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Florida teacher salary provisions
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 Material Information
Title: Florida teacher salary provisions
Series Title: Research report
Cover title: Florida teacher salary provision
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Education
Publisher: Dept. of Education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Creation Date: 1968
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Teachers -- Salaries, etc -- Statistics -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Issuing Body: Issued by the Division of Elementary and Secondary Education, Bureau of Research.
General Note: Description based on: 1971; title from cover.
Funding: Research report (Florida. State Dept. of Education. Division of Research)
 Record Information
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Holding Location: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 12627440
lccn - 70634835
System ID: AM00000225:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Summary of classroom teachers' salary ranges (10 months), 1968-69
        Page 18
Full Text





**Brch

divisto


Research

Report


REPORT 65


H-


ir


Florida


Teacher
Salary
Provision


AUGUST 1968
1q. ?7q
Ol3 e


STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
TALLAHASSEE FLORIDA
PLOYD T. CHRISTIAN STATE SUPERINTENDENT


M.


--- --~ II



































Research Report 65 is a revision of Research
Report ~I, prepared by the Division of Research
of the Florida S:ate Department of Education. (800)














FLORIDA TEACHER SALARY PROVISIONS


Provisions for salary are important to teachers interested in moving
to Florida from other states, students contemplating teaching, and to
college students preparing to teach, as well as to teachers already in
service.

Many requests are received by the State Department of Education for
information regarding salaries in Florida. This brief attempts to bring
together in one place pertinent information regarding teachers' salaries.
It is hoped that it will contribute to a better understanding of teacher
salary provisions on the part of both teachers and interested citizens.

No effort has been made to rank counties or provide county comparisons
for reasons outlined in the text. Rather, this is a general presentation
of factors applicable to salaries and salary schedules. Statistical tables,
salary ranges, certification requirements, and county salary schedules are
available from other sources and are not presented here. Certification,
teacher contracts, leave provisions, and other matters of interest to in-
structional personnel are considered only as they apply to salaries. No
effort is made to treat these matters in detail.

Salary provisions for junior college personnel are not included in
this report since the factors are not the same as for the regular K-12
public school program.

Florida does not have a state salary schedule for either instructional
or non-instructional personnel. Salary schedules are established by the
county board of public instruction (BPI) in each county and vary from county
to county and from year to year within the same county. Each county BPI
includes an official salary schedule each year as a part of its budget sub-
mitted to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction for approval.
Salaries paid individual teachers must conform with the rates shown in the
official salary schedule adopted by the county BPI. This is one of the
items verified by the State Auditing Department when county fiscal post-
audits are made. State law, Section 236.02(6), Florida Statutes, establishes
certain requirements for salaries which must be met in order for the county
to participate in the Florida Minimum Foundation Program (MFP) Fund:

1. No member of the instructional staff holding a Rank III or higher
certificate may be paid less than $5,300 annually (minimum term of
196 days of service). Also, no member of the instructional staff
may be paid an amount less than ninety percent of the Minimum
Foundation Program salary allocation prescribed by law for his
rank certificate and contractual status.

2. Annual increments must be incorporated in the salary schedule to
provide for not less than fifteen years of teaching service in the












public school system of Florida. Several counties provide annual
increments in excess of fifteen years.

3. Salary schedules adopted by the county BPI must take into consider-
ation the factors of training and service. Additional factors as
incentives for the determination and recognition of superior teach-
ing and service to the schools may be adopted as a part of the
county salary schedule, except that the National Teachers Examina-
tion, or a general knowledge test, shall not be used as a factor
in determining salaries. Each additional factor which is con-
sidered in determining the salary for a teacher must be included
as a part of the official salary schedule for the county. Tests
in the subjects in which the teacher is teaching may be used in
the assignment of teachers but not for salary purposes.

The state minimum salaries prescribed above may be waived for a county
by the State Board in special hardship cases where a county BPI can prove
to the State Board that the payment of such minimum salaries would unduly
curtail the educational program or endanger the financial structure of a
county in any school year. The burden of proof in such cases is on the
county BPI. Such an exemption cannot be authorized for more than two suc-
cessive years. This provision has never been applied.

There is another little-used provision in the law under which incre-
ments and minimum salary requirements may be withheld in special cases when
such teachers are found not to be warranted. Before yearly increments and
required minimum salaries may be withheld, the following conditions must be
met as prescribed in State Board Regulation 130-1.53:

1. Plans and policies for such withholding must be adopted by the
county BPI, spread upon its minutes, and duly publicized. A copy
of such policy must be on file with the State Superintendent of
Public Instruction and approved by the State Board.

2. The teachers affected must be notified at least four weeks before
the close of the regular session of school of the year prior to
the year in which the withholding becomes effective.

Salary schedules adopted for instructional personnel in a county must
provide equivalent salaries for teachers with equal qualifications whether
the teacher is in elementary, junior or senior high schools. However,
supplements for additional responsibilities, duties, or services may be paid
when provisions for such supplements are included as a part of the official
salary schedule. Each teacher must be paid the amount called for in the
official salary schedule of the county. Incorrect salaries resulting in
over-payments and under-payments must be adjusted to conform with the offi-
cial salary schedule (State Board Regulation 130-1,52(4)).

Increased attention is being accorded the concepts of flexible staff
operation and differentiated levels of responsibility and compensation for
services performed. In all probability, salary schedule provisions in some
counties will be affected as exploratory and pilot programs are initiated.











Two statewide efforts have been made. The 1957 session of the Florida
Legislature provided for the establishment of special career increments as
a part of the salary schedule of each county. No state funds were involved,
but plans were developed in each county during 1957-59, evaluation conducted
in 1959-60, and payments initiated in 1960-61. This program aroused strong
opposition from teachers and was made optional in 1961. It was replaced
by a program of State Competency Awards of $400 from state funds in 1961.
This program also met opposition and was repealed in 1963, although payments
were continued during the 1963-64 school year.

The county BPI is required to furnish each member of the instructional
staff with a written contract which provides for the payment of a definite
salary (Section 236.02(3), Florida Statutes). Personnel employed for twelve
months, such as supervisors, principals, and other special instructional
personnel, must be paid in twelve equal monthly installments. The only
exception is in those counties having a seven-member school board, having
abolished district trustees, and having anpappointed superintendent, which
counties may pay at less than monthly intervals. Instructional personnel
employed for less than twelve months must be paid in monthly payments as
nearly equal as possible according to a payment schedule adopted by the
county BPI. The payment schedule and dates of payment vary from county to
county depending on the decision made by the county BPI. Florida law for-
bids the payment of salaries before service is rendered. Advances on
salary or advance payments thus are unlawful. Also, no teacher or principal
is entitled to receive any salary from public school funds unless all re-
quited records and reports have been made. A similar requirement is in
effect for the county superintendent's required reports to the State Superin-
tendent.

Instructional personnel under a ten-month contract are required to
render a minimum of 196 days of service, including pre-school and post-
school planning periods. This is the minimum number of days required by
state law and can be extended within the ten-month contractual period by
action of the county BPI. A number of counties require more than the
minimum 196 days' service during the ten-month contractual period. Some
counties require additional days of service for new instructional personnel
as a period of orientation. Saturday and holidays are not counted in the
196 minimum days of service, nor is there any provision for paid vacation
periods for ten-month personnel within the minimum of 196 days.

At least 180 days of classroom instruction for pupils is required with-
in the 196 days. These 180 days may not include registration periods for
pupils, holidays, or any other periods of time during which school is
closed or dismissed. This requirement may be altered during a national or
local emergency, but the Minimum Foundation Program (MFP) allocation is
decreased in proportion to the decrease in the length of the school term.
This is why every effort is made to "make up" lost days of school. Satur-
days may not be used for this purpose.

No minimum length of school day for instructional personnel is pre-
scribed by state law or state board regulations. This is established by












policies of each county BPI. Florida state law does establish a minimum
school day for pupils, however, The minimum is five net hours, not in-
cluding intermissions, for all grades above grade three, and not less than
four net hours for the first three grades. The State Board is authorized
to make some adjustment in situations such as double sessions which are
necessary on a temporary basis.

The county BPI may allow paid vacation leave for instructional per-
sonnel employed on a twelve-month basis at a rate not exceeding that estab-
lished by the State Personnel Board for employees of state agencies. Days
off during the Christmas vacation period, other than prescribed legal holi-
days, are counted as a part of the vacation leave for twelve-month employees
unless such employees actually are on duty. Professional leave with pay
at the rate of three weeks per year, cumulative for not more than two years,
may be granted to twelve-month personnel. This gives twelve-month personnel
an opportunity to attend a six-weeks summer school term every two years if
they desire. Such leave, however, is optional with the county BPI and is
restricted to times when school is not in session. (State Board Regulations
130-1.81.)

Extended professional leave for a period of not more than one year may
be granted an individual who has served satisfactorily and successfully in
the county but partial compensation may be authorized only after three
years of service unless the leave is related to a program of staff develop-
ment. The county BPI prescribes by regulation the extent of compensation
for professional leave. Such leave must be approved by the county superin-
tendent.

Instructional personnel who are members of reserve components of the
armed forces may be granted military leave, with pay, to participate volun-
tarily in temporary duty, training duty, or short tours at the discretion
of the county BPI. Such leave is granted when school is not in session,
except under unusual circumstances. Military leave for employees who are
required to serve in the armed services for extended periods must be
granted. Such leave may not be counted for allocation of MFP funds or as
years of service toward a continuing contract. Individuals wishing further
details on military leave are referred to State Board Regulation 130-1.83
and Chapter 115, Florida Statutes.

Teaching contracts place obligations on the teacher as well as on the
county BPI. A contractual situation exists when a written offer of a
specific position for a stated term of service at a specified salary is
made by a duly authorized agent of the county BPI and when such offer is
accepted, by telegram or letter, as well as by signing the regular contract
form. Any teacher who violates his contract by leaving his position with-
out first being released from his contract by the county BPI may be in-
eligible for employment in another Florida county school system for a
period of one year from the date of such violation if the county BPI takes
official action and notifies the State Department of Education of such
action.


-4-












No person may be employed as a regular or part-time teacher who does
not hold a valid certificate to teach in Florida except during emergencies
as provided by regulations of the State Board. During an epidemic, strike,
mass walkout, mass resignations, or other urgent condition, an emergency
may exist due to an insufficient number of certified teachers to continue
normal school operation. In this case, a teaching certificate will not be
required during the period of the emergency and any person deemed qualified
by the county board may be employed. This is a new provision of law
enacted by the Legislature in the 1968 special session.

The requirements for certification to teach in Florida public schools
are quite detailed. The sole authority for issuing teaching certificates
is vested in the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. All certifi-
cates bear the date of July 1 of the fiscal year for which they are issued
and have the period of validity entered on the face of the certificate.
Teaching certificates issued by other states are not valid in Florida.
Ranks of certificates are based on academic degrees and semester hours of
college credit earned at a standard institution of higher learning. The
following types and ranks of certificates are currently being issued.


TYPE OF CERTIFICATE

Advanced Post-Graduate
and Temporary

Special Post-Graduate
and Temporary




Post-Graduate, Post-
Standard, Temporary, and
Provisional Post-Graduate

Graduate, Standard, Pro-
visional Graduate, Pro-
visional Standard, and
Temporary

Temporary


Temporary


Temporary


BASIS: FOR'!ISSUE,, 1

Doctor's Degree


Post-Master's Degree or
6th year post-master's
level study in approved
program at approved
university

Master's Degree



Four-year Degree




At least 90 semester
hours of college credit

At least 60 semester
hours of college credit

Less than 60 semester
hours of college credit


When the applicant is qualified but not eligible for a regular certifi-
cate, a Temporary certificate, valid for one year, may be issued in any


RANK

I


IA





II



III




IV


V


VI












rank depending on the academic degree held. Additional Temporary certifi-
cates may be issued only when requested by a county superintendent and
after the completion of six semester hours of acceptable credit earned
through residence or extension but not by correspondence. The only excep-
tion to this is when the applicant has met all requirements for a regular
certificate except student teaching. Each Temporary certificate after the
first, is issued only on request from the superintendent of the county in
which the applicant is to teach. Some life certificates issued prior to
1939 are still recognized, but life certificates are no longer issued.
Substitute teaching certificates, valid for ten years, may be issued in any
rank on the request of any Florida county superintendent. Substitute
teaching certificates cannot be used as the basis for contracting for
or rendering full-time teaching service.

A Standard certificate in Rank III and a Post-Standard certificate
in Rank II may be issued to non-degree individuals covering specific
vocational-technical education subjects. These Standard certificates are
based on actual work experience and are limited to vocational-technical
subjects. Standard certificates have the appropriate MFP salary alloca-
tion rank entered on the face of the certificate the same as the certifi-
cate issued on the basis of academic credit. Laws and regulations relating
to contracts apply to the Standard certificate in the same way they apply
to comparable certificates granted on the basis of academic credit. Under
certain circumstances, part-time teaching certificates may be issued
covering general adult and vocational education.

Responsibility for making necessary applications, observing extension
deadlines, presenting proper credentials, and following through on instruc-
tions in matters pertaining to certification rests with the individual
teacher, not with the county school system or the State Department of
Education. Specific information about certification requirements can be
obtained from the Certification Section, State Department of Education,
Tallahassee. In addition, there is a "County Contact for Certification"
person designated in each county who can answer many questions pertaining
to certification.

An understanding of three terms describing contractual status is
necessary in order to understand Florida's teacher salary program: Annual
Contract (AC), Continuing Contract (CC), and Continuing Contract with
specified years of efficient teaching service in Florida public schools,
such as CC-7, CC-10, and CC-15. These terms will be discussed briefly.

An annual contract covers a:period of one year. An annual contract
must be issued each year. The teacher holding an annual contract and the
county BPI issuing such contract are not obligated beyond the one-year
period covered by the contract. The county BPI may issue another contract
if it wishes to retain the services of the teacher, or may fail to issue
another contract, thus failing to continue the services of the teacher in
that county on the expiration of that contract. The.first three years of
a teacher's employment are always on an annual contract basis since a
minimum of three years' probationary service is required before an initial












continuing contract may be issued. The three years of probationary service
may be extended to four years by mutual consent, provided the teacher
agrees in writing to the additional year of probationary service. The
only exception is in those cases where a member of the instructional staff
has previously held a continuing contract in a county within Florida. In
such cases a county board may issue a continuing contract after two years
of probationary service in that county.

Experience outside the State may be recognized in salary schedules in
different ways from county to county. Salary values in the MFP for an in-
struction unit sustained by a beginning annual contract teacher are the.
same as for an annual contract teacher with any number of years of exper-
ience.: More about this later.

At the close of the mandatory three years (four years by mutual agree-
ment) of probationary service, which service must be performed during a
maximum period of five successive years, one of three steps must be taken
by the county BPI.

1. The annual contract may not be re-issued, thus concluding the
teacher's service to the county. Neither the county nor the
teacher has any further contractual obligation if notification
deadlines are observed.

2. The teacher may be continued on annual contract, and such contract
may be renewed automatically by the county board. Such renewal
shall be made at least four weeks before the close of each school
year. This might be termed an automaticallyy renewed annual con-
tract." It is used when a teacher shows promise but does not
quite reach the standards desired of a continuing contract
teacher. It gives the teacher a further opportunity to develop
and prove himself. In subsequent years the teacher may achieve
continuing contract status or may be relieved of a teaching position
in the county.

3. The teacher may be issued a continuing contract entitling him to
continue in his position or in a similar position in the county
without the necessity for annual nomination or reappointment.

A continuing contract may be issued only after the period of probation-
ary service has been completed. Three years of probationary service are
required by state law and cannot be waived, except that it may be reduced
to two years if the teacher has previously held a continuing contract in
Florida. The probationary period may be extended to four years when re-
quested by the county BPI and agreed to in writing by the teacher. A
continuing contract indicates that in the opinion of the county school
officials, the individual has proved to be a competent teacher and it is
desired that he continue in teaching service in the county without the
necessity for annual reappointment. A continuing contract provides a
measure of security both to the teacher and to the county school system.
Each person to whom a continuing contract is issued is entitled to continue












in his position, or in a similar position, without the necessity for annual
reappointment. Thus, continuing contract status means much more than an
increase in salary. Continuing contracts may not be transferred from county
to county.

A teacher on continuing contract status may be dismissed or returned
to annual contract status under certain conditions as prescribed in Sec-
tion 231.36(4), Florida Statutes. The teacher must be given written notice
and is entitled to a public hearing if requested in writing. Also, there
are provisions under which action by the county BPI may be appealed to the
State Board.

There are other situations under which teachers on continuing contract
may be released by the county BPI without the necessity for formal hearings.
This can occur when schools are consolidated, in which case the county BPI
is free to select those teachers that it wishes to retain regardless of
contractual status, the selection to be based on educational qualifications,
efficiency, compatibility, character, and capacity to meet the educational
needs of the community. Another situation is when a position is discontinued
because it is no longer needed in a county. There is no provision for
appeal under these circumstances, since the decision of the county BPI is
final.

Continuing contract with seven, ten, or fifteen years of efficient
teaching service in Florida public schools, strictly speaking, is not a
separate contract status in the county in which the teacher is employed.
It means simply that the teacher has attained continuing contract status
and has served successfully for this minimum number or more years in the
public schools of Florida. It is a basis for the allocation of Minimum
Foundation Program salary funds rather than a change in contractual status.
Most counties recognize these steps in their salary schedules, but some
counties consider only years of service and disregard these intervals.

Service in schools outside the state is not recognized in achieving
CC-7, CC-10, or CC-15 status for the purpose of allocating Minimum Foundation
Program funds, although many counties do recognize out-of-state service
in varying degrees in their salary schedule.

Thus, the amounts allocated under the MFP to the counties for payment
of teachers' salaries depend on three factors: (1) rank of certificate
held, (2) contractual status, and (3) specified intervals of service in
Florida public schools. These amounts under current law are:

RANK CONTRACTUAL STATUS AND SERVICE ALLOCATION

I AC $7,700
CC 8,100
CC-7 8,500
CC-10 8,900
CC-15 9,500













CONTRACTUAL STATUS AND SERVICE


RANK

IA





II





III


ALLOCATION


AC
CC
CC-7
CC-10
CC-15

AC
CC
CC-7
CC-10
CC-15

AC
CC
CC-7
CC-10
CC-15


It can be noted from the table above that there are no continuing con-
tract personnel in Rank IV and Rank V, since teachers in these ranks do
not hold."Regular" certificates which are required for continuing contract
status. Also, Rank VI is not shown, since the state does not provide any
MFP salary funds for paying Rank VI personnel. Rank VI personnel may be
considered as paid wholly from local funds, and the employment of such
personnel usually results in a reduction in MFP funds allocated to a
county for salaries.

It should be repeated and emphasized that the MFP salary values shown
do not constitute a salary schedule--the salary schedule is prepared by
each county BPI. These amounts simply constitute a formula for the allo-
cation of MFP salary funds to the counties. Also, the amounts shown are
not allocated on the basis of the number of teachers employed but are
allocated on the basis of instruction units. Instruction units are earned
by pupils in average daily attendance each prior year and for certain
special instructional programs and services approved in advance which
meet specified minimum standards. This is an important difference, and
one which frequently is misunderstood. Possibly some actual examples
will make this difference clear.


$7,000
7,400
7,800
8,200
8,800

$6,300
6,700
7,100
7,500.
8,100

$5,300
5,700
6,100
6,500
7,100

$3,000

$2,800


CONTRACTUAL STATUS


AND SERVICE












EXAMPLE 1


Rank and
Contractual
Status

(1)

I AC
CC
CC-7
CC-10
CC-15

IA AC
CC
CC-7
CC-10
CC-15

II AC
CC
CC-7
CC-10
CC-15

III AC
CC
CC-7
CC-10
CC-15

IV AC

V AC

VI AC


Instructional
Positions

Number Percent


Instruction
Units
Earned

(4)


1.01


3.20
1.60
1.60
2.40
6.40

32.00
13.60
5.60
6.40
19.20

3.20

1.60


3 2.40

125 100.00%


4.03
2.02
2.02
3.02
8.06


40.32
17.14
7.06
8.06
24.19

4.03

2.02

3.02

126.00


Value
Per
Unit

(5)


$7,700
8,100
8,500
8,900
9,500

7,000
7,400
7,800
8,200
8,800

6,300
6,700
7,100
7,500
8,100

5,300
5,700
6,100
6,500
7,100

3,000

2,800


MFP Allocation
For Ten-Months
Salaries

(6)


$8,989


25,389
13,534
14,342
22,650
65,286

213,696
97,698
43,066
52,390
171,749

12,090

5,656


$746,535


You will see that the above example is a small county with 125 instruc-
tional personnel employed (positions filled) and 126.00 instruction units
earned. There were no personnel in Rank IA so there were no entries for this
rank. Column (2) gives the number of personnel employed (positions) and
Column (3) shows the percentage of these positions filled by instructional
personnel in each rank and contractual status. For example, in Rank III,
CC-10 Status, there were 8 positions. These 8 positions were 6.40 percent
of the total of 125 positions in this county. These percentages are com-
puted for each classification and entered in Column (3), which adds to
100 percent. The percentages in Column (3) for each classification are
applied to the total number of instruction units earned (126) and entered


-10-


\-I -I _\-I












in Column (4). Thus, the 8 positions filled by teachers in Rank III, CC-10,
were 6.40 percent of the total and "earned" 8.06 instruction units. The
values per unit shown in Column (5).are applied to the units earned in
Column (4) and the resulting MFP-allocation entered in Column (6). You
will note that the value of each classification is applied to the number
of instruction units earned, not to the number of personnel or positions
filled.

Florida Statutes require that the number of positions filled must equal
at least 90 percent of the units earned. So with 126.00 units earned, this
county was required to fill only 113.4 positions. Since this county em-
ployed 125 personnel, it exceeded the required-minimum. Had the county not
employed personnel to support at least 90 percent of the units earned, its
MFP allocation would have been reduced proportionately.

Further examination of Example 1 will reveal one other interesting
point. You will note that three positions were filled in Rank VI, for which
the county received no state MFP funds. These positions did, however, af-
fect the percentages in higher ranks. Had these positions in Rank VI not
been filled, the percentages in higher ranks would have been increased and
consequently the number of units for which salary allocations were made
would have been higher. In this example, had no Rank VI personnel been
employed, the county would still have met the 90 percent requirement and
would have been allocated $764,888 instead of the $746,535 actually shown.
In other words, the county not only received $18,353 less in MFP funds
because of using these three Rank VI personnel, but in addition had to pay
the salaries of these three teachers from other county funds! It is assumed
that personnel with higher certificates were not available and the county
BPI was forced to fill these positions with Rank VI personnel.

You will also note in the case of the two Rank II, CC, personnel that
whereas the value of a unit supported by Rank II, CC, is $6,700, the county
actually received $6,767 for each of these positions. This is because the
county filled one less position than the number of units earned.

One other example will be given, this time for a larger county filling
substantially more positions than units earned but still not qualifying for
recalculation. Recalculation funds are allocated to a county only when the
percent of pupil growth for the first two months of one year exceeds the
first two months of the previous year by a given minimum. The minimum is
one percent in 1968-69. Effective with the fiscal year 1969-70 and there-
after, the percentage of recalculation shall be the percent of increase
for the first two months.


-11-












EXAMPLE 2


Rank and
Contractual
Status

(1)


I AC
CC
CC-7
CC-10
CC-15

IA AC
CC
CC-7
CC-10
CC-15

II AC
CC
CC-7
CC-10
CC-15

III AC
CC
CC-7
CC-10
CC-15

IV AC

V AC


Instructional
Positions

Number Percent


.22

.22

.22





9.78
2.39
2.17
6.74
4.78


193
44
33
39
25

4


41.96
9.57
7.17
8.48
5.43

.87


Instruction
Units
Earned

(4)


.92

.92

.92





41.08
10.04
9.11
28.31
20.08

176.23
40.19
30.12
35.62
22.81

3.65


Value
Per
Unit


$7,700'
8,100
8,500
8,900
9,500

7,000
7,400
7,800
8,200
8,800

6.300
6,700
7,100
7,500
8,100

5,300
5,700
6,100
6,500
7,100

3,000

2,800


MFP Allocation
for Ten-Months
Salaries


-

$7,820

8,740

6,440
-
-
-


258,804
67,268
64,681
212,325
162,648

934,019
229,083
183,732
231,530
161,951

10,950


VI AC


460


420.00


$2,539,991


In Example 2, the county earned 420.00 instruction units but filled
460 positions. Look at the Rank II, CC-7, classification where ten positions
were filled. Instruction units in Rank II, CC-7, have a value of $7,100 each
in the MFP. However, in this case these ten positions accounted for only
9.11 instruction units. Thus, the ten positions earned $64,681, or $6,468
each, instead of $7,100 each.

In every case where the positions filled exceeds the number of instruc-
tion units earned, the MFP allocation for salaries, if computed on a "per
teacher" basis, will be less than the MFP value for that rank and contractual
status.


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l Iv


l "v











There are two other legal requirements that salaries paid instructional
personnel must meet. No individual teacher may be paid less than 90 percent
of the MFP value for his particular rank and contractual status, except that
no teacher may be paid less than $5,300. For example, the MFP value for
Rank II, CC status, is $6,700. Therefore, no individual teacher in Rank II
on continuing contract may be paid less than 90 percent of $6,700, or
$6,030 for the regular ten-month contractual period.

All of the MFP funds computed in the program for a county for instruc-
tional salaries must be expended for this purpose. Note, however, that
this is in total and is not broken down by contractual status or rank. In
Example 2 there are 460 teachers in all ranks and the MFP allocation for all
positions is $2,539,991. Regardless of the 90 percent minimum, these 460
teachers together must receive at least $2,539,991, the MFP allocation.
No part of the salary funds allocated may be used for other purposes.

All MFP salary funds are allocated on an instruction unit basis. When
the Legislature increases the unit value for salaries by, say, $300 across
the board, this does not mean $300 for each teacher employed (position
filled) but rather $300 for each instruction unit earned. This is important.
It explains why some counties are unable to "pass on" each raise in full if
they have more teachers than they earn instruction units.

Refer back to Example 2 where there were 460 positions and 420 units.
A $300 across-the-board increase for salaries would give this county $126,000
in MFP funds. But, to provide a $300 increase to each teacher would cost
$138,000, a difference of $12,000 which must be paid locally from other
than MFP funds. Actually, a $300 per-unit increase would have meant only
$274 per teacher (position) in this example. The terms "teacher" and
"position" have been used interchangeably, but actually a position may be
filled by two or more part-time teachers. "Position" might be defined as
an "equivalent full-time teacher." It should be emphasized that when refer-
ence is made to Minimum Foundation Program (MFP) salary funds, it includes
both county and state contributions to the MFP.

The annual salary paid some ten-month teachers may be increased as a
result of supplemental contracts of employment during the beyond-ten-months'
period, or the summer program. Such employment does not extend beyond two
school months, or eight working weeks, and may be for a shorter period.
Ordinarily, teachers on Special Teacher Services (STS) units (formerly ASIS
units) are continued through the summer, although such STS units may be
filled by academic teachers. Supervisors on state supervisory units normally
are employed for twelve months. Certain vocational and adult educationunits
also may extend through the summer. .

The funds allocated to the counties under the MFP for salaries for
certain units for the regular ten-month program may be increased by twenty
percent for the summer program. The actual MFP allocation depends on two
things: (1) the classification (rank and contractual status) of the teacher
working during the summer, and (2) the period of approved summer employment.
A Rank II, AC, position, for example, carries an MFP value of $6,300 for the


-13-












ten-month term. If such a position were extended for an approved eight-week
summer program, twenty percent of the $6,300, or $1,260, in additional
salary money would be made available; for an approved four-week summer
program, $630 additional would be made available, and so on.

Counties differ in their policies regarding summer pay. Some counties
pay teachers only the salary funds that they receive under the MFP, whereas
other counties continue the same regular rate of pay as for the ten-month
term. This matter is left entirely in the hands of the county BPI.

The "beyond ten-month," or summer program, actually precedes the regular
ten-month program to which it is attached. The summer program for the summer
of 1968 is a part of the 1968-69 school year. It is not an extension of the
1967-68 school year. Payments for salaries for the 1968 summer program come
out of the budget for fiscal 1968-69. This is important when changes in
rank and contractual status take place during the summer. Usually separate
contracts or separate contractual provisions are made when regular ten-month
personnel are employed for the summer program. This does not apply to per-
sonnel on twelve-month contracts. There is a difference.

Years of service are important to a teacher in regard to salary. First,
a minimum of three years of service is required to move from annual contract
status to continuing contract status. The three years' minimum service must
be rendered in the same county during a period of not more than five succes-
sive years and must be continuous except for authorized leave. Second, each
"good year" of service counts toward CC-7, CC-10, and CC-15 status, which
means a higher salary.

Just what constitutes a "year" of service? A year of service for a
teacher must include full-time actual service, exclusive of leave and holi-
days, for a total of more than half of the number of days required for the
normal contractual period for the position held. This contractual period
may not be less than 196 days. It is longer for twelve-month personnel.
Personal leave and professional leave may not be counted as days of service
but actual sick leave, for which the teacher is paid, may be counted. Reli-
gious holidays and emergency leave granted under policies of a county BPI
and charged against sick leave may not be counted as days of service even
though the teacher is paid for such days. Partial years may not be accumulated.
In order to have a good year for state purposes, the teacher must actually
perform services more than half of a school year. In other words, a teacher
may not combine the last part of one school year and the first part of the
next school year to establish a good year of service.

The number of days of actual service required to establish a good year
for teachers on a ten-month contract is less than the number required for
a teacher on a twelve-month contract. Summer work for a ten-month contract
teacher may not be added to time during the regular year in order to establish
a good year. For example, a teacher who begins teaching late in the year,
after the school term is more than half over, cannot continue teaching into
the summer in order to get credit for a year of service.


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Insofar as the salary schedule of a particular county is concerned,
different requirements may be used for establishing eligibility for annual
increments. A county BPI, for example, may recognize military service,
years taught in private schools, or other service in its salary schedule.
It also may recognize incomplete years of service. This does not, however,
affect MFP salary allocations. Any liberalizations of minimum requirements
for a year of service made under county BPI policies will not increase MFP
funds.

Salaries paid emergency or substitute teachers vary from county to
county, but the salary scale for such personnel is included in the salary
schedule filed annually by each county BPI with the State Superintendent.
The county BPI may contract with properly certificated personnel as substitute
teachers. Usually such contracts are "open," in that they are not for a
specified number of days but rather the teacher is simply "on call" when
needed. Under this type contract, service is counted for MFP allocation pur-
poses, but the substitute teacher is paid only for the days during which
services are rendered. The salary paid such teachers is computed at the same
daily rate that would be paid to full-time teachers with the same qualifica-
tions and status. This applies only to regularly certificated teachers who
are under contract and serve as on-call substitutes.

Emergency teachers who are not certificated may not be employed for
more than ten consecutive school days in the same position except under
certain emergency conditions previously described. The daily rate of com-
pensation for such non-certificated teachers is established in the official
salary schedule of the county. No MFP funds are allocated specifically for
salaries of non-certificated personnel.

Teachers who hold substitute teaching certificates are not eligible for
contracts but may teach more than ten consecutive days in the same position
if the county board cannot find a regularly certificated teacher. Minimum
Foundation Program units may not be sustained wholly by teachers with
substitute certificates. The daily rate of pay for persons holding a sub-
stitute teaching certificate is set forth in the county salary schedule, but
services rendered by such teachers are not counted for salary allocations
under the MFP.

Teaching out of their field of certification by teachers in Rank I and
Rank II can reduce the amount of MFP funds allocated to a county. The teacher
who is providing services outside his area of certification usually does so
at the request of the county superintendent, so this is not a factor in most
county salary schedules. Also, if a county is unable to find a properly
certificated teacher for a particular position, the county superintendent
may certify this fact to the State Superintendent and this restriction may
be waived for Rank I and Rank II personnel. Such a waiver must be requested
each year and applies only to MFP salary allocations. It does not constitute
a waiver for school accreditation purposes. If a county has teachers in
Rank I and Rank II who are teaching out of their field of certification for
more than half time and if the county ,does not certify to the S.tate Superin-
tendent that suitable, properly certificated personnel are not available,


-15-












the MFP salary allocation for units sustained by such personnel is computed
at the unit value for Rank III.

The matter of salary supplements or extra pay for extracurricular duties
or additional assignments is entirely a county matter. No state funds for
extra duties are specifically provided. For example, some counties provide
supplements for athletic coaches, class sponsors, and club sponsors, on the
basis that extra time is required. Such supplements must be made a part of
the salary schedule, but the amounts and distribution are a responsibility
of the county BPI.

Some teachers in the adult and vocational education program are regular
teachers who serve on a part-time basis for these programs after regular
school hours. State Board Regulations provide that teachers who hold full-
time teaching positions in regular elementary or secondary schools shall
teach no more than six hours per week in adult education programs. This is
to prevent the teacher from being overloaded to the extent that classroom
effectiveness will suffer. Compensation for part-time teaching usually is
computed on an hourly basis using 900 clock hours of instruction, with a
certain minimum class load, as the equivalent of a full-time position. For
example, a position filled by a teacher whose rank and contractual status
provides for a salary of $7,200 for a regular ten-month term, may not receive
less than $7.20 (7200 x .90 + 900) per hour for part-time teaching. This
varies from county to county, depending on individual county policy and
salary schedule provisions.

There appears to be a trend developing toward the basing of instructional
salaries partially on factors in addition to training and experience. Among
these emerging factors are such considerations as attendance at summer school,
participation in in-service training, and contributions to the educational
program of the county.

State Law and State Board Regulations do not establish minimum salaries
or rates of pay for non-instructional personnel such as bus drivers, custodians,
clerical workers and day laborers. Rates of pay for such personnel usually
are governed by competitive conditions within each county and the "going
rate" for certain crafts. Non-instructional personnel must, however, be paid
according to a salary schedule which provides for various classifications of
employees of the school board. All salaries must meet Federal Wage and Hour
Law minimums. Salary differentials must be based on objective factors set
forth in the official county salary schedule. If new non-instructional
positions or classifications are established during a school year for which
provision is not made in the original official salary schedule, amendments
to the official salary schedule must be properly adopted by the county BPI
and a copy of such amendments filed with the State Superintendent.

Average salaries paid instructional personnel frequently are used as a
basis for comparing salaries. These averages can be highly misleading. A
county with a low salary schedule but with a large proportion of personnel
in the higher ranks and contractual status may have a higher average salary
than a county with a higher salary schedule but a preponderance of personnel
in annual contract status.


-16-











Comparisons of salaries paid in one state with salaries paid in other
states are even more complicated and misleading than comparisons among
counties. Contractual periods differ from state to state; comparisons of
annual salaries for ten-month periods with salaries for nine-month periods
are of little value. Fringe benefits such as sick leave, retirement,
sabbatical leave, scholarships, and reimbursed expenses further complicate
the picture. Certification requirements among the states differ and this
creates a problem in making comparisons. Sometimes it seems impossible
"to get from here to there" insofar as salary comparisons are concerned.

It is evident by now that comparisons of salary schedules are involved
and difficult, if not impossible, from a practical standpoint. Every
county's salary schedule is different in some aspects from every other county.
Salary schedules that appear to be similar may be different when various
supplements are counted and maximums as well as minimums are considered.
It is necessary to examine each salary schedule in detail before any com-
parisons can be made and even then it is difficult to arrive at a definite
conclusion. Is a high beginning salary and a low maximum salary better
than a low beginning salary and a high maximum? Ideally, of course, a high
beginning salary and a high maximum salary is desirable; or, as Confucius::
is reputed to have said, "It is better to be healthy and wealthy than to
be sick and poor,"


-17-












SUMMARY OF CLASSROOM TEACHERS' SALARY RANGES
(10 MONTHS) 1968-69


RANK I
Min. Max.


RANK IA
Min. Max.


RANK II
Min. Max.


RANK III
Min- Ma.


RANK IV RANK V
Min. Max Min Mas


Alachua (15) $7,670 $10,797 $7,198 $10,325 $6,726 $9,853 $5,900 $ 9,027 $ -- $ -- $ -- $ --
Baker (15) 8,000 10,500 7,500 10,000 7,000 9,500 6,000 8,500 4,200 5,700 3,400 4,900
Bay (15) 7,500 9,700 7,000 9,200 6,500 8,700 6,000 8,200 3,000 3,700 2,800 3,500
Bradford (15) 8,400 11,000 7,700 10,300 7,000 9,600 6,000 8,600 -- -- -
Brevard (15) 7.940 11,773 -- -- 7,020 10.853 6,100 9.933 -- -- --
Broward (15) 7,991 12,444 7,381 11,834 6,771 11,590 6,100 10,431
Calhoun (15) 8,200 10,550 7,500 9,850 6,800 9,150 5,800 8,150 4,150 4,900 4,000 4,800
Charlotte (15) 8,450 11,180 7,800 10,530 7,150 9,880 6,500 9,360 4,225 5,265 4,030 5,075
Citrus (15) 8,190 11,119 7,717 10,647 7,245 10,174 6,300 9,229 4,131 4,896 3,509 4,121
Clay (15) ,8.200 11.200 7.100 10.100 6800 9800 6.000 9.000 4.050 5,550 3,700 5,200
Collier (15) 8,680 12,400 7,936 11,656 7,254 11,470 6,200 10,416 3,596 5,456 3,844 5,704
Columbia (15) 7,920 10,800 7,440 10,320 6,960 9,840 6,000 8,880 4,800 5,400 4,200 4,800
Dade (16) 8,430 12,374 7,890 11,852 7,350 11,330 6.650 10,650 -- -- --
DeSoto (15) 7,800 10,800 7,200 10,200 6,600 9,600 6,000 9,000 3,850 4,570 3,650 4,370
Dixie (15) 7280 9.672 7,210 9.579 7,000 9.300 6.000 8.300 4.200 4,950 4.000 4.750
Duval (15) 8,400 11,400 7,700 10,700 7,000 10,000 6,000 9,000 -- -- --
Escambia (15) 7,424 10,092 7,076 9,744 6,728 9,396 5,800 8,468 4,000 4,000 3,000 3,000
Flagler (15) 8,300 10,600 7,600 9,900 7,000 9,300 6,000 8,300 3,600 4,050 3,600 4,050
Franklin (15) 7,500 9,750 -- -- 6,800 9,050 5,800 8,050 4,000 4,000 3,800 3,800
Gadsden (20) 8.300 10,800 7,600 10.100 6,900 9.500 6.000 8.600 3.700 4.330 3,500 4,130
Gilchrist (15) 7,280 9,672 7,140 9,486 7,000 9,300 6,000 8,300 3,000 3,500 2,800 3,300
Glades (15) 8,220 11,662 7,620 11,062 7,020 10,462 6,558 9,960 3,800 4,200 3,600 4,000
Gulf (15) 8,200 10,100 7,500 9,500 7,000 9,100 6,000 8,100 3,200 3,700 3,000 3,500
Hamilton (15) 7,200 9,400 6,800 9,000 6,400 8,600 6,000 8,200 4,050 4,800 3,850 4,600
Hardee (15) 8.400 11.000 7.700 10,500 7.000 9.800 6.000 8.800 4.200 5.200 4.000 5.000
Hendry (15) 7,700 10,700 7,000 10,000 6,500 9,500 6,100 9,000 3,800 5,600 3,600 5,400
Hernando (20) 7,200 10,800 6,900 10,500 6,600 10,200 6,000 9,600 3,950 5,150 3,600 4,800
Highlands (15) 8,500 12,025 7,800 11,325 7,100 10,625 6,300 9,600 3,000 3,000 2,800 2,800
Hillsborough (15) 7,100 10,225 6,775 9,950 6,550 9,675 6,000 9,125 -- -- -- --
Holmes (15) 7.500 9,500 6,950 9,150 6.600 8.800 6.000 8,450 3.300 3,805 3.100 3.605
Indian River (15) -- -- -- --- 6,800 10,275 6,000 9,475 4,875 6,675 4,675 6,475
Jackson (15) 8,100 10,200 7,500 9,600 6,900 9,000 6,000 8,100 3,600 4,200 3,300 3,900
Jefferson (15) 7,350 9,450 6,800 9,050 6,400 8,650 6,000 8,250 3,000 3,750 2,800 3,550
Lafayette (15) 8,300 10,500 7,800 10,000 7,000 9,500 6,000 8,500 3,000 4,500 2,600 4,100
Lake (15) 7,500 10,10.5 0.500 10.500 6.900 9.900 6.000 9.000 4.650 5.050 4,450 4.850
Lee (15) 8,387 11,687 7,687 10,987 6,987 10,287 5,987 9,287 4,500 5,000 4,500 4,500
Leon (15) 7,650 10,080 7,140 9,570 6,630 9,060 6,000 8,190 3,000 3,000 2,800 2,800
Levy (15) 8,050 11,450 7,350 10,750 7,150 10,750 6,350 10,300 5,800 5,800 5,600 .5,600
Liberty (15) 8,200 11,000 7,700 10,500 7,200 10,000 6,200 9,000 4,200 5,200 4,000 5,000
Madison (15) 6,960 8,642 -- -- 6264 8.323 5.800 7.482 2,700 3.240 2.520 3.060
Manatee (15) 8,400 11,550 7,700 10,850 7,000 10,150 6,000 9,150 3,000 3,000 2,800 2,800
Marion (15) 7,500 10,500 7,000 10,000 6,600 9,600 6,000 9,000 3,950 4,250 3,570 4,250
Martin (15) -- -- -- -- 6,600 9,600 6,000 8,700 4,500 6,120 4,000 5,620
Monroe (15) 7,300 11,050 7,000 10,750 6,700 10,300 6,200 9,450 3,850 5,350 3,650 5,150
Nassau (15) 7.800 10.420 7.200 9.720 6.600 9,120 6.000 8.520 4.200 4.500 3.700 3.950
Okaloosa (15) 7,500 10,200 7,000 9,700 6,5001 9,200 6,000 8,700 3,000 3,000 2,800 2,800
Okeechobee (15) -- -- -- -- 6,900; 9,240 6,300 8,640 4,500 5,340 4,200 5,040
Orange (25) 7,296 11,106 6,648 10,458 6,648 10,458 6,000 9,810 3,100 3,800 2,950 3,350
Osceola (15) -- -- 7,800 10,200 7,000 10,000 6,200 8,900 4,250 4,500 4,050 4,300
Palm Beach (15) 7,625 12,200 7.137 11.420 6.832 10.931 6.100 9.760 5.490 8,235 --
Pasco (15) 7,900 10,450 7,3001 9,850 6,700: 9,250 6,100 8,950 4,500 5,600
Pinellas (15) 8,200 11,300 7,600! 10,700 7,000 10,100 6,200 9,400 3,650 5,200 3,650 5,200
Polk (20) 8,700 11,900 8,000 11,200 7,300 10,500 6,300 9,500 3,550 4,550 3,350 4,350
Putnam (15) 8,100 10,950 7,6001 10,450 7,100 9,950 6,100 8,950 -- -- -- --
St. Johns (15) 7,600 10.955 7,100f 10.375 6,500 9,794 6.000 9.213 4,700 5.650 4.600 5.500
St. Lucie (15) 7,050 10,350 6,900i 10,200 6,600.10,050 6,000 9,150 4,7501 6,730 4,250 6,230
Santa Rosa (16) 7,400 10,150 7,0001 9,750 6,600 9,350 6,000 8,750 4,150 4,650 3,650 4,150
Sarasota (15) 7,714 11,252 7,1341 10,904 6,438 10,614 5,800 9,454 -- -- -- --
Seminole (15) 7,620 10,680 7,620 10,680 6,960 10,020 6,000 9,240 3,840 4,560 3,660 4,140
Sumter (15) 7,800 10,600 7.400 10.200 7.000' 9.800 6,200 9.000 4.950 5.450 4.750 5,250
Suwannee (15) 7,500 9,600 7,000 9,100 6,500, 8,600 6,000 8,100 3,400 4,900 3,200 4,700
Taylor (15) 7,875 10,710 -- -- 7,182 10,017 6,300 9,135 4,600 5,600 4,400 5,400
Union (15) 7,500 10,000 7,250 9,750 7,000: 9,500 6,000 9,000 -- -- -
Volusia (15) 7,625 10,431 7,3201 10,004 6,954 9,760 6,100 8,906 --' -
Wakulla (15)** 8.000 10.200 7,600 9,800 7.200' 9.400 6,800 9,000 3.400 3.600 3,200 3,400
Walton (15) 7,900 10,200 7,200 9,600 6,500. 9,000 6,000 8,400 4,000W 4,800 3,750 4,550
Washington (15) 8,200 10,200 7,500 9400 6.800 8.700 5,800 7.700 3.600 3,650 3,400 3,450


*Number in parentheses indicates years required
**A pro-rata share of the Racing Commission Fund
***For twelve months employment.


to reach maximum.
estimated to be $120 will


be added to all salaries listed.


Countieno*