Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Their future - In your hands
 A look backward
 At the crossroads
 On the right road
 Florida's improved school program...
 Florida's improved school program...
 Are our schools as good as those...
 The way ahead

Title: Florida schools look ahead
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000217/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida schools look ahead
Series Title: Biennial report of State department of education, 1948-50, pt. III
Physical Description: 50 p. : ;
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: State Dept. of education
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: [1950]
Subject: Education -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Education -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000217
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01730931

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title 1
        Title 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Their future - In your hands
        Page 2
        Page 3
    A look backward
        Page 4
        Page 5
    At the crossroads
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    On the right road
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Florida's improved school program - Instruction
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Florida's improved school program - Services and facilities
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Are our schools as good as those in other states?
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    The way ahead
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
Full Text



4Goo ,1head'

SPart III, Biennial Report of the State Department
of Education, in compliance with Section 27, Article
IV, of the Constitution of Florida.
One of the legal responsibilities (Sec. 229.23, Florida
Statutes 1949) of the State '-* r 'rr.i .;. is to bring
to the attention of the ( .". "'' F orida facts and
information which affect r..'.., .rr .' of the children
of Florida.
Recognition and understanding of the school prob-
lems and the school program by our citizens is a
requisite to cooperative effort for our school children.


" To neglect our school system would be a crime
against the future. Such neglect could well be more
disastrous to all our freedoms than the most formid-
able armed assault on our physical defenses. ..
Where our schools are concerned, no external threat
can excuse negligence; no menace can justify a bolt
to progress."
-Dwight D. Eisenhower, Oct. 2, 1950.



~da4 lde ad


Part III

Hiennial Report
State Deplartment of Education
Thomas D. Bailey, Superintendent

Their future-in your hands .. page 2
A look backward ............ page 4
At the crossroads ........... page 6
On the right road ........... page 10
Florida's improved school program -
Instruction .............. page 14
Florida's improved school program -
Services and Facilities ...... page 26
Are our schools as good as
those in other states? ....... page 36
The way ahead ............. page 40




IT is at one time our privilege, our obligation,
and our opportunity to make decisions which
will determine the kind of chance in life that
our children shall have. In making those de-
cisions we shall not only determine whether our
children shall have an opportunity which will
equip them to take a worthy place in our social
and economic order but also we shall determine
to some degree what the future of our state
shall be.
What kind of program shall we design? Is it
enough if we teach children to read, to write,
and to compute? We shall have failed of course
if we do not teach these skills which should be
common to all; but may we safely stop at that
point? If not, should the school be concerned
with the total growth and development of the
children? Should matters of health, nutrition,
therapy, personal and social adjustment, and cul-
tural and spiritual values in life be a planned
part of the educational program?
If we accept as proper a larger concept of
education and with the concept a responsibility
for the education of children outside the de-
velopment of academic competence, what will
the program involve?
In essence a good program will have a cur-
riculum keyed to the laws of child growth and
development; it will involve teaching with un-
derstanding and skill; it will entail procurement
of teaching materials to appeal to child under-
standing through all multi-sensory approaches;

and it will require school buildings which hai
been designed to house a modern program.
The curriculum must not only provide tf
common core of learning which is accepted fi
a literate society, and the cultural understand
ings and appreciations which mark an educate
people; but also must be designed to develop
the vocational competence of those who ma
profit by formal instruction in trades, industries
agriculture, and commerce, distributive and coj
summer education, and other vocational fields.
Ideals of honor, integrity and morality mu
lie at the root of all our teaching and becon
a part of each child's thinking and nature as I
grows and develops.
We must give our children an understanding
of their heritage in terms of our political an
social institutions. They must understand tl
significance of the factors which have produce
our free competitive society and the value of tl
liberties which have been bought for us by tl
courage, determination, and blood of o
Insight into the obligations, duties and r
sponsibilities of citizenship must be provided f
our children. They must soon take our place
and to the degree that the principles of wort
citizenship have been inculcated-to that d
gree-may we expect them to measure up
their duties and responsibilities as builders
their communities, the state, and the nation
Beyond that they must have intelligent under

I__ _~~_ _I_ __ __

standings of the place of our nation in the com-
munity of nations and must help through those
understandings to bring about sane relation-
ships among all peoples of the world.
These are minimum essentials. To assure them
the state must plan to support the school pro-
gram with a full understanding that costs will
continue to mount.
SFlorida cradles are filled as never before. New
residents are coming into the state in mounting
}numbers and they with our seasonal visitors
increasingly are bringing their children to our
schools Each year additional school teachers
pare needed; each year schools must consume
larger and larger quanti-
,ties of materials.

building and facilities becomes more acute. Ob-
stacles in the way of a good school construction
program are many but they are not insurmount-
able. Will we make room for them in our
schools as we have made room for them in our
homes and in our hearts?
What shall we do with and for our children?
The time for constructive action is at hand.
Their future and the future of our state lie in
balance; we can weight the scales for or against
that future. We can make or mar the lives of our
children and enable or retard the building of a
great state and its institutions. May God give
us vision, wisdom, and competence for the task
that is ahead.

| ^M^^7


No imat stjil. sai
a childd."


When we reached the mid-century mark in
January 1950 most current periodicals reviewed
in perspective the distance traveled from the
year 1900. They took a look at things as they
were at the close of the nineteenth century in
politics, industry, literature, sports and other
fields unfolding the amazing saga of the growth
of our young nation from adolescence into adult-

Noteworthy was the fact that the year
1900 found some sections of the country with
sparse populations, undeveloped resources and
limited advantages in the field of education.
Florida was among these states; "ye deestrict
school" of the early 19th century in the settled
East had its counterpart in many respects 100
years later in Florida.
Few of us would wish to erase the progress
of the past fifty years even though in looking
through the kindly lens of time our vision pre-

sents us with treasured memories and merci-
fully blurs the privations of our earlier years.
None would willingly have our children return
to the school of that period with its meager
opportunities and narrow outlook, though all
of us recognize the inspiring contribution made
to a limited number of people by a few great
teachers able to surmount material deficiencies,
while a large number of children went without
the advantages of formal schooling.

The handicaps of these earlier days of what-
ever section have been made too familiar in
historical fiction, and on stage and screen to
bear another repetition.
The fact that Florida as a state was as yet
an infant at a time when other states had reached
their adolescence in education and economic
development emphasizes the recent phenomenal
progress in education in our state set forth in
later pages of this report while sharply focusing

Ebb -ZZ*JI i .e.zl"" ..?^?.<



attention upon the need for keeping pace after
a late start with our rapid growth in popula-
tion and material wealth.

Glancing over the biennial reports of the
state school superintendents at the beginning
of the century we note in passing that most
schools were of the one or two teacher type
with mixed grades and short terms. Transpor-
tation was as yet unknown except in one pio-
neering county. Physical plants and equipment
were the barest minimum. Only a small per-
centage of teachers were graduates of "normal"
schools. An objective of the day was to have
every common school teacher a high school
graduate and yet a distant hope was at least one
high school in every county.

Subjects besides the three "R's" had to be
given scant attention: the other courses were
quite defective; there was little if any teaching
material and no uniformity in textbooks.

Planning was left entirely to the different
school boards and there was no direction or
advice for the young teacher except from a few
prominent teachers who might occasionally be

The period during the first two decades of the
20th century marked a general awakening among
public school leaders. Though plans were pur-
poseful they followed no common, consistent
course. Advances were made in broadening and
standardizing courses of study, uniformity of

textbooks, transportation, compulsory education,
school plants and teacher preparation.

Financial support by the state took form in
1927 by passage of an "equalization" law. Im-
provements in this structure were made by suc-
cessive legislatures in 1929, 1931, 1933, and 1935.

State free textbooks were first made available
for elementary schools in 1925 and for high
schools in 1935.

The years 1937 to 1946 marked great progress
for Florida education. Notable advances were
made during the decade in the state textbook
program, reduction of county school indebtedness
by refunding procedures, a uniform accounting
system, transportation and vocational education.
During this period school law had been codi-
fied; legislation in finance-salutary and far
reaching-had been enacted; and Florida school
systems were coming out from under a stagger-
ing burden of debt. Despite these advances less
wealthy counties had reached maximum levies
by 1946 and many were approaching this stage.
The trend toward increased state support had
already begun. At that time, despite increased
state support, Florida, under measurements com-
monly used to evaluate state school systems,
ranked low in the nation not only in school
achievement but also-even to a more marked
degree-low in effort to support its school pro-
gram, but it ranked high in achievement in the
South and we customarily had compared our
school system critically only with our nearest



Floida ScwooA


With 1945-the close of World War II-came
new and changing conditions. Controls were
lifed from industry; pent up capital was put to
work; prices and incomes soared; the state moved
into a period of relative if not absolute pros-
perity. Everything, it seemed,
was all right, that is, every-
thing except education; edu-
cational incomes had been
cut in half by devaluated dol-
t lars and in other respects the
program left much to be
Many counties faced a crisis in financing their
school programs. There was insufficient money
to attract and hold good teachers, provide ma-
terials of instruction, to maintain school build-
ings, and, despite depression and war time lags
in school house construction, there was little
money with which to build. It was, under these
circumstances, that Governor Spessard Holland,
incumbent, and Governor-Elect Millard Cald-
well, in cooperation with educational leadership
jointly appointed a Citizens Committee to un-
dertake a study of education.

The committee found that thousands of the
best teachers had left or were planning to leave
the profession to enter positions in other fields.
Veterans of all of the services, recognizing greater
opportunities in other fields, did not return to
their classrooms. Schools, were staffed with ain
increasing number of emergency teachers, many
of whom had only meager qualifications for their
duties. It was generally recognized and ad-
mitted that teaching, under the circumstances
then existing, offered only a submarginal live-
lihood and little hope for the future, except a

dependent old age. It is not surprising that the
committee found that schools of education could
not attract young people to train for the pro-
fession. Only positive action on the part of the
state could avert a school system staffed in part
by a dispirited professional group whose teach-
ing value seriously and inevitably would be im-
paired and in part by a group in whom com-
petency as teachers had not been developed.
Teaching materials1, essentials in a modern
program of education, were sadly lacking in the
schoolrooms of the state. This was particularly
true of those in the small and less wealthy
counties. Instructional materials could not com-
pete successfully with the more articulate ad-
ministrative and instructional personnel for a
fair share of the inadequate funds which were
available. As a result children were denied the
enriched opportunity which wise uses of these
materials could have provided.
Millions invested in school buildings were in
jeopardy because funds either were not being
budgeted or after being budgeted were not
used for building maintenance. Counties were
forced to effect temporary savings which in the
long run were costly.
Wood was rotting for lack of paint; deferred
plumbing created health hazards; leaking roofs
brought about damage to interiors. Florida, un-
able to build, was not maintaining what it had.
Three periods which carried through World
War II saw Florida school building construction
at a standstill. The late twenties brought several

74aToanda of teachers evere teaving te proession teahing

materIiai s wulere sad4y lackin m-miios iwesterd ean chd l baedein g

weCe Ci jeofaiwd wood wc'as

ruwtntein aert(e atoe'let aciitCies

years of hard times to Florida before the
national economic crisis had resulted in nation-
wide depression. During the period following
the collapse of the real estate boom and through-
out the period of the depression Florida school
governments, despite the great need to construct
school houses, could not build because of lack
of funds, and this during the decade 1930-40
when Florida had the highest percentage of
population growth of all of the states, and the
schools were reaping their proportionate share
of the increase.
During the war years war time shortages and
restrictions served further to retard the building
of school houses.

Following the war in 1946-47 the state was
faced with necessity either to prolong and ex-
tend the handicaps of Florida school children
caused by the building program breakdown, or
to come to grips with the problem and solve
it. The first step was to ascertain the extent of
Some of the appalling inadequacies of the
building program at that time as revealed by
the Citizens Committee on Education were:
(1) Film, film strip, sound devices, globes, maps, charts,
library books, magazines, newspapers, etc.

rottg. ro4s wa M ere eai n0

ia aoame dcdaoa -- Thi4 was 1945

(1) the complete absence of sanitary facilities
in some schools and their inadequacy in many
(2) in many schools there was no running
water and in others no source of pure drinking
(3) condemned buildings and buildings which
should have been condemned were found in use
to house school programs some of these build-
ings were fire traps;
(4) the committee found buildings which
were obsolete in design and poorly suited to
house a modern educational program;
(5) many schools had been planned and con-
structed with little regard for natural lighting
and poor provision for artificial light;
(6) other buildings had been improperly
located and their classrooms were not available
for Florida's surging school enrollments.

Probably no state program of education is
uniformly good or bad. Sharp contrasts in the
quality of educational opportunity exist between
counties, between communities, between schools,
and between classrooms. Florida consistently
has had schools which are as bad as the worst
and schools which are as good as the best.

"This study shows clearly that we in Florida stand at the crossroads in education. We
need and can afford better schools .... We can have them if we are willing to make the
effort but it will take real effort and our problems will have to he faced frankly and solved
in terms of what is best for Florida."-Florida Citizens Committee on Education, 1947)

Generally the Citizens Committee found the
best schools in the wealthier counties and con-
versely poor schools in poor counties. Con-
trasts were not only marked; they were general.
The means to do the job one county had
twenty times as much assessed wealth per child
as another county. In other words, for each
$15.00 the poorest county had to spend on the
education of a child, the wealthiest county had
$300.00. The ten wealthiest counties could on
an average with the same effort spend $150.00
on each child for each $20.00 the ten poorest
counties could spend.
Under these conditions it is not surprising
that the average citizen in the wealthier counties
had more schooling than the average person in
the poorer counties-average 8.8 grades in the
wealthier counties, 6.6 grades in the poorer
counties. Nor is it surprising that the children
in the poorer counties measured by national
placement tests averaged between six months
to over two years behind their comparable age
groups in the richer counties. In respect to edu-
cational testing the children in the poorest
counties ranked lowest in the tests, those in the
middle group ranked on the scale between the
poorest counties and the richest counties. In
all points of comparison the Citizens Committee
found that size of schools, the location of the
schools, and the levels of local support were
unfailing indexes to the quality of education
provided and the degree to which children
generally profited by their opportunities.
All comparisons favored the large schools over
the small, the urban schools over the rural, and
the schools in wealthy counties over those in
poor counties.

The committee recognized that adequate fi-
nance cannot alone assure a good program; they
saw clearly, however, that failure to support
education at desirable levels would almost al-
ways make poor schools a certainty.
Hence in their comprehensive report they rec-
ommended some of the most far reaching fiscal
legislation ever proposed for a public school




--~s..i ,




-,. ; '. c f. ,.f ,

if 42

o.h I

g^ "'- / a<^ **-ig

--11-, Ir
`~~:c r~w" ;'4?



--.- :



Floida Schoo


Since 1947 the eyes of the nation have turned
southward-not on Florida's bathing beauties or
white sand beaches-but on Florida's schools.
For Florida's Minimum Foundation Program
has captured the interest of the nation. Repre-
senting one of the greatest forward steps ever
taken at one time by any state, and embodying
a virtually new concept in the allotment of funds
for education, the Minimum Foundation Pro-



ii $


gram has riveted the attention of educators,
legislators, and p a r e n t s everywhere on the
schools of Florida.
The improved school program, enacted in
1947, has earned for Florida nationwide appro-
bation. It has since become the pattern of edu-
cation in other states. Florida led the way.

Here is a program, designed not for the
teacher or the school administrator, but for, the
school child.
Here is a program which breaks away from
the traditional pattern of school finance and
calls for appropriations based on the needs of
children and youth.
Here is a program designed to give every
child who attends school in Florida-no matter
who he is or where he lives, regardless of the
wealth of his parents or the county in which
he resides, a minimum amount of financial sup-
port for his education.
Here is a program designed to guarantee an
education of a satisfactory minimum quality to
every school child in Florida.

7he eyes of the nratio wot
on loridc's bathing beeauties
7o ewite sancd beahea at
on 7ori4da Sc0oo4 -


ih .


The Minimum Foundation Program is not a
complicated program, although because of the
many changes it made in then existing laws, it
has been subject to some misunderstanding; a
misunderstanding, perhaps based in part on
lack of information.
Since its purpose is to provide a minimum
quality of education for all of Florida's children
in all the schools throughout the state, certain
standards of education based on educational
needs are specified. These include, in part, a
180-day school term, good instructional prac-
tices, well-qualified and well-trained teachers,
effective administration and supervision of
schools, a businesslike system of operating and
transportation to satisfactory schools.
To insure fulfillment of these needs, the
Minimum Foundation Program first determines
the cost of such a school program in the entire
state; a cost based essentially on the number of
children in school and the training of teachers.
The greater the number of children, of course,
the higher the cost.
After the cost of the minimum program is de-
termined for the state, then on the basis of the
relationship of the wealth of each county to the
total wealth of the state the ability of each
county to support its own minimum educational
program is determined.
This ability is then transformed into dollars
and each county is required to contribute this
amount to its local school program. The re-
mainder of the funds needed to meet the mini-

v 4 t2 ', ,: .-S I
,mtiMed osMU M pu L y.LL c ':a '. '.- ''i .

i ad ? stoida 4. ciea'tere

mum needs of the children in the county are
then allocated from state funds.
The wealthier the county, the more able the
county is to provide this minimum quality of
education, the larger the share of the cost of
the program it pays and the smaller the state
contributes. The poorer the county, the less it
contributes and the greater the state's share.
Thus a uniform minimum quality of education
is established throughout the state.
It should be noted that this is a minimum
program. It was not intended to provide suf-
ficient funds to meet all the needs of children.
Nor was it intended, or is it so administered,
to replace local efforts to support good schools.
On the contrary, in actual operation, the effect
of the program has been to stimulate local
initiative and efforts on behalf of improving
schools. Most counties expend funds for educa-
tion above and beyond the minimum provided
by the joint state-county program.

In figuring the cost of the program, four items
which p r o v i d e educational opportunity are
taken into account. These are instructional sal-
aries, other current expenses, transportation, and
capital outlay.


These four items represent the four "wheels"
of the Minimum Foundation Program and it is
around these four "wheels" that the financial
structure of the program is erected.

Instructional salaries make up the major share
(almost 75 per cent of the cost) of the program.
i:; .. But providing funds for
teacher salaries is only part
of the task of getting and
Sweeping good teachers in
SFlorida schools. Tied to
this large outlay for teacher
salaries is a "learn more,
earn more" provision which
pays premiums to those
teachers who attend school
to further their teaching
abilities. Although county school systems deter-
mine teacher salary schedules, the Minimum
Foundation Program provides allotments by rank
for the instructional personnel based on the
training of teachers. Here are the ways the
teachers are ranked and the amount of money
jointly provided by the state and county school
systems in the Minimum Foundation Program.

Rank I
Rank II
Rank III
Rank IV
Rank V
Rank VI

with 6 yrs. college preparation)

with 5 yrs. college preparation)

with 4 yrs. college preparation)

with 3 yrs. college preparation)

with 2 yrs. college preparation)

with less than 2 years)

During 1949-50, the state contributed $35,-
331,181 for instructional salaries, and the coun-
ties added $10,270,200 for a total Minimum
Foundation Program teacher salary expenditure
of $45,601,381.

This is an excellent example of how the Mini-
mum Foundation Program, by requiring teachers

to "learn more" before becoming eligible for
higher salaries, works first for the benefit of
the school child, secondly for the instructor.

Other current cost of schools, such as ma-
terials of instruction, janitorial and custodial
service, school building "i
maintenance, school admin- --- I
istration, and insurance, are I
met in part by the "second _
wheel" of the Minimum '
Foundation Program, other l-
current expenses. These 4.^r
funds are used to supply tZ B
a great variety of essential
materials and services to

In 1949-50 the state contributed $4,299,059
to other current expenses and the counties added
$1,213,219 for a total of $5,512,278.

School bus transportation, the "third wheel,"
has reached a new importance in Florida with
a consolidation of the
';.r' .. ,.. .- smaller country schools
.'1t. I<.- into new, compact, consoli-
.. dated and centrally-located
( units, and the ride to school
a lej tn has now become an in-
tegral part of the school
day for many thousands of
children. To assure ade-
L ai t quate transportation facili-
Sties, the Minimum Founda-
tion Program provides $1,100 per transportation
unit. The transportation unit is based on the
average daily number of riders and the area
covered by the school bus. During 1949-50 this
amounted to $2,128,526 for the state and $463,-
123 for the counties, for a total of $2,591,649.

School transportation makes it possible for
children living in remote districts to enjoy the
same educational advantages as those living
close to satisfactory school centers. An adequate
education is no longer denied children because
of 'the distance they live from school.

To assist in building the thousands of ad-
ditional classrooms needed to house rapidly in-
creasing enrollments, the
Minimum Foundation Pro-
gram contains an appro-
priation in capital outlay
expenditure, the "fourth
wheel". In the program
enacted into law in 1947 .
this appropriation was $300 "
an instructional unit. In the !
Florida Legislature of 1949
this was raised to $400.
In the year, 1949-50, the state contributed
$5,739,234, the counties contributed, $1,617,625,
for a total of $7,356,859 for capital outlay
No matter how well trained or well qualified
the teacher and how adequate the transporta-
tion, children in crowded, ill equipped class-
rooms in poorly constructed schools are denied
their opportunities for an adequate education.
This joint state-county contribution for capital
outlay expenditures helps to assure each school
child of a well equipped classroom in a well
equipped school.

Along with the program for state-county fi-
nancial support of education in Florida a num-
ber of other organizational changes were
brought about in 1947 with passage of the Mini-
mum Foundation Program.
These included re-organization of school dis-
trict boundaries from 703 districts to 67, each
county consisting of one district; establishment
of five-member boards of public instruction,
whose members are nominated by district and
elected on a countywide basis; educational
qualifications for county superintendents as a
prerequisite for holding office.
Instructionally, the Minimum Foundation Pro-
gram extended the scope of educational services
offered to people of Florida. Provisions were
made for the establishment of kindergartens,
junior colleges-summer programs-services for

57eo4a d 4outh...
O the Riht Road

exceptional children, adult education, vocational
training, and instruction and supervision in
special subjects such as art, physical education,
music and guidance.
The length of the school term for children
was extended, and a mandatory 10 month school
term established. Pre-school and post-school
periods of planning and evaluation for teachers,
the so called "tenth month" was made possible.
Florida people and their delegates in the
legislature have conceived and executed a plan
for education which is a landmark in educational

What are the gains which have been made?
A wider range of opportunities is offered the
school child. The courses of instruction have
been improved. More and better materials of
instruction are being provided. The administra-
tion of Florida's school system is more efficient.
School buildings are better located and better
constructed. Transportation to school is being
provided more children. Florida's school children
are receiving greater educational opportunities
than ever before.



I- "

AM new dayas4dawned
fo Focrda'sa chidren ...
detinedc to pfay ff in

Foirida s



The Minimum Foundation Program of 1947
has ushered in a new era.
A new day has dawned for Florida's school
children. They are reaping the benefits of the
concern and foresight of their elders. The gains
which have been made are not only for the chil-
dren but also for all of the people; not only for
today but also for tomorrow and the future.
Florida's investment in the future is destined
to pay off in healthier, happier, more enriched
living. It is well that the time children spend in
school has been made more meaningful, more
purposeful, more valuable to them in terms of de-
sirable growth and development. Education de-
velops personality and personality shapes the


character of the culture, government and the
economy of the state. Better schools make better
citizens, and better citizens make better com-
Education for more of Florida's children is
being provided by better prepared teachers
having available for their use courses of study
with richer, more varied educational content.
More and more classes are held in classrooms de-
signed and equipped to meet the needs of chil-
dren. Improved facilities for educational service
are provided in professionally planned and bet-
ter constructed schools.
Florida's children today are being taught by
teachers whose training ranks among the best

in the nation. Only in a very few states does the
level of teacher preparation rank above that of
Florida teachers are taking part on a volun-
tary basis in group study and planning. They
are improving their educational qualifications
through college attendance and extension
courses. They are acquiring an understanding
of and an interest in the growth and develop-
ment of children, and are applying what they
learn in the program of education for Florida
children and youth.
Growth is reflected in voluntary participation
of teachers in workshops, work conferences,
faculty study and faculty planning groups. Out
of this healthy cooperation and participation in
study and planning have come new under-
standings of education and of the obligations
and opportunities for service which confront
teachers as individuals and as members of a
professional group.
Under Florida's "learn more-earn more" law
which allows teachers to move into a higher
rank with corresponding salary increase upon
the completion of additional training, there has
been rapid improvement in teacher preparation.
In 1945-46 only 63% of Florida's teachers
1i'lid to:, ,,pl ,t i .l Kir| (11" !(_. ',L.'\ir-'_ jb' ota. d.l. 'l
collie ,- ii, l144'i-4'),. 7'J. i, 'J4'J--50 _7.24',
aid ill 1'J51-51. cailcilate-d ..stiniate% indicate
il,at 9' -145', ot FlorLda'c taclic-rs iare collect

graduates. Many, of course, have additional
graduate credit and advanced degrees.
Teachers of Florida are becoming more and
more conscious of conditions under which de-
sirable child growth and development can and
will take place. They realize as never before
that children grow and develop as a result of
their daily contacts and daily activities-that
children learn through living, and live and
learn more abundantly because of rich expe-
rience. There is an increasing interest in pupil
individual and social adjustment, emotional out-
look, metabolism, health, safety, and in all other
pupil problems, interests, and needs about
which teachers properly may have a concern.
Factors which have contributed to the en-
hanced professional stature of Florida teachers
have been good salaries, social recognition of
the dignity of teaching, an extensive program
of state and local supervision, fine cooperative
relationships among all educational institutions
and agencies in the state, and an aroused inter-
ested people who are demanding and helping
to bring about the best in education for their
All of these gains have been given impetus
and cohesion by the Minimum Foundation
Pro.-irai)'a 4.



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Special emphasis has been given to the im-
provement of the courses being taught in the
schools of the state. Courses and teaching have
been made more useful, practical and effective.
New guides and materials for the teaching
of reading, writing, mathematics, history, gov-
ernment, geography, civics, health and safety,
and other subjects have been prepared and
distributed to teachers over the state for their
use in improving their teaching procedures and
Much improvement has been made in the
teaching of the fundamentals such as demo-
cratic citizenship, reading, writing, spelling,
arithmetic, Florida and United States History
and Government.
Attitudes and skills necessary for intelligent
effective citizenship are developed through the
various school subjects and through actual par-
ticipation in school activities. Opportunities are
provided for learning attitudes and values such
as fairness, respect for others, self reliance,
persistence, initiative, willingness to withhold
judgment until evidence is examined, and co-
Necessary skills in working together, demo-
cratic procedures, setting up desirable rules for
behavior, making wise choices, problem solving,
sharing, and self discipline are developed
through carefully selected learning experiences.

There has been great emphasis throughout
the state on the improvement of pupil reading;
basic reading instruction has been extended into
upper grades of the elementary school and to
high schools in many localities where it did not
previously exist.
Remedial reading programs have been de-
veloped in many junior and senior high schools.

Worthy citizenship is developed
through varied school experiences

Marked improvements have been made in read-
ing speed and comprehension. Teachers' man-
uals which are made available to all teachers
explain in detail each step to be followed in the
teaching of reading. Intensive study of proper
use of reading textbooks has taken place in
every county in the state.

Functional arithmetical skills have been de-
veloped through making the courses more prac-
tical and better adapted to the problems of
everyday living. Textbooks have been selected
and put into use in which problems of gradu-
ated difficulty have been introduced. Children
are no longer lost in a maze of abstract mathe-
matics. Numbers have been given applications
which are pertinent to the child's everyday

Such practical skills as personal banking,
family budgeting, consumer buying and ac-
counting are now part of each pupil's oppor-
tunities for mathematical experience.
The development of pupil handwriting skills
is at the heart of good teaching everywhere. In
Florida no effort is made to teach all pupils to
write alike or to teach them to emulate the
pretty but impractical flourishes found in earlier
handwriting textbooks. Instead pupils are
grounded in the social purposes of handwrit-
ing, given understandings of acceptable slant,
size, proportion, and relative height of letters;
and emphasis is placed upon the legibility of
individual handwriting styles. Handwriting, of
course, is recognized as a skill and drill periods
are devoted to its mastery, but increasingly
teachers of all subjects are assuming responsi-
bility for the development of acceptable pupil
handwriting at every grade level.
Handwriting skills-cursive and manuscript-
are no longer something for the pupil to worry
about during the handwriting period alone,
but he finds that emphasis is placed upon the
importance of handwriting throughout the day.

Emphasis on the fundamentals
develops in children reading,
writing, and arithmetic skills


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Under leadership offered by the Department,
an effort is made in Florida schools in harmony
with statutory provisions to teach unprejudiced
scientific facts with respect to alcohol and nar-
cotics and to present these facts unemotionally.
Instruction usually is presented initially with
social studies and science activities in the third
grade, and is culminated in high school with
more concentrated study and higher correlations
with biological, physical and social sciences.

A representative of the Department of Edu-
cation works chiefly with teachers who are en-
couraged to incorporate and coordinate the in-
struction with regular class studies in any of
several related fields. Demonstration lessons are
conducted; supplementary teaching materials
are provided; and, upon invitation, talks are
made to student assemblies.

The services of the department are also avail-
able to the colleges and groups of adults who
work with young people in the field of alcohol
and narcotics education.

If young people who have attended Florida
schools become addicted to narcotics or alcohol,
it will not be because they are unaware of the
dangers involved, nor unaware of the deeper
personality difficulties of which the use of nar-
cotics and alcohol may be only a symptom. The
courses are designed to develop understandings
of the physiological, psychological, and social
effects of the use of alcoholic beverages and

Florida's schools have a functional program
in safety and health education which is designed
to keep pupil surroundings insofar as possible
free from accident and disease, to maintain pu-
pil vitality and vigor at a high level, and to de-
velop health and happy home, school, and com-
munity relationships.

Pupil health, saffE'iuardild'
in the schools


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Functional teaching at each grade level is
adjusted to the increasing bodily, intellectual,
emotional, and social maturity of school pupils.
From elementary instruction and experience in
simple cleanliness, care of hands and teeth and
the like, pupils move with self-developmental
steps toward wider concepts of personal health
and hygiene, and a sensitivity to community
health problems and needs.
The pupils learn in order that they live more
effectively. Learning experiences are intended
to be applied. School experiences whether in
driver training, adolescent relationships, home-
school-or community improvement, or in emo-
tional or physical adjustment and therapy, have
both practical and cultural applications.
Through child clinics and other sources of
firsthand information teachers are becoming bet-
ter acquainted with the developmental needs of
pupils. Many teachers now are able to see be-
yond posture faults, fatigue, restlessness, nail
biting, embarrassment, tantrums, rebellion, sub-
missiveness, withdrawal, and other common
pupil phenomena. Any of these behavior pat-
terns could indicate the presence of an emo-
tional or physical condition which might well
be corrected. Pupil behavior because of fears
and frustrations, feelings of rejection or other
emotional disturbance, is better understood,
diagnosed, and remedied.
Through its public school safety and health
program Florida may have hope for a happier,
healthier people.

In addition to the opportunities which all of
the pupils share in acquiring mastery of the
common learning, more opportunities are be-
ing provided for students to take specialized
courses, particularly courses which are designed
to promote vocational competence.

Opportunities for theory and
practice, in effective living




I ~ ,-,.-. S
_ _.. 71

In home economics education, vocational agri-
culture, trade and industrial education, and di-
versified cooperative training, the schools are
now meeting more of the needs of children;
and children are being given an opportunity
to develop their latent talents and to broaden
their choice of vocations.

The emphasis in homemaking education is
on betterment of individual and home and
family living.
The comprehensive program required for all
students in homemaking provides opportunity
for experiencing the task and personal relation-
ships associated with the job of homemaking.
While the different schools vary in the amount
of time given to any one phase of the program
as well as to the approaches made, each pro-
vides experiences in the fundamental aspects
of homemaking-food, clothing, personal and
family relationships, child care and develop-
ment, personal health and home care of the
sick, management of home and family including
use of time, energy and money, consumer buy-
ing, and housing in relation to family living.
The Future Homemakers of America Asso-
ciation, composed of girls enrolled in home-
making classes trains in leadership and group
cooperative effort and thus assists the members
to assume leadership positions in the school,
home and community.

The latest principles, methods and procedures
of farming are now being taught Florida's vo-
cational agriculture students.
Now a part of the instructional program in
schools throughout the state, vocational agri-
culture classes are making a substantial contri-
bution to the economy of Florida and the bet-
terment of living of Florida's people. Through

A promise of better living for Florida
youth through homemaking education

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class and farm instruction and participation in
farm pursuits, these students are bringing to the
farms a "know-how" and spirit new and in-
vigorating to this great industry.
The vocational agriculture students have an
opportunity not only to learn but also to earn
as they learn and the students earn substantial
sums by the sale of their crops planted and
harvested under the guidance of a trained vo-
cational agriculture instructor as part of their
school instruction.
Agricultural education through extension fa-
cilities reaches many thousands of others with
profit to themselves and further enrichment to
the state.
The Florida Association of the Future Farm-
ers of America, composed of vocational agri-
culture students educates for leadership, schol-
arship and cooperative endeavor. The success
of vocational agricultural instruction in Florida
schools could well be measured by the selection
of a Florida Future Farmer, Forest Davis, of
Quincy, as Star Farmer of America. In the last
three years, two Florida students, Hal Davis,
Quincy, and Doyle Conner, Starke, have held
national positions in the F.F.A.; Davis, now a
vice-president, and Conner a past president.

In the trade and industrial education program
more Florida students are receiving training in
the skills which will enable them to make a
living as adults.
The program is designed both for students
who are preparing to enter college and for
those who will leave the secondary school to
seek gainful employment. During 1950, 34,107
students were enrolled in trade and industrial
classes learning such skills as auto and airplane
mechanics, air conditioning, carpentry, and
bricklaying. Eleven vocational schools equipped
with modern machinery and tools and staffed

A better Florida farm economy and
national recognition (Star Farmer
of America, center, left) through
vocational agriculture classes


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by skilled instructors are located in Daytona
Beach, Jacksonville, Miami, Pensacola, Ocala,
Orlando, Sarasota, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee,
Tampa, and West Palm Beach.
A rare combination of academic courses and
vocational skills are offered in the schools under
the Diversified Cooperative Training Program.
Under this program high school students con-
tinue their studies of the basic secondary school
subjects and at the same time receive on-the-
job experience in the profession course.
During 1949-50 approximately 2400 students
were enrolled in the program, attending school
and spending part of their school day in fac-
tories and shops as mechanics, radio repairmen,
salesmen and saleswomen, bookkeepers and
other industrial, commercial and distributive
These programs, home economics educa-
tion, vocational agriculture, trade and indus-
trial education and diversified cooperative
training, all received great impetus and a
new degree of financial support under the
Minimum Foundation Program and have now
become a strong integral part of Florida's
program for school children. The services
now available for school children may
quickly be extended and expanded to meet
emergency needs.
The schools stand ready, as in 1941, to en-
large their scope in an all-out effort to further
the national interest in training youth for re-
sponsibilities and obligations under a wartime

A primary function in the program of educa-
tion is to discover individual vocational apti-
tudes and to develop individual vocational
In the case of handicapped persons prepara-
tion for a vocation is a major problem which
requires many different services; services which
must be suited to the individual needs of the

Skills are developed which prepare
youth to earn a living

handicapped persons. For many years a pro- -
gram has been in effect for persons above six-
teen years of age who are vocationally handi-
capped by disabilities. Services provided such
persons according to their needs are:
1. Medical diagnosis, vocational guidance
and counseling. ."
2. Medical and surgical treatment including
hospitalization necessary to remove or
diminish a handicap caused by a static
disability. Artificial appliances needed in
getting or holding a job.
3. Vocational training.
4. Living maintenance, transportation and
training supplies to enable the handi-
capped to prepare for employment. p
5. Assistance in finding suitable employment.
During the year ending June 30, 1949, 1,655
persons completed vocational rehabilitation .. :'..
services and were established in positions where
they could earn their own living and help carry
their part of the load as citizens. For the year
ending June 30, 1950, 1,685 completed training.
The total rehabilitated for the two year period
was 3,340.
The cost of vocational rehabilitation during
the year ending June 30, 1949 was $596,624.75, '
and for the year ending June 30, 1950, was
$761,729.91, a total of $1,358,354.66 for the
biennium. To offset costs, however, the annual
earnings of 2,681 of the rehabilitants at the time
their cases were closed was at the rate of.
$4,555,616.00 or $9,111,232.00 for the biennial
period. The other 659 were rehabilitated as
farmers and housewives for whom no monetary
income accurately can be calculated.
The program for exceptional children has .. .
been growing at a constant rate during the past -
three years. Approximately twenty new classes
are being established each year for the various
types of exceptional children.
Exceptional children are those who deviate -
from normal children in one or more respects --.

Rehabilitants are self-supporting and :.
contributing members of society

to such an extent that additional or specialized
services are required in providing their educa-
tion. These departures from the normal in some
of the pupils may be irregularities in speech,
hearing or vision. Other pupils have special
health problems such as cardiac disabilities,
asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, allergy or the like
which may be the reason for special educational
services. In other instances children through
accident, disease or congenital deformity may
need specialized attention. Another group,
many of them emotionally maladjusted, con-
stitute a problem in slow learning.
Often these children must be instructed in
special classes; always they need individual at-
tention in order to progress.
Those charged with responsibility for excep-
tional children are concerned with discovery
of handicapping problems, study and diagnosis,
medical treatment, curriculum and methods,
materials and equipment, individual guidance,
vocational counsel and vocational training.
Great progress in this field has been made
and greater progress is envisioned because of
the willingness of everyone to cooperate in
efforts being made to help children help them-

It is now recognized that the growth of edu-
cation in Florida is not confined exclusively to
youth of public school age.
The rapidly changing economic and social
conditions of the world and of our state have
greatly increased individual responsibility for
citizenship. The rapid growth in population,
the location of many new industries in Florida
requiring special and skilled workmen, and
more leisure time providing greater opportuni-
ties for individuals to continue their education,
are increasing the interest in the field of adult
During this biennium, tremendous gains have
been made in all areas of adult education. Rapid
growth and widespread interest are evidenced
by the fact that 41 counties and many com-
munities throughout the state have established

Early recognition of children's special
needs can mean a more effective life

well organized and well planned classes for
adults in one or more fields. The established
programs include courses in elementary, secon-
dary, vocational and many special areas.
At the present time there are approximately
6,000 adults enrolled for elementary work and
4,500 for secondary work. Another 6,000 are
enrolled in vocational schools, public and pri-
vate. A total of approximately $1,750,000 is being
spent annually in Florida to finance general
education for adults. The federal government,
through the Servicemen's Readjustment Act, is
providing 96% of these funds. In addition an-
other million and a half dollars is being ex-
pended annually in the public school system of
Florida by the federal government for veterans'
vocational and farm training.
There are approximately a quarter of a mil-
lion adults in Florida who are functionally il-
literate. Of these, approximately 50,000 have
never attended school at all.
Over 400,000 adults, or one third of the total
adult population of the State, have a 6th grade
education or less.
During the past five years 40,000 adults have
been enrolled for accelerated elementary and
secondary work in the public school system
of the State. The vast majority of these have
been veterans of World War II. Of this total
enrollment, 5,700 have received high school di-
plomas, and approximately 1,300 have gone on
to college.

Because of these improvements in Florida's
instructional program the state's 500,000
school children will be better prepared, as
adults, to meet the problems which will face
them, as individuals and as members of
Our children are receiving educational op-
portunities today which years ago were only
a vision of the future. Today's school is con-
cerned with everything that happens to chil-
dren, not only with the child's ability to learn
specific things, but with attitudes, with skills,
with health, and personality adjustment.
Florida will gain immeasurably because of
these improvements.

Adults, too, profit by Florida's
improved school program

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Assuring through certification procedures
that only qualified teachers may be em-
Offering supervisory and consultative serv-
ices to teachers and administrators;
Planning curricula for school pupils in
terms of pupil problems and needs;
Selecting and making available in cooper-
ation with local school administrations
teaching aids and tools which are neces-
sary for efficient instruction;

A good school program is dependent pri-
marily upon good teaching, but good teaching
can take place only when good teachers are at
work, and conditions surround the classroom, the
school and the community which tend to promote
desirable growth and development of children.
The state and the local school administrations
have been given coordinated responsibilities not
only to assure that good teachers are on hand,
but also to see that the school surroundings are
conducive to good work. Some primary respon-
sibilities of the state in this connection are:

Serviceas and


Administering necessary fiscal controls;
Working with local school administrations
in planning and constructing school
houses which are suited to modern edu-
cational needs;
Assuring the safety, comfort and conven-
ience of pupils in transporting them to sat-
isfactory school centers;
Organizing and digesting the results of
clinical and experimental research and
disseminating timely information to the

Because of the great importance of teaching
to the effectiveness of the total school program,

the state has enacted statutory provisions which
require all teachers before they may be eligible
for employment to meet qualifications which
have been prescribed by the State Board of
Education. These qualifications-requirements
for certification-are designed to assure that all
teachers who are employed in the public schools
shall be well trained for their positions.

The functions of the State Department of
Education in certification procedures and in
related activities annually include a multitude
of services to some 20,000 teachers.

The issuing of certificates, extension and re-
newal of certificates and addition of subjects to
certificates already issued constitute only the
primary service rendered. Several thousand
teachers each year request specific information
as to programs of work to meet certification re-
quirements. In addition, superintendents, su-
pervisors, principals and others connected with
school administration must be in touch with
teacher qualifications and requirements for cer-
tification. These services entail a large corre-
spondence and considerable time spent in per-
sonal interviews.

During one four-month period more than three
thousand people visited the Department for
counseling on problems relating to certification.

Each county depends upon the Department
to check the certification of individual teachers
and to check the auditors' reports on personnel
from the county. The certificate rank of each
teacher employed in the public schools of Flor-
ida, including teachers of agriculture, home
economics, vocational education and other spe-
cial courses must be verified bef-on tlh- finial
computation of the Minimum Fouindation, Pio-
gram can be made each year.

The services of the Depart-
ment in certification should
be, and-it is our hope-will
be, readily available to the
teachers of the state and .

to prospective teachers, to county officials, to
state department staff members, to teacher train-
ing institutions, and to all others in and out
of the state for whom the services would have
Correspondence with teachers, teacher train-
ing institutions, county officials and others which
involves the checking of transcripts has been
delayed for two or three months time, partly
because of lack of transcript analysts and typists
and partly because transcripts according to law
must be obtained directly from the colleges with
attendant but unavoidable delay in issuing or
extending a certificate. Another factor that has
contributed to the difficulties of the services
of certification has been the gradual addition
of requirements and specifications incident to
obtaining a certificate.
Plans have been made for the summer of 1951
to revise and simplify the requirements and
procedures involved in teacher certification.
This will be of considerable help. Another an-
ticipated adjustment with respect to personnel,
space, and equipment will make other improve-
ments immediately feasible. The budget request
for 1951-53 includes provision for badly needed
additional personnel and funds for expansion.
With the incorporation of these remedies, by
the fall of 1951 we may expect the full services
of certification to be readily available.
Most of the counseling service should and
will be handled at the teacher training institu-
tions by designated staff members fully briefed
on revised and simplified requirements. These
improvements, combined with additional person-
nel and equipment in the Department, will per-
mit accelerated and generally more efficient




After teachers have been secured it is neces-
sary for many of them to have help and guid-
ance. Some of them will enter the teaching pro-
fession for the first time; others will return to
the classroom after a lapse of years; and still
others will not have had recent opportunities
to attend school or for one reason or another
will not be abreast of the best in educational
trends, practices, and procedures.
For this reason it is necessary to have super-
visors, state and local, who can help in the
orientation and development of teachers and at
the same time safeguard the large investment
of the state in its educational program.
Supervisors at every level may be compared
to master teachers who keep themselves in-
formed of the best in educational theory and
practice and share their findings with each other
and with teachers in the field.
Annually the supervisors meet for leadership
training. At these conferences the best in emerg-
ing state practice is studied along with prom-
ising practices in other states.

The supervisory program has made it pos-
sible to give to teachers and principals in every
school, however remote or isolated, the results
of continuing study in elementary and secondary
school practice and has provided sound basis for
integration and coordination of the educational
program throughout the state.

The Department of Education offers a wide
range of advisory and consultative services. The
supervisory staff includes personnel with spe-
cialized training in the over-all elementary and
secondary school program as well as specialists
in its component branches. Competent staff
members in the fields of general and special
education as previously indicated are available
for help with all kinds and types of instruc-
tional problems.

One of the primary functions of a state gov-
ernment in education is to assure minimum
standards which will promote the efficiency
and functional purposes of the school program.
In accreditation of schools the state seeks to
assure that personnel, plant and facilities, the
curriculum, and teaching aids are adequate to
provide a developmental program for children
and youth.

In reaching judgments with respect to the
educational standing of each school the De-
partment relies upon reports of organization
and personnel, self-evaluation reports and charts
rendered by the school principal, and upon
reports of personal visitation by members of
the accreditation staff. Both quantitative and
qualitative measurements are in use to establish
the excellence and shortcomings of the school
and its program.

The service of school accreditation has re-
sulted in progressively better schools-better
organized-better staffed and better equipped.

School programs are
planned cooperatively

This picturesuque schoIl plaqgrounnd tnder festoons of umo.s reflects a non-
acrevditedl school of an earlier lday.. urAh schools with their primniliicv sanitary,
leducationa(l. andl recrrationnl facilities are no longer tolerated for any of
Florida's children.

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Curriculum planning in Florida is given state-
wide direction by a Courses of Study Commit-
tee whose membership is selected from the
colleges and county school systems of the state.
Among the duties and responsibilities of this
committee is to sponsor research in the field of
curriculum development, prepare tentative
courses of study and teaching guides, recom-
mend changes in subject fields in which text-
books are to be adopted, propose changes in
the adopted list of textbooks, and to submit
library listings for State Board of Education
approval. The committee works in close har-
mony and cooperation with the local school
systems with a mutual interchange of ideas and
A considerable part of the committee's time
and attention is devoted to materials of instruc-
tion with especial emphasis upon textbook needs.
Textbooks are furnished without charge to all
pupils in grades one through twelve of the pub-
lic school system. The intensive work of the
committee in this field has stimulated the selec-
tion and use of the best in teaching materials.
And these materials have been provided to the
degree that local and state budgets have per-
More adequate materials of instruction are
giving Florida's boys and girls a better chance
to learn.
Textbooks have been supplemented with li-
brary books, newspapers, magazines, films, film
strips, maps, globes, recordings, and other types
of learning materials in many schools. Boys and
girls are encouraged to find solutions to their
problems and answers to their questions from
as many sources as possible.
Teachers have improved in their ability to
use new types of materials and equipment. In
workshops and in pre-school and post-school con-
ferences, they have sought and found the best
ways to teach with films, recordings, maps, and
other instructional materials. Results may be
seen in the variety of teaching methods used in
classrooms and in the successful way that
individual differences of children are being



Nutritious lunches in Florida schools safe-
guard the health and contribute to the physical
growth of pupils, and at the same time offer
opportunities for desirable development in so-
cial behavior.
Lunches are served to increasing numbers of
pupils each year. These lunches provide one-
half to one-third of the child's nutritive require-
ments. Florida has made greater progress in
serving the Type A Lunch (nutritionally ade-
quate) than in other areas of the nation. The
percentage increase of these lunches in com-
parison with percentage figures for the South-
ern Region and for the nation are set out in
the table below:
Year Florida Region Nation
1945-46 57.7% 62.8% 54.1%
1949-50 93.3 78.9% 64.9%
School lunch facilities are rapidly being ex-
panded and school lunch services are being in-
tensified so that all of Florida's children may
be offered the advantages which are available
now to perhaps 70% of the state's pupil enroll-
ment. Plans are underway to provide services
as quickly as possible for the 574 schools which
have no school lunch departments at all.
Furthermore, efforts are being made to re-
place poor equipment, to provide badly needed
personnel who have been trained for their
duties, and to assure space and facilities which
are adequate to permit satisfactory services.
With the growth of Florida's school pop-
ulation and particularly with the advent of
the Minimum Foundation Program there has
been a need for additional guidance from tile
State Department of Education. lMainy new
problems have emerged with which the
county school officials have needed help. It
has been necessary also to provide safeguards
which have been designed to insure full ed-
ucational returns for every tax dollar. These
services, though not all new, have required
additional personnel and facilities. The ex-
panded services fall under several headings.




All county school annual budgets are sub-
ject to close scrutiny before approval by the
State Superintendent. Monthly financial state-
ments, reflecting the status of all major and
minor items of receipts and expenditures must
not only be furnished by the county superin-
tendent for the information of the school board,
but a copy early each month also must be sent
to the State Superintendent. The reports are
analyzed by the State Department of Educa-
tion and any trends towards over-expenditure
are observed, and precautional advices are given
the county school officials. Tranfers of funds
may not be made from one major expenditure
account to another except upon prior approval
of a budget amendment by the State Superin-
tendent. Receipts, except from special ear-
marked sources such as losses covered by in-
surance, may not be increased at any time
during the year in the budget until the sum of
all receipts is greater than the amount originally


Staff members in the Department of Educa-
tion endeavor to visit every county in the state
as often as needed to assist with financial prob-
lems and to guide local school officials and fi-
nance officers in procedures which are in ac-
cordance with law and best practice.


At one time, perhaps, a county school office
could get along with the services of a person
only partially acquainted with the basic prin-
ciples of bookkeeping. This is not now possible.
To assure that the county board and superin-
tendent may be properly informed and advised
on financial matters, each county should have
one or more persons properly trained in school
accounting and finance. Records and accounts
must be both accurate and complete in order
to safeguard and administer the funds available
for support of each county school system.

To this end, work conferences are held for
all school finance officers approximately twice a
year, with the assistance of state staff members
from the Department of Education and the
State Auditing Department. Furthermore, steps
are being taken to assure good finance officers
through certification procedures. Certificates
will be based both upon training and satisfac-
tory service.

Regular conferences, for which college credit
may be obtained, are held semi-annually for
county superintendents at the University of
Florida. The State Superintendent, specialists
on his staff, state auditors, and F.E.A. officials
join with the College of Education of the Uni-
versity of Florida in presenting a program of
discussion and instruction in policies and

At separate state conferences and local meet-
ings, staff help is also made available to school
board members.


The volume of traffic and the increased speed
of motor vehicles offer a challenge to the people
of the state to develop a safe school transporta-
tion program.
Toward this end the training of school bus
drivers is being sponsored by the State De-
partment of Education, and the program is pay-
ing dividends in the safety of school children.
Driving skills, preventive maintenance, state
and local laws and regulations, fundamentals of
first aid, physical standards, responsibilities of
the school bus driver, routing of buses, schedule
making, what to do in case of accident, and use
of the school bus patrol are given emphasis in
these training programs.
A conference for the training of chief me-
chanics and supervisors of transportation has
been held annually during the past five years.
In these conferences better practices in opera-
tion, maintenance, and improvement of school
bus standards have been stressed.

A garage for the maintenance of school buses
has been established in each of fifty Florida
counties-an increase of almost one hundred per
cent during the past five years.
The University of Florida in cooperation with
the State Department of Education during the
second summer session of 1949 offered a course
in public school transportation. Plans are to re-
peat this course in 1951-perhaps to continue
it as a permanent offering .I.. i_';n,-1
for the development of un.'l Itt.,id-
ings and skills in transpoiiLtitinii

Surveys in a number of <-.',iit. ,.
have been made of transpit.iti",
programs and school bus i i.h..t. I.'!
the State Department of E.ln.t..t'.
Growing out of these survey, iiq Lin,-
mendations have been madl t" tl_.
responsible school boards iri m1-
provement of admin-
istrative procedures, .
attendance a r e a s, l

routing of school buses, purchasing of supplies,
maintenance of equipment, and safety of opera-
tion. In this connection periodic bulletins are
being sent to the supervisor of transportation and
chief mechanics. This is another step in promot-
ing improved practices in supervision and main-
In an effort further to promote the safety
and efficiency of school transportation minimum
physical standards for school bus drivers have
been established in cooperation with the State
Board of Health; and minimum manufacturing
standards and specifications for school bus equip-
ment have not only been established to assure
the safety of school children, but also to assure
their comfort and convenience.
Standard bid request and bid forms for use
in purchasing body and chassis are provided
by the State Department of Education. Designed
to simplify the process of solicitation of bids by
the county boards and the preparation and filing
of bids by the suppliers, these forms are widely
used. They have eliminated many questions that
once surrounded the awarding of contracts for
school bus equipment.
Though it may have resulted in part from
increased competition, the plan of purchases
has resulted, nevertheless, in assuring standard
equipment and in reducing the cost of school
buses and replacement parts.



Before capital outlay funds from the Minimum
Foundation Program may be used in any county,
the law requires a complete survey of all pub-
lic school plants in the system so that such
money may be applied to the best advantage.
Original school plant surveys completed by
the state department in all of the 67 counties
of the state during the past three years are al-
ready out of date in some counties because of
growing school populations which increase the
demand for new school buildings. Planning for
these buildings and financing them requires the
collection of a wide variety of basic information,
Moreover, changing conditions make re-surveys
necessary from time to time. A number of coun-
ties have asked for this type of help in their
plans to hold bond elections for financing the
construction programs. It is expected that, as
Florida continues to grow, these services will
be further expanded.

During the past two years the department
staff has studied and approved drawings and
specifications of new buildings and major al-
terations which will have provided the follow-
ing school facilities: 1048 classrooms; 90 lunch
rooms; 16 auditoriums; 26 gymnasiums; 17 home
economics departments; 30 science departments;
32 libraries; 50 re-roofings; 14 re-wiring; and
15 re-heatings.
Plans for all new projects are examined in
the department offices, and the completed struc-
tures are inspected to assure conformity to ap-
proved plans before final payment can be made
to contractors.
Specialists on the department staff are always
ready to offer advisory and consultative services.
From the program of construction now under-
way, many valuable details have been assem-
bled and passed on to other counties. A planning
guide based on selected details from the entire
state construction program will soon be avail-
able for use in the building of schools which
are still in drawing board stage. This develop-
ment should be of considerable help in suggest-

ing desirable directions for the school construc-
tion program.

The 1947 legislature following the recommen-
dations of the Citizens Committee put on the
statute books for the first time a law for state
aid which recognized the vital need for school
buildings and enabled counties to begin a build-
ing program which if developed fully would
provide at least minimum needs. Further state
aid was extended in 1949.
While state funds supplied a much needed
nucleus for building needs they had to be sup-
plemented substantially by local funds. The
encouragement given counties by state aid in-
spired many counties to vote bond issues which
were given substantial backing by ear-marking
future state allocations in whole or in part to
secure these issues and make the bonds more
marketable at lower interest rates.
Had not state aid for buildings been started
in 1947 and been extended in 1949 the school
program would have been seriously crippled.
As it is, many schools are finding it necessary to
run double sessions and to increase class loads.
So great now is this yearly increase resulting
fiom local birth rate and an ever increasing
influx of migrant settlers that space for more
than 30,000 new students must be provided
each year. Translated into other figures this
means about 1000 new classrooms and 1000 new
teachers each year. The figure next year will
be larger and so on each year as the state con-
tinues to grow.

Governmental agencies cannot afford to rely
on guess work; they need facts in order to func-
tion efficiently.
Industry has found in meeting competition
that research is indispensable both to efficiency
and profits. Research in all areas of human en-
deavor has brought startling advances in recent
decades. In this connection education is no
exception to the rule.

The curriculum of the public schools has been
almost remade in the past generation as a re-
sult of newly acquired knowledge. Furthermore,
the basis for the recent improvements in Florida
education has been research in school organi-
zation, the structure of school finance, instruc-
tional services, business administration, trans-
portation, and school plants and sites and the
Prior to this year a major long time need of
the Department of Education has been to ac-
quire staff personnel to accumulate, analyze
and disseminate information of interest and use
to school teachers and administrators at every
level of school government. Despite efforts to
discover and utilize research by other educa-
tional institutions and agencies there has been
a constant lag in this phase of the program. This
lag has been a contributing factor to the wide
differences which exist between some school
practice in Florida and the most forward-looking
developments in education.
Recently, however, the Department has been
organized to conduct research projects; to gather,
analyze, index, classify and channel information
to the schools of the state. It seems assured
that every area of service in education presents
problems whose solutions will be advanced by
the new Department service.
An example of the kind of problem in which
scientific inquiry and analysis by the staff can
be of help is the revised index of county tax pay-
ing ability which is nearing completion in the
research offices. This index will more fairly
assess each county's portion of the Minimum
Foundation Program than any instrument which
the Department with its limited research re-
sources heretofore has been able to devolp. A
host of other problems, fiscal, administrative,
and instructional are either now under survey
study or are on the agenda for early consid-

Florida's improved schools are far better
than they were. They can he better than they
are. The next section will indicate Florida's
national standing in comparison with other
school systems of the nation.

-r *!r 1-5~- 7

:~~ -

T. h .



Howt" da Floaida Sehoaods ompare ?

Are Our Schools

As Good As Those

In Other States?

Florida schools rank now not nearly as low
as the poorest-not nearly as high as the best.
Florida's provision for support of education is
somewhere below the national median-19 states
in 1947-48 expended less per pupil on their edu-
cational systems than Florida; 28 states ex-
pended more.1 Those states which do most for
their schools spend approximately 60% per
child more than Florida spends.

u~.r r
~*,~ r*
.. t~

The cost of education for each school child
varies greatly among the states. In 1947-48 the
current per pupil costs of education in Florida2
and the high, low, and the median states were
as follows:

New Jersey $ 266.80 rank 1
median state 178.71
Florida -- 165.50 rank 29
state spending least 66.54 rank 48

Ten years earlier (1937-38) Florida ranked
thirty-sixth with an expenditure of $67.84 per
pupil; New York ranked at the top with $159.67;
and the state with the lowest expenditure,
School revenues over the nation have in-
creased over the past 10 years, but there has
bien a decline nationally in the proportion of
i'icome devoted to public schools. In 1937-38
the median percentage of income allocated to
public schools for all states was 3.1%; but in
1c1L7-48 the median had dropped to 2.3%.
The state which contributed the highest pro-
portion of income to education in 1947-48 was

Our children they get
the kind of education we're
Bi, willing to pay for .

New Mexico (3.6%); lowest, Illinois (1.4%);
Florida 2.,. -n di.a, state, 2.3 A compari-
son between figures for 1937-38 and 1947-48

South Dakota rank 1 5.8%
median 3.1%
Florida -rank 29 2.'r .
Connecticut rank 47 2.1,..
Delaware rank 47 2.1%
Rhode Island -rank 47 2.1%

New Mexico rank 1 3.6'.
Florida rank 6.5 2.9%
South Dakota ..rank 6.5 2.9%
median 2.', .
Illinois ..rank 48 1.4%

Florida had a position near the top for pro-
portion of income devoted to public school edu-
cation in 1947-48; below the median in 1937-38.
Florida spent in 1947-48 the same proportion
of income for education which was spent ten
years earlier. However, in 1948-49, this propor-
tion of income dropped from 2 9- to 2.5%,
giving Florida a ranking of 22nd.
The per capital income in 1947-48 was above
$1,600.00 in eight states ( N l, $1,842.00;
New York $1,781.00; North Dakota, $1,678.00;
Connecticut, $1,671.00; Delaware, $1,646.00;
California, $1,643.00; Montana, $1,641.00; Illi-
nois, $1,624.00).
The per capital income in 1947-48 was less
than $1,000.00 in 10 states (Oklahoma, $930.00;
Tennessee, $916.00; Louisiana, 892.00; North
Carolina, $890.00; Georgia, $885.00; Kentucky,
$850.00; Alabama, $837.00; South Carolina,
$778.00; Arkansas, $710.00; Mississippi, $659.00).
All the states below $1,000.00 were in the
southern region-none in the southern region was
above $1,600.00. Florida ranking 35th among
the states, had a per capital income of $1,104.00.

The relative value of the salary for any occu-
pational group is determined in part by trends
in prices and in part by earnings in other occu-
pations. In comparison with earnings in other
occupations, the school personnel throughout
the nation have definitely lost ground during the
past decade of war and readjustment. In 1939
the average salary of the instructional personnel
was about $150 more than the average annual
earnings of all employed persons. During the
war years the salaries of school personnel fell
far below employed persons in general. Since
1945 there has been some improvement and by
1949 the instructional personnel had about
reached the average of all employed persons.
If trends had continued, teachers might have
moved forward to something approaching their
pre-war position, but earnings in industry have
taken another recent upward turn that has
not been matched by school salaries.
To restore instructional salaries to their pre-
war status in relation to earnings in general, the
current average salary would not be the present
estimated $2,980.00, but would be well above
In 1937-38 the teacher's average salary in
Florida was $1,003.00, rank 31. In 1941-42,
$1,130.00, rank 27; in 1945-46, $1,719.00, rank
26; in 1947-48, $2,641.00, rank 21. $2,641.00 com-
pares with $3,450.00 in New York and $1,293.00
in Mississippi. Florida is the only southeastern
state in the top half of the states. Despite this
gain, N.E.A. estimates of 1950-51 teachers' aver-
age salaries show that Florida's average is below
the national average of -'.ri .l ul. New York's
average salary has increased to $4,000.00, and
Mississippi to $1,420.00. The estimated average
salary for Florida is $2,950.00.
It is interesting to note that New York and
California pay respectively 5, -1,. and 71.0 .
of their teachers more than $3,000.00 annually;
Arkansas and Mississippi respectively 3.; and
2' and Florida 10.' .

'Unless otherwise indicated all figures for 1947-48 in this section are based upon Chasc-Morphet: The Forty-Eight
State School Systems, Thb National Council of State Governments, Chicago, Illinois.
2Indications are that Florida will have slipped to rank 33 when the U.S. Office of Education releases its statistical report
for 1948-49.

craca scht e rWan W oCw naot eaW Lee aW 1W as th4e faooret -

not aea4a h a4 te heet ...

la tic4s what wue want ao our chieldnen7

In 1937-38 the value of the school plant per
pupil (ADA) ranged from $100.00 in Tennessee
to $534 in New York. The average for all
states was $319.00 per pupil. Differences among
states during the intervening 10 years have
widened rather than converged. The range in
1947-48 was from $12.00 per pupil in Alabama
to approximately $800.00 per pupil in New York.
Value of School Property per pupil in 1947-48:

Florida $277.10, rank 38; New York $810.00;
Alabama $121.00; median $401.00.

School Debt per pupil in 1947-48:
Nevada ------$----._- $ 229.79 rank 1
Florida ------ ------- 132.85 rank 11
median ---- 71.88
Mississippi ---- 7.69 rank 48

Capital Outlay per pupil in 1947-48:
Oregon (high) .... $ 57.69
Florida 34.10
Oklahoma (low) -.------ 1.39

Estimates of school plant needs by 42 states
indicate that during the next five years 298,895
additional and replacement classrooms will be
needed by the states reporting. New York (rank
1) reports a need for 30,640 additional class-
rooms; Delaware (rank 42) 145 classrooms;
and Florida (rank 10) 9,634 classrooms. Esti-
mates of cost for additional building facilities in
47 states range from $1,261,822,000.00 in New
York (rank 1) to $3,000,000.00 in North Dakota
(rank 47); Florida $192,672,000.00 (rank 12);
total cost for next five years, 47 states,

All states authorize and most states place chief
reliance on bond issues of local systems to fi-
nance school buildings. Only about half of the
states report special building reserve of "pay
as you go levies".
Only Alabama and Florida make capital out-
lay a part of the general state equalization plan,
although nineteen states make some provision
for state aid on capital outlay projects. Seven
of these, however, provide only inconsequential
amounts, or small sums for certain types of

The cost per pupil for transportation varies
widely over the nation. The state which had the
lowest average cost per pupil in 1947-48 was
North Carolina, $11.97; highest, Nebraska,
$134.80; Florida, $24.82. Extremely low costs in
North Carolina may be related to density of
transported population, the use of student
drivers and fleet purchase of buses by the state.
North Carolina transports 37.9% of its enroll-
ment; Nebraska, 2 2., and Florida, 29.9%.

Florida spends less than a third as much per
pupil for textbooks and teaching materials as
California, approximately 74-.. per pupil as
much as the median state. Data for a few states
are given to illustrate the pronounced differences
among the states in expenditures for teaching

W (;Geierall. a lale gpil 1i tl a qlili1 of educa-
lion i i- %"illing lo pa I'or or liil il arun af-
I'ordl. If Florida ,peil< le; IIthac n lihe median *1
ltHle on il- lirrenl program. cn i hIiope Ihl t .
educalliilonflI relmrn- on ilie in'e'tIneiil %ill b)e
as high as I lie nrlurni- iin -.al'- hich -ipenda
mu ore? \ while large e\,pnililuires vaiinol lguar-
anlee a goodl prograni. failure to provide W
aHnple I'iinds for in-ir114lion. operation, maii-
lellaince. andl conslruclion %%ill cerlainiil autire
a program i hichli cannol nmea-sure up 1 illi
I le I)el.

/ 4

W /i


L^ U. / 1


ftlorda Scaooa


We canw "uCdC a bettere ?orida

through ecadcaton .

arise. It must be assumed that we shall grow in
understanding of our problems and that new
policies and new procedures will be devised to
take care of emerging needs.

The preceding pages have presented unmis-
takable evidence that inspired, intelligent and
constructively active leadership has brought
about great educational progress; Florida educa-
tion has come a long way.
New understandings of education have
emerged which have created new opportunities
and new obligations for the education of our
people. Most of these opportunities have been
recognized and many of these obligations have
been fulfilled.
In the coming years unquestionably many
new uncharted opportunities and obligations will

Among the more pressing problems which
face the people of Florida now are those which
involve the following areas:
appropriations and assured revenues for the
support of education;
organization for the administration of education;
school staff;
school populations;
school plant and equipment;
the program of studies and instructional aids;
related instructional services;
extension of school opportunities;
coordination of educational effort.


As has been pointed out, the Minimum Foun-
dation Program enacted by the 1947 legislature
is considered by educators and laymen alike as
the most forward-looking school legislation ever
enacted. It has given Florida an educational
standing which is envied over the country; many
states hope to pattern their own school legisla-
tion upon it; certainly it was a tremendous for-
ward stride in education for Florida.
It should be remembered, however, that at
the time of passage it represented an experi-
mental approach to the solution of school prob-
lems; its provisions were untested and untried.
It is not surprising then that certain weak-
nesses have developed under the Minimum
Foundation Program law. In all fairness, how-
ever, these weaknesses may not be attributed
either to principles upon which the law was
based or to mechanical imperfections in the law.
The weaknesses of the program stem from other

The people of the state must recognize that
the law, as the name implies, provides only a
minimum program and that desirable educa-
tional programs must go considerably beyond
the stipulations of the law; in a number of
counties this is impossible because of constitu-
tional limitations upon millage ceilings and
because control of tax machinery with particular
reference to the assessing of valuations is vested
in agencies over whom educational boards may
exercise no control.
Seven counties are now levying the maximum
millages which the law will permit; another
twenty of the counties are dangerously close to
their maximum levies. It is doubtful that any
school official in these counties would contend

T7e needs of edcUatiot are

that funds are available to maintain the kind of
educational program and all of the educational
services which would be desirable for their

In a few instances there has been an un-
warranted dissipation of available funds. Some-
times this has reflected the inadequacy of local
school administration accounting; it has reflected
always a lack of information or of understanding
which qualified finance personnel could provide.

Perhaps the most serious factor of weakness
in the program is the failure of tax sources to
provide sufficient revenues to meet the pro-
visions of the Minimum Foundation Program and
to meet the contracts and other obligations in
which school boards and administrators have
entered in good faith.

Educational leadership must find the answers
to questions involving fiscal support of educa-
tion or the program of which we are so proud
is foredoomed to failure. It seems fairly obvious
that these answers will be based at least upon
assurance that (1) appropriations will be sub-
stantial enough to enable every county to pro-
vide an adequate program, (2) finance per-
sonnel in each of the counties will be qualified
for their functions under definite standards and
certification procedures, and (3) assured sources
of revenue will be provided.

In connection with assured sources of revenue
it should be noted that all who have the welfare
of education at heart no longer can be content
merely with working for appropriations; they
must be concerned with the total tax structure
of the state and aggressively insist upon the
adequacy of tax sources and assurances that the
needs of public education will be met in full by
the state government.

cmwee4aIe a

7Tey caibt e Ae"tec'c&di weed, unfta'awg

source ofe finacial spt0"Wl must be ptrowtded.

Some of the problems with which the people
will be concerned in education undoubtedly will
have their source in faulty organization. At the
same time it should be recognized that no system
of organization, however perfect, can assure
good administration, and many faulty organiza-
tions may well rise above their mechanical im-
perfections and function efficiently. Good or-
ganizational procedures and practices, however,
serve to facilitate good practice and conversely,
poor organizations tend to handicap good
In the years to come those interested in the
development of sound educational policy prob-
ably will wish to re-examine the organic struc-
ture of public education in Florida. An evalua-
tion of existing controls at state and county
levels may well reveal weaknesses which would
be subject to constitutional or statutory correc-
tion. Questions regarding administrative organi-
zation provided by agencies of legal control also
may be studied with a view to finding better
answers than the state has found in the past.
In both state and county the duplication of
supervisory and controlling boards will be ap-
praised. Involved in the appraisal also will be
the state and county school administrative of-
ficers. Other important phases of such an ap-

praisal will involve the size and adequacy of
administrative units, the allocation of super-
visory services, the plan of organization for
schools, educational extension to non-school
children and adults, and organization and ad-
ministrative provisions for summer programs.
It is not anticipated that radical departures
from current organization for administration will
be made in the near future but certainly early
attention should be given to problems involved
in the number and kind of assignments of ad-
ministrative and supervisory personnel in very
small counties.

Despite the fact that Florida is rated among
the first states in the nation with respect to
qualifications of teachers, and higher than any
other southeastern state with respect to salaries
and welfare provisions, there is much to explore
and orientate in the problem of placing good
teachers in the schools, and making them secure
and happy in their work.
Involved in provision for good school staff
will be the inducement of qualified teachers to
enter the profession, particularly in the field of
elementary school education. "Qualified teach-
ers" is not here used in any superficial sense.
There is a strong belief throughout the nation
that cultural requirements in the education of
teachers have been neglected and that teachers
generally are unable to impart
culture because of their own ed-
ucational insufficiencies. How-
State Board of
s onto" o ever widespread the belief, the
point certainly is improved and
institutional definitely untrue with respect
to the large portion of Florida
er Institutions teachers. There is enough truth
Sin the indictment though with
respect to some of us that we
g 'l cannot afford to be smug or com-
placent. School leadership in the
state must set the standard for

t This is the traditional
organization of Florida
education. Shall we
keep it?

teacher qualifications so high that such an accu-
sation cannot be made in Florida.
All unreasonable professional requirements for
certification must be eliminated and every objec-
tive requirement which may be applied at the
state level to assure in our certified teachers-
intelligence, physical and psychological health,
and strong character attributes should be sub-
According to a recent national survey, Florida
in 1947-48 trained in four-year colleges only 11%
of the number of elementary school teachers
needed for the next year's replacement in its
state public school system. In not any state were
there graduated a sufficient number of prospec-
tive elementary school teachers to satisfy normal
replacement needs. The problem is one that will
deserve the best thought which can be devoted
to it. Unless a solution can be found, more and
more elementary school pupils will be taught by
teachers who have not been prepared for their
Basic to the solution will be to accord the

position of elementary school teacher parity with
all other teaching positions and to develop pro-
grams of action calculated to provide salary,
security provisions, teaching load, and general
working conditions for all teachers which will
reflect professional dignity and prestige.
Every effort will need to be directed toward
continuation and improvement of the inservice
education opportunities for teachers. Confer-
ences, workshops, faculty study groups, and
other inservice means of improvement conducted
under democratic procedures have paid many
dividends to Florida education. School leader-
ship will find means to expand the scope of these
values and extend the right to participate to
even larger numbers of teachers.

Because of sharply mounting growth of school
populations we need to think not only in terms
of qualitative standards for the teachers but also
in terms of numbers. It will take many more
teachers than now appear to be available to staff
Florida schools.

Good teachers are continually learning more



Figures from the U. S. Census Bureau show
that from 1940 to 1950 Florida was the fastest
growing state east of the Rockies and the third
among the states in the rate of growth in the
nation. The rate was exceeded only in two other
states-California and Arizona.

Florida had a population gain from 1940 to
1950 of 873,891, an increase of 46.1 per cent,
as compared with a national average of only
14.5 per cent.

The total increase was
made up of 611,344 new
'i 195d residents from other
states, and the balance
277 ] 0 262,547 from normal in-
1,,897, 14 i 71 crease (excess of births
resieht res nts over deaths.)
SAn average of 1,175
out-of-staters have be-
come residents of Florida every week for the
past ten years.

Over a half million Florida babies were born
during the period from 1939 through 1949.
Almost twice as many were born in 1949 as in
1939. Here are the extended figures.*

1939 32,437 1944 49,186
1940 33,696 1945 48,839
1941 32,351 1946 54,347
1942 40,675 1947 60,201
1943 46,763 1948 59,685
1949 61,642

First and second grade rooms now show the
effect of the increased births in 1942, 1943, and

OBased upon figures compiled by the State Board of

1944. The classrooms for these children are full.
Babies born in 1945 will be seeking admittance
next September, in 1951.
As each year's increased baby crop comes of
school age it adds increased numbers to the
school population-and as the first grade moves
into the second, not only does a new and larger
first grade show up to take its place, but also
there is a burgeoning crowd of second graders-
and so right up to graduation.
The 61,642 babies born in 1949 will be first
graders in 1955! And thousands of other children
who will have moved to Florida with their
parents will add to the first grade enrollment.
Florida's increasing school enrollment is un-
precedented. Enrollments have gone far beyond
the wildest predictions of a few years ago. New
residents and increased births have crowded our
schools far beyond their capacities.
Since 1944-45, there has been an increase of
98,136 children in Florida schools. Last year,
1949-50, 495,663 children attended school in
Florida, an increase of 24,347 children over the
previous year.
There are now between 525,000 and 530,000
children in Florida schools! -and the end is not
in sight!

There are 39,491 school children attending
part-time school in double sessions. Some chil-
dren are even attending triple-session schools.
These children may be classified as educationally
underprivileged as their chance for a good edu-
cation under these conditions is limited. Thou-
sands of our school children are attending over-
crowded classes in poorly constructed and

'iIJ lli


equipped schools; some of the schools are little
more than firetraps. Other children are attending
school in old churches, school basements and
cafeterias. There are some classrooms with two
or more classes to the room!
And more than 70,000 new school children
will enter our first grade each year for the next
5 years; the average annual net increase in over-
all enrollment will be more than 35,000 pupils
each year.
Every child who enters school (and he must
enter school, whether there's room for him or
not), needs a seat in the classroom a set of
books . possibly a seat on the school bus
... his share of all the other school facilities,
and above all his right to share with other chil-
dren an able and understanding teacher.
So every time a child enters school the cost
of Florida's educational system increases.

When 30 new children enter school it means
a new classroom must be provided. It means a
new teacher, 30 sets of books, maybe a school
bus, and more of everything else needed to
provide our school children with an adequate
There's no law of diminishing costs in

You can't make 35 children get along with
only enough books for 30 children, put 50 chil-
dren in a room designed for 30 children, or cut
the hours of school-without seriously jeopard-
izing the education of children.

As enrollment increases, so do the needs of
the schools.
We can't stop the stork. You can't put a
moratorium on children . and more babies
mean more school children.

We can't turn back the new resident. Florida
wants and needs new residents . and new
residents mean more school children.

An on-the-spot survey of every school building
in the State, points up the fact that Florida
needs $150,000,000 worth of school construction
and repair and the need is immediate and
urgent. Because there was very little building
during the war years or during the depression
which preceded it, there's a lot of catching up
to be done.
To keep up with t --
increasing enrollment "-
(30,000 additional
school children each ,
year call for 1,000
new classrooms at
$10,000 each), Florida will need $10,000,000 in
new classrooms each year for the next five years.
Add the $50,000,000 the State needs for the
next five years to $150,000,000 the State needs
now and you can see the school building prob-
lem Florida is facing.
It's a $200,000,000 problem . with the
education and future of our boys and girls at

Can we plan to launch a building program
and pay for it as we go? No. Florida is too far
behind. One thousand additional classrooms
were needed last year
to keep up with in-
creasing enrollment -
only 473 were built.
Growth in many coun-
ties is too great, the
needs too great, for ad-
equate schools to be
built from current cap-
ital outlay funds. There k,
just isn't enough money
on hand in the coun- '', I .

ties to "pay as we go," and provide schools for
our children.
Bond issues are expensive and difficult to
pass. They often mean increased ad valorem
taxes. Interest rates are high. Many counties,
desperately in need of new facilities, have been
unable to pass bond issues and some counties
could not meet the minimum school construction
needs even if a bond issue for the legal maximum
were approved by the people.
If neither a pay as you go plan nor marketing
of bond issues is the answer, what can be done
to meet the building problem?

Perhaps the most feasable plan is to permit
counties to issue revenue certificates against a
fund which has been earmarked and pledged for

the purpose by the state. Under the revenue
certificate plan, counties will be able to borrow
against guaranteed future income and will be
able to start construction when needed. If the
money needed is pledged, interest rates should
not exceed 1.25% to 1.50%. In this connection
it should be remembered that the last nine bond
issues sold in Florida had an average interest
rate of 2.86%.
To implement the plan it would be necessary
only to guarantee the $400.00 per instruction
unit now allocated under the statutes to the
county systems for capital outlay purposes.
A part of the revenues from the sale of motor
vehicle licenses could be earmarked to guarantee
revenue certificates. This would furnish a stable
assured source of revenue for retirement of in-
debtedness and would make the certificates not
only marketable but
also attractive as in-
vestments for idle
capital. Such a plan
is not without prece-
dent. It is essentially
the same as the plan
now being used to re-
tire road bonds at
low interest rates by
earmarking 20 of the
gasoline tax for the
Can we afford to
consider our schools
and their fiscal en-
ablement of less im-
portance than other
responsibilities of
state government?
Can we afford to de-
lay? Can we afford
to cripple a program
which is designed to
.'7 give o u r children
Character and compe-
tence for the tasks
ahead of them? If
not, we should pro-

Tampa Morning Tribune editorial cartoon by George White

vide room for them to learn-provide the physi-
cal plant and properties which are needed and
needed now.

Many school leaders have suggested that any-
thing and everything that represents pupil in-
terest and which will aid in total growth and
development should be a part of the school
curriculum. In the concern for total development
of children, school leadership has accepted major
responsibility; sometimes, at least by implication,
exclusive responsibility for the education of
children and youth.
Increasingly, school leadership will recognize
the educational possibilities in the total com-
munity and will bend every effort to harness it
with the school program.
Perhaps a re-evalua-
tion of the place of the
school, the home, the ,.
church, and the com-
munity, in the educa-
tion of children and "
youth, will establish
those basic things which
must be considered the
primary responsibility of
the public schools and
institutions of higher
learning and those things
in which the school and
institutions may be ex- :
pected to encourage,
consult, advise, and in
some instances, to co-
Certainly, the schools
will need to devote time
to special as well as gen- .:
eral education. Certainly *-.'.:
many Florida boys and .
girls would have re- i::~:'. ":
mained in the schools _
on higher grade levels if

the curriculum had been designed in particular
instances to meet their needs. Too often the
schools have tried to grind out potential doctors,
lawyers, brick masons, and mechanics in the
same grist when the nature of their interests and
needs lay along divergent paths. These matters
deserve the best thought and study; and the
emerging curriculum will prove how well that
thought and study has been applied.
The state must find a way either under the
terms of an amended Minimum Foundation Pro-
gram or through other channels to place in the
hands of pupils and teachers the tools, supplies,
materials, and equipment which are needed in
their work. Libraries, audio-visual equipment
and other teaching aids are disgracefully meager
in many Florida schools and these lacks are
reflected in limited education for some of
Florida's people. Provision for free textbooks is

somewhat better because of uniform principles
of distribution, but here again policies with re-
spect to appropriations have severely handi-
capped education, especially in rapidly growing
communities. The most important consideration
here, of course, is the limitation such shortages
place upon educational opportunity, but even if
this factor were ignored the state cannot afford
to risk its investment of millions annually for
other phases of education and neglect the
materials for pupil and teacher use which are
designed to make education effective.

Extension of vocational and academic oppor-
tunities for pupils of junior college rank and the
organizational place of the junior college in the
system of public schools are problems which
have not been worked out in their entirety and
will deserve the best thought and action of
educators until the problem is resolved.
In the area of adult education there is much
to be done. Approximately 200,000 adult citizens
of Florida have not completed the fourth grade
of public school. Of these, approximately 50,000
have never attended school at all. One third of
the adult population of the state has not com-
pleted the sixth grade. Efforts are being directed
toward the development of an adult education
program which will reach a greater portion of
these adults and prepare them better to exercise
their responsibilities and privileges as adult
citizens, and to provide more adequately for
themselves and their families.
Eight thousand former service men are now
enrolled in accelerated academic courses below
the college level. The success of this program
conducted at federal expense has created a
demand on the part of civilian adults for a
program sponsored and partially supported by
the state.
There is great need in Florida for expansion
of vocational rehabilitation services for the han-
dicapped and also for development of additional
services not now available. It is estimated that
not over half of the handicapped persons who
need vocational rehabilitation services are en-

rolled for the types of services which are now
provided. Additional funds would, of course, be
required for any further expansion of present
vocational rehabilitation services or for an in-
creased enrollment. Other rehabilitation facilities
are urgently needed to care for the very severely
handicapped. Personnel and facilities are quite
inadequate to serve the needs of persons who
require physical therapy or psychiatric and psy-
chological services. It is frequently impossible to
obtain even the diagnostic services which are
vital to an understanding of some of our most
severely handicapped persons. Treatment is
harder still to obtain. Rehabilitation centers in
which the severely handicapped can be given
adequate study and diagnosis followed by cor-
rective procedures such as physical medicine,
the proper fitting of artificial appliances such as
limbs, hearing aids, etc., would make it possible
to serve many persons who are not now being
served. Certain types of disabled persons such
as the paraplegic, the epileptic, the deaf, and
amputees especially need services which can be
given only in a center by a variety of specialists
with technical equipment. The value of such
centers has been demonstrated well in a few
cities of the United States and in veterans' hos-
pitals. A much greater number of civilians badly
need them and should be rehabilitated and made
self-supporting through them.
Much progress has been made in developing
lunch programs in recent years for Florida's
school population but much remains to be done.
Forty-one percent of the schools in Florida still
do not have school lunch programs. Many new
school lunch departments are needed and many
existing departments need to be enlarged or
remodeled. Many of the lunches are low in the
quantity and quality of foods served. Over half
of the persons employed to prepare and serve
lunches at school have had little or no specialized
training for their jobs. Some county school
boards have not yet assumed full responsibility
for supervision, administration and operation of
the school lunch programs. Many school lunch
programs have facilities inadequate for efficient
operation and sound sanitary practices. Many

teachers need to have a better understanding of
nutrition and the school lunch program in order
for the service to meet the needs of the school
and enrich the curriculum. For the health, nutri-
tion, and general well being of our school popu-
lation this problem needs to be studied and

Unquestionably a large measure of credit for
achievement in the Florida Program of Educa-

tion must be accorded to the principles under
which Florida educational and lay leadership
have worked. Working groups have had the
understanding and cooperation of other working
groups. Resources, facilities, and ideas have been
pooled in common causes; there has been unity
instead of discord.

These policies and procedures have been tried
and tested in the crucible of experience; they
can and should continue to make progress a
continuing reality in Florida.

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FLORIDA, despite a diversified climate,
soil, and people, and differences in its
agricultural, industrial, commercial and
institutional development, has a program of
education without sectional boundaries; it
knows no east, west, north or south.
Every child without reference to race,
creed, or residence has the state's guaran-
All sections of the state are providing
progressively better schools, and all sections
are cooperating in an over-all effort to give
Florida education a standing with the best
in the nation.
Florida will not break faith with its chil-
dren, nor endanger its future by failure to
carry on a program which has done so much
for its people and which carries with it a
promise of so much more.

21938 ',

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