• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Foreword
 List of Illustrations
 Board of commissioners of state...
 Florida state improvement...
 Maps
 Introduction
 History of Tallahassee
 Description of Capitol Center
 Proposed development
 Capital city of Tallahassee
 Capitol centers in the United...






Group Title: Florida capitol center : a report on the proposed development
Title: Florida capitol center
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000212/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida capitol center a report on the proposed development
Physical Description: 93 p. : illus., port. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Taylor, Albert Davis, 1883-
Flint, Herbert Lincoln, 1870- ( joint author )
Florida -- Board of Commissioners of State Institutions
Florida State Improvement Commission
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1947
 Subjects
Subject: City planning -- Florida -- Tallahassee   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: prepared for the State of Florida through Board of Commissioners of State Institutions and Florida State Improvement Commission by A.D. Taylor and Herbert L. Flint.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000212
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Holding Location: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01646346
lccn - 49045415

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page 3
    Frontispiece
        Page 4
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Foreword
        Page 7
        Page 8
    List of Illustrations
        Page 9
    Board of commissioners of state institutions
        Page 10
    Florida state improvement commission
        Page 11
    Maps
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Introduction
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    History of Tallahassee
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Description of Capitol Center
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Proposed development
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Capital city of Tallahassee
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Capitol centers in the United States
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
Full Text

















FLORIDA CAPITOL CENTER

















































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CAPITOL CENTER
In the foreground is the Capitol Center as it appeared in 1946. The seven-story Mayo Building is shown in the
extreme lower right part of this photograph. The main business district is shown in the background immediately
north of the capitol. (See plans on Pages 12 and 13.)


V


..,* '











FLORIDA CAPITOL CENTER



A REPORT




ON THE PROPOSED



DEVELOPMENT


PREPARED FOR
THE STATE OF FLORIDA THROUGH
BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF STATE INSTITUTIONS
AND
FLORIDA STATE IMPROVEMENT COMMISSION
BY
A. D. TAYLOR, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT AND TOWN PLANNER
HERBERT L. FLINT, ASSOCIATE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT


1947









4 r-


GOVERNOR MILLARD F. CALDWELL

2^ 903
C!'/ C UJ/
J:.,














FOREWORD



U NTIL after the close of the first decade of this century, the State Capitol Building, then not
as large as some of our county courthouses, housed all departments of the State government,
including legislative, executive and judicial.
Between the years of 1911 and 1936, the State government made additional space available
to meet growing needs. The first separate building for the State Supreme Court was completed
and occupied in 1912-13. The Martin Office Building was erected about 20 years ago to house the
State Road Department, the State Motor Vehicle Commission and, later the State Highway
Patrol. In 1936 the Nathan Mayo Building was erected to take care of the expanding functions of
the office of State Commissioner of Agriculture. Meanwhile the Capitol was enlarged to meet
the increasing needs of the Legislative and Executive branches.
Until the present building program was undertaken, no other construction work was done
by the State government. New agencies were established and older ones grew with the popu-
lation and the resulting demand for broader and more efficient service. The Florida Industrial
Commission, which :..ii,,ll. developed into one of the State's largest and most important agencies.
was housed in an abandoned school building until the City of Tallahassee in 1940 erected a
building with municipal funds and made it available to that and other over-crowded departments
of the State government.
Before the outbreak of World War II, it was apparent and generally recognized that the
State's services were being impaired by the lack of space. Valuable and irreplaceable records
had long been accumulating and encroaching upon the already inadequate working space. During
the war, when materials and manpower were unavailable, building plans were made to meet the
needs of State II!-! ...'. Court, the State Road Department and other agencies. The Legislature
authorized and appropriated funds for two buildings and a new wing of the Capitol. The admin-
istration of Governor Holland, realizing that new sites would be needed to carry out these proj-
ects, acquired land south and west of the Capitol. Because construction could not be undertaken
until after the end of hostilities, the several departments and agencies of the State continued the
struggle to give good service under the serious handicap of inadequate space.
Construction was begun as soon as wartime shortages and restrictions were removed. The
south wing of the Capitol has now been completed. The State Road Department Building, the
Supreme Court Building and the Industrial Building are under construction. The State Road
Department Building is being financed by funds of that agency, the Industrial Commission
Building, from the sale of revenue certificates to be amortized from rental income.
This important building program developed the need for a planned Capitol Center. Florida
is growing rapidly. The State government at Tallahassee must also grow. New ill.il..-, must be
properly located in relation to the I'- 11i'i and to each other. There must be adequate spnce in
the Capitol Center for future needs. There should be an appropriate and harmonious theme in
architectural design and in landscape composition.
This report, now officially approved by the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions and
by the Florida State Improvement Commission, will serve as a permanent record of what has
been done and as a guide for the future.
It is a source of great satisfaction to my colleagues in the State Government and to me that
we have had an active part in this important program.


December 15, 1947


7

























































TALLAHASSEE IN 1885
One of the very few existing reproductions of sketches showing the general development of the Capitol Center
and surrounding area. The list of buildings then existing includes a number of structures which are now existing
and which can be readily identified in this sketch. (See list on opposite page.)












EXPLANATION OF PHOTO.

Identification of buildings by number, as they appear in the sketch on opposite page.


Capitol
County Court House
State Seminary (Girls' Campus)
University Library
Gallie's Hall
Masonic and I.O.O.F. Hall
Post Office; The Floridan Office
Leon Hotel
The Morgan House
St. James Hotel
Presbyterian Church
Methodist Church
Colored Baptist Church


24.
25.
27.

29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
35.
37.
39.
48.


The Land of Flowers Office
The Economist Office
The Tallahassee Real Estate Exchange;
John A. Henderson, Attorney at Law
M. Lively, Drugs and Medicine
R. & J. Munro, Gsneral Merchandise
Cole S. Dickenson, General Merchandise
Y. A. Levy, General Merchandise
A. Gallie, Jr., General Merchandise
D. S. Walker, Judge Circuit Court
R. W. Williams, Attorney at Law
F. T. Myers, Attorney at Law
D. Cook's Residence


THE STATE CAPITOL IN 1838


This two-story wooden building located in the middle of a small grove in the center of the
City of Tallahassee was the seat of the government of Florida for approximately thirteen years.



9


1.
2.
4.
6.
7.
8.
9.
11.
12.
13.
15.
16.
20.


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BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF STATE INSTITUTIONS


GOVERNOR MILLARD F. CALDWELL
Chairman


R. A. GRAY,
Secretary of State

C. M. GAY
Comptroller

J. TOM WATSON,
Attorney General

J. EDWIN LARSON,
State Treasurer

COLIN ENGLISH,
State Superintendent
Public Instruction

NATHAN MAYO
Commissioner of Agriculture



J. E. STRAUGHN, Secretary


10





















FLORIDA STATE IMPROVEMENT COMMISSION


GOVERNOR MILLARD F. CALDWELL
Chairman


F. ELGIN BAYLESS
Vice Chairman

GEO. W. GIBBS, SR.

H. H. BASKIN

ROBERT L. BANNERMAN




C. H. OVERMAN
Director and Secretary


11





















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A STATE CAPITOL ii
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BLEON COUNTY COURT HOUSE -
.._ ..... ,3 r.,^U J"








E COUNTY SCHOOL BUILDING II UMaEES AND LETTER. INE[ICAVE
MARTINII I A BUILDING | 4 0
F SUPREME COURT BUILDING EETN


KEY TO BUILDING S c5. L. ? u'

SL5L_ j Lft-II-11 V-.IN- 3 Aly*


LEGEND
PROPERTY OWNED BY STATE
PROPERTY OWNED BY COUNTY
OR CITY
PROPERTY RECOMMENDED TO
BE ACQUIRED BY STATE
PROPERTY RECOMMENDED TO
BE ACQUIRED BY CITY



MAP OF
EXISTING CONDITIONS
OF FLORIDA-CAPITOL CENTER
TALLAHASSEE FLORIDA
.TAYLOR LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT
CLEVELAND. OIO WINTER DAK.- FLA
FLINT-ASSOCIATED LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT
WINTER PARK FLORIDA '
MARCH 15, 1947 PLAN N 1251-22
SCALE 1 100'


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KEY TO BUILDINGS -
A- STATE, CAPITOL I SUPPEME COUIT BLDG.
B-LEON7 COUNTY COUl.T HOUSE J-STATE LIBPARk BLDG.
C- STATE OFFICE BLDG. N1 I K- STATE OFFICE BLDG.-X 2
D-MAIlINT BUILDING (."-- L-IXDUSTII, COMMISSION
E.COUNTY SCHOOL BLDG. A-STATE OFFICE BLDG.N.3
F-PaILRLOAD COMMISSION AND O-STATE OFFICE BLDG.NI4
PAdIOLE COMMISSION BLDG. Q-STATE POAD DEPT. BLDG.
G.AGIICULTUIE BLDG. -L.,) P-STATE BOA D OF HEALTH
H-CONSEPyATIOl DEPT. BLDG. S- AGCIiCULTUE BUILDING


STREET


LEG- NE D


m -
V -


EXISTING BUILDING
EXISTING BLDG.TO BE PRMO'LED
PROPOSED BUILDING
EXISTING TIEE TO BE PPESEIRVED
PROPOSED TPLE


STUDY
FOPTHE DEVELOPMENT OF
STATE OF FLOPDA CAPITOL CENTER,
TALLAHASSEE TLOIPDA
A.D. TAYLOR. LANDSCAPE A-CHITECT
CLEVELANPDOHIO -WIWTEJVPAViK.- FLA.
H.L.FLINT -ASSOCIATED LANDSCAPE AKHITECT
WINTER PAI1K FLOPIDA
MAIAPH 15. 194.7 PLAN 9 1251-19
SCtAL 1".100
THIS STUDY DEVELOPED IIN COLLABOPATION WITH
YOUNG. AND HAT0 JAS.GAMBLE UOGEB. nH
ASSOCIATED ARCHITECTS


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STREET Or SurrCIENT IrTH- -- -
TPrErt To SCL UPEn D .-. -
5TREELTS TO E 5E ND- -
TRECCTS ToU BE CLOSED ----
PROPOSED CAPITOL CnTEIR ARrEA
EXISTING CITY PARKPC
PROPOP6D CITY DAK5
EXITING PLAYGIROUNrS fllJJ
PROPOSED PLAYGROUNDS
CITY LIMITS


THOROFARE5, PARK AND

PLAY G OUN D


TALLAHAbS5EE- FLORIDA


A.D. TAYLOP LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT AND TOWN PLANNER
CLEVELAND. oHio TWINTE4 PAK, FLA,
H.L.FLINT- A O50CIATED LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT
-T-e 1- oF ie-


MARCH 8. 1946


PLAN Ne 1251 -3


SCALE IN FECT
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INTRODUCTION




T HE preparation of plans for the comprehensive and ultimate develop-
ment of a Capitol Center in any of the capital cities of the United States is an
occasion of considerable importance. The Capitol Center is usually the focal
point around which the capital city has developed. In too many instances this
development has not proceeded according to any prearranged and orderly
plans. In fact, there is a dearth of information in the form of plans in ac-
cordance with which different capitol centers have been improved or are to
be developed.
The great majority of capitol centers were originally constructed to
include one building on a single city block. Little conception of the potential
possibilities and growth in these capitals was held by the original planners.
They could not prophesy, under those conditions, the requirements for space
that would result in the years to come because of changing economic and so-
cial conditions, and the attendant increases in population.
As the state capital increased in population, the area in the immediate
vicinity of the capitol was rapidly developed with buildings for business and
commercial activities and for residences. There resulted a congestion of
building development around the perimeter of the capitol center. Expansion
of the capitol center to provide locations for buildings in which to house the
activities of the different state departments was only possible at considerable
expense. In many instances this land required for new buildings was pur-
chased at abnormal cost in order to develop the Capitol Center as a unit. In
numerous instances sites were purchased outside of the Capitol Center at
a more normal and reasonable price, on which to construct buildings for
State use.
The advantage of having these State buildings in one concentrated area
was soon discovered. In many states additional land has been purchased on
which to construct these necessary state buildings. This land on which to
provide these building locations often has not been selected in accordance
with a definite plan for the ultimate Capitol Center area.


15









Experience has proved that no capital city can properly develop a capi-
tol center without giving full consideration to the problems of properly
integrating the Capitol Center development with the general development of
the capitol city. There are problems of traffic circulation, relating to through-
traffic that comes from other cities in the state and passes through the capi-
tal city, and relating to traffic which originates and stays mostly within the-
municipal and metropolitan area of the city. It is equally important that
the perimeter of the capitol center should be adequately protected against those
types of developments which become a liability to the capitol center, such as the
encroachment of industrial activities, commercial activities, and types of
buildings which do not add to the attractiveness of the capitol center. It is,
furthermore, very important to give full consideration to the parks and rec-
reational problems especially in the area adjacent to the capitol center.
The open areas around these state buildings are not intended for active recre-
ational activities. Such specific recreational areas should be on land which
is entirely separated from the Capitol Center.
Aside from the Capitol and.the Supreme Court Building, and possibly
buildings such as an archives 1iili..l., the buildings constructed in the capitol
center are for intensive office use. These i. ii1 .-,1.-., have automobiles and re-
quire space in which to park their automobiles. Unless the attractiveness of the
Capitol Center is to be very much reduced, there should be adequate off-street
parking space provided so that these automobiles will not be required to park
on the streets in the Capitol Center. This problem is becoming increasingly
critical and is fully recognized in the planning program for the Capitol Center
at Tallahassee.
While most of our Capitol Centers originated as a single building on one
city block, it has long since become evident that space must be provided for
other buildings, the number of which seems to be increasing as the business of
the state grows in scope and in type. The importance of long range planning
on a comprehensive basis in Capitol Centers, as in general city development,
cannot be overemphasized. No Capitol Center of today in any state should be
without a plan on the basis of which land requirements for expansion during
the next. 50 or 75 years' have been adequately anticipated. A fund of infor-
mation is available resulting from experience in the more populous states,
indicating the need for providing areas on which buildings may be construct-
ed. It is indeed quite logical that, when practicable, the capitol center should
provide sites for important municipal buildings and in some instances for
federal buildings and for county buildings.

16









Tallahassee as a capital city has reached a point in its development
where the business of the State of Florida requires more state buildings in
this city. The construction of such buildings requires an expansion of the
limited area now included in the Capitol Center. The expansion of the Capitol
Center in turn requires that -'mli adequate and comprehensive plan be made
in order to determine the future needs for building space so far as such needs
can be anticipated at this time. It further requires that this area be, as here-
tofore indicated, properly integrated with the existing city plans. It is a stra-
tegic time in the history of Tallahassee's growth to find a solution for this
problem. It could not have been done in the desired intelligent way at an
earlier date, and it cannot be done at a later date without incurring possible
mistakes and abnormal expense which now can be avoided. Fortunately the
decision has been made by Governor Caldwell and his Cabinet to undertake
to solve this planning problem and to prepare a basic and comprehensive
plan for this Capitol Center. It is hoped that this plan will serve as a basis for
the ultimate development projected for the next 75 years and longer.
The buildings which are now contemplated in the immediate construc-
tion program will, when completed and located in accordance with the plans
now being adopted, determine the permanent pattern for the ultimate Capitol
Center.
In this program of planning for the ultimate Capitol Center in the capi-
tal city of Tallahassee, every effort has been made to procure complete data
on existing conditions not only in the specific area adjacent to the Capitol;
but also throughout the City of Tallahassee to be used as a basis for the ulti-
mate plan. Complete data on the future needs for building space and type of
occupancy have also been analyzed by those who are best informed as to the
activities of the growing State of Florida. The important question concern-
ing space requirements, relationship among buildings in the Capitol Center,
problems of vehicular and pedestrian traffic, parking problems, and problems
of thorofares, zoning, and park areas, have been given consideration. As the
study has progressed it has become increasingly evident that no problems of
planning for the ultimate Capitol Center'could have been intelligently solved
without taking into consideration these problems of zoning, of thorofares,
and of park and recreation areas.
The plans have now been completed for the Capitol Center and for the
City of Tallahassee. This report contains the reproductions of plans and
photographs together with explanatory text to accompany these plans-all
of which are concerned with the existing and especially with the proposed de-
17










velopment. It seems desirable to include in this report a number of aerial
photographs showing existing conditions in some parts of the proposed Cap-
itol Center, and to further include reproductions of the sketches showing the
proposed conditions which will be developed in these respective parts of the
ultimate Capitol Center. It also seems pertinent to include a set of small scale
drawings showing the capitol centers in other states throughout the United
States. It will be evident from a study of these drawings, that the State of
Florida is taking a progressive step in determining its ultimate Capitol
Center.


WEST APPROACH OF CAPITOL
This view shows the approach to the west side of the Capitol, along Pensacola Street which
is to be removed in the proposed immediate development of the area that will lie between the
west side of the Capitol and the east front of the new Supreme Court Building. (For existing
proposed conditions, see illustrations on pages 46 and 47.)


18












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tcffreal d-Acadezny


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TALLAHASSEE

Teet
500 1ooo 0ooo


TALLAHASSEE IN 1849
In comparing this map with the study showing the Capitol Center as now proposed, it will be
noted that Wayne Square is occupied by the EXISTING State Road Department Building;
Washington Square by the County Courthouse; Jackson Square by the EXISTING Supreme
Court Building; and Green Square by the PROPOSED State Road Department Building. These
Squares were originally intended to be preserved as open park areas, and were soon taken, as
immediately available area, on which to locate public buildings.


C i tj'













HISTORY OF TALLAHASSEE




T HE site of Tallahassee was chosen in 1823 as the permanent seat of gov-
ernment for the recently created Territory of Florida. The commissioners
(Dr. W. H. Simmons and John Lee Williams), appointed to select a seat of
government, recommended that this high, rIll,-I, and beautiful country south
of Lake Miccosukee would be an ideal location for a town.
The first settlers in this community arrived on April 9, 1824. During the
succeeding weeks three log cabins were erected for the accommodation of the
Legislative Council, which would meet at the new capital in the fall. This log
cabin capitol was somewhat south of the present Capitol Square.
During this same year Congress granted to the Territory of Florida a
quarter section of land at the new Capital site to be sold in order to raise
money for the construction of public buildings. The Legislative Council, in
session at Tallahassee in November, 1824, directed that this quarter section
(southeast quarter of section 36, Township 1 North, Range 1 West) should be
platted as a town to be named Tallahassee. This name was taken from the
Tallahassee Seminoles who occupied this area.
The new town was platted on a "gridiron" pattern with Capitol Square
as the center. The first sale of town lots occurred in April 1825. Before Sep-
tember of that year Tallahassee could boast of fifty houses together with a
church, school house, two hotels, seven stores, an apothecary's shop, and a
printing office, all of which were clustered around the Capitol Square.
This village grew rapidly. On December 9, 1-'.7., the City of Tallahassee
was incorporated, and extended 2, t. -l 1.. ,i,.1 the original quarter section.
In January 1827 the corporate limits were again extended to include the north-
east quarter, theretofore reserved to the Territory of Florida; the southwest
quarter which had been preempted by Leon County in 1825; and the quarter
section adjoining the original town on the south.


20









In developing the further plat for the North addition and the South part
of the County Quarter, the plan provided for a 2' i foot parkway extending on
Park Avenue from Meridian Street to Boulevard Street, and a similar park-
way on Boulevard Street between St. Francis Street and Lafayette Street.

The fertile lands of this Middle Florida attracted many settlers who de-
veloped large plantations worked with slave labor. St. Marks served the new
town as the shipping point, and communications by land were afforded by
the Federal Road, running from St. Augustine to Pensacola, through Talla-
hassee, and opened to traffic about 1825. Railroad communications between
Tallahassee and St. Marks were available in 1838.

Plans for a two-story Capitol of wood construction were approved in 1825,
and the construction of one wing was compleetd in 1-_'. A contract was
awarded in 1828 for the enlargement of the Capitol. Financial difficulties
prevented the completion of this work, and it was not until 1839, when Con-
gress appropriated $20,000 for the purpose, that the present Captiol was
begun. The three-story building as originally constructed was 151 feet long
and 53 feet wide. All of its walls (interior and exterior) were of brick ma-
sonry construction.

In order to procure funds for building construction in addition to those
made available by congressional appropriation, the northwest quarter was
platted and placed on sale in 1840. In the same year the city limits were
changed to include this northwest quarter, while the quarter immediately
south of the original area was omitted from the city because the development
had been to the north rather than to the south. The city limits, therefore,
included the whole Section 36, and remained thus located for practically sev-
enty years thereafter. The sale of the northwest quarter did not provide suffi-
cient funds for the completion of the Capitol; therefore, in 1844 Congress ap-
propriated another $20,000. The Capitol was finally completed in 1845, just
prior to the creation of the State of Florida.

In the meantime, other permanent public buildings had been erected, such
as the County Courthouse, on the site of the present Federal Building. The
present Presbyterian Church and St. John's Episcopal Church (subsequent-
ly reconstructed) were erected.
In 1838 there were approximately 300 houses in the City of Tallahassee.
These houses, with the exception of two or three, were of wood construction
and one-story in height.


21









A major catastrophy occurred on May 25, 1843, when a disastrous fire
wiped out practically the entire business section. The smoke had hardly
cleared away, when plans were in the making for building a better town.
The city Council adopted an ordinance permitting only fireproof buildings.
This fire marked the transition of Tallahassee from a frontier community to an
attractive southern town. The City of Tallahassee, in the mid-50's, was con-
sidered to be a desirable place of residence, with cheerful houses in which
intelligent, hospitable occupants entertained fashionable ideas in dress and
equipages.
Before the year 1.'''1, improved transportation was developed by the re-
building of the St. iM II:s Railroad, and the construction of the Pensacola &
Georgia Railroad. In 1860 Tallahassee could boast of such other modern facili-
ties as illuminating gas, and telegraphic communications with other parts of the
country, and was praised by visitors for its air of rustic simplicity, its
quiet mode of life, its comfortable residences, and above all, for its large and
magnificent trees.
The courthouse burned in 1879. The new courthouse, which has been
remodeled, was completed in 1883. In 1881 the city felt the need for a mod-
ern hotel. The Leon Hotel was constructed in 1882. (See No. 11 in sketch on
page 8.)
In 1887 the legislature established at Tallahassee a Colored Normal
School, now known as the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for
Negroes. From a modest plain structure located near the West Florida
Seminary campus, this institution was removed in 1891 to its present loca-
tion south of the town, at High Wood.
In the late 90's, the business of the state created the necessity for addi-
tional office space. This condition again opened the question of removing the
capital from Tallahassee to some other location in Florida. The legislature in
1899 refused to take any action on this question. In the year 1890 the State
Democratic Committee called for a referendum on the question of removal of
the Capital from Tallahassee. The proposal to remove the Capital from Talla-
hassee was il..f1.-;l-..I by a large majority.
In 1901 the legislature proceeded to provide additional accommodations
for the conduct of the State's business. Instead of erecting a separate new
office building, the decision was made to appropriate $75,000 to enlarge the
Capitol by making additions to the north end and to the south end of the
building. At the same time a decision was made to construct the dome,
which replaced the small cupola built in 1891.


22










In 1905 the State decided to acquire a residence for the use of the gover-
nor. Proposals to purchase the Grove or to build on Jackson Square were
rejected in favor of building on a site donated by a local land company, and
located at the northwest corner of Adams and Brevard Streets. The Gover-
nor's Mansion was constructed in 1906 at a cost of approximately $25,000.

The enlargement of the Capitol did not provide for adequate additional
office space. Therefore, Governor Broward, in 1905, recommended the con-
struction of a further addition to the Capitol. No action was taken until 1911,
when the proposal of Governor Gilchrist to construct a Supreme Court and
Railroad Commission Building on Jackson Square was approved by the legis-
lature. This building was completed during the summer of 1913.


RAILWAY STATION
The original railway station at Tallahassee, in connection with the short section of railroad
extending from the Capital to Saint Marks on the Gulf of Mexico, was used chiefly to transport
cotton from the interior to the sea.


23









The population of Tallahassee increased approximately 68 per cent (from
2981 to 5018) during the period between 1900 and 1910. In 1902 the City
issued bonds for the construction of an electric light plant, and in 1904 bonds
were issued for the construction of a modern sewerage system. In 1908 the
City purchased the water works and gas plant which had theretofore been
operating as a private enterprise. The paving of city streets and sidewalks
was authorized under the charter of1911. By 1920 the city had three miles
of paved streets and nine miles of sidewalks. In 1911, under the terms of a
new charter, the corporate limits were again extended about one-quarter
mile beyond the original section line, thus more than doubling the city's area.

In 1919 the City of Tallahassee government was reincorporated under a
charter providing for a Commission-Manager form of government to replace
the Mayor-Council form of government that had existed since the original in-
corporation in 1825. Under this new form of government the City has made
rapid and steady progress. In 1928 it acquired the site of the Dale Mabry Air-
port. In 1938 the :lii.- commercial airline flight was made through Talla-
hassee, which is now served by three airlines, and benefits greatly from
these new air transportation facilities between Tallahassee and other centers
of population.

A long term program of park development and general city beautifica-
tion has been inaugurated resulting in the acquisition of MI.-r- Park and
Lafayette Park. In 1936 the City took over the operation of the beautiful
18-hole golf course on the eastern side of Tallahassee. The city limits have
been extended on several occasions until the area within the corporate limits
of the City of Tallahassee is now approximately five and one-quarter square
miles. The population has increased from 5637 in 1920 to 18,105 in 1945.

The Cherokee Hotel and the Floridan Hotel were constructed during
the 1920's following the destruction by fire of the old Leon Hotel. The new
Federal Building on the site of this hotel was constructed in 1936. The City
acquired the old Post Office Building as a City Hall, also in 1936. The Caro-
line Brevard and the Sealey Elementary Schools were constructed in 1923
and I:1'25, respectively. The new Leon High School was constructed in 1937.

The growth of Tallahassee during the last quarter of a century has been
due in large part to the increase in the business of the State Government,
and to the development of the two colleges now located in Tallahassee. In
1905 the former West Florida Seminary became the present Florida State


24









College for Women. This institution has developed into one of the largest and
most important women's colleges in the United States. The Florida Agricul-
tural & Mechanical College for Negroes has also developed into a leading in-
stitution of higher learning for Negroes.

The Capitol was further enlarged in 1921-22, when the east and west sec-
tions were built at a cost of approximately $250,000. The Martin Building
was constructed on Wayne Square in 1925 at a cost of $300,000. The Mayo
Bui],liu-. at the northeast corner of Calhoun and Lafayette Streets, was con-
structed in 1935 at a cost of approximately $350,000. The north wing of the
Capitol was constructed in 1935 with the aid of a grant from the federal gov-
ernment. In 1940 the City of Tallahassee constructed the City Administra-
tion Building, at a cost of approximately .:i1,1 111i, for use by the State. This
building is located on the block immediately north of the old Supreme Court
Building. The new south wing of the Capitol, the construction of which was
delayed because of the war, was completed in 1947 at a cost of approximately
f,1 it 1,11111 .


TYPICAL STREET DEVELOPMENT IN THE EARLY DAYS OF TALLAHASSEE
It is assumed that this sketch shows a view looking north from the intersection of Park Avenue
and Monroe Street. Note the stores facing on Monroe Street.







k .*";


.A -- A



Ai 4Ai^^ 4 --^
i'* A
j -r *^ ,^ ^.- -


GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST
This sketch shows the general Capitol Center looking toward the northeast across the proposed Capitol Center from a point south
of Gaines Street. The building in the immediate foreground, on axis with the proposed over-pass, is the proposed Industrial Com-
mission Building. Portions of Monroe Street, Adams Street, and Madison Street, and also portions of Lafayette Street between Cal-
houn Street on the east and Duval Street on the west are to be vacated as shown in this sketch. Note that the relocated portion
of Lafayette Street to the east will pass under the railroad track. The depressed portion of Gaines Street between Monroe Street
and Adams Street will provide a grade separation.














DESCRIPTION OF CAPITOL CENTER

(As E:.I-ni..: IN EARLY 1947)




T HE State Capitol constructed on the city block bounded on the north by
Pensacola Street, on the south by St. Augustine Street, on the east by Mon-
roe Street, and on the west by Adams Street is in the southerly part of the City
of Tallahassee. In reality this was the Capitol Center. Three other state-
owned buildings, known as the Mayo Building (occupied largely by the De-
partment of Agriculture), the Supreme Court Building, and the Martin Build-
ing (occupied by the State Road Department), together with the City Admin-
istration Building (occupied by a miscellaneous group of state offices), com-
prised the Capitol Center group of buildings used by the State. There seems
to have been no plan for any proposed Capitol Center on the basis of which
of these building locations were determined.
The State Road Department Building (known as the Martin Building)
and the Supreme Court Building were evidently constructed on "squares," at
that time owned by the state and immediately available for building sites.
These squares were thus used for these state buildings. Another square
(designated as Washington Square in map on page 19) now occupied by the
County Courthouse was similarly used, in that it was available and also
owned by the state." The Mayo Biibiu.-, used by the State Department of
Agriculture, is on a site, the reason for the selection of which is also some-
what uncertain so far as its possible relationship to any future Capitol Center
development is concerned. The site for the City Administration Building
also seems to have been selected without any far-seeing conception of the
future possibilities in a capitol center development.

*This square was deeded by the City of Tallahassee to the County in 1881, in return for
the south half of the old courthouse block. The question of title was raised at the time
of the transfer, and the solicitor for the County gave as his opinion "that said square
is vested in the City, if not by direct deed, at least by dedication to public use, and that
it is competent for the said City to grant the same to the use of the County for like
public use."


28









At the time (July 31, 1945) when the Board of Commissioners of State
Institutions authorized and instructed the Florida State Improvement Com-
mission to make studies for a future specific Capitol Center, the State of
Florida owned approximately eighteen city blocks in this general area, as
shown on page No. 12. Eight of these blocks have been owned by the State of
Florida for the past one hundred years. Six of these blocks were acquired
between 1940 and 1944. (See pages 102, 103 and 104.) The status of ownership
of the land within the area considered for possible use as a permanent Capitol
Center is shown in the map on page 12.
At the time when the Improvement Commission began its study of the
future Capitol Center development, the south wing of the State Capitol was
in the early stage of construction. St. Augustine Street extended east and
west past the south side of the block on which the Capitol is located. The
block (No. 41) immediately south of St. Augustine Street was occupied by
residences and was owned by the State of Florida, (having been purchased
in 1943). The block immediately north of Pensacola Street was completely
developed with buildings for retail business. The photograph on page 46
shows the existing conditions at this north end of the Capitol. The develop-
ment of buildings for retail business and for offices had begun to take
place along the east side of Monroe Street, south of the County Courthouse
and extending to Lafayette Street. The photograph on page 26 shows these
buildings. At the time of beginning this study, in January 1946, there was no
development of any consequence along the east side of Monroe Street ex-
tending from Lafayette Street to Gaines Street. In the area south of the
State Road Department Building (Martin Building). extending to Lafayette
Street and bounded on the east by Adams Street and on the west by Bronough
Street, as shown in the photograph on page 26, there was a miscellaneous
development consisting of gas stations, parking lots, taxi stands, garage, old
residences, and a temporary location for the State Forestry Depart-
ment. The three blocks lying between Duval Street and Bronough Street, and
extending from Lafayette Street to Gaines Street, were occupied by old time
residences some of which were no longer used as residences. In the area be-
tween Calhoun Street and Duval Street, south of Madison Street, these blocks
were occupied by scattered residences, some of which were no longer occupied.
(These residences are shown in the photographs on pages 4 and 42.)


29


















0^,


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.~5


RESIDENCE OF TERRITORIAL GOVERNOR
This residence, constructed about 1830, was the private residence of only one territorial gov-
ernor, Richard K. Call, appointed by the President and serving as governor during the years
1836-1839 and 1841-1844. It now stands on the block north of the Governor's Mansion.


30


" 't~C~~








This proposed Capitol Center area, as shown in the map on page 12, con-
sisting of approximately 32 city blocks under consideration to be occupied in
part or in whole by the future capitol center, has a rather interesting topog-
raphy (See map on page 38). The area south of Jefferson Street and lying
between Adams Street and Monroe Street slopes to the south and is generally
level from east to west. On this area there is an interesting growth of large
live Oaks which give an attractive atmosphere in the area around the Capi-
tol. The land slopes to the east from Monroe Street and beginning at Calhoun
Street the slope is quite steep towards the east, as is shown by the contours
in the map. On the west side of the Capitol, beginning at Adams Street, the
land slopes to the west not quite as abruptly as the slope in the area to the
east of Monroe and of Calhoun Streets. The area to the north of Pensacola
Street has a very slight slope between Monroe Street and Adams Street. The
area to the south of Gaines Street has a very definite slope to the south. The
contours in the map on page 38 show these differences in elevation.
There are two very important north and south streets extending past the
east and west sides of the Capitol. Monroe Street on the east of the Capitol
and Adams Street on the west of the Capitol carry a large amount of through-
traffic, which consists of trucks, pleasure cars, and of commercial business
and service vehicles. These two streets carry the major amount of the
through-traffic coming into Tallahassee from the south and coming into
Tallahassee from the north. A considerable amount of traffic comes into
Tallahassee over Lafayette Street from the east and finds its way into Mon-
roe Street on the east side of the Capitol. Calhoun Street is receiving an in-
creasing amount of local traffic. It is very definitely a potential location for
retail business and office buildings.
The trend in retail business is to the north, between Park Avenue and
Tennessee Street. The highest class of retail business is now located on either
side of Monroe Street extending from Pensacola Street to Park Avenue. The
type of business on the north side of Pensacola Street between Monroe Street
and Adams Street is mostly of a secondary character.
The business of the State of Florida naturally has its headquarters in
the capital City of Tallahassee. This increased state business has made it
necessary to construct the City Administration Building, immediately north
of the existing Supreme Court Building, in order to meet the demands for
office space in which to house state employees. This building is now entirely
occupied. Additional space in which to transact state business has been rent-
ed in privately owned office buildings and in abandoned residences scattered


31









throughout the center of Tallahassee. The extent of demand for office space
for state activities is such that new buildings must be erected for state work.
The Martin Building occupied by the State Road Department has long since
become overcrowded to the extent that temporary office, laboratory, and
drafting room space is now used in other buildings.
Space must also be found for the State Library, which is now housed in
the overcrowded Capitol. The activities of the Supreme Court require much
additional space. The planning for construction of new buildings for the
State Supreme Court, the Industrial Commission, and the State Road Depart-
ment is in progress.
The foregoing discussion gives a general resume of the conditions which
now exist in the general area considered for the proposed Capitol Center.
The question of the procedure to be adopted and the solution for this prob-
lem contained in the chapter titled "Proposed Development."


82













PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT



The necessity for new buildings in the Capitol Center immediately
raised the question as to where these buildings should be located and as to the
probable extent to which further buildings would be required. These questions
naturally led to the further and all-important question concerning the loca-
tions in which these buildings should be placed in relation to the Capitol, and
the kind of a Capitol Center which should be developed.
A decision was therefore made to proceed with a detailed analysis of this
problem in all of its aspects. No one questioned the desirability of creating a
Capitol Cefter with the existing Capitol as the focal point in this future de-
velopment. On the basis of topographic maps, sketch studies were made to
determine whether (a) the future buildings should be located on sites sur-
rounding the existing Capitol, thus making this building the central feature
of the ultimate Capitol Center, (b) the proposed development should extend
to the south or (c) the development should extend to the east and be mainly
on the east side of the Capitol. As a result of analyzing these possibilities, it
was definitely decided that the most logical solution would be one in which the
existing Capitol would be the central feature of an area sufficient in extent to
provide appropriate sites for the buildings considered for immediate con-
struction, and also for additional buildings the use of which could not now be
definitely determined and locations for which would be available as and when
the necessity for such buildings might arise. A study of the experience of
other states developed the fact that, in the great majority of capitol centers,
the planning program had not projected itself far enough into the future to
provide adequately for future requirements. The State of Florida, under
present conditions in Tallahassee, has the opportunity to procure land to be
included in the proposed Capitol Center, with small exceptions, not now
occupied by any expensive building developments.


33




































'A


\- .i"r
^ M '-^ '*- 'i.?-" W *- ^'^ l *^ '^ V ^ ^


DISTANT VIEW FROM EAST SHOWING EAST APPROACH TO CAPITOL CENTER
This sketch shows the proposed Capitol Center looking from the east directly towards the west, on the axis of
Lafayette Street and of the Capitol. It is proposed that the Mayo Building at the northeast corner of Calhoun
Street and Lafayette Street will be moved ultimately to another location. The area on each side of Lafayette
Street, east of Calhoun Street, will be developed for park and recreation use. Note that the existing business
block adjacent to and immediately north of the Capitol is to be cleared and developed ultimately as park
area.









Problems arose concerning the number and uses for future buildings, the
total area of land that should be made available for the future Capitol Cen-
ter, the method of developing the approaches to the Capitol Center, the extent
to which vehicular traffic might be permitted in the Capitol Center, the
method of providing parking space for automobiles of state personnel and
visitors, and the architectural and landscape composition within this Capitol
Center. The answers to these questions and to other important questions are
contained in the following paragraphs:
EXTENT OF PROPOSED AREA
After careful analysis of this problem, it was decided to recommend to
the Governor and his Cabinet that the area bounded by Jefferson Street on
the north, by Bloxham Street on the south, by Bronough Street on the west,
and by Gadsden Street on the east, be designated as the future Capitol Center.
This area comprises approximately 32 city blocks, to which would be added
the boulevard approaches on Lafayette street from the east. This area approx-
imates 61 acres. The ownership of property in this area so far as state, coun-
ty, city, and private ownership is concerned, is shown in the following tabu-
lation and also on the map on page 12.
*Area in State Ownership.................................. 18 acres..
Area in County Ownership................................ 4 acres
Area in City Ownership .................................. 9 acres
Area in Private Ownership..............................30 acres
It is doubtful that any state has a better opportunity within a nominal cost
to procure the desired area for an ideal Capitol Center in which buildings
would have adequate space and in which an attractive park-like trea-
ment is possible. The state government should take full advantage of this
opportunity. Generations to come will be thankful that such foresight might
now be exercised.
CONTROL OF SURROUNDING AREA
As and when all of the land necessary for the proposed Capitol Center
has been procured and has been appropriately improved, there arises the
question of giving adequate protection to this area by Zoning Regulations. It
would be a fatal mistake to make the proposed improvements and then to find
that undesirable types of buildings and uses have developed around this
area. This protection is being provided by the adoption of a revised Zoning
Ordinance which will restrict this surrounding area against those types of
*These areas exclude the right-of-way on all streets within this proposed Capitol Center.


36
































































































IF 4. .


WEST ENTRANCE TO STATE CAPITOL
The upper photograph shows the existing entrance with steps leading to the terrace and first
floor level. It also shows the entrance to the basement level. The lower photograph is a sketch
suggestion for a proposed redesign of the west entrance, prepared by Hadley and Atkinson,
the architects for the new south wing of the Capitol.


a


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-








q r "! r ~ ^ r ^ r r !r


O L_ LL_ OTLET



-- r -, ,/ ,r- n :,T-A T,,,L O IDA P TO,,N

I, ,i^ n ,J^, inr /'
I i' i I *! ii / 1--
J L .._.. C UTY. OURT |,UEH 1"FLN .... "C / ,LN, ,'CA -T
.N UL~-N SC_.. t 0c p _.2u -' M~ .4,,, o4 4 L; N- 2



PLA A-n T- ---rCE.
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.1 fLJ7'^- ; L{ q-1
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U L '- % ^i CONTOUR MAP OF


.- "-- .i ,- --- STATE OF FLO---IDA-CAPITOL CENTER

A STATE CAPITOL [------ --- ---- CL LAND.A OC TA
S CITY OFFICE BUILDING WT ARK LO IDA



COUNTY CHO BUILIN "--" II -----------N O A IS 197 LAN 25-23
U .M UI L... .i ..IN S T RjEATE ITU5 SCA I O t l
SL / j EXISTING CON ITION
----- STATE OF FLORIDA-CAPITOL CENTER

KEY TO BUILDINGS I |,, TALLA14ASSEE FLORIDA
IA.D.TAYLOR- LANDS APE ARCHITECT
MARI N BUILDING NI I
E C 'T S L D ARE ...P.e DFOR CONSTRUCTiON* rw "it,==
SPEECU BUILDING.T.E. DAt'" TE


THE CONTOUR DATA ON THIS DRAWING WERE MADE AVAIL.ALE
BY TlE FLORIDA STATE IMPROVEMENT COMMISSION


~


------------~----









developments not considered to be appropriate. Private residences, apart-
ment buildings of limited height, and recreational areas, and also hotels would
be ideal. Pending the time that private property is purchased for this pro-
posed Capitol Center development, zoning regulations should be placed upon
this property to restrict it against any improvements that are not in keeping
with the permanent development. Such zoning regulations will also prohibit
the construction of business and commercial buildings, the subsequent pur-
chase or condemnation of which will involve unnecessary and abnormal
expenditures.

APPROACHES TO CAPITOL CENTER
As heretofore stated, the important approaches to the Capitol are (a) over
Lafayette Street coming from the east and (b) over the proposed new high-
way to be located between Adams Street and Monroe Street coming from the
south.
Portions of Lafayette Street should be relocated as shown in the draw-
ings on pages 12 and 13 to continue in a straight line directly to the east on
the main axis of the east front of the Capitol. The relocation will take this
street under the railroad and directly east to the top of the high land near
Magnolia Road. It should be boulevarded and planted on each side. Such a
development of Lafayette Street will make possible an outstanding view of
the Capitol as one approaches Tallahassee from this direction. It is recom-
mended that the state proceed with this reconstruction at an early date, or
in any event acquire the necessary right-of-way, before any further private
building construction occurs in or near the proposed right-of-way. To the south
of Capitol Center Monroe and Adams Streets carry a great amount of trunk
traffic which now enters Tallahassee and passes through Tallahassee on Mon-
roe Street and on Adams Street. This truck traffic causes undue congestion in
the business district of Tallahassee, extending from Gaines Street to Tennes-
see Street. It should be diverted around the proposed Capital center over Gads-
den Street and Bronough Street. The pleasure vehicles should be removed from
Adams and from Monroe Street, approaching Tallahassee from the south, and
eventually should use the proposed boulevard which will be constructed on the
north and south axis of the Capitol. This solution is possible by providing an
underpass or grade separation at Gaines Street as shown in the perspective
drawing on page 27. The area between Adams Street and Monroe Street,
north of the railroad, could be developed as a parkway, and thus create a
most attractive approach to Tallahassee from the south.


39





























































































FLORIDA STATE CAPITOL
The upper photograph shows the State Capitol prior to 1891. The lower photograph shows the
State Capitol during the years between 1891 and 1901. Note the cupola which has been
added to the State Capitol subsequent to the time when the upper photograph was taken.


-r
- ---L;- --= ~II-~ yr!









VEHICULAR AND PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION WITHIN
THE PROPOSED CAPITOL CENTER
Much of the success of the planning for the proposed Capitol Center will
depend upon the solution adopted for vehicular traffic and for pedestrian
traffic. So far as is practicable, vehicular traffic should be removed from
the Capitol Center. As shown in the study of page 13, it is very necessary to
vacate those portions of Adams Street and of Monroe Street between Jeffer-
son Street on the north and Gaines Street on the south. The important street
which will pass through the Capitol Center will be Duval Street, which will
make possible an attractive view of the west side of the Capitol and of the
east front of the new Supreme Court Building. Calhoun Street will provide an
attractive view of the east front of the Capitol. It will also pass the east
front of the new State Road Department Building. That portion of Pensa-
cola Street between Bronough Street and Calhoun Street should also be vacat-
ed. The portions of Madison Street now existing between Adams Street and
Monroe Street are to be vacated. The elimination of the foregoing portions
of these streets will leave an unobstructed park-like area to enhance the arch-
itectural composition of the State Buildings. Access to the east front of the
Capitol will be made possible by a drive as shown in the study on page 13.
The west front of the Capitol is now in reality the rear entrance. It should
no longer continue to have this designation. It should become the west front
of the Capitol. Access to the Capitol from Duval Street will be made possible
by an attractive drive leading to the top of the overlook-terrace as shown in
the perspective sketch on pages 53 and 71. A limited number of walks, in
appropriate locations, as shown in the study, will provide for communication
among the different buildings in this center.
LOCATIONS FOR PROPOSED BUILDINGS
The new Supreme Court Building will be a most important structure the
location for which should be on the east and west axis of the Capitol, and west
of Duval Street. It will be flanked on each side by proposed buildings, one of
which might be the State Library Building and the other might be the Conser-
vation Department Building. The foreground of this Supreme Court Building
will be a broad and simple turf panel developed by regrading the area from
the east side of Duval Street to the bottom of the proposed terrace as shown
in the perspective sketch on page 53. This turf panel will be enclosed on the
south side by the City Administration Building (to become one of the State
Office Buildings) and on the north side by a new building also to be used as
a state office building.


41





















PIrf'


I III


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CLOSE-UP VIEW FROM EAST SHOWING GENERAL CAPITOL CENTER
This sketch is a close-up view of a major part of the proposed Capital Center showing the more detailed
treatment of the area immediately east of and in front of the Capitol, and the treatment of the area at
the north end and at the south end of the Capitol. The Mayo Building at the corner of Calhoun and Lafayette
Streets is not shown in this sketch of the ultimate Cap.tol Center Development because of the probability that
this building will be moved to another location outside of the Capitol Center. Note the proposed new
Supreme Court Building in the background on the west side of Duval Street and on the east and west axis
of the Capitol Building. The buildings with the columns shown in the extreme left middle foreground is
the proposed State Road Department Building.


I "









The Industrial Commission Building is to be located at the south end of
the proposed Capitol Center, on the north and south axis of the Capitol and
also on the axis of the proposed new highway coming from the south. There
will be an open informal park effect between the Industrial Building and the
south end of the Capitol. Sites are provided for buildings south of Gaines
Street, and on each side of the main approach to the Capitol Center. These
buildings may be used for State Office Buildings. There is also the possibil-
ity that some other state use may be created. These sites will be available
whenever needed.

The State Road Department Building is located south and east of the
Capitol, facing on Calhoun Street, as shown in the study on page 13, and in
the perspective sketches on page 27 and page 65.

As indicated in an earlier part of this report, the Mayo Building was lo-
cated without regard to the future plan for the Capitol Center. It is in an
unfortunate location. It should not remain permanently in this location.
The time may come, possibly many years in the future, when it will seem
appropriate to move this building or when the building may have out-
lived its usefulness to an extent sufficient to justify its removal. As
shown in the perspective sketches on pages 35 and 43, this building is the
one element in this future Capitol Center seemingly very much out of place.
At the time when this building was constructed, there evidently was no
thought of creating a capitol center such as is now contemplated. Had there
been -e.i,1 ;i plan it is inconceivable that such a building or any building would
be placed in this location. The logical location for the permanent Agriculture
Building is in the block bounded on the north by Jefferson Street and on the
east by Gadsden Street, where this proposed building is indicated in the study
on page 13.

A site for another state building, possibly for the State Board of Health,
is indicated on the east side of Calhoun Street and north of Madison Street.
The sites available for buildings beyond those which are now immediately
contemplated, should meet all the needs of this State Capitol Center for many
years.

In the proposed immediate building program it will not be necessary to
purchase additional property in order to provide sites for the Industrial
Commission Building and for the State Road Department Building. The
Road Department Building should be placed on the two blocks bounded on
the north by St. Augustine Street, on the south by South Madison Street


44









(to be vacated), on the east by Calhoun Street and on the west by Monroe
Street (to be vacated). The Industrial Commission Building should be placed
on the site bounded on the north by Madison Street (to be vacated), on the
south by Gaines Street, on the east by \I.n oe Street (to be vacated), and on
the west by Adams Street (also to be vacated).
It is recommended that the blocks of property bounded on the north by
Pensacola Street, on the south by St. Augustine Street, on the east by Adams
Street, and the west by Bronough Street (see map on page 12), be acquired by
the state to provide the necessary site for the new Supreme Court Building
and a proper open area east of Duval Street extending to the Capitol as shown
in the study on page 13.
In the ultimate completion of the Capitol Center it will be necessary for
the state to acquire another block of property now in private ownership. No
plan for the Capitol Center would be complete without containing the recom-
mendation that the block of property immediately north of the Capitol bound-
ed by Jefferson Street on the north, by Pensacola Street on the south (to be
vacated), by Monroe Street on the east (to be vacated), and by Adams
Street on the west (to be vacated), be acquired by thQ State of Florida. The
frontage of Jefferson Street between Adams Street and Monroe Street will
not develop as first-class business property. As the business center
of Tallahassee moves farther to the north, in all probability to the
north of Park Avenue, it is possible that this block of property south of
College Avenue and north of Jefferson Street may become available as a site
for a hotel. For this use this land will have its maximum value in the proposed
ultimate development. It is an ideal site for a hotel facing south towards the
Capitol.


45




















FIII





















VIEW FROM THE WEST SHOWING WEST SIDE OF COMPLETED CAPITOL
This sketch shows the proposed treatment of the area immediately west of the Capitol and extending to
Duval Street. It is proposed to regrade this area and to develop it as shown in this sketch, in order to create
an appropriate foreground for the proposed Supreme Court Building which will be located on the east and
west axis of the Capitol, and west of Duval Street. Lafayette Street which shows in the middle background
of this sketch is proposed to be relocated to be extended directly east on the east and west axis of the
Capitol.


'1


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.. . " .
* a
fl^,.^'.i


-4
S3Y

















































James Gamble Rogers II, Architect-Yonge & Hart, Architects. ASSOCIATED


NEW SUPREME COURT BUILDING
Architects' sketch showing the east front of the proposed new Supreme Court Building located on the west
side of Duval Street and on the east and west major axis of the Capitol. Construction of this building of mono-
lithic concrete was started in April, 1947. Also see sketch on page 53.




/


SUPREME COURT BUILDING



This building is to provide space for the Supreme Court, a law library, a
state library, offices for the clerks of the court, and storage space for the
State Archives. It will be constructed of monolithic concrete with cut stone
trim. The interior trim in the rotunda is marble. The interior of the Su-
preme Court Chamber will be finished in wood with finely, yet simply, molded
detail in the trim. The modified Greek design in this building recalls the
classic architecture of the Capitol. It is in keeping with the general theme of
the architecture in the older buildings of Tallahassee. A special effort has
been made to introduce throughout this design a conservative atmosphere,
and to preserve a dignity of architectural composition which is appropriate
to the state's highest tribunal.

This building is located on the west side of the Capitol Center on the
east and west axis of the Capitol, and it is the second most important building
in the Capitol Center development.


49









PROPOSED REGARDING IN THE CAPITOL CENTER


There are two major grading operations which can be done completely
only when Monroe Street and Adams Street immediately east of the Capitol
and west of the Capitol respectively are eventually vacated. At the present
time these streets are in close proximity to the Capitol and their removal is
necessary. In the completed improvement there should be an open lawn ex-
tending from the east side of the Capitol to the west side of Calhoun Street.
Across the east side of this lawn and along the Calhoun Street frontage there
should be a retaining wall of appropriate design, and the grade along the
west side of Calhoun Street in this area, should be completed accordingly.

On the west front of the Capitol the change will be even greater than on
the east front. The west entrance to the building should be redesigned to
provide for an appropriate terrace as a part of this entrance (see sketch on
page 37). A second terrace should then be developed in order to make pos-
sible a proper entrance drive from Duval Street to the west entrance, and
also to make practicable the desired grading which will create the turf panel
in front of the new Supreme Court Building, as shown in the study on page
13 and in the sketches on pages 47 and 53.

There will be only a small amount of grading in the area extending be-
tween the south end of the Capitol and the north side of the proposed Indus-
trial Commission Building. Aside from the grading which will be necessary
in filling basements, etc., after the buildings have been removed from the
block immediately north of the Capitol, the additional grading in this area
will not be a major operation.

CAPITOL CENTER PARKING PROBLEMS
Tallahassee, like every other progressive city in the United States, is ex-
periencing its "growing pains" in the problem of providing space in which
to park automobiles. In this part of the report the discussion applies only to
problems of parking of automobiles which are used by employees of the state
and by visitors coming to the Capitol Center on business and on pleasure. In
the ultimate development of the Capitol Center very few if any automobiles
should be permitted to park on any drives or streets within the Capitol Cen-
ter. Such parking creates congestion and traffic hazards. It is an undesirable
encroachment into the attractive landscape composition of the Capitol Cen-
ter. Until underground parking facilities are provided in the Capitol Center
(and this should be one of the important solutions to this problem) the park-


50









ing of automobiles on the street and in temporary parking spaces within this
area must be permitted. Until some of these sites are used for buildings an
effort should be made to provide off-street parking on properties purchased
by the state or the city, or on private properties leased by the state for park-
ing use.
From a study of the proposed plan, it seems'that underground parking
eventually could be provided in the area immediately north and northwest of
the Capitol and south of the line of Jefferson Street. An entrance to this
underground garage could be provided from Monroe Street. Additional
space could be made available in the form of underground parking facilities,
either east or west of the Industrial Commission Building, in the southwest
corner and in the southeast corner respectively of the Capitol Center.
The number of automobiles used by the state employees and by visitors
coming to the Capitol Center for business and pleasure is increasing each
year. No further detailed plans for the Capitol Center should be made with-
out giving to the problem of providing underground parking facilities its
proper recognition.
The Florida State Capitol Center, like the Capitol Centers of some other
states and of the Federal Government, should not be an outdoor garage. It is
proving .-lI;'mniicily profitable for other cities to lease space and also to build
garages to meet the demands of the public for parking automobiles. Florida
should be a leader in keeping its Capitol Center free from this undesirable
condition created by indiscriminate automobile parking wherever there is a
space on a street or adjacent to a public building for such parking.


51






















































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VIEW FROM NORTHEAST SHOWING PROPOSED SUPREME COURT BUILDING
This sketch shows a part of the area to be developed as open park immediately north of the Capitol. It also
shows the overlook terrace and the turf area on the west side of the Capitol, with the proposed new Supreme
Court Building on the west side of Duval Street and on axis with the Capitol. The turf panel to the west of
the Capitol will be framed on the south by the existing City Administration Building, and on the north by a
proposed office building.


~I~












i?
^"l'.


James Gamble Rogers II, Architect-Yonge & Hart, Architects. ASSOCIATED


INDUSTRIAL COMMISSION OFFICE BUILDING
Architects' sketch for the proposed Industrial Commission Building, located at the south end of the Capitol
Center and on the north and south aixis of the Capitol. See Perspective Sketches on Page 27 and on Page
65. Construction of this monolithic concrete building was stated in May 1947.









INDUSTRIAL COM~1 \lssION BUILDING


This building, designed for the specific use of ihe State of Florida In-
dustrial Commission, is of reinforced monolithic concrete construction. The ex-
terior design is simplified and somewhat monumental. The site for this pro-
posed building is immediately south of the Capitol, on the main north and
south axis of the Capitol Center, and along the north side of Gaines Street. It
is a very important building in the entire Capitol Center project.

The over-all length of the north facade facing the Capitol is 250 feet.
The wings at each end of this building, forming the service court on the south
side of the building, are 124 feet in depth. Eni i.-.., on the north will be at
the first floor level. Entrances on the side will be at the basement level, and
entrances in the service court will be at the sub-basement level. Thus, three
floors of this five-story building will have direct access to adjacent outside
finished grade levels. Access to the upper two floors will be by stairways and
elevators at each end of the building.

Office and work rooms for all departments of the Industrial Commis-
sion will be placed on the upper four floors of this building. These offices
will be provided with year-around air-conditioning. There will be approxi-
mately 15,000 square feet of office space on each of these four floors.

In addition to the air-conditioning equipment room, boiler room, work
shop, and storage room in the sub-basement, there will be a cafeteria, kitchen,
and snack-bar in one of the wings to provide seating capacity for approxi-
mately 250 people. Most of the kitchen equipment will be operated by elec-
tricity. Capitol Center personnel, other than Industrial Commission em-
ployees, will have direct access to the cafeteria through an outside entrance.

Some of the interesting features of this building will be suspended acous-
tical ceilings, asphalt tile in corridors and offices, acoustically treated walls,
ceilings and floors, especially in the more noisy machine rooms. Aluminum
window frames, fluorescent lighting, under-floor electric communication
ducts, tile and plaster corridor partitions and flooring, tile and plaster on ex-
terior walls, movable steel office partitions, metal doors, tile walls and floors
and toilet rooms, metal lockers in all locker rooms, smooth formed exterior
concrete walls, granite steps, granite flagging, and batten seam copper roof.
ing will be included in this construction.


55














I


ii~ ~ t '4a -- -


7 ,

Ms *_


- 'i--rS~ii~-Y


****---i.*^ ^ -^ ,^- .,.; ^, ,. .

James Gamble Rogers II, Architect-Yonge & Hart, Architects. ASSOCIATED

STATE ROAD DEPARTMENT BUILDING
Architects' sketch showing the east front of the proposed State Road Department Building, located on the
west side of Calhoun Street and on the area designated in the map of 1849 as "Green Square." See Perspec-
tive Sketches on page 42 and on page 65. Construction on this building of monolithic concrete was started
in June 1947.


- r-









STATE ROAD DEPARTMENT BUILDING


The new State Road Department Building is to be located in the area
which was designated on the original map of Tallahassee as Green Square
(See page 19). The main facade of this building will face to the east toward
Calhoun Street. The main entrance to this building will be from Calhoun
Street. The total length of this building is 262 feet, and it will be four stories.
The plan of this building is T-shaped. There will be colonnaded entrance
porticoes as principal features on the east and west axis. The moulding detail
and the fenestration will be of simplified classic design, and the the general
construction will be monolithic concrete. The design of this structure is such
that a harmonious relationship with the architecture of the State Capitol is
preserved.

Entrances are at the first floor level. The upper floors are reached by
elevators and two stairways. It is proposed to provide offices, work rooms
and drafting rooms on the first, second, and third floors. The basement will
be used for storage rooms, blueprinting shop, air-conditioning and mechani-
cal equipment, and also a snack-bar for road department personnel. A serv-
ice court and a basement garage are located in the angle formed by the west
wing and the north wing. Access to the service court and to the basement
garage will be from Calhoun Street.

This monolithic reinforced concrete building, constructed on concrete-
filled steel piling, will have an air-conditioned all-season system. The roofing
and flashing is of copper. Office partitions are of movable steel type. Sus-
pended acoustical ceilings and asphalt tile floors are used throughout on the
first, second, and third floors. Entrance doors and window frames are of
aluminum, and the interior doors are of steel. Fluorescent light fixtures are
used throughout the building for general illumination.


57












N


ZONING DISTRICTS


ZONING PLAN
FOa THE CITY OF
TALLAHA55EE FLORIDA


AD. TAYLOP LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT AND TOWN PLANNER
tL VLA NO 1-~OHIO WInTiR P*ARK- rLA.


RClDCNTIA A' A






EBIIiE5B A


COMM IAL.
I N 0 &hAT IAL


H.L FLINT- A550CIATED LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT
WINTER PARK. rLORi DA


MARCH 1946


PLAN Na. 1251-40


SCALE In FCtT












CAPITAL CITY OF TALLAHASSEE


T HE City of Tallahassee has attained its present population and its
recognition for being one of the outstanding and progressive cities of Flor-
ida, in large part, because of the existence of the State Capitol in this city.
It is the Capital City of Florida. It will continue to make progress in its
physical, economic, and social development in proportion to the recognition
which is given to the interrelationship of certain factors. No major step
should be taken now or in the future affecting the Capitol Center unless
equally important consideration is given to the effect of such planning upon
the physical plan for the city in general. It is equally important to consider
the Capitol Center in any capital city planning program.
The following is a discussion of some of the important phases in the city
planning program having a direct bearing upon the Capitol Center and di-
rectly affecting the physical living conditions and the social welfare of the
employees of the state living in Tallahassee.
This city planning program is separated into four major divisions, (a)
zoning, (b) thorofares, (c) park and playground areas, and (d) street and
parkway planting. Each of these items is discussed under its respective
heading.
ZONING
Zoning, defined as the public control of private property, needs little
introduction in a report of this kind. It has become a "must" for the or-
derly, economical, and normal growth of any progressive city. Its major ob-
jectives, as discussed in this report, are to promote the health, safety, morals,
general welfare and attractiveness of the City of Tallahassee. This city, as
the Capital of the State of Florida, should be an outstanding example of a
growing city, the orderly physical development of which is determined by a
public body representative of the citizens of Tallahassee.
A revised Zoning Plan (see page 58) and a zoning ordinance have been
prepared. It is hoped that the city, under this zoning ordinance, will procure
better living conditions, an economically stable community where land val-
ues will have maximum stability, an attractive community, and a community
in which the circulation of traffic within the city and that going through the






















































SOUTH WING OF CAPITOL
The south wing, identical in exterior design with the existing north wing, was completed in
February 1947. This is a view of the west end and of the south side of this south wing as seen
from the intersection of Adams Street and St. Augustine Street. The architects for this south
wing are Hadley and Atkinson of St. Petersburg, Florida.


60


.^*11'^""" ZOO


























































EAST SIDE OF CAPITOL
General view of Capitol showing the east end of the north wing in the right foreground and
the east entrance to the Capitol. The dome was constructed in 1902. The north wing was
constructed in 1937.











61









city will be on some convenient and economic basis, as discussed under
"Thorofares." Fortunately, the City of Tallahassee adopted a zoning ordi-
nance as far back as 1929. Since that date the city has grown rapidly. The
need at the present time for a complete revision of the existing ordinance is
imperative.

There are three principal reasons for considering the revision of the
zoning ordinance at this particular time:
a. The city is growing more rapidly than could have been antici-
pated when the original ordinance was drawn. A more rapid
growth is possible in the immediate future;
b. The present housing crisis creates a temptation to crowd, with
the result that such congestion may lead to developments which
are very unhealthy, both physically and economically, and which
cannot be prevented under the existing zoning ordinance;
c. The new Capitol Center development will necessitate changes in
the central business section of the city, and will require protec-
tion from harmful encroachment, so far as is possible by zoning
regulations.
Until 1930 Tallahassee grew very slowly. At that time it was a small city
of 10,700 people. The population increased to 16,240 in 1940, and to 18,105 in
1945. Population trends indicate that within the next ten years the city may
have within its boundaries more than 35,000 people. The Chamber of Com-
merce report makes the appropriate statement that "the development and sta-
bilization of new neighborhood units and of new subsivisions, the balanced
growth of the city on lines of beauty and efficiency, and the balanced distri-
bution of business, industry, and residence areas, can come only through in-
telligent city planning and proper zoning regulations."
Some of the undesirable conditions, which cannot be controlled under
the existing ordinance and which can be corrected and controlled under an
amended ordinance, are:
(1) There is an apparent crowding of small houses in certain sections
of the city, on lots of inadequate area, thus creating a serious health
and social menace.

(2) Apartment houses, which may prove to be a liability in some loca-
tions and which may cause a reduced value of properties in those


62









immediate areas, should be confined to certain limited areas.
Otherwise depreciated property values and premature "blighted"
conditions may develop.
(3) The crowding of several houses on a single lot, especially in some
parts of the Negro section, should not be further permitted.
(4) Outside of the city limits there is a rapidly growing residential
area of white and of Negro population without any apparent gov-
ernment control of these developments. This condition must be
corrected either by annexation or by some municipal control.
(5) There already exists in this capital city of Tallahassee a blighted
area within the shadow of the Capitol dome.
It is especially important in this type of city that districts should be
established for single-family residences, on which there is a generous provi-
sion for lot area with each house. Areas should be established in Tallahassee
specifically confined to the development of single-family residences, two-
family residences, multiple-family residences or apartment buildings, defi-
nite business areas, commercial areas, and one or more classes of industrial
areas.
Retail business should be located only in districts designated for such
use. Outside of the central business district, those uses which cause abnormal
congestion and confusion of traffic should be discouraged or entirely
prohibited.
Where retail business is spread along any main arteries of traffic which
are flanked by residential areas, consideration must be given to the protect.
tion of these residential areas. The development of retail business, under pres-
ent day conditions, without providing adequately for off-street parking, is
definitely discouraged. There is great need in Tallahassee for the develop-
ment of alleys in the rear of the retail stores, in order to fulfill the require-
ments of deliveries and other service activities, and to avoid the present condi-
tion where, in many instances, the street in front of the stores is at times
obstructed with rubbish, garbage, and other material which causes congestion
and a general unsightly and undesirable condition on the sidewalk. This ob-
jectionable element causes inconvenience and annoyance to the pedestrian
traffic and it should be eliminated.
The development of the neighborhood district, where complete shopping
facilities for the average family are provided, is the order of modern city


63

























P---. ---~LL
1'


.4


VIEW FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING PROPOSED SOUTH QUADRANGLE
This sketch shows the proposed development of the south part of the Capitol Center looking from the north-
west across the turf panel, on the west side of the Capitol, towards the open quadrangle at the south end of
the Capitol. The large building directly south of the Capitol is the proposed Industrial Commission Build-
ing. The large building on the east side of the quadrangle, just beyond the Capitol, is the proposed State
Road Department Building.


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growth. It is unfortunate that in Tallahassee, where the municipality has
little or no control of the development of areas outside of the municipal bound-
aries, these neighborhood stores could not be located to greater advantage.
Their development should be controlled by a city zoning ordinance.

A city like Tallahassee requires districts which are usually located so
that there is ready access from the railroad to provide for warehousing of a
great variety of goods. In these commercial districts there must also be
coal yards, lumber yards, building supply yards, oil and gasoline storage
facilities, and many similar uses.

The industrial district should be located where there are convenient
transportation facilities-both rail and highway. This industrial district
should be at some distance from the residential district. In a capital city such
as Tallahassee, the list of industries which are to be permitted should be very
carefully checked. This city would be very much injured by any industry
which produces abnormal smoke conditions, acid fumes, unnecessary noise,
and other nuisances. The industries which are permitted in the City of Talla-
hassee in the industrial area should be carefully selected.

Standard height limitations for single-family residences and for the larg-
er apartment buildings should be enforced. In the central business district a
height limitation of seventy-five feet should be adequate for this community.
These problems of height limitation have been discussed in detail in the pro-
posed amended zoning ordinance. Adequate consideration must be given to
the regulations which include set-backs in front yards, side yards, and
the areas of the rear yard.

The City of Tallahassee will have under the proposed amended zoning
ordinance adequate control of its future development. The development of
the area outside of the city limits can best be controlled by a County Plan-
ning Commission authorized under a State Enabling Act* to put into effect
or to adopt an adequate county zoning ordinance. This development outside
of the city limits presents a serious problem, and a problem which needs an
immediate solution.


*The 1947 Legislature passed a State Enabling Act authorizing Leon <',,ijii to create a
Count ty Zoning Commission. At the time of preparing this report, I', .it authorities were
beginning to move in this direction.


66










BASIC COMPARISON OF EXISTING AND PROPOSED ORDINANCES

The following tabulation has been prepared for the purpose of setting forth, in a
direct comparative way, the regulations which prevail under the existing ordinance and
the regulations which would prevail under the proposed ordinance. This tabulation also
shows clearly the proposed districts which are to be included in the proposed ordinance
and now not covered in the existing ordinance. In one instance (Business C) this
classification has been omitted from the proposed ordinance because it is covered under
the new classifications in the proposed ordinance.


ORIGINAL ORDINANCE
Lawful business, commercial or resi-
dential use, including jail; exclude:
Industrial, Manufacturing, Factories,
Abbatoir, Petroleum.


Add to A: Service Stations, laundries
and dry-cleaners.



Add to A & B: Industrial and manu-
facturing purposes, wholesale and
storage of petroleum products.
Single family residences, 2-family,
apartments, hotels, schools, etc. Re-
quire setback 15'.


Residence B. Add to A: Armories, fire station,
service garages, gas stations, require
setback 10'.
Residence C. Add to B: Noiseless Mfg.


Residence D. x


Residence E. x



Commercial x


Industrial


x


X,


x



x
x


x


x



x
x


PROPOSED ORDINANCE
Retail business. Include
Gas Station. Exclude
commercial u s e. Re-
strict height to 35'.


Add to A: Only in-
creased height to 75'.
Exclude repair garages
and filling stations.


*


*


Business A.






Business B.




Business C.



Residence A.


x-Denotes classifications not included as specific classifications in the existing
ordinance, and recommended to be included in the proposed ordinance.


67


Only single family resi-
dence (7500 sq. ft.). Re-
quire setback 35'.
Only single family resi-
dence (5000 sq. ft.).


Add to A & B: two-
family houses. (2500 sq.
ft.) .
Add to C: four-family
houses.
Add to D: apartment
buildings (3 to 4
stories).
Wholesale business.
Manufa.t riin'c.., etc.









THOROFARES
No city can become a desirable place in which to live and to work unless
its thorofare system provides adequately for the convenient transportation of
people and of goods. In order to insure an adequate system of streets, it is
necessary that those needs be anticipated, planned for, and provided for as
the city grows and before the need actually arises. If the general thorofare
plan is not well coordinated, congestion will result and an economic liability
will be created. Without adequate main thorofares, traffic will ultimately be-
come unbearably congested and much time will be lost by residents and mer-
chants in the community. Such a city is not a pleasant nor a profitable place
in which to live. (For Thorofare Plan, see page 14).
A capital city is usually the hub of the state and it is often the focal
point of the road system in the state. Tallahassee happens to be at the
"crossroad" of important state and federal traffic routes. As the capital city
of Florida, it is the focal point of a considerable amount of traffic having
to do with the transaction of the state's business.
There are two principal types of thorofares which must be considered in
the plan for the development of any city. These thorofares are:
Primary streets which, in the case of Tallahassee, are the
state highways leading to and through the city.
Secondary streets which are primarily for the local traffic
and for the convenience of those living within the city.
The primary streets passing through Tallahassee are (a) State Route
No. 1, which comes from Jacksonville on the east into Tallahassee over Ten-
nessee Street and passes out of Tallahassee to the north over Monroe Street;
(b) State Route No. 500, which comes into Tallahassee from Tampa over Lafa-
yette Street and continues out of Tallahassee to Pensacola over Tennessee
Street; (c) State Route No. 10 which comes into Tallahassee from Atlanta
over the Thomasville Road and Monroe Street, and continues south on Mon-
roe Street to points along the Gulf and (d) State Route No. 284 which comes
into Tallahassee from the north over Meridian Road and continues into the
city over the Thomasville Road and Monroe Street.
There is already some evidence of serious congestion in the central
business area of Tallahassee during certain hours of the day. This condition
must be given serious consideration at an early date. Much of the present
difficulty could be corrected by limiting parking of automobiles on certain
streets, and by widening pavements in some of the already congested traffic
68









areas. It is estimated that approximately 90 per cent of the cars now park-
ing in the general central business area use the streets for parking space, in-
stead of using off-street parking areas. This condition should be corrected.
Off-street parking areas, on parking lots and in commercial'garages, owned
by the city or by private individuals must be made available for much of this
parking demand.
Much through-traffic including many trucks, now travels over important
city streets. Routes should be planned so that this traffic will by-pass the
central business district. This truck traffic slows down the general traffic and
it also causes additional traffic hazards.
The main objective in this thorofare study has been to determine the
ways in which a solution can be found for much of the existing traffic prob-
lem and for the anticipated traffic problem. It is entirely practicable to find
a reasonable and logical solution to many of these traffic problems. The
present congestion on important streets such as Monroe, Tennessee, and Park
Avenue, should be and can be reduced by providing by-pass routes. It is also
possible to avoid some of the heavy grades on existing through-routes espe-
cially at the important traffic inter-sections, such as the one at Tennessee
Street and Monroe Street. It may be necessary to ultimately construct some
grade separations, especially at this intersection.
Not only should some of this through-traffic coming from the south and
now passing through the city, to proceed easterly and northerly towards
Tampa, Jacksonville, and Atlanta, be removed from the Capitol Center but
such traffic should also by-pass the business district. At the present time
there is no provision other than to take this traffic directly through the
center of the city.
Much of the present and especially the future traffic problem can be
eliminated by developing a belt route extending around the city on the east by
way of Magnolia Drive and the Centerville Road. This proposed belt route
would be carried around the northerly side of the city from Magnolia Drive
by way of Betton Road and Tharp -Street, connecting with Tennessee
Street west of the city. A connection is also recommended on the south to
by-pass the developed city area by way of the Lake Bradford Road to State
Route No. 500, west of the airport. These routes are discussed in detail in the
separate report to the City Manager.
The map of Tallahassee on page 14 contains much pertinent information
as to the problems of street openings, street widM-,i'., and the vacating of
69








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's-*'*''" '. ^ii;' .*f.S '- ^-.i fw L117 *


a-


VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING PROPOSED OPEN AREA AT NORTH END OF CAPITOL
This sketch shows the proposed turf panel and the overlook terrace to be developed on the west side of the
Capitol, and also the proposed park area to be developed at the north end of the Capitol when the business
block between Pensacola Street and Jefferson Street is ultimately removed. The building in the lower right
foreground is the existing City Administration Building.


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certain streets especially in the Capitol Center. The discussion in the follow-
ing paragraphs :,i'... to specific highways and streets, in connection with
which there are definite problems. There is not space in this report to go into
the detailed discussion which is contained in the specific report on Thoro-
fares submitted to the City with the detailed Thorofore Plans.
In one group there are the highways and streets which, in addition to
local traffic, carry traffic which passes through Tallahassee and having its
origin and destination some distance from Tallahassee.
The heaviest traffic street in Tallahassee is Monroe Street. This condi-
tion is caused by the concentration of local traffic in the principal business
district. This street also receives the traffic from state routes which converge
into it coming from the north. Much of this traffic traverses the entire length
of Monroe Street. Monroe Street is 100 feet wide (right-of-way width unless
otherwise indicated) from the Seaboard Airline Railroad to Brevard Street.
It should be widened to 100 feet from Brevard Street to the city limits on the
north. To the south of Tallahassee, -\l -nroe Street provides the only entrance
into the city from the entire southern half of the county. Traffic from the
west, along the Gulf coast, must also enter Tallahassee over Monroe Street. A
particularly annoying situation is created by the large gasoline tank trucks
which haul petroleum products from the port of St. Marks through Tallahas-
see to Jacksonville and to Atlanta. Much of this heavy traffic should be
taken away from Monroe Street to streets which will by-pass the main
business district.
The Thomasville Road is nationally famous for its beauty from the Geor-
gia line to Tallahassee. The character of this highway as now improved
should be continued farther into the City of Tallahassee.
Tennessee Street is the only artery of traffic extending through the city
from east to west. Important state routes converge on Tennessee Street
from the east and from the west. The state has made important improvements
on Tennessee Street. Further improvement should be made especially to pro-
vide an adequate 100-foot right-of-way. The development of a grade separa-
tion at the intersection of Tennessee Street and Monroe Street may not be
undertaken for a number of years. In the meantime, the development of
private buildings in this area should be controlled under the zoning ordinance
so that no development would be put on this abutting property resulting in
excessive costs if and when the grade separation is actually undertaken.
Lafayette Street carries traffic to and from Tampa and the central part
of the State of Florida. It is recommended that this street be made into a


72









wide boulevard going directly east, on the east and west axis of the capitol,
to intersect with Magnolia Drive, from which point Lafayette Street would
swing southerly into State Route No. 500 some distance east of Magnolia Drive.
It is not desirable to have all through-traffic on Route No. 500 come
into the center of the city on Lafayette Street because of the steep grade at
important intersections, and because the Capitol Center is not the destina-
tion of the major part of this traffic. It is entirely practicable to divert this
traffic from Route No. 500 into Park Avenue by making a cut-over which
would swing from the new boulevard approach to the Capitol, a short distance
west of Magnolia Drive, and enter Park Avenue near Broward Street.
There is another group of highways which terminate in Tallahassee and
to which definite consideration should be given. Meridian Road is the high-
way north of Tallahassee connecting with the Thomasville Road inside of the
city limits. It serves an important,outlying residential area. The right-of-
way should be 80 feet wide from the Thomasville Road to the northerly city
limits. Adams Street, parallel with and one block west of Monroe Street, is
a business street on which the new union bus station is located near the inter-
section with Tennessee Street. A considerable number of buses enter and
depart from this bus station. It is evident that Adams Street and Monroe
Street are destined to become the important business streets of the City of
Tallahassee from the Capitol Center on the south to Virginia Street on the
north. It is most important that further consideration be given to this right-
of-way, as recommended in the detailed report to the City Manager.
To some individuals it may seem premature to consider at this time the
development of circumferential belt-line routes. A route of this kind will be
a great asset and is much needed. It will (a) carry through-traffic around
and past the city without the need of using congested city streets; (b) relieve
city streets of this unnecessary traffic and particularly of through-truck-
traffic; and (c) aid in the proper circulation for the local city traffic. Under
present conditions it is necessary for traffic to come almost into the center of
the city and then go out again in order to get from one outlying section to
another section on different sides of Tallahassee. A start has been made on
this belt-line route by construction of Magnolia Drive, a detailed description
of this part of the belt-line route is contained in the detailed report on
Thorofares made to the City Manager.
There is another group designated as local city streets which includes (a)
radial streets; (b) by-pass or relief streets in the city; (c) east and west sec-
ondary streets; (d) north and south secondary streets; and (e) streets in and
around the Capitol Center. Each of these is discussed in detail in the report on
Thorofares heretofore referred to in this text.
73












The following is a tabulation with reference to the existing and the pro-
posed widths of right-of-ways included in the Thorofare Plan:

STATE ROUTES ENTERING THE CITY


STREET




Monroe Street.-: ....



Thomasville Road....

Meridian Road......

Adams Street........


Tennessee Street.....



Lafayette Street .....



Magnolia Drive......


FROM


*S'ly City Limits........
S.A.L. R .R .............
Brevard Street..........

Monroe Street .........

Thomasville Road. ......

*S'ly City Limits ........
S.A.L. R .R ..............

*W'ly City Limits.......
W'ly City Limits ........
885 feet E. of Meridian...

Calhoun Street..........
Meridian Street........
S.A.L. R .R .............

Entire Length...........


RIGHT-oF-WAY WIDTH


To
P


S.A.L. R .R .............
Brevard Street..........
N'ly City Limits ........

N'ly City Limits ........ 60

N'ly City Limits ........

S.A.L. R.R ............. 6(
First Avenue...........

*W'ly ...................
885 E. of Meridian
E'ly City Limits........

Meridian Street.........
S.A.L. R.R ........ .. 60,
E'ly City Limits........

. . .. .


resent

feet
66
100
60

or less

40

6 or 90
100

100
60
66

80
relocate
60

60


OTHER STREETS IN TRAFFIC SYSTEM


Duval Street ........ Gaines Street. ........ Jefferson Street ......... 60 Cap'1 Center
Jefferson Street......... Brevard Street.......... 60 80
Brevard Street.......... 185 feet N. of Fifth Ave.. 50 80
Above point............ Eighth Avenue.......... 100 100

Boulevard Street..... *S'ly City Limits........ St. Francis Street........ 40 or less 80
St. Francis Street........ Lafayette Street......... 200 200
Lafayette Street......... Park Avenue............ 100 100
Park Avenue............ Tennessee Street........ 60 80

Macomb Street ...... Gaines Street ........... Brevard Street .......... 60 80

Lake Jackson Road... Dent Street............. N'ly City Limits ........ 50 or less 80

Woodward Street. .. Gaines Street........... Tennessee Street........ 60 60


Proposed

feet
100
100
100

100

80

100
100

100
100
100

Parkway
Parkway
100

100


NOTE: S'ly Southerly; W'ly Westerly; E'ly -- Easterly; N'ly Northerly.

74


I I











OTHER STREETS IN TRAFFIC SYSTEM (Continued)


STREET


Copeland Street......

Spring Hill Road ....

Bronough Street ....

Railroad Street .....


Calhoun Street......


Gadsden Street .....


Meridian Street......

Miccosukee Road....

Franklin Blvd........

Park Avenue.......





Call Street..........

Virginia Street.......

Brevard Street.......


Seventh Avenue......



Sixth Avenue. .......





Pensacola Street .....


FROM


Pensacola Street........

*S'ly City Limits.. .

Jefferson Street ........

Gaines Street..........


Gaines Street...........
Jefferson Street .........

Gaines Street...........
Jefferson Street ........


Park Avenue............

Meridian Street.........

Lafayette Street.........

Copeland Street........
Boulevard Street .......
Meridian Street.........
S.A.L. R .R .............

Macomb Street .........

Macomb Street .......

W'ly City Limits.......


Branch Street..........
Boulevard Street .......
Child Street...........

Thomasville Road ......
Gadsden Street.........
Above point............
Terrace Street .........

E'ly City Limits .......
Woodward Street.......


WAY WIDTH


RIGHT-OF-'

To
Present

feet
Tennessee Street ........ 60

Gaines Street ........... 60


Tennessee Street ........

County Road...........

Jefferson Street........
Virginia Street.........

Jefferson Street .........
Rose Street.............

Virginia Street..........

E'ly City Limits ........


Tennessee Street ........

Boulevard Street ........
Meridian Street .........
S.A.L. R .R .......... ...
Magnolia Drive..........

Franklin Street..........

Meridian Street.........

Gadsden Street ..........


Boulevard Street........
Child Street............
Meridian Street.........

Gadsden Street..........
240 feet E. of Gilchrist...
Terrace Street ........ .
E'ly City Limits ........

Woodward Street........
Lorene Street...........


60

66 or less

60
60

60
60

60

60 or less

80

100
200
60
40

60

60

50 to 40
or less

50
100
60

60
50
60 to 44.5
55


Proposed

feet
60

80

80

80

Cap'l Center


Cap'l Center
80

80

80

80

100
200
80
80

80

80


80

80
100
80

80
80
80
80


66 80
80 110
30 feet off cen ter-straighten


NOTE: *S'ly Southerly; W'ly Westerly; E'ly Easterly.

75


_











OTHER STREETS IN TRAFFIC SYSTEM (Continued)


STREET




Gaines Street........


Bloxham Street......


Eugenia Street.......


FROM




W'ly City Limits........
Woodward Street........
Bronough Street.........

Monroe Street..........


Diston Street..........


To




Woodward Street........
Bronough Street........
Gadsden Street..........

Gadsden Street..........


Railroad Street...........


RIGHT-OF-WAY WiDTH


Present

feet
30
60
60

40

60


Proposed

feet
80
80
Cap'l Center

80

80


NOTE: *S'ly Southerly; W'ly Westerly.


76









PARK AND RECREATION AREAS


Progressive cities of today are fully aware of the unnatural and artifi-
cial living conditions of urban areas, and the importance of mitigating these
conditions by providing open air park and recreation areas. The history of
most cities indicates that the procedure of acquiring park and recreation areas
of adequate size, and in proper locations, has been delayed until suitable
sites cannot be acquired at a reasonable cost. Such areas in all probability
could have been acquired without abnormal expense if these problems in the
development of the city had been considered at the proper time, and appro-
priate action taken at that time.

Tallahassee is fortunate in having much open area which is available
for recreation. The city is growing rapidly. Therefore, it is important that
the park and recreation needs for this increase in population be now determ-
ined, and that steps be taken to procure additional park area and additional
playground area, not only within the city limits but also outside of the pres-
ent city limits. These areas will be needed by the citizens of Tallahassee
in the not distant future.

A city requires two kinds of recreation areas. The first kind includes the
larger area in the form of parks which should be distributed throughout the
city and within the municipal boundaries. These parks should also be dis-
tributed in the surrounding territory beyond the city limits, wherever land
suitable for such recreation is available. One naturally associates with the
larger park areas, that form of recreation known as "Passive" recreation as
contrasted with "Active" recreation which is more directly associated with
playgrounds. Parks are usually developed on the more picturesque and un-
even topography, on which there is ample growth of trees together with
natural scenes, ponds, and other water areas varying in size.

As contrasted with park areas, the land best adapted for playgrounds is
generally flat or sloping but very little. Such areas, with a minimum of
ai -.adi, can be readily adapted for the games associated with present day
active recreation. The distances which one may be required to travel in order
to reach the larger park development are not the major factor governing the
selection of sites for such areas. The distances which one is required to travel
to small recreation playgrounds are important factors in determining the
locations for such playgrounds.
77









On the accompanying plan (page 14) the locations of existing park and
playground areas, and the proposed locations for additional park and play-
ground areas are indicated. It has not seemed advisable in every instance to
designate the specific area, in a definite location, to be used for a playground.
The fact that a playground has been recommended to be developed in a cer-
tain section of the city indicates that such section is undoubtedly without
adequate playground area, and that a site for a suitable playground should
be acquired in the designated blocks or in the immediate general area. So far
as is practicable, these sites should be procured where there is maximum con-
gestion of population, minimum existing developments upon the land pro-
posed to be acquired, and ease of access from the homes within that specific
district.
It is fortunate that there are school grounds, existing and proposed, of
adequate size to provide a number of playgrounds for use by the children in
those respective school districts.
The northwest quadrant of the City of Tallahassee seems to be most
lacking in adequate playground area. Suggestions have been made for play-
grounds to be developed in this section of the city. A discussion of these
areas, and of some of the other areas, will make the intent of this plan some-
what clearer. It should be noted that where playgrounds have been suggested,
bordering upon the municipal boundary lines, such playgrounds will meet the
requirements of the future growth of Tallahassee.
In the northwest portion of Tallahassee, at the northerly end of Wood-
ward Street, and on the area west of Lake Jackson Road, both north and
south of the municipal boundary line, there is an excellent opportunity to
develop a combination park and playground area. There is evidence of some
building development in this section of Tallahassee. Before such develop-
ment has proceeded too far, the playground and park requirements should
be determined and land procured accordingly for these recreation needs.
In the area south of Preston Street and west of Woodward Street, there
should be a playground area. In the northwest part of the block, largely
occupied by Oakland Cemetery and abutting upon the south side of Fourth
Avenue, there is an existing playground which is much used in connection
with the school at the corner of Brevard Street and Macomb Street. There
is much to be said in favor of vacating this playground and giving over this
area to Cemetery use, and relocating a playground on the west side of Lake
Jackson Road, especially if the southerly end of Lake Jackson Road is re-
located to provide a more logical intersection with Brevard Street.


78









In the block west of Macomb Street, and between Georgia Street and
Carolina Street, there is need for a combination park and playground area.
On the east side of the city, lying north of Park Avenue and in the vicinity
of Magnolia Street and Smith Street, there should be a playground. The
exact location for this playground is a matter of further detailed study.
Another playground, for small children, ought to be developed between
Carolina Street and Virginia Street, abutting on the west side of Meridian
Street. The small children in this area should be provided with properly
located playground facilities.
In the southwest portion of the city, it is -u.i-l-il1 that two playgrounds
be developed in the approximate location indicated on the accompanying
plan. In the area east of the proposed Capitol Center, and on the west side of
Franklin Boulevard, there should be two playgrounds. The playground pro-
posed for the east side of Franklin Boulevard will be in direct relation to the
proposed Station Park adjacent to the site now suggested as a new location
for the railroad station.
The highway approaches and the entrances to the City of Tallahassee
should be developed as an attractive introduction to the city. State Highway
No. 1 passes through Tallahassee, from east to west, over Tennessee Street.
This street is very heavily traveled. It is fortunate that this highway can be
so developed that it will be an attractive approach to the city. On the accom-
panying plan there is shown a large Valley Park not far from the easterly
limits of the city. This area which is proposed to be used for park purposes
is a wooded valley framed with steep slopes. The floor of the valley between
the slopes has great interest. This proposed park area would extend north of
the state road, in a northwesterly direction, to a point near the site which has
been tentatively selected for the new school at the intersection of Hillcrest
Road and Miccosukee Road. This land is beyond the city limits. It is, how-
ever, very important that it be acquired by the city for park use. Its most
logical and valuable use is for park purposes. Detailed topographic maps of
this area will serve as a basis for determining the location of the desired
boundaries of this proposed park. Future developments should be largely for
passive recreation. Nature trails, Boy Scout and Girl Scout facilities, picnic
areas, and such similar features should be its main attraction. This proposed
park area will be a most valuable asset in the future development of
Tallahassee.
On the westerly side of the city, the development is quite different from


79









the development on the -easterly side. The state highway is bordered on either
side by land owned by the State Board of Education. It is reasonable to
assume that this land will remain in an attractive condition. At the actual
city limits it seems most desirable that certain areas, as shown on the plan,
should be developed for park purposes.
The diagonal connection which is proposed between Call Street and Ten-
nessee Street ought to be bordered on each side by a small park area. The
area in the block north of Tennessee Street, and west of Copeland Street
should be acquired and developed for park use. These proposed changes will
greatly improve the residential character of this section, which is in close
proximity to the College. Two small additional areas on either side of the
highway, and immediately west of Dewey Street, ought also to be developed
as park land. These entrance parks will add to the pleasing impression to be
received by visitors entering Tallahassee from the west
The proposed Capitol Center in the south middle section of the city will
be the outstanding feature in the Capital City. The open area around these
buildings will be available only for parks to provide passive recreation and
not for any active recreation. In the north middle section of the city, the
block of property immediately north of the Governor's Mansion should be
acquired for park use. The eastern part of this property abutting upon
Monroe Street is at the present time being developed for commercial use. The
balance of the area makes an ideal site for a -park. It should be acquired as
soon as practicable. As a park this area will be an invaluable asset to the
City of Tallahassee. Very small expense will be required to transform this
area from its present condition as a residence property into a useful park.
Steps should be taken to acquire land north of Madison Street, located
between East Street and the railroad, as a Station Park. The existing develop-
ment in the vicinity of the present railroad station gives to those persons
entering Tallahassee and to those persons passing through Tallahassee by
train a very unfavorable impression of the city. The new station might well
be located to the north of Madison Street, where it is possible to surround it
by an attractive park.
CITY STREET AND PARKWAY PLANTING
The work of planting trees and shrubs on the city streets and parkways
of Tallahassee has been well started more than a decade ago. Much additional
planting should be done. Such a program is a continuous one, usually extend-
ing through a period of years.
80









In the future, so far as is practicable, the locations selected for perma-
nent trees ought to provide adequately for any future widening of the streets,
necessary to accommodate increased traffic. A careful study of the Thorofare
Plan and the Zoning Plan will do much to eliminate the necessity for remov-
ing trees, the planting of which does not take into consideration any future
widening of the streets.
Wherever there is adequate width of tree lawn between the public side-
walk and the street curb, trees ought to be planted as close to the walk as the
growing requirements will allow. Under this procedure there will be maxi-
mum opportunity for any street widening of the pavement. There are
numerous opportunities, especially on streets where there is a narrow right-
of-way, for planting of trees inside of the property lines on private property.
The important highways leading into Tallahassee should be further im-
proved with appropriate planting of trees and shrubs. Some outstanding work
has been done on some of the highway approaches, especially on the road ap-
proaching Tallahassee from Thomasville. So far as is practicable, this plant-
ing should be of the type which is indigenous to this part of Florida. In
the detailed report submitted to the City Manager, there are lists of trees
and shrubs from which to make a choice of materials to be planted in specific
locations.
It is most important that once having installed an appropriate planting
of trees and shrubs, this material should be given adequate maintenance.
It seems strange that most cities hesitate to appropriate money with
which to carry on a comprehensive and logical program of street tree plant-
ing. It is difficult on the other hand to imagine any street system devoid of
trees especially in the residential parts of the city. These street trees provide
for the city that aspect of attractiveness and comfort without which city
life would be rather barren.
It is important that the City of Tallahassee should have a proper Shade
Tree Ordinance. Such an ordinance should be adopted in the City of Talla-
hassee at the earliest opportunity. Such an ordinance should apply not only
to the removal of trees on public city property but also to the trees which are
growing on private property sufficiently close to the right-of-way line where
such trees affect the city streets. It should also be applicable to the trans-
planting of new trees, the selection of types to be used on city streets, the
pruning of trees and the spraying of trees. In other words, an ordinance
should be applicable and effective concerning all trees, whether on private or
81









public property, and should be applicable to the selection of types, locations
for planting, and to methods and extent of maintaining and of removing trees.
One of the most concise and worthwhile statements that has been pub-
lished on the question of street trees in our cities, appeared in a park report
for the year 1919 in Newark, New Jersey. This statement entitled "Our Pol-
icy-Trees" is worth reproducing in this report. It is as follows:

"OUR POLICY-TREES"

"To provide that our young trees be so planted, protected
and cultivated that they may grow to be healthy and
perfect specimens.
To provide that the older trees be properly nourished,
cared for and protected from accident and decay.
To make every effort justified by the probabilities of
success and the value of the trees, in the case of dis-
eased and weakened ones, to repair and restore them
to health and strength.
To plant trees in every suitable place in order that patient
growth may do its work of beautification and health-
giving.
To cooperate with every active agency for beautifying the
city by means of trees, lawns and shrubbery.
To assist every citizen in caring for his trees, whether in
street or yard.
To plant the love of trees and knowledge of trees in every
forward-looking citizen.
To educate citizens to care for their trees until such care
becomes habitual.
To prevent, as far as possible, all destructive practices
that militate against trees, shrubs, and lawns."


82



































































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~~- -*"flwwjt'

-- ..-_.~ c~lc- --- .'rSpS


GOVERNOR'S MANSION

A view of the entrance front of the Governor's mansion constructed in 1906. This building has received a
number of minor alterations and it has been redecorated frequently. There has been no major remodeling
of this building since its original construction.


n -,%.* -


L lurUIIIL~Lft 1 LLULL~!II.UI i ?LILIIILII1I I L:ILCLI L1LL; L I L I ; I 1 I I : i I : I I I I I I I I I I I I I

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STATE HIGHWAY APPROACHING TALLAHASSEE
This state highway developed in accordance with the most acceptable standards for modern highway design pro-
vides a very attractive approach to the capital city of Tallahassee. The Florida State Road Department ranks
among the leaders throughout the United States in its accomplishments in highway design, which includes the
appropriate development of the entire width of the right-of-way.



























APPENDIX


85














CAPITOL CENTERS IN UNITED STATES




IN CONNECTION with the studies for the proposed development of the
Capitol Center at Tallahassee a questionnaire was sent through the office of
Governor Caldwell to each of the governors of the other forty-seven states
asking for information concerning existing conditions and the problems of
future developments for these respective capitol centers. The discussion on
the following pages is the result of the replies received to these question-
naires. The diagrammatic drawings showing the general layout of each of
the state capitol centers make available a fund of valuable data which is here
presented in summarized form.

There seems to be a dearth of information concerning the .]Jff.-i. t Capitol
Centers. Only fragments of information, seldom in the form of tangible plans,
have been published to show what has been done in the development of some
capitol centers and especially to show the contemplated or recommended
developments to meet the requirements for future expansion.

The information in the form of text and diagrammatic drawings is set
forth in the following pages in the hope that such data may be of real value
to those individuals, committees and commissions, who may have occasion to
do further research on this important subject of State Capitol Centers.

In each of these drawings the heavy black line defines the Capitol Center
area as now existing, or as proposed in accordance with plans for the ultimate
development of that respective Capiol Center. The entire acreage within this
boundary, defining the existing or proposed Capitol Center, is in the majority
of instances not owned by the state, county, and municipality. It is contem-
plated, however, that all of this land will eventually be in public ownership.


86








For example, in the City of Tallahassee, there remains much area to be pur-
chased by public authorities. Pending the time when this land is purchased,
the public agency should be protected against abnormal expense by keeping
this land through Zoning in a type of appropriate use which preserves a value
for residence purposes and avoids the creation of abnormal values through
the development of types of business on such properties.
On the following page there is a key to the identification of buildings
(existing and proposed) shown in these diagrammatic drawings of different
Capitol Centers. This key will serve as a means of identifying the kind of
buildings and the general group functions which this building serves as a
part of the state, county, and city government. So far as has been practicable
and based upon the accuracy of the maps and plans procured from different
states, these drawings are made at a definite scale or at a close approximate
scale.
AGE OF STATE CAPITOL

The oldest state capitol now in use is at Annapolis, Maryland. This
capitol was started in 1772 and is 175 years old; the youngest one is at Salem,
Oregon and is only 11 years old. Four states,-Virginia, Delaware, New Jer-
sey, and Massachusetts, have capitols which are over 150 years old; eight
states have capitols which are over 100 years old, namely, Vermont, New
Hampshire, Maine, North Carolina, Ohio, Florida, Tennessee, and Alabama.
Of the remainder, eight are from 75 to 100 years old; nine are from 50 to 75
years old; fourteen are from 25 to 50 years old; and four are less than 25
years old.
Thus in a country much given to tearing down and rebuilding edifices in
another location, it seems that state capitols have considerable permancy, and
are likely to become of real historic interest. For this reason, they should be
well designed and constructed buildings located on well planned sites. In
addition, they should be, for reasons given later in this report, considered as
a part of an ultimate group even though all the potentialities of the group
plan do not appear at first.
SIZE OF CAPITOL CENTERS
The size of a Capitol Center in acres may not seem to be an important
factor in its planning. Experience has demonstrated that it is better to pro-
vide too much land than too little. Capital cities naturally tend to be
important centers and to grow in population. After they become large and


87









STATE CAPITOLS
The following is a key to the identification of the individual buildings shown
on the following set of diagrammatic drawings of State Capitol Centers. In this
tabulation the buildings are arranged in groups corresponding with the general
functions which these buildings fulfill in the state government. This key also
designates those buildings now existing and those buildings which are proposed in
the further development of the Capitol Center where studies have been made
for the proposed further expansion of the respective Capitol Center.


Kind of Building


Executive &
Legislative

Judicial


Historical


Educational





Residential

Offices








Services




Memorials


Civic Center


State Capitol . . .

Department of Justice . .
Supreme Court Building . .

Historical Building or Archive Building


Museum Building .

State Library .
State Education Buildin
Art Building .
Auditorium . .

Governor's Mansion

State Office Building
Highway Department B
Public Health Building
Federal Post Office Bull
Agriculture Building
Miscellaneous Office Bui

Arsenal and Armory
Garage . .
Power Plant .

Memorial Building
Monument ...

Municipal Buildings


. A

. B
. C

E
G


g I
.g . JI





M
building N


ding P


lding R

S
. V
V




Y
. . X


Existing- (solid color)


Proposed- (cross-hatched)


88


Group of
Buildings


Key
Letter


.









congested, the enlargement of the capitol center area is difficult and involves
abnormal expense. The tendency will always be to enlarge the Capitol
Center not only for the purpose of providing more buildings but also to pro-
vide for the strictly modern and growing requirement of automobile parking
space. There are other factors which enter into the problem, but not one of
them will make for smaller Capitol Center areas.
The smallest acreage reported in a state capitol center is two acres at
Concord, New Hampshire and the largest is 140 acres at Bismark, North
Dakota. The average amount of land is 25.22 acres which seems like a large
area, but undoubtedly on analysis will not be excessive, for any state to set
aside for so important a group as its State Capitol Center.
ACREAGE FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

In order to provide for future requirements three-eights of the states
are planning further developments of their capitol centers with the result-
ing intention of purchasing more land. However, in spite of the fact that
one state is planning for a little more than 200 acres in its capitol center
the average future requirements as now planned involve a total area of only
31.06 acres. This 40 per cent increase is probably due to the fact that only ten
states reported planning any increase in land requirements over what is now
available.
If any conclusions could be drawn from the foregoing figures, it might
be that in many instances either more land is not readily available or pro-
curable for a reasonable price or else enough land is available for future
requirements, or it may be that no thinking is being done on the subject of
future requirements.
PLANS FOR CAPITOL CENTERS

As heretofore stated, eighteen states have reported that they have now
completed plans for the future development of their respective capitol centers
or that plans were in the process of preparation. The fact that three-eights
of the states are either planning or are carrying into execution the results of
planning in connection with their state capitols is most encouraging. It is
certain that no definite nor worthwhile improvement of a permanent char-
acter should be made without adequate advanced planning, and that within
reasonable limitation the more long range planning that is done the better
the ultimate results will be in capitol centers as in other projects.
The type of planning that is being done or has been done is generally


89









very creditable, especially as disclosed by some of the reports recently pro-
duced such as those for the Michigan Capitol Center at Lansing and the
Oregon Capitol Center at Salem. During the depression years some of the
planning in connection with capitol centers was done under the direction of
the State Planning Boards and Commissions. The normal procedure has
been to employ qualified landscape architects, architects, and engineers with
private offices to prepare these plans. In some instances local Chambers of
Commerce or other public-spirited groups have sponsored such plans and re-
ports. The most logical procedure is that of providing funds through legisla-
tive action to be used in employing the professional personnel qualified to
perform such services.
Whatever the actual planning procedure may be, it seems quite logical
that the state buildings and other buildings should be grouped according to
their functional relationship among the various state departments.
COMPLETION OF BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS
The reports received as a result of the questionnaire show that about 77
per cent of all the buildings proposed to be placed in Capitol Centers have been
completed and that ten states have completed their present program 100 per
cent. The average of completion of land improvement programs is about 81 per
cent and again ten states report that they have completed this part of their
programs 100 per cent.
Taking into consideration all of the factors that have effected these pro-
grams of work these figures are encouraging and, in spite of World War II
and the other delays and hindrances that beset building and grounds pro-
grams, much progress has been made toward the ultimate goals of dignified,
useful, adequate and attractive Capitol Centers.


90











TYPES OF STRUCTURES IN CAPITOL CEN'TErlS


One of the most interesting and instructive features in the information
received is that relating to the various types of buildings or other structures
which are either now in, or are being planned for Capitol Centers. These are
listed as follows:


TYPE


USER OR BUILDING NAMEv


1. State Capitol
2. Judicial



3. Historical


4. Educational


5.
6.


Residential
Office


7. Service






8. Memorials


9. Civic Centers


Governor and Legislature
Department of Justice
Supreme Court
Court of Appeals
Archives and History Building
Historical Building
Museums
State Historical Society
Library and Archives
Department of Education
Governor's Mansion
( 1.1..! Annex
State Office Building
Health Department
Highway Department
Public Service Department
Livestock Commission
Agriculture Departm:ent
Public Health & Welfare Department
Public Lands Department
Transportation Building
Insurance Building
Secretary of State Building
State Veterans Building
Health Laboratories
State Revenue Building
Armory Building
Heating Plant
Power Plant
State Garages
Warehouses

Soldiers and Sailors Monument
Veterans and Pioneers Building
Monuments to Individuals
City Hall
U. S. Postoffice
City Library
County Court House


91









In this connection it should be noted that in many instances the Capitol
itself is oftt.- used for other departments than the two mentioned in the pre-
ceding tabulation and that the great increase in the number of, and fields
covered by, governmental functions in recent decades has caused many state
capitols to become unduly crowded thus forcing the erection of state office
and similar buildings which were not originally contemplated when the
capitol center was established. This in turn has caused the acquisition of
more land and the planning of larger Capitol Centers or the alternative of
the dispersal of state offices into scattered public and private buildings.
Because the number of state governmental functions and the size of the
staffs needed to administer them is likely to expand, it becomes increasingly
important that State Capitol Centers be planned as far in advance as human
vision can contrive.

In only one instance a civic center is reported as part of the State
Capitol Center but it would seem that, especially in those cases where the capi-
tal city is small, much could be said in favor of combining both centers into one
area.

MONEY E.:i ;::ii.L FOR LANDS AND BUILDINGS
Not much useful information can be drawn from the sums of money re-
ported as expended for land and buildings in state capitol centers. For one
thing, in numerous instances the land seems to have cost the state nothing and,
for another, the age of many of the capitols makes the money expended bear
little relation to the cost of similar land and construction today. In one or
two instances the materials for the Capitols were prepared, or the buildings
themselves erected, by prison labor.
Two of the oldest capitols, those of Delaware and Maryland, are reported
to have cost $25,000 and $36,000 respectively, while in another instance, that
of New York, the sum of $37,000,000 is reported as expended only for the
building or buildings and $3,000,000 for land, making a total of $40,000,000.
The average amount spent by the 20 states reporting on the cost of land
is $846,023 and the average amount spent on buildings, by 29 states reporting,
is $5,940,141.00. The average total expenditure for 32 states reporting is
$ i:; i, ', iil.OO.


92









OFFICES THAT CONTROL CAPITOL CENTERS


Almost as much diversity appears in the sorts of offices or officials vest-
ed with the control of capitol centers as in the types of buildings reported.
The following tabulation lists these offices by groups and titles:

1. State Commissions:
State Building Commissions . . . 3
State Building and Grounds Comn . . 6
Capitol Building Commission . . .... 1
Capitol Improvement Commission . . 1
2. State Departments:
Works Departments
Department of Public Works . . . 3
State Architect . . . . 4
State Engineer . . . . 2
Financial Departments
Department of Finance . . . 3
Comptroller . . . . 2
Dept. of Properties and Supplg. Div .. 1
3. Administrative Boards:
State Administrative Board-Bldies . . 2
State Board of Examiners . . . 1
State Board of Public Affairs . . .. 1
State Board of Control . . . 2
State Executive Council . . .. 1

4. State Planning Boards
5. Administrative Officials:
Superintendent of Public Builiiir- . . 2
Commissioner of Administration . . 1
Sergeant-at-Arms . . . 1
Secretary of State . . . ... 1

This tabulation shows that the usual amount of American ingenuity has
been exercised, in this instance, that Americans customarily show in the con-
duct of public affairs. It is also probable that much of the diversity in
methods of control is also due to the long history of State Capitol Centers in
this country.


93






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STATE OF FLORIDA


CAPITOL CENTER



LAND ACQUISITION


MAP


PREPARED BY

FLORIDA

STATE IMPROVEMENT

COMMISSION

SCALE
0 100 200 300 400 500


DECEMBER, 1948





--~--C~ N




NOTE:

SEE OPPOSITE PAGE FOR DETAILED

INFORMATION CONCERNING KEY
LETTERS AND NUMBERS SHOWN
ON EACH PARCEL, IN THIS DRAWING.


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