation will be treated from two related viewpoints: first, that
of personal and direct involvement in studio experiences and,
second, that of cultural participation, sometimes referred to
as art appreciation, humanities, or art history. Attention is
called in this chapter to some of the diverse characteristics of
young people living in Florida and their varied art needs. The
chapter concludes with a listing of over-all objectives as guide
lines for the principal and the art teacher in developing a
quality secondary-school art program.

What Is the Significance of Art in Human Development?
Being a non-verbal language of intuition and feeling as
well as a language of rational thought, art provides the po-
tential for subjective as well as objective experiences in visual
terms. Avenues to self-understanding are opened. Through
the understanding and knowledge which results from partici-
pation in art experiences of both a manipulative and appre-
ciative nature, an awareness and some insight into the values
held by contemporary society are facilitated. Art provides
opportunities for making qualitative judgments with respect
to the following dimensions: (1) symbolization of personal
images and ideas, (2) nature of material processes, and (3)
dynamic forces in organizing visual elements. Such judgments
involve selecting, ordering, fusing, and forming varied aspects


of these dimensions toward higher levels of human achieve-
ment. Sensitivities and creative abilities become more mature
and aesthetic goals are heightened. In addition, and very im-
portantly, the horizons of values can be broadened and clari-
fied. All of the above, combined with the fact that these de-
velopments are necessarily brought about through the indi-
vidual and personal effort of the adolescent, form the unique
and specific significance of art in secondary education.

What Is Known About Adolescence and What Are Its
Implications for Art in Education?
Extensive research in the areas of psychology, anthro-
pology, sociology, and physiology reveals that essentially no
new characteristics develop during adolescence. Rather the
youngster extends and deepens his environmental associations;
he becomes increasingly and conscientiously a part of a wider
area of influence. This results from growth of and within
his body. Development of muscles, bones, and endocrine glands
leads to obvious and often startling shifts in patterns of be-
havior. As the child enters early adolescence, he enlarges the
scope of his affection to include his special friends at school,
his teachers, other adults, and eventually members of the
opposite sex.
Growth has been continuous since conception. During
adolescence it accelerates, often at uneven rates. When such
aspects as physical growth, mental development, emotional
control, and social interests are considered, the ranges of
differences among students in the junior and senior high
school are enormous. Adolescence then is a transitional period
between a more-or-less complete dependence in a simplified en-
vironment to the more adult status of independence in a highly
complex environment. The teenager is an active, curious in-
dividual who is seeking ways in which to express his emerging
personality. His growth and development may be grouped
into five major categories: physical, intellectual, emotional,
social, and aesthetic.
Physical Growth. The physical changes which occur dur-
ing adolescence dramatically mark the change from the child's
body to that of a young adult. Girls begin their period of
rapid development about the time they enter the seventh
grade, or approximately during their twelfth year; boys, how-


ever, usually wait until the ninth grade or approximately
their fourteenth year. The consequences of these physical
changes are well known-poor coordination, listlessness, need
for sleep, restlessness-all apparent in varying degrees. The
boy seemingly cannot appear neat. The girl often becomes
overweight or grows more rapidly than her male classmates.
For these youth, there may be bewilderment, especially when
there are marked deviations from the concept of the ideal
American youth.
The art teacher can be especially helpful to the adolescent
in developing qualities of individuality which contribute to
the formation of a unique self-concept. Individual uniqueness
-the key to art expression-can be a comfort to one who
feels a lack of self-confidence because of physical differences.
The activities, tempo, and direction of energies toward
personal concerns in the art program serve as an appropriate
counterbalance in the school program, because the opportunity
to move is important in this period of uneven muscular de-
velopment and growth rates. Also, because of this uneveness,
student enthusiasm often tends to demand more ambitious
work than the adolescent is capable of completing. Art pro-
jects can capitalize on these limited capabilities. The growing
"artist's" bold brush stroke may reveal a vigorous immature
talent or only the best coordination he can muster. Later, as
the growth rate subsides, the art program can include activi-
ties more demanding in detail and precision.
Gesell's research has indicated that "the eyes because of
the maturing brain cortex are more sensitive to color, design,
and the dynamic balance of spatial relationships and con-
figurations." than formerly.1 This development of sharpened
vision relates positively to the art program as perceptual edu-
cation motivates visual curiosity and exploration, thus en-
larging and enriching this sensitivity. Art experiences should
be provided to aid full development of this physical and in-
tellectual capacity.
In early senior high school, girls generally achieve their
complete growth; however, boys do not achieve this growth
until near the end of the high school period. Then physical
changes level off and are less obvious; coordination is better,

]Gesell, Arnold, Frances L. Ilg, and Louise B. Ames. Youth: The Years From Ten
to Sixteen. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1956, p. 276.


adult configuration is approached. The need for rest is near-
ing that of an adult. Girls tire more easily than boys. Op-
portunity for quiet activity might be provided to balance the
more vigorous kind, e.g., library research could be substituted
for wood carving. The broad and personally oriented stand-
ards of art enable students to achieve a degree of perfection
within the imposed developmental restraints. Works of a
higher quality, more complex problems, and longer sustained
interest may be expected of the senior-high art student.
Intellectual Characteristics. In the high-school years physi-
cal changes are accompanied by mental growth which is re-
flected in a progressively greater ability to handle intellectual
tasks, to generalize, to conceptualize, to think abstractly. This
change is based more on enthusiasm than readiness, as physi-
cal and emotional growth remain uneven. Knowing that
enthusiasm may waver before completion, the teacher may
assign short-term but intellectually challenging art projects.
Caught by the allure of a challenging task, students will labor
arduously to find the proper medium to express their ideas.
New subjects and fresh insights excite the adolescent curios-
ity. Research is appealing and should form a substantial part
of the art program. Intellectual growth can be broadened and
deepened by a rich and expanding series of curricular experi-
The adolescent's mental characteristics parallel in many
respects the attributes of creativity revealed by research; in
art he has an opportunity to exercise initiative, curiosity, in-
ventiveness, self-confidence, fluency, redefinition, and flexi-
bility. Creative art experience, according to John Dewey,2 is
a heightened and dramatically visual form of intelligence.
Hausman states that "the work of art begins with intuitions
and feelings of the artist about some aspect of the world.
These must then be embodied (expressed) in a symbolic
structure, the work of art."3 According to Ecker, "The artist
(in this case, the adolescent) arranges qualitative means
such as lines, colors, planes, and textures, to achieve his
qualitative end ."4 The development of a personal art

2Dewey, John. Art As Experience. New York: G. P. Putnam Sons, 1959.
3Hausman, Jerome J. "Some Reflections on the Nature of Art," Western Arts
Association Bulletin. January 1961, p. 14.
4Ecker, David, W. "The Uniqueness of Art Learning," Western Arts Association
Bulletin. January 1961, p. 26.


symbol through selecting, rejecting, and fusing these elements
compels the adolescent to make decisions from a wide variety
of possibilities. Thus, new perceptual horizons gained through
art experiences contribute greatly to intellectual development.
As the adolescent enters senior high, the molecular organi-
zation of the brain matures. Intellectual and artistic interests
assume new significance. Nurture of these interests, through
high quality art education programs, is the responsibility of
the school and society, for it is not worthy of our educational
goals to deprecate any legitimate and fruitful source of intel-
lectual achievement.
Emotional Characteristics. Emotionally, the years of ado-
lescence are turbulent. The typical behavior of teenagers
represents the playing out of emotions in a widening en-
vironmental context. The adolescent approaches his world
from more directions than the child. Art experiences can
provide unique new channels for grasping his world.
An acute awareness of others keeps the emotional ado-
lescent on a semblance of an even keel. Control increases as
introspectiveness and sensitivity develop. Adolescents are
moody; often they leave the room for no apparent reason, but
the shades of emotionalism are not pulled down for long.
Ebullience subsides somewhat in the face of critical self-analy-
sis, including the struggle for understanding personality as it
is manifested in the individual and his associates.
Emotional maturing is facilitated in the art program most
noticeably by the self-discipline imposed by the creative ex-
perience. A mood may be worked off by a project; violent
emotions may be channelled by kneading clay. The artistic
experience provides an expression for the feelings adolescents
wish to understand in themselves, feelings they wish others
to recognize. Art experiences stimulate learning about oneself.
They build a pride of individuality which can aid in setting
the adolescent off from complete "herd" domination. Be-
coming aware of the common aspects of attitudes and beliefs
of those around him through their art works enables the stu-
dent to recognize shared values better.
Empathy develops, and as the adolescent moves into senior
high school the emotional characteristics of the adult person-
ality are generally operative. Emotions are not hidden but


are brought out into the open in visual art for easier examin-
ation and evaluation. In summary, through an analysis of
the works of others and an observation of his own evolving
art forms, the maturing adolescent becomes conscious of the
feelings of others and wants them to understand his.
Social Characteristics. Perhaps the adolescent is best
known by his social orientation. He is group- and peer-con-
scious, at times to the apparent exclusion of all other influence.
The individual seems submerged in an intricate maze of mores,
codes, and ethics, demanding but constantly changing, which
the adult possibly overlooks. The adolescent must conform,
but to patterns which are altered with bewildering frequency.
Since we know this group-consciousness to be normal, we can
at least be alert to help youngsters seek those groups which
favor socially acceptable behavior. In this regard, visual
images and symbols used by adolescents in art work and their
application to art tasks can be a means to relations-making
between the teacher, fellow students, and the youthful artist.
Contained within the adolescent's group-oriented behavior,
however, are marks of individualism. When the student enters
senior high school, loyalties to his peer-group may remain
strong, but art will have helped him to discover and respect
himself and others as individuals.
The young adolescent seeks friendship among those
younger and older than himself. He may form close attach-
ments with admired adults and seek to emulate their qualities.
Herein lies the significance of the example the art teacher
presents personally and by his methods of work.
Accompanying the parallel development of group- and
self-consciousness, the social development of the adolescent
includes relationships with the opposite sex. Perhaps this is
the area of gravest concern to the adult; he sees the adolescent
as pre-occupied with sex interests. In the main, the adolescent
is discovering an enlarged role for the boy or girl whom
formerly he had taken for granted. Group projects in art
(puppet theaters, murals) can provide wholesome opportuni-
ties for clarifying such roles. Girls experience a keen interest
in boys a full year or more before boys are aware of them in
a feminine role. Teachers must be aware of special problems
arising from this difference.


The older teenager by the time he enters high school is
at ease with his peers, with members of the opposite sex, and
with adults. The responsibility for helping to sensitize the
adolescent to his social environment should be assumed by the
junior-high art teacher.

It is in the senior high school, particularly art classes, that
the adolescent finds socially significant opportunities to dis-
play emerging maturity. He possesses ability to undertake
and carry through to completion art projects of increasing
complexity and importance as, for example, a permanent
mural for the school building, or an analysis and visual pre-
sentation of architectural influences in his community. The
laws of the land and custom make it difficult for youth to
enter the world of the adult at the very time when they most
desperately need to feel important and to be a part of the
world in a useful sense. Such art projects as were mentioned
above can help him to achieve this status.

In the previous four sections no mention has been made of
exceptionalities with which the school must often deal. The
gifted and retarded alike follow the typical patterns of growth
described above, but at markedly differing rates. The second-
ary school often enrolls students who are chronologically out-
of-step with their grade placement. Procedures for dealing
with the social development of these youths must be even
more carefully devised. There is a rich body of research con-
cerning adolescent growth and development from which to
draw substantiation for sound procedures and practices.
Through continuing study we can create school art environ-
ments which place all students in situations promoting their
steady progress into adult citizenship responsibilities.

Aesthetic Characteristics. Perceptually, the aesthetic atti-
tude involves looking at things in terms of qualities and ar-
rangements. It involves continuing development of abilities
in the individual to discriminate and differentiate. Aesthetic
response also contains an affective element which may vary
in intensity from mild feeling to strong excitement. This af-
fective element aroused by art or some aspect of nature is
accompanied by degrees of liking and disliking with prefer-
ences coming into play, estimations being made, and evalua-


tions taking place. Munro5 points out that "the aesthetic re-
sponse is set off by visual (and other) perception, which
includes some recognition, of meanings, some comparison with
past experience to interpret causal, spatiotemperal, and quali-
tative data presented." He explains that the aesthetic attitude
involves not only perceptual and emotional but intellectual
response as well.
That art experiences contribute to aesthetic development
is apparent and the receptivity of the "becoming adult" en-
ables rapid growth in this direction. The aspects of physical,
intellectual, emotional, and social growth as discussed previ-
ously overlap to enhance aesthetic maturing. With aesthetic
maturing comes a change in both the awareness of and the
ability to react to relationships of all of the elements of art-
color, space, texture, line, volume, as well as ideas and ma-
terials. These changes may be characterized in the following

1. From obvious to subtle (in color, for example, from raw
red to delicately blued red)
2. From simple to complex (in composition, for example,
from triangular to interlocking; in balance, from sym-
metrical to asymmetrical)
3. From surface and shallow to deep and sincere (for ex-
ample, from symbols which are stereotyped and bor-
rowed to those which are personal and inventive)
4. From meager and impoverished symbols to those that
are rich in meanings (in drawing, for example, from a
stick figure to an expressive contour figure)
5. From a reaction based on primitive instinct to intel-
lectual analysis to a spontaneous reaction totally and
richly experienced.

Aesthetic maturing is accompanied by a rejection of previous-
ly accepted, isolated, and unsophisticated relationships in our
man-made environment. The natural world, too, is recognized
in all of its subtlety and diversity.

5Munro, Thomas. Art Education: Its Philosophy and Psychology. Liberal Arts Press,
1956. pp. 119-121.


These changes in aesthetic awareness are reflected in the
student's own art product and are carried into his daily
living as, for example, in the choices he makes in his clothing.
Aesthetic maturing also seems to be reflected in work activi-
ties and in refinement of choice of entertainment media.

Relationship of Art to the Teenagers
With the discussion just preceding this serving as a back-
ground, it is possible to see that art is a part of the teenager's
creative life in two important ways: (1) personal and direct
action and (2) cultural participation. The emphasis at any
one time may be either of these. Characteristics of the one,
however, are always found to some degree in the other.

Personal and Direct Action (Studio Experiences)
When the art teacher helps the teenager to do visual art;
ideas, sounds, light rays, and movements can serve as stimuli
in the creative process for him
to see to experiment
to analyze to organize
to relate to synthesize
to understand to evaluate
to manipulate to be receptive
to be responsible

His art teacher can assist him to reflect the uniqueness of
material he uses, such as
the plasticity of clay
the solidity of stone
the malleability of wire
the transparency of glass
the opacity of silver
the porosity of wood
the elasticity of paint.


His art teacher can help him to reflect his values and needs in
relation to his society and to himself, such as the ability
to define purposes
to show initiative
to make discriminating choices
to assume responsibility for his own choices.
The pupil-teacher interaction referred to above can result in
aesthetically pleasing products, such as
a pot of subtle shape and texture
a painting of bold rich colors
a drawing of expressive gestures
a sculpture of solid and massive forms
an architectural model reflecting functional requirements
and space articulation
a piece of jewelry exquisite in its miniature scale relation-
ships of material to form.
attitudes, such as
sensitivity to and appreciation of worth of his own art
interest and curiosity in pursuing further art work
confidence in self, needed by the adequate art person in an
art situation
accepting the idea of need for continuing education in the
arts for himself.
understandings, such as
the vital role of art in the life of the individual
possibilities for expression, in art, of personal inner drives
possible fuller development of potentials of creativity, hu-
man understanding and sensitivity
sense of self respect and sense of respect for values, needs,
and potentials of others
how artists work


purposeful use of art in one's own life in the home, in
school, and in the community (as a hobby or as insights
into a possible future vocation).
balance in the secondary school art program, an art pro-
gram based on learning a language for the expression of
personal intuition and understanding rather than on learn-
ing culturally established knowledge of a factual nature

Cultural Participation
This participation presupposes the ability to absorb from
all of the things around one-community atmosphere, natural
objects, motion pictures, television, library books, people, art-
and to relate them. This is perceptual education. It is a
thinking and analytical process which is often approached
through art appreciation, humanities, and art history.
When the teacher helps the teenager
to observe
to study
to analyze
to interpret
to evaluate
such natural phenomena as
pattern of veins on a leaf
texture of eroded stones
forms of virus as seen through an electronic microscope
surface of a distant planet as observed through a tele-
scope, or
such works of art as
city planning
landscape design


folk art,
such generalizations from other disciplines as
molecular structure of matter
substance and energy
man's relation to his environment,
the student can learn to understand that art offers unlimited
possibilities for gaining new insights into cultures. For ex-
ample, he can learn how an artist
reflects personal and social values
reflects personal and social needs
interprets the age in which he lives
plays a developmental role in his era.
This pupil-teacher interaction can result in
a heightened awareness of
immediate art experiencing milieu as the facets of the
art activity are manipulated
close relationship of others' art to one's own life and
to daily lives of one's contemporaries in America and
in other parts of the world
qualities of outstanding works of art
contributions that artists have made to society
characteristics of newer developments in art forms and
the relationship of scientific developments to develop-
ments in art
characteristics of older art forms that make them
worthy of preservation and admiration and the rela-
tionship of the older forms with those of today
different levels of art taste or preferences of different


members of his own immediate social group and of
segments of society
growing interest on the part of Americans to buy and
use art materials during leisure hours
art voids in areas of contemporary life and surround-
ings that reflect a need for application of art and art
attitudes, as
feeling personally responsible for choices of cultural
and avocational activities in one's own daily life
appreciating the diversity of the modes of expression of
realizing the need for being fully informed about art
aspects of solutions presented for community problems
(design of public buildings, zoning, city planning)
supporting movements which involve encouragement of
the arts as community enterprise
encouraging each person to examine his own art prefer-
ences and tastes and to learn to analyze and evaluate
a clearer understanding of one's own values and needs, as
the interest and invigoration added to life by broadened
cultural horizons
the possibility of changes in taste and choices, becoming
more refined, as continued contact and absorption of
cultural heritage brings maturity (finding meaning in
the once "puzzling" contemporary art, for example)
a broadened acceptance and understanding of the de-
sires, ideals, motivations, prejudices, beliefs, and atti-
tudes of one's fellow men not necessarily agreed with
but weighed rationally rather than wholly emotionally.
a clearer understanding of values and needs of one's own
time, as
balancing the now dominant science and technology
values with humanistic values


tempering the concern with materialism with concern
for human idealism
relieving tension and anxiety of the times by creative
and appreciative involvement in the arts
stemming the loss of individuality and personal respon-
sibility through making one's own creative decisions
encouraging individuality against social pressures
toward conformity
fulfilling richly a longer life span and expanded leisure
time, eliminating the great lack of awareness of visual
"ugliness" in the surroundings.

The Diversity of Adolescents in Florida
As a member of a free, as opposed to an authoritarian,
society the individuality of the adolescent living in Florida is
valued. He is encouraged to develop his capabilities and to
make the most of opportunity for assuming responsibilities.
Thus he needs to learn that the privileges of living in a free
society bring added responsibilities.

He may be a teenager who lives in an (a)
urban area, such as an apartment house or a large
residential development
rural settlement, such as a cattle ranch

accessible-to-cultural-opportunities area, such as a uni-
versity or college town
inaccessible place, such as an isolated fishing camp or
agricultural section, such as a tenant vegetable farm, a
citrus grove, or a tobacco plantation
industrial development, such as chemical plant area,
aircraft parts factory area, or an electronics site
specific purpose development, such as a resort town, a
beach area, a missile base, a retirement village.


He may be a teenager who
has only recently arrived, coming from another state
in the United States or a foreign country
was born in Florida of parents born elsewhere
is a native of Florida planning to leave the State to
make a living and get his education elsewhere
is a transient, who may leave next week or next month.
He may be a teenager who lives with
both his parents or one of his parents
a grandparent
an older brother or sister
an aunt or other relatives, or
He may be cared for by a private or public agency.
He may be a teenager from a home in which
adults value the arts and have surrounded themselves
with treasures of visual distinction. (He, thus, has had
opportunities to become sensitive to art and to enjoy it.)

adults, themselves, are victims of cultural neglect, blind
to their visual surroundings and either ignore them or
surround themselves with poorly-designed objects of
stereotyped and mediocre design. (This teenager is
likely to be unaware of a well-designed visual environ-
ment for he has yet to be introduced to such values.)

He may be a teenager who attended an elementary school
in which
many rich and varied contacts with art of both direct
(studio) and vicarious (appreciational) nature were
provided. His art and classroom teachers may have
been sensitive to his art needs and careful to see that
art permeated every aspect of the school program. In
such a case, he will likely come to the secondary school
with interest and understanding, with both self-confi-
dence and the modicum of skill needed for his own
satisfaction and involvement in art.


only meager opportunity for quality art experiences
existed or from a school where there was no art pro-
gram at all. In either of these instances, unless he
sustains an interest in art without outside aid he may
reach the secondary school with negative attitudes
about art or with misunderstandings, lack of sensi-
tivity, and no security in art situations. Should he later
aspire to continue his education in art, he may find
himself deficient in quality preparation.

Art in the Secondary School Program
Since art is a part of the daily life of every individual, the
junior and senior high school curricula should include learning
opportunities for all youth in this significant area of general
education. The school administrator, appreciating the impor-
tance of art, will include it in the instructional program of his
school. He will make every effort to encourage the develop-
ment of an art program by employing well-qualified teachers,
providing needed facilities, materials, tools, and equipment,
and working out satisfactory schedules.6 He will work with
the art teacher to develop an art program that will have as
its over-all objectives:

1. To develop initiative and integrity in the visual in-
terpretation of the environment
2. To discover possibilities and limitations of various me-
dia, tools, and processes in terms of solving problems of
expression through visual art form
3. To explore and evaluate different methods of visual or-
ganization in relation to one's own needs, ideas, and
4. To become familiar with, to understand, to respond sen-
sitively to ways in which others have created art forms
in relation to their ideas, needs, and purposes
5. To assist all the senses to become increasingly aware of
aesthetic qualities in natural and man-made forms
6. To relate art methods and content or activities to the

GChapter 3 presents an expanded treatment of this subject.


needs of the secondary-school students in other aspects
of their daily living
7. To explore the possibilities of art as a vocation
8. To develop a sense of responsibility toward and a respect
for tools and media used in art.



Roles of Art Personnel

of course, interests every teacher, and the number of
times the question of role was suggested as a topic for this
guide is indicative of the great concern of art teachers in this
Among the different titles assigned to art personnel in
Florida schools are: art teacher, county art supervisor, art
coordinator, art director, helping teacher in art, and art coun-
selor. These titles provide little insight, however, into the
nature of the responsibilities which must be assumed by those
who bear them.

Roles of Art Teachers in Secondary Schools
The art teacher in the secondary school has many roles.
His responsibilities comprise a diversity of activities in ad-
dition to teaching content matter of art. He has to be a well-
rounded individual capable of planning, organizing, creating,
motivating, advising and counseling, inspiring, sharing, and
He plans
as he develops his art program by discussing with his pu-
pils the objectives, the activities, the evaluative procedures
of the course
as he and other school personnel, each through his own re-
spective area, attempt cooperatively to achieve the broad
objectives of the curriculum
as he makes the most efficient and appropriate arrange-
ments of materials and equipment in the classroom
when he makes known to the administration the general


needs and purposes of his program as well as the time,
space, and more specific material needs
when he sets up a flexible program in terms of pupil needs
and interests
as he budgets the use of materials so that all classes may
be provided for during the full length of the school term.

He organizes
as he involves his pupils in effective time-conserving ways
of carrying on the business of the classroom
when he follows definite procedures for using materials
and for cleaning up at the end of the class period
by locating a definite storage place for materials and by
using working space, tools, and materials efficiently and

He creates
in that he is an artist who knows how to teach
when he and learners develop together an environment for
as he promotes an atmosphere of spontaneity and mutual
as he encourages students to think clearly and plan care-
fully as they experience a greater sensitivity to and de-
velop an awareness of aesthetic qualities
when he is resourceful in using available materials to
good advantage.

He motivates
as he helps the pupils move toward the common goals of
art education
as he promotes the cooperative use of self-direction and
self-discipline on the part of the pupil
by developing an awareness in each pupil of opportuni-
ties to express himself in terms of abilities and interests


when he helps the student to understand the reasons for
doing each project
when he acts as a catalyst in the process of art education.

He advises and counsels
when he becomes aware of the special interests, abilities,
limitations, backgrounds, aims, and ambitions of pupils
and attempts to understand their problems
when he realizes the importance of emotional adjustments
for the adolescent
as he provides guidance which enables the pupil to make
a wise choice for further education in art
as he offers advice on personal creative problems in art and
in other classes.

He is an inspirational leader
when he demonstrates that art is an integral part of life,
past and present
when he stimulates enthusiasm for art through room and
school displays
when he makes use of class discussions, demonstrations,
and the display of examples of the type of work contem-
when he encourages the use of library books and period-
when he interrelates audio-visual aids with other re-
when he uses community resources such as museums,
women's clubs, garden clubs, chambers of commerce, and
commercial concerns to promote community interest in
school arts
when he personally sets a good example for pupils by re-
specting and considering the viewpoints of others
when he guides the student, in situations involving art,
toward personal choice and freedom to act in a responsible


He shares art experiences
by placing the creative work of his pupils before the school
and community
by cooperating in local and county-wide art exhibits
by encouraging the co-curricular participation of pupils in
the art work of the school paper, yearbook, and other publi-
by working when appropriate with classes in other areas
on special projects which carry out the objectives of art

He is a business manager
when he accurately follows the school's system of internal
when he uses discretion in spending school funds and in
caring for and accounting for school equipment, art
tools, and materials.

He is a professional person'
when he becomes an active member of his professional
organization on the county, state, and national level
when he supports organizations sponsoring art activities in
the local area, consistent with the principles of art edu-

Role of the Art Supervisor
Sometimes the art supervisor is known as the helping
teacher in art, the art counselor, the art coordinator, or the
art director. Regardless of his title, the person who directs
the art program at the county level is distinctly responsible
1. Establishing a good working relationship with
teachers and administrators
2. Sharing ideas and providing for in-service education
of teachers

ISee Chapter 7 for a more complete discussion.


3. Developing curriculum materials
4. Developing an efficient and economical system for
providing and accounting for art supplies for schools
5. Keeping abreast of new practices in art and relating
the findings to teachers and the community
6. Planning art facilities for new schools
7. Serving as a worthy and active representative of
the supervisory profession.

Establishment of Relationships

The art supervisor helps to develop a sound interpersonal
relationship with teachers, principals, and other staff mem-
bers; demonstrates a sincere respect for, concern about, and
understanding of their needs and problems.
He plans with teachers in a manner that will encourage
committees and individuals to assume responsibility for tasks
that need to be done.
He develops a sincere, approachable manner that enables
teachers to dissolve their fears and anxieties about dealing
with him.
He becomes familiar with the background and special
training of the teachers in his system.
He strives for the equalization of teaching loads, procure-
ment of proper facilities, and provision of adequate and suit-
able equipment with which to work.
He gives personal help to teachers when necessary and
combines his constructive suggestions with deserved com-

Exchange of Ideas

The art supervisor holds meetings with teachers for the
purpose of sharing ideas, airing problems, and determining

He organizes an interesting and worthwhile program of
in-service training for teachers.


He creates interest on the part of the public in the art
education program of the schools by using every opportunity
to inform parents and the public about the purposes of art
He employs a variety of media, such as newspapers, ex-
hibitions, television, radio, displays, lectures, and demonstra-
tions to bring art and art education to the community.
He encourages teachers and students by giving public
recognition to their achievements.

Development of Curriculum Materials
The art supervisor plans with his teachers for the develop-
ment of a sound art education curriculum at all levels and
makes available these criteria in the form of printed curricu-
lum guides.
He encourages experimentation and exploration of new
ways of using art content, which consists of the following,
each. one in relation to the others:
1. Symbolizing ideas and images
2. Using tool and material processes
3. Organizing the forces in visual elements.
He encourages teachers to participate in professional en-
deavors of art education outside the classroom.
He practices and encourages continuing re-evaluation of
curriculum materials in the light of the best thinking in con-
temporary educational theory and practice.

Development of a System for Use of Materials
The art supervisor sets up a system for the most economi-
cal purchase and distribution of art materials for all grade
He carefully establishes the criteria for evaluation of art
materials and supervises the testing of materials for purchase.
He establishes his own budget for purchase of county-wide
instructional art materials, such as films, slides, prints, and
scale models.


He makes the findings of recent research and theory avail-
able to all teachers in his system and assists with forming
policies based on these research findings.

Keeping Abreast of New Practices in Art
The art supervisor provides inspiration for teachers by
serving in an exemplary manner in art education projects
throughout the county, state, and region.
He participates and involves himself in creative work as an
He acts as a resource person and as a consultant in art to
the community as well as to the schools.
He familiarizes himself with recent and current research
in the field of art.

Planning Art Facilities for Schools
The art supervisor works with teachers, principals, and
architects to plan art facilities which will promote and facili-
tate art instruction of high quality in the classroom.

Acting as a Worthy and Active Representative
of the Supervisory Profession
The art supervisor represents art education with high-level
He strives for sound emotional adjustment and for ration-
ality and maturity in his judgments.
He is capable of judging the professional worth of his as-
sociates, allowing for differences of opinion and independence
of thought.

Profile of an Ideal Art Educator
He presents a strong personality.
He has a pleasing voice.
He expresses himself clearly, using good English.
He is neat and well groomed.


He shows poise and is emotionally well balanced.
He is able to meet situations calmly.
He eagerly attempts new adventures.
He is knowledgeable in the fields of art and art history.
He is widely read.
He is open-minded toward new ideas.
He continually experiments and explores with new mater-
ials and methods.
He participates in creative art work outside of the class-
He supports worthy art projects.
He continues to develop professional growth in art educa-
tion and education in general.
He desires to improve as a person.
He is understanding and concerned about others.
He demonstrates by exemplary living his beliefs in art
He exemplifies the positive values to be gained through
art education.



Promoting and Planning the Art

T HE CONTENTION that art is an essential component of
a complete education is supported by substantial investi-
gation and research, some of which has been reported re-
cently by the Association of Secondary School Principals, the
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, and
the National Art Education Association.
It is the intent of this chapter to provide teachers, in both
large and small schools and in schools where formal art pro-
grams exist as well as where they do not, with helpful sug-
gestions for promoting art as a legitimate curriculum concern
deserving of equal consideration along with other instructional
areas. Individual art teachers working in highly developed
art programs may find here a validation of their efforts and
may, as a result, feel a quiet satisfaction in their accomplish-
ments. They will be among the first, however, to recognize
that the suggestions in this chapter can serve as a basis for
measuring their programs and uncovering opportunities for
improving and expanding them. The struggling teacher in a
newly formed, still weak program will hopefully find the sup-
port and encouragement needed to help promote a better
attitude toward art in a situation where interest is not so high
and resources are limited. For the school where no formal
program exists, first steps are suggested to the administrator
who must accept the responsibility for broadening the curricu-
S Bme';specific factors considered important in art curricu-
lum planning'are suggested and discussed briefly here. The
contribution the art teacher can make through art to the en-
richment of the total curriculum is also considered. Sugges-
tion foy'starting an art program in the school where none

/ I i I .

exists and for improving the personal and working relation-
ships of the art teacher with other school personnel conclude
the chapter.

Factors to Be Considered in Planning the Art Curriculum
A number of factors must be considered when the art
curriculum is designed. Among them student needs, necessary
physical conditions, and the desirability of a balanced program
stand out.

Developmental Needs of Students
A thorough knowledge of art and an understanding of the
developmental needs of students are essential attributes of
the good art teacher.1
As an example of the importance of the art teacher's con-
cern for the developmental needs of students, consider the
multi-faceted, growing, changing seventh-grader. His art
experience can be enriched by well-selected experimental ac-
tivities which are challenging and exploratory. The process
involved in creating a product is of first importance in his de-
velopment. The student needs to relate the process of organi-
zation he uses in his own work to the processes used by others
for their visual products. He needs numerous opportunities
whereby he can be inventive with ideas, materials, and design
in drawing, painting, constructing, and printing. As he cre-
ates, he should come to know himself. His variable attention
span should be considered in planning discussion periods and
in timing activities which grow out of the discussion. Class
size should be such that his teacher can give him individual
attention if he has a problem with creating and needs help to
accomplish the task to his satisfaction.
In the ninth grade the needs of students may be met by
intensified activities built on the generalized experiences of
the seventh and eighth grades. A deeper approach toward
appreciating and understanding art displays, industrial de-
sign, city planning, architecture, the theater, and other ex-
amples of art which surround the student are suggested. The
teacher can help students find out for themselves the art areas
most closely related to their individual interests and abilities.
iSee "The Diversity of Florida Adolescents" in Chapter 1.


For some senior high school students art interests become
specific. These students need specialized courses, while general
art courses should be continued for other students. Special
art abilities should be encouraged and developed in a concen-
trated art program in the high school. It is from this group
of highly motivated, very capable students that many of the
practicing artists, designers, illustrators, and art educators
will emerge. Special consideration should be given to extend-
ing art opportunities of the highest quality to these students.2
The good art teacher will want to select from the suggested
activities in Chapter 4 the most appropriate experiences for
his individual students, who will present a variety of needs
stemming from different backgrounds. Varying conditions
may call for a change in the sequence of activities. For in-
stance, in the situation where senior high school students have
had no previous experience in the arts, some adjustment in
the order of activities will be necessary.
Occasionally student needs may be met through unsched-
uled opportunities for solving creatively problems which arise
in classes other than art or in informal situations while carry-
ing out art services for the school in both curricular and extra-
curricular activities.

Physical Considerations
The size of the budget, the physical condition of the school
and the art rooms, and the length of time scheduled for art
instruction are also factors which will influence markedly the
teacher's selections from the activities suggested in Chapter

Balance in the Art Program
In planning the scope and sequence of an art curriculum,
it is highly important that balance be maintained in the
various phases of the program. Only in this manner will ado-
lescents be assured of a broad, rich education in the visual
The purposes of art programs, in general, fall into two
broad categories:

2Discussed more fully in the following section, "Balance in the Art Program."


1. to provide a foundation for persons going on to an
art career
2. to provide general education for all students.
Often both purposes may be met within a single class when
instruction is planned to meet individual differences.
Purposes of a program for persons going on to an art
career should include gaining an orientation toward art ca-
reer opportunities; acquiring a broad foundation in the visual
arts; and being introduced to a sampling of such specialized
fields as advertising art, theater arts, fashion illustration, in-
terior design, architecture, and art education.
Purposes of an art program for general education should
embrace acquiring a general cultural awareness of the visual
arts, refining the perceptual and aesthetic sensitivities which
are used in making discriminating consumer choices, and dis-
covering some phase of the visual arts as a possible hobby.
In all cases, balance between appreciation and studio experi-
ences is imperative.
Although programs designed within the limits of either
of these broad purposes should provide a wide range of art
experiences, recent research suggests that opportunity for
depth of exploration is equally important.
The purposes of the program should always guide curricu-
lum planning, whether such planning be concerned with scope
at any particular grade level or with an over-all sequence.
In the area of appreciation there should be ample oppor-
tunity for the student to gain an increased understanding of
art qualities in his own work, in that of his peers, and in that
of professional artists. A balanced curriculum in art includes
experiences in viewing works of art from the past as well as
the present and from oriental as well as western cultures. Art
appreciation opportunities should draw from the gamut of the
art field: forming and constructing, drawing, painting, dis-
playing, observing and appreciating, and the graphic arts.
The studio phase of an art program should offer a balance
of two-dimensional and three-dimensional art experiences.
Opportunity can be provided to select from a variety of media
and processes, but work in depth in selected media is recom-


The art curriculum, carefully planned and well taught,
will have balance in its scope at each grade level and conti-
nuity in its sequence from the elementary through the junior
high to the senior high level.

Relationship of Art to the General Curriculum
In every school, teachers and students should be encouraged
to incorporate creative art activities in all phases of the in-
structional program. Examples of specific opportunities for
gaining art experiences in other curriculum areas are numer-
Creative visual presentations of transportation, agricul-
ture, clothing, and housing as reflected in other periods of
history or in other lands will add to the social studies ex-
Theater study, costuming, book-making including lettering,
and illustrations of different kinds of type are examples of
how art can be related to instruction in literature.
In industrial arts making furniture and other objects from
original designs incorporates creative art in a related area.
Arranging flowers, furniture, and pictures; preparing at-
tractive and tasty foods; designing and making clothes which
reflect style and good taste and are suitable for the wearer's
personality; and practicing good grooming are all examples
of how art can be used in home economics classes.
In Latin and modern foreign languages art can be brought
into play by emphasizing the architecture, sculpture, and art
of the cultures reflected in the languages being studied.
In science classes students can study the physics of light,
including color and the spectrum; can make use of their art
knowledge in constructing science fair exhibits; and can in-
corporate art in designing and constructing for class use
original devices illustrating scientific principles.
In the library opportunities for providing art experiences
are provided in such activities as planning exhibits and dis-
plays, making posters, and arranging bulletin boards.
In the preparation of school publications are found oppor-


tunities for lettering; drawing; photography; effective lay-
out; and experimental typography designs for handbooks, an-
nouncements, newspapers, and yearbooks.
Planning and installing seasonal, permanent, or special
decorations in hallways, in the library, or in the gymnasium
offer art problem-solving experiences to students who par-
In staging dramatic productions those students who plan
costumes, design and build scenery, plan and execute chore-
ography, and select stage properties, as well as those who
make a formal study of the history of the theater and cos-
tuming, have opportunity to make decisions involving visual
art qualities.
Students learning photography may plan composition and
lighting when taking pictures, study chemical processes and
special effects, and learn optical principles.
Student government election and announcement posters
offer unlimited opportunity for originality and artistic ex-
Helping the building and grounds committee improve the
campus lay-out and planting trees and bushes for artistic and
functional effects are good related experiences for art stu-
The promotion of art in school assemblies and P.-T.A.
programs through demonstrations of art techniques, visual
reports on art studies, and discussions of recent art projects
emphasizes important aspects of art values and production.
Art opportunities in the community are offered through
such activities as designing and constructing parade floats,
producing visual aids for fund drives, and sponsoring in-school
art exhibits of the work of local artists.
An art club in the school will provide opportunities for
personal art experiences and expression and for meeting such
service needs of the school as creating posters, decorating, and
providing art advisory functions.
One word of caution is necessary. Art experiences like
these should always be planned as part of the total school
curriculum. Cooperation of all teaching personnel in planning


will prevent distortion of the established art class into a vis-
ual-aids workshop for other areas of the school program.
While correlated art activities within the formal class period
must move toward the objectives of a good art program, the
influence of art and art teachers, as in other subject areas,
need not be confined to the laboratory.

Starting an Art Program
For those schools currently without formal art programs,
it is recommended that a move be made as early as possible
to add at least one art teacher to the faculty and to provide
properly equipped art facilities in the school. In the absence
of art personnel, the responsibility for initiating this move
will fall upon the administration. The following suggestions
indicate the general direction such a move should take:
1. Discuss the problem and seek suggestions for solu-
tion with the faculty, county administrators, and
community leaders.
2. Plan carefully a consecutive series of positive steps
to take toward an established goal.
3. Make the state art curriculum guide available to
teachers of English, social studies, mathematics,
science, and other areas as well as to teachers who
sponsor clubs and extracurricular activities.
4. Make full use of the specific opportunities for re-
lated art experiences listed above.
These suggestions are minimal and are designed only to stimu-
late an interest and to keep the idea alive until an art teacher
can be employed.

The Art Teacher and the School Faculty
The alert art teacher will serve as teacher, resource per-
son, and consultant. His function in these roles should be
appropriate to the actual needs of the specific school com-
munity which he serves rather than a mere conformance to
the pattern of the art specialist who is limited to a studio
classroom.3 The art teacher spearheads the movement for in-

3See Chapter 2 for roles of art personnel.

service education in art by consulting with other teachers in
addition to teaching his own classes. In a newly established
art program, it is possible that the art teacher may not have,
initially, a full teaching load of art classes. In this event, the
teacher should use his remaining time consulting with other
teachers to formulate art goals which would enrich the total
school program. When there is only one art teacher in the
school, it is of increased importance that a friendly informal
relationship exist between him and the other teachers.
The development of a growing program of formal art
classes is the responsibility of the art teacher. This program,
especially in small schools, should not be so diversified that
a course is offered in every art specialty. It should comprise
instead a limited number of courses combining several related
art areas.
The art teacher should see that the interest and enthusiasm
of art students, a vital part of promoting the program, are
communicated to other students who are not enrolled in art
classes. All students need to be aware of the value of art for
The art teacher becomes a specialist representing his com-
munity in the whole field of art. His responsibilities are
greatly expanded in proportion to the kinds of people he
serves. Adults as well as adolescents depend upon him for
guidance in art matters.
The art teacher should keep people aware of art by in-
terpreting the school's art program to parents and other lay-
men through community exhibitions and displays, broadcast-
ing and printed media, personal contacts, and P-T.A. meet-
ings. Programs by art students and talks by the art teacher
can be presented to the total school in assemblies.

The Art Teacher and the School System
Because the communities served by schools within a system
are different with differing needs, art teachers in a county
system will find it helpful to form a local professional as-
sociation to provide opportunities for exchanging ideas, en-
gaging in needed research, developing and assuming leader-
ship in professional organizations beyond the local level, and
combining their strength and influence to promote the county


art program through news media and exhibitions. Such a
plan also enables the art teachers to elect one of their mem-
bers to be their official spokesman in groups where represen-
tation is important and in which they might otherwise not be
included. A consistent philosophy tempered with individuality
should prevail. Communication throughout the system should
be established and clear.
Adequate supervision is desirable so that all teachers may
be helped and encouraged to improve the program constantly.
The school system may provide leadership in the person of an
art supervisor. In the larger systems, the supervisor helps
teachers keep informed about new ideas and trends in the
art field, suggests ways to improve facilities or physical ar-
rangements, and assists with selecting and testing new equip-
ment and materials.4 Where no art personnel is provided at
the supervisory level, individual art teachers have a greater
responsibility for upholding standards and improving instruc-
tion. Local, state, and national professional associations can
provide valuable assistance in this instance.
Joint planning at the county level should allow for a neces-
sary flexibility in details to ensure that the program will work
smoothly at the individual school level. Planning at this level
could indicate how the scope and sequence of art activities
need not always be dependent upon a materials orientation.
Rather than a program based only upon the manipulation of
materials for its primary emphasis, the art teacher could also
come to recognize other manageable factors which might pre-
sent a more humanistic and more flexible curriculum design.
Many teachers will find rewarding results by varying their
programs. As mentioned earlier, such considerations as de-
-velopmental needs of the student, personal interest, types of
perception and experiencing, and techniques could be the focal
points of emphasis in carrying out the art program. The art
material contained in the scopes and sequences section of this
guide can be arranged and chosen carefully for use in many
situations other than the one presented herein.

4Refer to Roles of Art Personnel, Chapter 2.



Scopes and Sequences

THE SCOPES AND SEQUENCES outlined and described
briefly on the following pages suggest the depth and
breadth of student art experiences and are intended to
make tangible the objectives of the secondary-school art pro-
gram. The scopes and sequences present a broad range of
possibilities and are designed to serve as a resource for the
art teacher in developing course experiences for varying kinds
of classes; e.g., general art, art appreciation, crafts, humani-
ties, advanced art, commercial art, and others. The value of
the art scopes and sequences lies not only in their flexibility
but also in their use of sound art concepts which reflect the
findings of recent research in learning and creativity.

Plan of Scopes and Sequences
The scopes and sequences include the following areas of
1. Forming and Constructing
a. Architecture
b. Handweaving and Stitchery
c. Industrial Design
d. Jewelry
e. Mosaics
f. Pottery
g. Sculpture
h. Theater Arts
2. Drawing
3. Painting


4. Displaying and Communicating Ideas
5. Observation and Appreciation
6. Graphic Arts or Printing
To facilitate the use of the sequences each area is pre-
sented in three parts: first the art area is identified; next,
selected objectives are listed and parallel learning activities
are suggested which may be used to achieve the objectives;
and then a selected bibliography is given.
In an introductory paragraph or two, the possibilities and
limitations of each area are described briefly. For example,
among the questions which the description answers in draw-
ing are "What is drawing? How far do these activities ex-
tend? What do the activities include in this area?" Examples
are included to illustrate points about which there may be
misunderstandings. The description in each art scope points
up its integral relationship to man and his activities.
The purposes or goals listed in each area relate directly to
the seven over-all objectives of art as expressed in Chapter 1.
Particular aims were selected in the case of each sequence not
only in relation to the over-all objectives of art but also in re-
lation to the special nature of each art area. As an example,
an emphasis in sculpture might be "to explore the problem of
volume"; whereas in painting it could be "to understand the
ways in which painters use color."
The activities listed in the scopes and sequences combine
media, tools, instructional materials, processes, ways of or-
ganizing forces in visual elements, and ways of developing
personal symbols and ideas. The mention of specific topics,
artists, films, slides, books, original works of art, models, and
the like does not mean that this section is to be followed as a
prescription. Rather, this section suggests types of experi-
ences which might be provided for secondary students in an
attempt to achieve the various kinds of established art educa-
tion objectives.
The suggestions for activities show a definite progression
and development from grade 7 to grade 12, from the less
mature to the more mature student.' Suggested activities are
lA more complete discussion of student development is found in Chapter 1, "Point
of View."


listed at three levels: 7th-8th grade art, 9th grade art, and
10th-llth-12th grade art.
The bibliography at the end of each sequence is limited
to a few outstanding books and visual art aid sources. Ad-
ditional bibliographical sources may be found in the appen-
dices in the list of Art Books for Junior and Senior High
School Libraries and in the Bibliography for Teachers. Be-
cause of the rapid changes in the art publishing field, some
items are listed by author and title only. Other data regarding
them can be found in Books in Print in any library.


Forming and Constructing/Architecture
Architecture cannot be isolated from the other arts when
presented to the student. It, like the other arts, encompasses
organization of line, form, color, texture, and, above all,
spatial composition. It differs from the other arts, however,
in several ways. It must serve a purpose or function other
than just being art before it can ever exist. It first appears
as a complex, imaginative idea in the mind of the architect,
but it can never be fully realized by anyone other than the
architect until it is actually constructed. The construction in-
volves many persons, sometimes tens of thousands, and can
be compared somewhat to the execution of an involved piece
of music by an extremely large orchestra with the architect
being both composer and conductor. The work must be prop-
erly interpreted, or the original idea cannot be realized.
Architecture should not be taught as just a picture-book
experience. It should be emphasized that architecture is com-
posed space which must be experienced by the beholder to be
understood with any great degree of feeling. One must see
the shadows change, pass into, by, through, and between dif-
ferent spaces-all the while being receptive to the particular
materials, colors, textures, and all other qualities evident in
all art.
Architecture involves, as tools, most of the known sciences,
but the one important science which requires emphasis is that
of structure. As civilizations have changed, architecture has


1. To establish the relation- Determine through discussion
ship of architecture to the and visual aids how elements
other arts. used in other art forms, such
as color, line, shape, form, and
texture, are employed in arch-
Design a composition of rub-
bings from textures in the
school building.
Select recordings- of music
that might correspond to the
feelings generated by differ-


Forming and Constructing/Architecture
Architecture cannot be isolated from the other arts when
presented to the student. It, like the other arts, encompasses
organization of line, form, color, texture, and, above all,
spatial composition. It differs from the other arts, however,
in several ways. It must serve a purpose or function other
than just being art before it can ever exist. It first appears
as a complex, imaginative idea in the mind of the architect,
but it can never be fully realized by anyone other than the
architect until it is actually constructed. The construction in-
volves many persons, sometimes tens of thousands, and can
be compared somewhat to the execution of an involved piece
of music by an extremely large orchestra with the architect
being both composer and conductor. The work must be prop-
erly interpreted, or the original idea cannot be realized.
Architecture should not be taught as just a picture-book
experience. It should be emphasized that architecture is com-
posed space which must be experienced by the beholder to be
understood with any great degree of feeling. One must see
the shadows change, pass into, by, through, and between dif-
ferent spaces-all the while being receptive to the particular
materials, colors, textures, and all other qualities evident in
all art.
Architecture involves, as tools, most of the known sciences,
but the one important science which requires emphasis is that
of structure. As civilizations have changed, architecture has


1. To establish the relation- Determine through discussion
ship of architecture to the and visual aids how elements
other arts. used in other art forms, such
as color, line, shape, form, and
texture, are employed in arch-
Design a composition of rub-
bings from textures in the
school building.
Select recordings- of music
that might correspond to the
feelings generated by differ-


mirrored the progress made in inventing ways and means of
spanning spaces in order to enclose them. The pyramids de-
fined space by filling practically all of it with solid material.
The Greek temple defined space by the placing of its columns,
the spacing being limited by the capacity of stone to span
the distance between. The Roman Coliseum encircled space
and defined it by creating an elliptical boundary of stone and
spectators. Gothic cathedrals soared high above medieval
cities with pointed stone arches supported by ingenious flying
buttresses. Now steel and concrete allow us to build vertically
into the clouds or to span thousands of feet through space.
These changes in structure, changes in requirements of
use, and changes of materials available have resulted in
different forms, shapes, and plans, so that architecture today
hardly resembles that of past ages. But the yardstick of com-
modity (the functional use of the space), firmness (the struc-
tural integrity of the building), and delight (the visual beauty
of the building) still holds true. Few buildings can really
qualify as art, just as little of man's vast outpouring of paint-
ing, sculpture, ceramics, metalwork, literature, or music can
qualify as art. As artists we are interested in that which re-
veals the poetry that is possible when man really understands
what he knows. When the architect reaches out and makes
a statement in his chosen language that will stir others and
evoke a further searching as life proceeds, he knows what
architecture as an art is all about.


Learn through discussion and
visual aids how the elements
of design have been organized
to obtain the desired effects.
Select painting and sculpture
for different types of archi-
Give reasons for selections.
Design a two dimensional
composition interpreting tex-
tures used in architecture.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Show through discussion and
visual aids aesthetic and cul-
t u r a 1 likenesses between
painting, sculpture, music,
and architecture in any given
Discuss how the architecture
of an era reflects the spiritual
beliefs or values apparent in
the painting and sculpture of
that time.




2. To make it possible for stu-
dents to experience not
only the positive shell (the
actual structure) but also
the enclosed space created
by the shell.

3. To discover possibilities
and limitations of various
principles of construction
and building materials
used in solving problems
of enclosing space.

ent types of architecture.
(Bach for Gothic, Mozart for

Visit a church, a railroad sta-
tion, a housing development,
or an office building. Write
personal reactions to these ex-
periences in enclosed spaces.
List the ways in which archi-
tectural form follows its spe-
cific function.
Arrange for visits to churches
of different denominations for
the purpose of understanding
varied approaches to the use
of religious symbolism in
architectural forms. Enlist
the services of the ministers.

Make simple models illustrat-
ing historic methods of span-
ning a space.
Through sculptural technique
analyze sculptural concepts.
Invent structural systems us-
ing sticks, stones, and other
entities which might be com-
bined structurally. Interpret
these "constructs" in drawing
and painting.
Design sculptural forms that
illustrate closed and open
forms. Relate to such ex-
amples of architectural space.




GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Compare the steps of creation
through which a composer of
music and an architect pro-
gress from the initial idea to
its completion.

Make field trips to visit out-
standing types of architecture
in order to analyze the ways
that the shells determine the
spaces that are enclosed.
Develop an awareness of the
varied interpretations of cur-
rents and symbolism in the
architecture of the past and

Plan a wall or space breaker
(room divider). (One ap-
proach could be the repeti-
tion of a simple geometric or
free form shape in different
Observe architectural forms
in their own environment
with emphasis upon recogni-
tion of structural methods of
enclosing or spanning space,
such as the use of the post
and lintel, round the pointed
arch, buttressing, vaulting,
trussing, cantilever construc-
tion, continuous skin, and
other methods.

Explore spatial concepts and
their psychological impact as
pure experience.
Create structural forms which
are realized and developed
naturally according to the in-
nate demands, properties, and
manipulative possibilities of
specific materials.

Break up the class in groups
(e.g. Egyptian, Greek, or Ro-
man) to study background
material for proposed model
memorials for each historical
Become imaginary architects
of the time and actually de-
sign and build a model me-
morial utilizing principles,
materials, and cultural and
aesthetic considerations ex-
emplary of the chosen period.
Invent through the techniques
of drawing and painting sug-
gested or implied three-di-
mensional forms which can
be interpreted actually or ex-
plicitly "in the round." To ef-
fect this three-dimensional



4. To become familiar with,
to understand, to respond
sensitively to ways in
which others have created
architectural forms in re-
lation to their ideas, needs
and purposes.

5. To explore the possibilities
of architecture as a voca-


List as many as possible of
the influences of the Parthe-
non on community buildings
and homes.
Undertake a critical survey of
the school community. Single
out those structures which
satisfy the visual require-
ments stressed in day-to-day
art projects.

List all of the businesses, pro-
fessions, and types of skilled
labor involved in the produc-
tion of a building.

Make oral or written reports
on the training of architects
who have designed famous
buildings through the ages.

Bergere, Thea and Richard. From Stones to Skyscrapers. Dodd Mead
Co., 1960.
Everyday Art Magazine. (Editor: Ed. Mattil). Vol. LII, Spring 1963.
Sandusky, Ohio: American Crayon Company.
Faulkner, Ray, et. al. Art Today. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Wins-
ton, Inc., 1962. (Revised Edition).
Roos, Frank J. An Illustrated Handbook of Art History. New York:
Macmillan Company, 1954.



Visit significant buildings
with a local architect as a
Describe the kind of home an
architect might have designed
for your grandfather or for a
Spanish-American, Civil War,
or Revolutionary War ances-
Make sketches of interesting
views of your school.

Arrange a field trip to an ar-
chitectural firm for the pur-
pose of observing the environ-
ment in which the architect
works. Invite a local architect
to describe the intricacies of
architecture as a vocation.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

form, use varied materials
such as paper, plastic, towel
rods, toothpicks, metal, glass,
and clay. Emphasize the
transfer of plan to object with
opportunities for interpreta-
tion and reorganization.
Plan a panel discussion to
present the findings of the
imaginary-architect project.
Study the evolution of church
architecture. Collect pictures
of examples. Prepare an ex-
hibit for the school.
Examine the blueprints of
your school.
Discuss the problems of the
architect in planning the
structure and the effective-
ness of his planning accord-
ing to your experience in liv-
ing in the finished product.
Design or re-design an area
of your school (e.g., patio,
outdoor addition to art room.)
Contact the local chapter of
the American Institute of
Architects concerning avail-
able exhibits or information
concerning architecture as a
vocation. Request informa-
tion on available panels, films,
exhibits, and bulletins con-
cerned with recent develop-
ments in architectural forms,
both structural and aesthetic.

Schinneller, James A. Art: Search and Self Discovery. Scranton, Penn-
sylvania: International Textbook Company, 1962. (Chapters 3 and
Zevi, Bruno. Architecture as Space: How to Look at Architecture. New
York: Horizon Press, 1957.


Forming and Constructing/Handweaving and Stitchery

Weaving and stitchery, while distinctive arts in their own
way, are classified together, since they have a common med-
ium, fiber or thread. Weaving is the manufacture of cloth by
means of the interlacing threads of warp and filler yarn.
Woven materials may be used for clothing and household
articles. The character of the fabric depends on the fiber,
thick or thin, smooth or rough, and the personality of the
weaver. Today's weaving depends on the same principles,
with minor differences and special excellencies. Weavers are
always ready to meet the needs of mankind. Berta Frey, one
of today's top weavers, has woven fine tubing for surgical use.
We are accustomed to textiles threaded with gold and rib-
bons and studded with pearls and beads from the looms of



1. To understand that excel-
lence in weaving and
stitchery derives from
their suitability for use
and aesthetic enjoyment.
(Weaving must have the
right "hand"; stitchery
should be unique to the

Weave on a Peacock or Lily
two-harness loom, experi-
menting with threads, yarns,
strings, and "found" mater-
ials. Twist and combine
yarns. Evaluate completed
fabric for appropriate use.
Show a commercially stamped
embroidery to the group after
they have experienced stitch-
ery. Help them form their
own criteria in examining
Make a frame of stapled card-
board to stretch burlap, scrim,
net for stitchery. Use a va-
riety of yarns, shells, felt to
make a wall hanging.


Dorothy Liebes. Cellophane may shine through a garden
twine warp. Reeds, grasses, and thin wooden slats borrow
color tones from a brilliant warp.
In recent displays, seed sprays, grass tufts, and twigs have
found their way into a mesh of threads.
Stitchery is the surface ornamentation of cloth with needle-
work-a fanciful arrangement of stitches and various materi-
als. Stitchery may also be used for the same purposes as
weavings, depending on the materials used. Stitchery in some
form is always fashionable on clothing. However, in recent
years there has been a revival of stitchery as a creative med-
ium for serious art forms. One of the most famous advocates
is Mariska Karasz, who paints with a needle on handwoven
fabrics with yarns and threads.


Make a warp for a Peacock or
Lily loom and draw in, keep-
ing in mind the purpose.
Demonstrate hand-weaving
for a home-making class.
Contrast the desirable quali-
ties of materials for a chair
back cover, a purse, a scarf, a
wall hanging, an apron. After
discussion, make one of these
items on a lap-loom or a rug
Decorate articles of clothing
(apron, mittens, blouse, or
shirt) with your own needle-
work designs.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Plan a woven article, keeping
in mind the purpose of the
finished product-a purse,
placemat, shopping bag, ap-
ron, cushion cover, wall hang-
ing. Pay attention to color
effects of thread combina-
Design a fabric using plastic,
ribbon, cellophane, thread of
gold, garden twine. Weave on
a two-harness loom.
Review varied ways in which
different cultures have solved
their weaving problems.
(French tapestries, Indian
blankets, Oriental rugs, Peru-
vian serapes.)



2. To observe the qualities
possessed by all kinds of
threads, strong or weak,
fine or coarse, rigid or re-
silient, and adapt them to
the purpose of the de-

3. To realize that weaving
and stitchery involve the
same principles as other
arts: form, color, texture,
composition, and expres-
sion of self.


Use a Lily or Peacock loom to
make a place mat or runner.
Make colorful bands and belts
with cards and an inkle loom.
Collect a variety of materials
which may be used for both
weaving and stitchery; yarn,
thread, string, roving, rick
rack braid, felt, leather, cello-
phane, buttons, and beads.
Discover possible limitations
and precautions in the weav-
ing process. (Avoid breakage
of warp needles by keeping
scissors away from loom.
Weft must not be pulled too

Paint a series of thick and
thin lines in color. Cross-
hatch with thick and thin
lines of other colors. Plan to
use design in actual weaving.

might be
and those

which are


Adapt traditional stitches to
a combination of your own
and use in a wall hanging on
burlap, net, or other suitable

4. To explore the varied his-
torical differences and ex-
cellencies in the production
of weavings and clothing
and relate them to the
problems facing the age of
science and technology.

Learn to tie the weaver's knot.
Look up knots used by the
Persians in making their



Weave pattern on a four-har-
ness loom if one is available.
If not, a "laid in" design may
be done on a two-harness
Become familiar with the
names of many kinds of
threads, strings, yarns- car-
pet warp, pearl cotton, finger-
ing wool, roving, chenille,
loopers. Prepare a chart; la-
bel as to use.
Ask the science teacher to ex-
plain the chemical composi-
tion of man-made fibers and
their qualities for use.

Prepare a warp for your own
design on a card loom. Weave
a belt.
Make a warp for the inkle
loom; weave a tie or belt. Try
to fasten several lengths to-
gether for other articles. Use
yarns to ornament monk's
Learn a number of embroid-
ery stitches: feather, couch-
ing, chain, blanket, cross, and
French knots.
Make a sampler on checkered

Explore and report on: The
Use of the Inkle Loom in Eu-
rope and the New World, Co-
lonial Pattern Weaving,
Trends in Modern Weaving,
Early American Samples,
Peasant Needlework.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Send for information about
the manufacture of rayon, ny-
lon, and other synthetic fi-
bers. Learn about their spe-
cial qualities.
Use a warping-board to make
your own pattern and color
Study samples of modern fab-
ric by traveling; determine
warp and weft. Collect
threads of varying thickness.
Weave with a definite ar-
rangement in mind.
Coordinate learning about
fibers with those in chemistry.

Study Swedish art weaves du-
kagang, ryss-weave. Compare
richness of surface ornament
with other weaves.
Stencil or paint a design with
textile colors on the warp,
then weave with a thread sim-
ilar to the warp to get a chintz
effect fabric.
Try Spanish and lenne laces
on a two-harness loom.
Experiment with various
dyes. (Plan and correlate with
chemistry department. Refer
to dyes in native materials

Examine several drafts of co-
lonial four-harness weaves-
try to visualize the pattern.
Look up honeysuckle, pine
tree, goose-eye, snails trail,
twill, and herringbone.




Explore and report on one of
the following topics: Card
Weaving in Egypt, How Chi-
nese Silk Weaving Came to
Italy, Weaving Clothing for
the Roman Army of Occupa-
tion in England, Textiles of
Greece and Rome.
Examine examples of colonial
quilting and samplers of

5. To become aware of the
great variety of natural
and man-made material
which surrounds us and
which may be used in the
expressive manipulation of
weaving and stitchery.

6. To fill the needs for guid-
ance in the selection and
production of clothing
and household furnishings
which have a valid, crea-
tive, and aesthetically sat-
isfactory quality; and to
foster in the craftsman a
deeper respect for his own
accomplishments and mas-
tery of the tools of his

Learn about ramie, linen, cot-
ton, wool, nylon, rayon-how
they are prepared and pro-
duced. If possible examine
and demonstrate with a spin-
ning wheel.
Weave, combine your selec-
tion of yarns for color and
design. Investigate the use
of reeds, grasses, raffia.
Find natural materials which
might be used in stitchery

Design and weave a simple
article for your own use. En-
courage good workmanship
and liking for the item which
is made.
Demonstrate in the social
studies class how the ancient
Egyptians may have used the
card loom. Tie in with the
aims of the present govern-
ment in the production of tex-



GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Make a biographical study of
people who have contributed
to weaving-John Tice, Tho-
mas Blanket, Berta Frey, Ed-
ward Worst, Dorothy Liebes,
Mary M. Atwater.

Coordinate the techniques of
the Navajos' fine rugs and
blankets with the symbolic
nature designs which they
used. Construct a loom such
as they used, and practice the
use of shed sticks to make
your own laid-in-pattern.
Examine the weave of woolen
garments by traveling. Find
twill weaves.
Stitch shells, yarns, braids on-
to an article of Madagascar

Study the needs in our civili-
zation for clothing, accessor-
ies, and household fabrics.
Form criteria -for good con-
sumer standards and for aes-
thetic merit.
Operate a variety of looms
for plain and pattern weaving
and devise your own frames
and hoops for stitchery.

Attempt peasant embroidery
and drawn work-see Italian
and Scandinavian Hardanger.
Design for personal use and

Collect reeds, grasses, pal-
metto; dry; and prepare for
combining with colorful warp
and weft threads. Make ma-
terial for a lamp shade or
screen (Refer to section on
Florida native materials for
selection and suggested uses.)
Determine which Florida in-
dustries are based on use of
these materials.
Examine Seminole stitchery,
native Southern Highlands

Design and weave material
for a foot stool, knitting bag,
or lamp shade. Arrange for
the shop to make wooden
handles and parts.
Make colorful bands of ma-
terial for costumes in dra-
matic productions. Make a vo-
cabulary list of terms in
weaving; define.



7. To visualize the many fac-
ets of weaving and stitch-
ery which not only can
give them vocational value,
but also can contribute to
the mental and physical
comfort and satisfaction of
people living under today's


List weaving terms encoun-
tered, find a clear definition of
weft, warp, shed, reed, and

Visit an outstanding interior
decorator's shop in the area
and notice the extensive use
and quality of fabrics in home
Collect, from such magazines
as Fortune, Seventeen, House
Beautiful, Design, Crafts Ho-
rizon, Living for Young
Americans, and others, arti-
cles and illustrations related
to vocational applications of
weaving and stitchery.



GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Review ways in which dif-
ferent cultures have solved
their weaving problems.
(French tapestries, Indian
blankets, Oriental rugs, Peru-
vian serapes).

Visit a local occupational
therapy center to learn how
weaving is used to help indi-
viduals mentally and physical-
ly. Write a survey paper ex-
ploring possibilities in this
field for a career.
Look for hobbies in needle-
work activities. List occupa-
tions using weaving in some
form. Discuss opportunities,
salary, preparation.

Ask the mathematics teacher
to relate pattern drafts to
mathematical principles.

Invite an outstanding interior
decorator to speak to students
about careers in this field or
how the decorator selects his
Determine preparation neces-
sary. Survey occupations. Ex-
plore potentials for this occu-
pation in other countries.

Albers, Anni. On Designing. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan Uni-
versity Press, 1962.
Atwater, Mary Meigs. The Shuttle-Craft Book of American Hand-
weaving. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1961. (Revision).
Black, Mary E. A New Key to Weaving. Milwaukee: The Bruce Pub-
lishing Company, 1961 (Revision).
Cox, Doris and Warren, Barbara. Creative Hands. New York: John
Wiley & Sons, 1951.
Blythe, LeGette. Gift From the Hills (Lucy Morgan). Indianapolis:
Bobbs-Merrill, 1958.
Karasz, Mariska, Adventures in Stitches. New York: Funk and Wag-
nall, 1960.
Lundback, Maja and Ramsback, Marta. Small Webs. Big Sur, Cali-
fornia: Crafts and Hobby Books, 1959.
Selander, Marlin. Swedish Handweaving. New York: The Studio Publi-
cations, 1961.
Tidball, Harriet D. The Inkle Weave. Big Sur, California: Craft and
Hobby Books, 1952.


Forming and Constructing/Industrial Design

Early man fashioned objects to suit his own needs with
his bare hands out of materials found in his immediate en-
vironment. Such articles were the woven-reed baskets, the
clay-formed bowls, and the chipped-stone arrow heads of his
Contemporary man in an industrialized society likewise
manufactures articles to meet his needs. He, however, has
developed an increasingly intricate technology making pos-
sible mass production of articles with a view toward their
purchase and use by man as consumer. As an extension of
himself, he has developed machines which do work formerly
done solely by hand. The articles he produces vary in size
from the miniature to the very large, in form from the simple
to the highly complex, and in monetary value from the rela-
tively inexpensive to the costly. They range from paper clips,
buttons, tea cups, toasters, textile prints, chairs, transistor
radios, and compact cars to earth-moving machines and Tel-
The industrial design product of today results from the
processes of research, planning, experimenting, constructing,
and testing. It reflects the process of idea development-a
cooperative endeavor on the part of many individuals, each
one assuming responsibility for a separate function. Many
different processes in the production of an article formerly
were done by one individual, who designed, fabricated, as-
sembled, and finished the same piece. Today the various


1. To understand the meaning Make a list of industrial prod-
and importance of indus- ucts found in your home to-
trial design in our daily day. Check those which it is
living, likely that your great grand-
mother did not have. Tell why.
Of those she did have, tell how
different their forms were.


steps taken to produce an article are performed by a number
of individuals, which requires that the steps in the production
process be coordinated. Any product, be it a lighting fixture,
a lipstick container, or a piece of luggage, must be seen as to
the handiwork, in some sense, of not only the artist-designer
(craftsman) but also the engineer, production manager, ma-
chine operator, statistician, factory personnel manager, and
the quality-control individual.
The product reflects the process of idea development in
still another sense-integrating function, tool and material
processes, structure, aesthetics, consumer needs, and the ideas
of the artist-designer (craftsman) involved.
Industrial design as an area of the arts involves study of
products of industrial design, the role of the industrial de-
signer in today's world, possibilities and limitations of ma-
chine production, unique qualities of hand production, and
aesthetic standards for selecting consumer goods. It involves
giving consideration to art form as it is related to products
desired by and used by people, functional form, qualities of
precision, and structural form. It includes gaining an aware-
ness and understanding of the tools, materials, and ideas of
the various individual artist-designers of today, among the
most notable being Charles Eames, Florence Knoll, Eero Sa-
arinen, George Nelson, and Raymond Lowey.
The industrial design scope as identified here parallels in
some ways the architectural scope in this guide. In other
ways it reinforces the emphases in the scope entitled Observa-
tion and Appreciation.

GRADE 9 GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Make a collection of pictures Design a drinking fountain
showing the changes in a spe- for the hall of your school.
cific industrial design product Make an analysis of cost, ma-
over a period of time. Ex- trials, and processes. Trans-
ample: automobile, fan, tea late findings into a design. In
kettle, iron. Point out to the this process note the evolution
class the changes which are through which a design goes




Make a collection of pictures
of industrial products of to-
day, showing their range in
function, size, form, and
monetary value. Discuss the
significance of this informa-

2. To understand the inter-
relationships of design of a
product with other factors
significant in its develop-
a. Tool and material pro-
b. Function
c. Structure
d. Cost
e. Ideas of the artist-de-
f. Consumer need

3. To develop an awareness of
design as a creative and
pleasing solution to a prob-
lem involving use; to de-
velop criteria by which to
judge products for selec-
tion for one's own use.

Make a hand sculpture. Mix
plaster of Paris to heavy con-
sistency that will not run. Al-
low student to hold wet plas-
ter in one or both hands. By
varying the position of the
hands, acquire a variety of
shapes. Work with a knife,
rasp, and sand paper, devel-
oping the design that is in-
herent or suggested by the
material and its shape.
Through a similar process, de-
velop a screwdriver handle or
a carving-knife handle by
simplifying the form of the
hand sculpture.

Bring in a collection of well-
designed objects made from a
variety of materials. Exam-
ine each object for the rela-
tionship of design to function
to structure.
From five samples (for ex-
ample, dinner plates of dif-
ferent design ranging from
simple to fancy) rate one as
best. Identify bases of choices
made. Identify criteria by
which more valid choices of
design may be made.



apparent and some that are
not apparent. Discuss pos-
sible reasons for such
Select a current product of in-
dustrial design. Suggest im-
provements in design and
function. Make drawings in-
corporating these suggestions.

Select a simple product like a
paper cup or a plastic tum-
bler. Show in a bulletin-board
arrangement the process by
which it was developed from
the initial idea to the finished
Select an uncomplicated prod-
uct to design and produce for
sale by the class as a group.
Develop the design on the ba-
sis of an analysis of cost, ma-
terials, and production meth-
ods. Organize as a group of
individuals with separate
functions and produce a selec-
ted number of articles. Make
a process-product analysis.

Make a study of the flatware
design preferences of (a)
members of an art class, (b)
9th graders not taking art,
and (c.) the mothers of these
students. Compare and dis-
cuss findings. Draw conclu-
sions from findings.
Make a study of commercial
advertising to identify design
values being emphasized.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

in its development. Share
your findings with the school
through a visual display.
Report findings of an analysis
of individual and team meth-
ods of designing.

Make a collection of materials
available for the designer. Ex-
periment with them to see
what can be done with each.
Present findings to the school
via an exhibit case or bulle-
tin board.
Select an article to design and
construct for one's own use.
Example: wood-turned bowl,
nylon-thread woven material
for purse, or plastic and wood
lighting fixture. Research,
draw plans, make a model,
and make the article.

Study and report to the class
a. The psychological bases for
b. The sociological bases for
c. The philosophical bases for
Relate economic and techno-
logical factors to these bases.



4. To explore the possibilities
of industrial design as a


Identify the industrial de-
signers of the well-designed
products in the school, in pu-
pils' own homes, and in stores.



From the standpoint of aes-
thetic values critically analyze
some of the products being

Invite an industrial designer
to class and discuss with him
problems of this area of crea-
tive art production.
Visit a product factory.
Identify the different people
who in some way have respon-
sibility for the product.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Visit local shops and observe
,the style of products carried.
Elicit from shop owners the
style of a product (as dinner
ware) which most consumers
buy. Explain such choice.

Contact the local member of
the American Craftsman
Council for information on in-
dustrial design as a vocation.
Examine catalogs of colleges
having industrial design de-
partments and determine the
level and scope of require-
ments necessary to pursue
this area on the professional

American Craftsmen's Council. Dimensions of Design: Second Annual
Conference Report. New York: ACC, 1958.
Bates, Kenneth F. Basic Design. New York: The World Publishing
Company, 1960.
Birren, Faber. Creative Color. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corpo-
ration, 1961.
Design Quaterly. Subscription (4 issues a year) $2.00. Mineapolis:
Walker Art Center.
Kepes, Gyorgy. Language of Vision. Chicago: Paul Theobald, 1949.
Schinneller, J. A. Art: Search and Self Discovery. Scranton, Pennsyl-
vania: International Textbook Company, 1961.
Wallance, Don. Shaping America's Products. New York: Reinhold
Publishing Company, 1956.


Forming and Constructing/Jewelry

Jewelry is a form of personal adornment that has been
a part of man's aesthetic expression since early times. It
remains important to all men in the role of consumers; in
its place as a status symbol; as an identification; and as an
art reference. Its range is great: from baby ring to wedding
band; from nose ring to Phi Beta Kappa key; from a horse-
shoe nail ring to the crown jewels; from dime store to Fifth
Avenue shop. Its miniature scale makes it unique among the
Although the term jewelry implies the use of stone and
metal in fabrication, it may also include such common place
materials as glass, wood, bone, shells, ivory, feathers, seed
fibres, and the like. The possibilities and limitations of any


1. To utilize personal choices
of materials and ideas as
they may be specifically ap-
plied to personal adorn-
ment through the processes
involved in jewelry mak-


Find out what jewelry is be-
ing worn by classmates.
Collect different kinds of jew-
elry or photographs of jewel-
ry that might be used as a
basis for discussion of art
forms, production materials,
stimulating ideas for original
jewelry pieces.
Prepare basic criteria for se-
lection of jewelry for personal
Collect and exhibit examples
illustrating the criteria.
Discuss the importance of
scale in jewelry design.


of these materials might well be as susceptible to explora-
tion as stones and metals; such processes as cutting, bending,
piercing, linking, weaving, forming, appliqueing, sculpting,
melting, casting, setting, polishing, and burnishing may be
Designing jewelry encompasses the use of personal sym-
bols, creativeness and technique processes suitable to the
material. The designing, fabricating, finishing, and exhibiting
of jewelry may combine to produce a unity of thought and
understanding so essential to the core of human expression.
Jewelry design fills the adolescent's need for personal
adornment; both girls and boys reveal desires and interests
in manners of this highly personal expression. The unique
symbols for youth's ideas are often displayed in highly imag-
inative and creative ways in jewelry-making.


Study photographs and exam-
ples of jewelry, contemporary
and historical. Analyze them
for the materials and pro-
cesses used, their design, ways
in which they were used, and
the significance attached to
their use.
Visit a jeweler and analyze
items as above.
Create an educational display
to share results of class study
on jewelry design.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

At a jeweler's, observe a
craftsman at work. Discuss
with him ways in which he
increases the beauty (and the
value) of the material with
which he works.
Conduct a survey to deter-
mine current preferences and
tastes in jewelry.
Study the metalcrafts of
other nations. Note the
choice of materials and ideas.



2. To develop appreciation of
jewelry forms and to be-
come aware of the differ-
ent processes used in jewel-
ry construction with a va-
riety of materials.

3. To develop the ability to
use materials, equipment,
and tools properly and


Make simple and imaginative
jewelry from scrap materials
such as wooden spoons, wood
scraps from a cabinet shop
(walnut and mahogany),
wire, copper, brass, card-
board, yarns, metal foils,
cord, fibers, glass, plastic.
Experiment with a variety of
materials in making jewelry
for personal adornment. (See
native materials list in Chap-
ter V.)
Select an object such as a
shell, beautiful wood, stone,
or metal; wrap it with silver
or copper wire to accent the
chosen shape.
Experiment with wires of
various types and gauges, dis-
covering the possibilities and
limitations of wire relative to
jewelry design.

Solve problems of using soft
copper or brass wire in de-
signing jewelry by using
pliers (round nose, flat nose,
and chair pliers) or a ham-
mer. Experiment with varied
designs through caging native
materials. (See native ma-
terials list in Chapter V.)
Create jewelry designs by
carving in a plaster block and
pressing clay into the forms;
decorate with slip glazes and



Read reference books on jew-
elry-making to learn of the
different ways in which metal
has been combined with other
materials in jewelry.
Examine simple handmade
jewelry and determine pro-
cesses used in construction.
Adapt nature forms for jewel-
ry in some material (e.g.,
aluminum wire, sheet copper,
Carve a wax model, pour a
plaster mold and cast in a

Experiment with some of
these techniques in creating a
piece of jewelry (pierced,
filagreed, soldered, etched,
enameled, melted, combined).
Set up definite problems in
jewelry design and carry
through to completion, for
example, rings, pendants, cuff
links, earrings, tie clasps, and
western ties.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Observe and study the funda-
mental processes, tools, and
techniques of handwrought
metal work and costume
Observe and study the process
of enameling relative to jew-
elry design, including the fol-
lowing methods: champleve,
cloisonne, inlay, and majo-
Experiment with centrifugal
casting in the production of a
piece of jewelry.

Create a hinged jewelry pro-
ject involving enameling,
stone setting, or other pro-
Interview professional crafts-
men and make reports on the
results of your interview.
Work out special jewelry
problems involving chasing,
repousse, the setting of face-
ted stones, casting of metals,
enameling of metals.



4. To explore the evolution of
jewelry in relationship to
man's cultural develop-


Solve problems of using metal
in jewelry designs through
sawing, filing, burnishing,
soldering, and texturing.
Set up safety rules for using
tools and equipment in jewel-
ry making.

Examine Aztec and American
Indian jewelry and contrast
Study development of tech-
niques in jewelry design.
Investigate the folklore of
jewelry: birthstones, jewels.
Find stories in which a piece
of jewelry plays a major role,
for example, The Gold Bug.
Compare your personal jewel-
ry with jewelry worn by
youths of other cultures (e.g.,
use, design, materials, con-



Try different ways of using
wire in jewelry design (twis-
ted, interlaced, caging).
Prepare and post charts of
safety rules.

Set a cabochon-cut stone in a
ring, brooch, pendant by add-
ing other built-up design.
Find illustrations of medieval,
renaissance, baroque, and ro-
coco jewelry and study how
this art form reflects the cul-
ture and interests of the
Investigate stories connected
with famous artists as jewelry
Collect photographs of an-
tique jewelry and contempo-
rary jewelry to show the
transition of jewelry forms
and ideas along with the evo-
lution of man and his civiliza-

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Develop special projects with
wire using Martin's or Wine-
brenner's books for ideas.
Study precautions prior to
using machine processes (e.g.,
lapidary equipment, acety-
lene torch).

Read at least one book related
to some aspect of jewelry.
Make a visual report.
Report on outstanding pieces
of contemporary jewelry.
Discuss before the class favo-
rite jewelry design of some
historic period.
Discuss jewelry of Iranian,
Etruscan, Greek, Roman, and
Early Christian periods.
Study effects of intercultural
exchange on jewelry design.
Compile and view films,
slides, and filmstrips dealing
with jewelry.

Martin, Charles J. and D'Amico, Victor. How to Make Modern Jewelry.
New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1960.
Maryon, Herbert. Metalwork and Enameling. New York: Dover Pub-
lications, 1955.
Pack, Greta. Jewelry and Enameling. New York: D. Van Nostrand
Company, Inc., 1961. (Revised Edition).
Story, Mickey. Centrifugal Casting as a Jewelry Process. Scranton,
Pennsylvania: International Textbook Company, 1963.
Winebrenner, D. Kenneth. Jewelry Making As an Art Expression.
Scranton, Pennsylvania: International Textbook Company, 1953.
Winter, Edward. Enameling. New York: Watson-Guptill Publishers,


Forming and Constructing/Mosaics

Mosaics is that art activity in which small pieces of ma-
terials (tesserae) such as marble, glass, tile, stones, wood,
metal, and ivory, are assembled and inlaid into a background
material to form a design or pattern.
Mosaic art has a long history, extending at least from
3,000 years before the birth of Christ in the culture of the
Sumerians and the Chaldeans to the present time. Early in
man's history mosaics were used in architecture and on furni-
ture and jewelry. In Italy floor patterns were produced either
by using large slabs of marble tesserae or cubes. These tes-
serae floors varied from simple geometrical patterns in black
and white to complex designs of figures, animals, and plants.
Glass mosaics were used to decorate the ancient basilicas. The
Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans used mosaics extensively and
found that they could achieve a greater brilliance in their
range of colors by manufacturing the small mosaic pieces
from ceramics and glass instead of using natural stone.
During the 6th Century, Justinian used mosaics in the con-
struction of the architectural masterpiece, St. Sophia. It was



1. To explore the possibilities Experiment with colored con-
of using mosaics in solving struction paper layouts in de-
problems of design. signing mosaics.
View films, filmstrips, and
slides, or take field trips to
see examples of mosaic work
in the community.
Determine where there are
examples of mosaics in the


in this building that the craft reached perfection. Gold mo-
saics were used to decorate and to provide inspiration and
atmosphere for worship.
In the West, Ravenna became the center of Byzantium
mosaic art. During the 11th and 12th Centuries the art was
revived in Italy. Beautiful examples of mosaic art can be
seen in St. Mark's Church in Venice.
Recently, mosaics have been used with a renewed interest
in unusual and exciting ways. Modern workers still use the
ancient method of setting each piece by hand in damp mortar
as well as the new method of fastening the tesserae with glue
on a paper cartoon drawn in reverse and then transferred to
the mortar. Pieces are also glued on a background of wood,
metal, or glass and then the spaces are filled with grout or
Mosaics have been and continue to be used on the outside
of buildings. In such work, as an integral part of architec-
ture, details often have to be omitted or simplified. The
artists working with mosaics have to work within the possi-
bilities of the medium.


Make tesserae out of clay
slabs cut in pieces, glazed, and
fired, or fire glazed slabs of
clay and then cut with tile
cutters into tesserae.
Melt the glass pieces in kilns
for variety of shape and size
for flat mosaics.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Discuss the terminology and
history of mosaics. Use slides
and illustrations.
Have students investigate the
contemporary use of mosaics
and prepare a visual report.



2. To develop design concepts
in mosaic art from the be-
ginning to the finished

3. To develop an understand-
ing of the possibilities and
limitations of mosaics as
an art form, presently and

4. To learn the appropriate
use and care of tools and
materials used in mosaics.

5. To discover vocational pos-
sibilities of mosaics.


Develop flat mosaics
seeds, rice, shells, or
(See native materials
Construct mosaic mural.


Experiment with colored tiles,
using areas of light and dark
for contrast in terms of pur-
poses of the project.
Become familiar with terms
used in mosaics: tesserae,
mortar, grout, nippers.
Experiment in a small pro-
ject with color contrasts as
the essential element in de-
sign of mosaics.

Compile a list of basic ma-
terials and tools used in sim-
ple mosaic construction.

Survey the commercial use of
mosaics in the community
(e.g., setting, size, material
used, designer).

Argairo, Larry. Mosaic Art Today. Scranton, Pennsylvania: Inter-
national Textbook Company, 1961.
Hendreckson, Edwin A. Mosaics: Hobby and Art. New York: Hill and
Wang, 1957.



Experiment with different
types of tesserae in making
small mosaics.

Prepare lists of materials
needed to work mosaics and
possibilities of ways in which
the materials can be used.
Collect, discuss, and display
illustrations of mosaics as
found in books, magazines,
brochures, and other publica-
tions. View slides also.
Construct seed mosaics, peb-
ble mosaics, and bathroom tile
mosaics as small pictures,
preferably in black, white,
and gray so that the student
works with design and basic
construction without the
problem of color.

Study the proper use of nip-
pers, hammer, chisel, metal
shears, files, small kiln, large
kiln; discover the particular
characteristics and properties
of grout.

Interview an architect con-
cerning possibilities of mo-
saics in building construction
and design.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Design a mosaic sculpture
worked over paper mache
shape covered with wire, ad-
hesive, and tiles and grout
between the tiles.

Undertake and carry through
with a project such as broken
glass mosaics, ceramic tile,
Italian glass, handmade
glazed tiles of clay, painted
glaze on individual tiles, de-
signs for tables, sculpture, or
Compare contemporary mo-
saics with ancient mosaics as
to design, materials used, and
use. Investigate techniques
used in the past in Pompeii
and Byzantium.

Experiment with background
materials such as masonite,
plywood, cement, plaster.
Experiment with a transpar-
ent mosaic without back-

Interview a tile setter, archi-
tect, stained glass designer, or
artist in the community con-
cerning the vocational possi-
bilities and the importance of
mosaics in their vocation.

Jenkins, Louisa and Mills, Barbara. The Art of Making Mosaics. New
York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1957.
Young, Joseph L. Mosaics: Principles and Practices. New York: Rein-
hold Publishing Corporation, 1963.


Forming and Constructing/Pottery

Pottery is one of the oldest human endeavors to meet every-
day needs with functional and often aesthetically appealing
forms. These utilitarian forms are vessels that have been
shaped by the hands. They are made of earth-clay; they re-
quire water for adhesion and fire for vitrifying into stone-like
Pottery products have endured through the ages to become
priceless and tangible records of many phases of man's cul-
tures. The miniature ointment jars of the Egyptian noble-
woman, the enormous grain jars of the Cretan, the amphorae
of the Greeks, the funeral urns of the Peruvians, the highly
refined porcelains of the Orientals, the Sevres, Delft, Wedge-
wood and Dresden ware of the Europeans are such records.
These serve to remind us not only of the mores of the time
but also of the continuing creativity of man; of his needs for
visually pleasing utensils; and of the high degree of artistry
unique to his culture.



1. To develop initiative and
integrity, and all the senses
in an awareness of aesthe-
tic qualities in natural and
man-made forms.
(Through awareness of
tactile quality and visual
interpretation, form will
suit function.)

2. To discover possibilities
and limitations of the med-
ium, tools, and processes of
pottery in terms of solving
problems of visual express-
ion; to develop a sense of
responsibility toward and
respect for tools and med-

Handle (with eyes closed)
some of the things which na-
ture has developed to contain
fruits, nuts, seeds, seedpods,
or vegetable shells to develop
a sensitivity to form, weight,
and texture. This will provide
stimulation, based on the de-
sign used by nature itself,
which can later be applied to
the interpretation of good de-
sign in pottery.
Discover how the material
a. How it stiffens and later
becomes rigid by drying in
the open air
b. How it can be softened
from rigid back to plastic


Clay forming may range from simple hand manipulation
without tools toward an ever-increasing complexity involving
machines and tools, a wide variety of construction techniques,
and an unlimited number of ornamental and glazing processes.
In the conceptual and constructive stage, clay is extremely
pliant; it may be shaped by the pinch-pot, coil, drape, or slab
methods; it may be thrown on a wheel. It may be separated
and rejoined with water alone; unsatisfactory attempts may
be changed and modified with infinite variety so long as its
moisture content is maintained.
The modeled shape dries to a non-pliant stage, during
which, from leather hard to bone-dry, other processes are used
to refine it. This green ware is vitrified into a porous-like
bisque ware through a chemical change wrought by firing in
a kiln. Depending on the function of the ware, a glaze may be
applied and fired.
The average young person will respond immediately to the
plasticity of the material, its miraculous conversion through
firing, and the textures and color which result from glazing.


Show examples of pottery.
(Films or slides may be used.)
Evaluate as to simplicity, in-
tegrity of function, and form.
Discuss how these relate to
natural forms.

Change the character of the
basic materials by:
a. Experimenting with sand,
grog, vermiculite, or coarse
sawdust for changes in the
mixture of clay
b. Decorating with engobes,
sgraffito, and mishima.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Develop an exhibit of how
pottery is made. Enhance the
exhibit by using examples of
natural container forms such
as fruit, nuts, seeds, vege-
tables, shown with related ex-
amples of student work.

Extend the concept of pottery
a. Developing stoneware and
porcelain bodies with
glazes to fit
b. Developing simple, clear
glazes using mixtures of
crushed glass, clay, and



by wrapping closely in
damp cloths
c. How any stage may be
held constant by wrapping
tightly in thin plastic
d. How plastic clay stretches
and compresses
e. How plastic coils and slabs
may be added to stiff clay
walls by scratching and
wetting at seams and
f. How scratched or cut tex-
tures and patterns may be
worked on the surface of
damp rigid pots
g. How liquid clay or slip of a
contrasting color may be
applied to damp, rigid pot
h. How clay hardens during
i. How glazes make bisque
clay waterproof and how
various colors and textures
of fired glazes affect the
visual and tactile qualities
of pottery.
Invent or collect tools:
a. Cutting and scraping im-
plements-spoons, hack-
saw blades, twisted wires,
crochet needles (with hook
filed off)
b. Tools for rolling slabs-
wooden strips, to guide
thickness of clay, rolling
pins, or pipes



Make tools by:
a. Using clay and sand forms,
sand bags, sand boxes, and
cloth hammocks to develop
positive and negative
shapes for slab draping.
Change and combine these
forms to create new forms
b. Stretching cotton jersey
over fruit, melons, or any
simple non-porous form to
use as a beginning slab
c. Fashioning dies, stamps,
and roulette stamps in
plastic clay which can be
used as impressing tools
after the implement is
hardened by firing
d. Making bisque molds for
reproducing low relief
work or sprigg designs.
Investigate the following pro-
a. Brushing, dipping, and
pouring glazes in only cer-
tain parts of the surface,
then covering the entire
surface with transparent
glaze. Use paper towel as
simple resist.
b. Control slip and glaze by
using slip trailers made
from plastic nasal spray
bottles and by making
stamp motifs from rubber
complexion sponges.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

minerals rusts and oxides
from the metal shop
c. Relating the study of
chemistry of glazes with
courses in chemistry and
general science by simple
experimentation to dis-
cover what mineral oxides
give what colors in glazes,
how deflocculation of slip
causes changes in the
working properties of the
Build major pieces of pottery
equipment kilns, power
wheel, kick or treadle wheel,
ball mill.
Make simple one-piece molds
of plaster for slip-casting.
Make a model using a plastic
material, proceeding to a
waste-mold and final pottery.
Throw simple shapes from
plastic clay on a kick wheel.
Evaluate pieces.



3. To explore and evaluate
different methods of or-
ganization in pottery in re-
lation to one's own needs,
ideas, and purposes, as well
as service and recreation.


c. Drape-slab forms-light
globes, gourds, melons,
fruit covered with tightly
stretched cotton jersey,
smooth stones
d. Stamping tools-any hard
object which would leave
an impression on plastic
clay, for inventive and
decorative surfaces.

Investigate processes:
a. Pinched-out bowls
b. Draped slab bowls
c. Coil-built or slab-ribbon
forms with depth or func-
tional adjuncts of handles,
knobs, and feet.

Make functional
pieces which:


a. Fulfill the student's needs
-table wares; containers
for plant collections, rocks,
marine animals, or coins;
b. Fulfill the needs of friends
and parents-flower pots,
ash trays, tiles, candle
holders, desk and dresser
Study functional wares in
stores as well as historical ex-
amples for clues to what
makes an object well de-



Make a systematic study of
the demands of function on
such utilitarian wares as
pitchers, cup handles, storage
With the homemaking depart-
ment, sponsor an exhibit of
table-setting, emphasizing
function and beauty in table

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Develop a series of shapes
which explore the possible
variations on the original
form made from a single plas-
ter slip casting mold.
Investigate the new uses to
which ceramic materials have
been put in the space age. De-
velop an instructional display.



4. To become familiar with,
to understand, to respond
sensitively to ways in
which others have created
pottery art forms in rela-
tion to their ideas, needs,
and purposes; to explore
the possibilities of ceramic
art as a vocation.

5. To develop a desire for
good organization; and to
form good habits of prop-
erly using and caring for
tools and materials.

6. To explore vocational pos-
sibilities of pottery-


Investigate the uses to which
pottery has been put by:
a. Listing objects in home,
store, and school which are
or could be made of clay
b. Compiling illustrations of
clay objects from maga-
zine or library sources
c. Researching pottery in past
historical periods, using
perhaps local, colonial, or
Indian artifacts from mu-
seums or antique shops or
from local amateur collec-

Assume responsibility for dis-
tribution, proper use, care,
cleaning, and storage of tools
and materials. Assume also
individual responsibility of
assigned work areas and dis-
play boards and cases.

Visit ceramic hobby studios in
the community.

Duncan, Julia H. and D'Amico, Victor. How to Make Pottery and
Ceramic Sculpture. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1947.
Kenny, John B. The Complete Book of Pottery Making. New York:
Greenberg Publisher, 1949.
Nelson, Glenn C. Ceramics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
Inc., 1960.



Explore the community for
clay and mineral mines or
suppliers of such materials.
Seek out clay product manu-
facturers or local pottery
Investigate techniques and
styles of ornamentation
throughout history as a basis
for developing taste in design
and broadening techniques.
Develop an exhibit of how pot-
tery is made or of outstanding
pottery made by the class.
Develop an exhibition of the
use of clay products, as build-
ing materials, e.g., brick, tile,
concrete products, glass, plu-
mbing and electrical fixtures.

Organize and label spaces for
storage of tools and materials
with arrangement and colors
that encourage others to
maintain order and care.

Investigate requirements for
vocational choice.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Display photos of pottery
from specific local areas to
demonstrate geographic dif-
ferences in materials and
their effect on the product.
Display photos of pottery
from other times and cultures,
and establish a correlation be-
tween the culture and its clay
Compile a bibliography (and
collection) of books dealing
with the history of pottery,
the art of pottery, the tech-
nical field of ceramic art.
Develop a list of slides, mov-
ies, filmstrips, exhibits, and
plates dealing with pottery.

Discover and use new tech-
niques for materials and tools.
Experiment with methods of
restoring surfaces and tools.

Interview craftsmen in the
community and report results.

Invite professional artists to
discuss vocational problems.

Norton, F. H. Ceramics for the Artist Potter. Reading, Massachusetts:
Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1959.
Rhodes, Daniel. Clay and Glazes for the Potter. New York: Greenberg
Publisher, 1957.
Wildenhain, Marguerite. Pottery: Form and Expression. New York:
Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1959.


Forming and Constructing/Sculpture

Sculpturing is a process of modeling or carving (building
up or taking away) or constructing (securing together) for
the purpose of expressing an idea through form, mass, and
volume. Man's reactions to forms in nature, environment,
everyday experiences, and qualities of materials have been
sources of ideas for his sculptural creations.

Sculpture can take the shape of open forms (e.g., Henry
Moore), of closed forms (e.g., Auguste Rodin), or moving
forms (e.g., Alexander Calder) ; it may be free standing (e.g.,
Michelangelo's David) or inseparably related to a background
(e.g., facade sculpture: Gothic cathedrals and the Parthenon
frieze; bas relief: Anghor Vat; and haute relief: Lucca Della



1. To discover tactile values
(a) as found in natural
forms and (b) as an ex-
pressive and unifying ele-
ment in sculptural form.

2. To discover possibilities
and limitations of using
sculpture in solving one's
own expression and design

Collect natural inanimate
forms, such as stones, drift-
wood, shells, and bones; and
study for texture. Prepare
two- and three-dimensional
displays of these textures ac-
cording to similarities and
differences. Include photo-
graphs of inanimate forms
and of sculptural forms which
show textural effects.

Hand squeeze a ball of clay;
develop an organization of
visual forms from this be-
ginning, using only fingers
and hands as tools; observe
and evaluate as to (1) bal-
ance, (2) rhythm, (3) dom-
inance, (4) uniqueness.


Sculpture has served since early times multiple purposes
such as commemoration, decoration, worship, and aesthetic
satisfaction. These works range in size from the miniature
(e.g., the cameo or a side of a coin) to the monumental (e.g.,
an Egyptian tomb statue).
Contemporary sculptors have added the fourth dimension
to a traditionally three-dimensional art in order to express
more fully the dynamics of the twentieth century. Emphasis
on tactile effects and the use of a greater variety of materials
and processes are other characteristics of contemporary sculp-
ture (e.g., welded metal, bent plywood, cast concrete).
Materials used in sculpture include paper, paper mache,
wire, wood, screen, glass, stone, metal, and synthetic products.
Sensitivity to the nature and beauty of these materials is de-
veloped as the sculptor arrives at the most expedient method
of shaping them to convey his ideas.


Select a piece of wood with in-
teresting grain; carve a de-
sign that is sympathetic to
the grain; bring out the beau-
ty in the grain of the wood by
sanding, staining, and wax-
Study tactile qualities by: (1)
casting sculpture in relief,
(2) modeling a form using
plaster over wire base, (3)
carving a figure from wax.

Make a portrait bust.
Make a mobile.
Externalize a feeling (e.g.,
fear), an experience (e.g.,
flying or falling), an ideal
(e.g., courage, strength), or
an idea (e.g., "He is a
square") in some 3-D form

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Collect photographs and take
or make photographs of in-
teresting textures found on
3-D forms.
Study use of textures of var-
ious contemporary pop art
sculptors. Write an analysis
of this aspect of their work.

Make a sculpture to fit a lo-
cation (e.g., garden, living
room, wall niche, own room,
school hallway).
Cast a sculpture in the round
(e.g., cement, lead, pewter,




Experiment with a sculptural
material in expressing an idea
(e.g., plaster block, soft wood,
styrofoam, soap, soapstone,
plaster, and wax). Analyze
for possibilities and limita-
tions of the particular med-
ium as a means of expression.

3. To become familiar with
historical and contempo-
rary sculpture in an effort
to understand purposes,
materials, processes, and
organization of visual ele-

4. To gain an insight into
sculpture as a mode of ex-
pression that is different
from such visual arts as
painting or printing be-
cause (1) it has 3-D and
sometimes even 4-D quali-
ties, and (2) it is modeled
by light which varies its

Find photographs of different
kinds of sculpture, historic
land contemporary. Identify
the purpose, processes, ma-
terials, and organization in
each one.

Experiment with a light
source on a piece of sculpture
by changing the power of il-
lumination and the position
of the light source.
Contrast architectural sculp-
ture and mural painting.



GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

with any suitable material

Study the works of sculptors
for the personal statement of
each artist (e.g., Brancusi,
Phidias, Cellini, Michelangelo,
David Smith, Ralph Hurst).
Make a survey of sculpture
found in the community,
classifying each as to type
(see introduction to this sec-

Draw a picture of one of your
sculptures; contrast the na-
ture of the problem of por-
traying volume in the two ac-
Select an animal or human
form and break it down to its
basic volumes in clay or plas-
ter to emphasize light model-
ing with planes on the sur-

Make a thorough study of
some phase of sculpture (e.g.,
era, period, style, a piece of
sculpture, a group of sculp-
tures, the work of one sculp-
tor, the works of a school of
sculptors, architectural, por-
trait, and non-objective sculp-
ture). Concentrate on ma-
terials, process-tools, uses,
and function. Arrange an ex-
hibit of the findings of the

Emotionally "feel" an un-
usually shaped piece of rock
or free-form cast stone to see
what inner form it suggests.
Carry through in fullest, sim-
plified form, the object (real
or abstract) suggested with-
Contrast above sculpture pro-
ject by evolving from a series
of 2-D sketches a precon-
ceived design and following
through in an appropriate ad-
ditive medium.



5. To discover vocational pos-
sibilities in the field of


Invite a sculptor to class to
discuss his profession.



GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Visit a sculptor's studio, a
concrete casting plant, a stone
quarry, a sandblasting monu-
ment works.

Investigate sculpture schools.
Interview an architect con-
cerning use made of work by
sculptors in his buildings,
ways he works with sculptors.
Compile information on re-
cognized sculptors.

Duncan, Julia Hamlin and D'amico, Victor. How to Make Pottery and
Ceramic Sculpture. New York: Museum of Modern Art., 1947.
Goldscheider, Ludwig. The Sculptures of Michaelangelo (Phaedon
Edition). New York: Graphic, 1962. 4th Edition.
Johnson, Lillian. Sculpture-The Basic Methods and Materials. New
York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1960.
Weiss, Harvey. Clay, Wood and Wire. New York: William R. Scott, Inc.,
Zorach, William. Zorach Explains Sculpture-What It Means and How
It is Made. New York: Tudor Publishing Company, 1960.


Forming and Constructing/Theatre Arts

Theatre arts in the public school may be defined as those
skills and understandings based upon the study of any art
element employed in a dramatic presentation before an audi-
ence. The theatre, in its broadest sense, includes any and all
forms of entertainment involving spectator and performer.
It is assumed all such presentations are limited by the sub-
ject, the performance area, and the skill of the performers.
In the school, the performance area may be a small stage;
in television, the area may be forty feet of studio space. The
subject may vary from Shakespeare's "Merchant of Venice"
or a local ballet group to a holiday-inspired assembly program.
The arts of the theatre are not independent in the sense
of painting or sculpture. All theatre arts are essentially
servants of another master. As commercial art serves product
and sponsor, the artist in the theatre works from the mood
and intent of the script. (The muralist and architect also
have limitations imposed upon them by the client.) This re-
lationship with others, however, does not preclude the stage
or costume designer from a high order of creative thinking.


1. To develop an awareness of
the effects created in thea-
tre of today and yesterday.

2. To discover possibilities
and limitations of the the-
atre media: light, stage
structure, costume and


Using the library, find theatre
illustrations of different times
and places (e.g., Fifth-cen-
tury Greek, marionette pre-
sentations of the Middle Ages
in Europe, oriental shadow
puppets, or contemporary
theatre). Discuss the differ-
ences and possible reasons for

Using colored gelatins over
flashlights throw the light,
one color at a time, on colored
pieces of materials. Study the
effect of, for example, a red


The designer in the theatre creates more than pretty pic-
tures or images. He deals with such mundane matters as
budgets, flow of traffic, and tricks of illusion. His creation,
however fanciful, has a solid foundation on the drafting board.
He is, in a sense, a visionary whose dreams are firmly rooted
in practical decisions.
The scenic artist has a special sensitivity to space. He
manipulates positive and negative areas, uses levels and hori-
zontal and vertical planes. He works with depth as well as
surface decoration, and in so doing has a range of style as
wide as that of a painter. The designer may work as a realist,
an abstractionist, or as an impressionist.
The scenic artist establishes mood, to a certain degree,
even before the action of the play has begun. He works with
the sensual qualities of light, color, texture, and design in
order to evoke specific feelings in the audience. He is a master
of the relationship between mass psychology and the entire
visual field.
The theatre offers the greatest freedom of expression of
all mass communications. Exceptional amounts of discipline,
teamwork, and energy are required to maintain the balance
required for artistic unity.


Study the purposes of thea-
trical effects in the lives of
people (e.g., primitive ritual
and experimental contempo-
rary theatre). Make a visual
report of the results of your
study to the class or to some
special school or community

Arrange colored papers in
3-D designs and experiment
with colored lights to estab-
lish a mood, as for example,
storms, fear, excitement, and

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Use library references to dis-
cover characteristics of thea-
tre effects by people in differ-
ent times and places (e.g.,
Japanese, ancient Greek, and
contemporary masks). Pre-
pare an exhibit of this ma-
terial for the school.

Create a stage design using
colored materials and light
for a particular play, as for
example, one studied in Eng-
lish classes.



light on these colored mater-
ials. Compare this effect with
the result of a white light on
a green light thrown on these
same items.
Create a scale model of the
school stage (1/2" to 1') out of
cardboard. Place clay actors
(of characters from plays stu-
dents have read or written) to
scale in set. Make simple
props to scale. Experiment
with colored lights.
Create a puppet head or mask
of own face and study use of
theatrical exaggeration with

See a television play (or a
school play). Discuss prob-
lems of the theatre designers.

3. To demonstrate use of
teamwork without loss of

4. To become familiar with
tools, scenery construction,
and support (e.g., lumber,
hardware, and fabrics in
the construction of scenery
and properties.

Working in groups, divide the
class into the following teams
with a single production such
as a puppet play in mind:
puppet makers
stage designers

Take the class to the school
stage and learn the termin-
ology (apron, proscenium,
backdrop, flat, and teasers).
Observe scenery or stage
props in evidence. Discuss



Study the possibilities of such
different stage structures as
open air theatre, revolving
stage theatre, arena theatre.

Draw or paint a series of cos-
tume designs to explore thea-
trical exaggeration (e.g., bal-
let fantasy as opposed to his-
torical re-creation).
Visit a television studio and
observe a television play being
presented. Note nature of
settings used. Discuss prob-
lems of television stage de-

Working with a school play-
production group, plan, de-
sign, and produce (1) set-
tings for a play, (2) pro-
grams, or (3) posters adver-
tising the play.

Visit situation where stage
props are being constructed
and observe tools and mater-
ials being used. Make simple
stage props as backdrops

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

Investigate and report on the
way outstanding stage de-
signers have made maximum
use within limits of theatre
possibilities in their produc-
tions (Jo Mielzener, Donald
Oenslager, Robert Edmond
Make a model of a costume in-
cluding make-up for a charac-
ter in a chosen play (e.g.,
Calibrax in The Tempest).

Create a stage set for a tele-
vision play, using economical
sets for a real studio.

Using a familiar multi-set
play, such as one read in lit-
erature class, prepare settings
to scale for a specific stage.
Consider mechanics and time
limitations of changing sets.

Make a sketch of the school
stage. Use this as the basis
for a model with which to
construct settings for a
Homecoming Day perform-




construction and materials of

5. To become aware of voca-
tional and avocational pos-
sibilities in the theatre.

Visit a local theatre during re-
hearsal. Experience the ex-
citement of activity. Note
the different kinds of respon-
sibilities which must be as-
sumed by some person.



(e.g., a tree) for a puppet
theatre play.

Interview a play producer,
some of the other persons
charge of production of
play, to learn the nature
the work.


Discuss vocational opportuni-
ties in the field of theatrical
arts. Relate training in the
public schools to vocations in
the theatre, industrial arts,
music, art, and literature.

GRADES 10, 11, AND 12

ance or another special day

Investigate and report on the
training, background, experi-
ence, working conditions, and
remuneration of some of
America's outstanding thea-
tre designers (e.g., Jo Miel-
zener, Donald Oenslager, and
Robert Edmond Jones).
Discuss the difference between
professional training schools
and departments of drama in
colleges. Invite a local pro-
fessional designer to speak to
the class.

Nelms, Henning. Play Production. New York: Barnes and Nobles, Inc.,
1958 (Revised Edition).
Omanney, Katharine Ann and P. C. Stage and the School. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1960 (Revised Edition).
Walkup, Fairfax Proudfit. Dressing the Part. New York: Appleton-
Century-Croft, Inc., 1950 (Revision).



From the time of the paleolithic cave paintings of Lascaux
in Dordogne, man has continued to indicate an interest in the
linear quality of visual expression. Today, drawing is the
manifest representation of this continued interest. Primarily
a concern with the quality of linear markings, drawing is a
presentation of line through form in terms of value and tex-
ture. Color per se is not an initial consideration, although the
introduction of colored line is not uncommon.
Drawing may be a realized end in itself (e.g., Durer, Pe-
terdi). Drawing may serve as a means of solidifying visual
ideas of anticipated organization (e.g., Picasso's Guernica),
thereby, with regard to painting, serving as an initial ex-
amination of visual organization and ideas. It may also serve
as preliminary expectation and anticipation, not only for the
painter but also for the work of the draftsman, architect, or


1. To develop initiative and
integrity in a visual inter-
pretation of the environ-
ment through drawing.

2. To explore different ap-
proaches to drawing.


Gather such things as leaves,
twigs, and match boxes. Use
line to depict these small ob-
jects on a larger scale. Choose
what is important to draw in
each object. Leave out that
which is not necessary. Pick
out specifics that identify or
define the object as you see it.

Draw several selected sub-
jects, either natural or man-
made from the visual environ-
ment and consider only the
contour. While drawing,
(a) Look only at the subject
as the hand and tool cre-
ate the line
(b) Look at the subject and
refer from the subject to
the drawing


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