• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Administration
 Supervision
 Pupils entitled to transportat...
 Financing the program
 Routing school buses
 School transportation surveys
 The school bus driver
 School bus driver training
 Preventive maintenance
 School bus maintenance personn...
 Maintenance records and report...
 The school bus garage
 Purchase of buses, parts,...
 Other uses of school buses
 Liability insurance
 Administration and supervision
 Statutory provisions governing...
 Statutory provisions governing...
 Statutory provisions governing...
 Statutory provisions governing...
 Statutory provisions governing...
 Statutory provisions governing...
 Statutory provisions governing...
 Statutory provisions governing...
 Statutory provisions governing...
 Statutory provisions pertaining...
 Statutory provisions governing...
 Addenda
 Index to appendix






Group Title: Florida public school bus transportation; a handbook
Title: Florida public school bus transportation
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000210/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida public school bus transportation a handbook
Uniform Title: Florida. Laws, statutes, etc
Physical Description: iv, 89 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- State Dept. of Education
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Publication Date: 1959
 Subjects
Subject: School buses   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "Public school transportation laws": p. 58-81.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000210
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Holding Location: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01824292
lccn - a 59009892

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Foreword
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Administration
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Supervision
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Pupils entitled to transportation
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Financing the program
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Routing school buses
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    School transportation surveys
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The school bus driver
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    School bus driver training
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Preventive maintenance
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    School bus maintenance personnel
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Maintenance records and reports
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    The school bus garage
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Purchase of buses, parts, and supplies
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Other uses of school buses
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Liability insurance
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Administration and supervision
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Statutory provisions governing school bus standards
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Statutory provisions governing use of school buses and pupils entitled to transportation
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Statutory provisions governing school bus driver qualifications
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Statutory provisions governing operation and maintenance of school buses
        Page 70
    Statutory provisions governing attendance areas, school bus routes, and schedules
        Page 71
    Statutory provisions governing records and reports
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Statutory provisions governing contracts and purchase of school buses
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Statutory provisions governing liability, compensation, and insurance in operation of school buses
        Page 77
    Statutory provisions governing operators of other vehicles with relation to school buses
        Page 78
    Statutory provisions pertaining to pupil transportation
        Page 78
    Statutory provisions governing state financial support for transportation
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Addenda
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Index to appendix
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
Full Text










COUN'I SCHOOLb


p


A4 andbook


FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOL

BUS TRANSPORTATION


1959


STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Tallahassee, Florida
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintende


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FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOL

BUS TRANSPORTATION

1959


.., STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Tallahassee, Florida
THOMAS D. BAILEY, Superintendent


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Foreword


\ \T HE YEAR 1898 marked the beginning of public school trans-
-\ portation in Florida. Perhaps it is doubtful whether those
who initiated the new program in Duval County, Florida, or
^ those who guided the lumbering wagonettes along the sand roads
and trails on the way to school could visualize the change to come
in the school program.
But changes have come. Today, sixty years later, more than
S240,000 children in average daily attendance ride school buses
to Florida schools at State and county expense. This represents
an increase of nearly 100 per cent in ten years. Thirty-two per
Scent of the public school pupils in Florida are now dependent
upon bus service to reach school. More than 2800 buses of a
color familiar to all users of the highways transport these pupils
to school.
Educational concepts have also changed, including those of
school transportation. In the beginning, school transportation
was considered a way of making educational opportunities avail-
able to more children. Of course, that is still true today, but in
addition, transportation by school bus is now thought of as sup-
plementing the classroom, as a means of teaching children to live
in a motorized world, of introducing and emphasizing traffic laws
to pupils who soon will be drivers on the highways.
This handbook has been prepared to assist county school
Authorities in viewing school transportation operation in this
perspective and also within the scope of Florida laws which
have been established to govern its operation. In its preparation
\ J. Pope Baird, Transportation Specialist, State Department of
. Education, has drawn heavily upon his experiences as a school
Sbus repair man, chief mechanic, supervisor of transportation at















the local level, and on his responsibilities in the field with the
State Department of Education of another Southern state before
coming to Florida.
Other members of the State Department of Education giving
assistance were J. K. Chapman, Howard Jay Friedman, John P.
McIntyre, and Fred Rowland.
For the most part references are to Florida laws or to State
Board of Education Regulations. A synopsis of Florida laws ap-
plicable to transportation is provided. Therefore, the references
are not documented.




THOMAS D. BAILEY
State Superintendent of Public Instruction


















Table of Contents



Foreword .............................................. i

Introduction ............................................ 1

Administration ......................................... 3

Supervision .......................................... 11

Pupils Entitled To Transportation ....................... 15

Financing The Program ................................ 17

Routing School Buses................................... 20

School Transportation Surveys........................... 26

The School Bus Driver .................................. 29

School Bus Driver Training............................. 32

Preventive Maintenance................................ 35

School Bus Maintenance Personnel....................... 38

Maintenance Records And Reports ........................ 42

The School Bus Garage ............................... 46

Purchase Of Buses, Parts, And Supplies.................. 49

Other Uses Of School Buses ........................... 54

Liability Insurance................. ........ ........... 56

iii













APPENDIXES. EXCERPTS FROM FLORIDA STATUTES


I. Administration And Supervision .................. 58

II. Statutory Provisions Governing School Bus Standards 63

III. Statutory Provisions Governing Use of School Buses
and Pupils Entitled to Transportation .............. 65

IV. Statutory Provisions Governing School Bus Driver
Qualifications .................................... 67

V. Statutory Provisions Governing Operation and Main-
tenance of School Buses........................ 70

VI. Statutory Provisions Governing Attendance Areas,
School Bus Routes, and Schedules................ 71

VII. Statutory Provisions Governing Records and Reports 72

VIII. Statutory Provisions Governing Contracts and Pur-
chase of School Buses ........................... 75

IX. Statutory Provisions Governing Liability, Compen-
sation, and Insurance in Operation of School Buses.. 77

X. Statutory Provisions Governing Operators of Other
Vehicles with Relation to School Buses............. 78

XI. Statutory Provisions Pertaining to Pupil Transporta-
tion .......................................... 78

XII. Statutory Provisions Governing State Financial Sup-
port for Transportation ......................... 79

Index To Appendix .................................. 81

iv













CHAPTER 1


Introduction

T O ONE closely associated with the rural public school pro-
gram, it is apparent that many patrons have a tendency to
evaluate the public school program by the service received from
school transportation. These patrons seldom visit the classroom
to witness activities there. The arts, skills, and problems of
teaching are observed by few patrons and for this reason may not
be fully evaluated. On the other hand, school buses are seen daily
by users of the roads and highways and also by patrons whose
children are served. Each person judges every act of school bus
drivers by his own standards of excellence for the job. A bus
having an untidy exterior has the appearance of being ill-kept-
may even be considered unsafe. The fact that children are noisy
while riding the bus may be construed by some observers as re-
flecting lax discipline on the part of the school. A crowded school
bus is noted by many; the overcrowded classroom may go un-
noticed by most patrons.
Because public school transportation is so close to the minds
and hearts of those it serves, there is little wonder that proper
administration of the program requires much of school adminis-
trators' time.

Problem

Public school transportation can be justified only in terms of
its contribution to the total educational program. Failure to take
this criterion into account as a measure of the effectiveness of the
transportation program loses sight of the major objective of
providing a broad educational opportunity for all children of
the state. Under the basic plan of school operation in Florida,








widely referred to as the Minimum Foundation Program, the
contribution of the State toward the transportation program of
the county is fixed by formula.
Expenditures in excess of that established by formula must
be supplemented from local funds. Under the Minimum Founda-
tion Program, local or county funds are used to expand and
enrich the educational program beyond the basic minimum pro-
vided by law. Placing too much emphasis on any one phase of
the program, be it transportation or otherwise, serves to curtail
broad educational opportunities for all children.
The goal of the school administrator having public school
transportation as a part of his responsibilities should be a proper
balance between the service provided and the remainder of the
educational program so that the quality of the educational pro-
gram will not be impaired.

Purpose
This handbook has been developed cooperatively for use as a
guide to better practices in administration, supervision, routing of
buses, maintenance, purchasing parts and supplies, selection and
employment of personnel, liability insurance, and extra-curricular
use of school buses.
Since these objectives must be accomplished within the frame-
work of applicable school laws and regulations of the State Board
of Education, legal references are provided (see Appendix) for
those needing or desiring to make more extensive study of the
particular problems.












CHAPTER 2


Administration

T HE FOUR BASIC OBJECTIVES of public school transpor-
station are safety, efficiency, adequacy, and economy. These
objectives can never be attained without carefully applied admin-
istrative procedures. These factors largely determine the type and
size of school buses, their drivers, the purchase of supplies, the
insurance carried, and the routing and operation of buses.

Coordinated Action
Maximum regard for safety and adequate protection of health
of pupils transported is accomplished by teamwork and coordi-
nated effort. The school bus maintenance personnel's effort to
keep buses in safe operating condition may be hampered by un-
trained or careless drivers. Efforts of able drivers to operate buses
safely may be thwarted by inefficient mechanics or misbehaving
children who give little thought to their personal safety and the
safety of others. The cooperative efforts of principals, teachers,
and transportation personnel, all of whom have a part in a suc-
cessful transportation program, are molded by the county admin-
istration.
School buses may be operated safely and yet not serve the
needs of schools efficiently or adequately. Buses should operate
the minimum miles necessary to transport pupils entitled to serv-
ice within a desirable time limit. Inefficient operation may hamper
the entire school program, especially in schools where transported
pupils are a substantial fraction of the total enrollment. Class-
room instruction cannot begin until the pupils reach school.
Economy-although subordinate to safety, efficiency, and
adequacy in school bus operation-is of prime importance. Con-








servation of miles traveled by school buses and elimination of
wasteful practices and procedures in administration and operation
should be a continuing objective. Uneconomical operation may
serve to limit, especially in a school administrative unit with
limited financial resources, the type and offering of the school
program.
Transportation In The School Program
Another major criticism of the administration of school trans-
portation in many areas is that it is operated on the fringe of the
total educational program rather than as an integral part. Trans-
portation is an auxiliary service and not a primary school pur-
pose, but its impact upon the total educational program is so
important that consideration should be given to its effect on the
educational program wherever transportation of pupils is in-
volved. In actuality, it is a major factor in establishing schools
and attendance areas. Where coordiiation is poor, plans may be
made to locate a school or iove a class or section without due
consideration of bus loads carried, existing transportation routes,
bus schedules, or relief buses available. This lack of coordination
could place the transportation section in an untenable situation
and result in a more costly operation than would have been the
case had transportation been given due consideration in the
original planning.
The educational process as we 'think of it today may be de-
scribed as a series of continuing learning experiences of children.
This being true, learning takes place when children are riding
on the school bus. These learning experiences on the school bus
are good if they contribute to the wholesome development of the
child, poor if they do not. On the school bus children may develop
citizenship, learn to obey traffic laws, and become familiar with
rules of the road and sound driving practices.

Policies
Of fundamental importance is the attitude of the county board
of public instruction toward the program. Under the statutes of
the State of Florida, the school board is the legislative or policy-
making body and the county superintendent the administrator
of the program under policies adopted by the board.
Every county should have policies which have been carefully









developed for guidance of the county superintendent in admin-
istering the transportation program. If a school board neglects to
formulate policies and instead settles each issue on the basis of
immediate expediency, board members will soon discover that
inconsistent decisions have been made, resulting in confusion,
inefficiency, and dissatisfaction. In such cases, the board will be
spending a disproportionate amount of its time on petty details.

The patron asking a favor of the school administrator has a
justifiable case if he can show that his request is similar in many
respects to another situation where a special right or privilege
was granted. Carefully formulated policies adopted by the county
school board for guidance of the superintendent are, therefore, a
major step toward efficient operation of the school transportation
program.

It should be noted that irrespective of precedents, the school
board member as an individual is lacking in authority; action
by a majority of the board. in regular session is necessary in
making directives affecting the administration of the transpor-
tation program.

Suggested Policies

The following suggested policies may be used as a guide, with
each county making alterations to meet the needs of the local
situation.

As secretary and executive officer of the board, the county
superintendent shall at each regular meeting present to the school
board a report of the developments in the transportation program;
outline such requests as may have been made for the service;
present complaints regarding drivers, schedules, roads, and safety
of pupils; point out other matters which should be brought to the
attention of the board for their action in improving the situation.

Requests for changes in bus routes shall be made directly to
the county superintendent, or, if received by a member of the
board, referred to the county superintendent and his professional
staff for investigation. When data have been collected, complete
information and recommendations for action should be given to
the school board at its next meeting;








The following principles shall be followed in establishing or
changing a school bus route:

1. Each route shall be planned and adjusted as nearly as pos-,
sible to the capacity of the bus.

2. Spur routes from the main trunk route shall not be made
to pick up pupils living less than one and one-half miles
from such route, except when pupils are physically handi-
capped.

3. Each route shall serve pupils living only in areas where
transportation by school bus is the most economical method
of providing adequate educational facilities.

4. A route shall not be extended to serve pupils whose homes
are within reasonable walking distance of a shorter or
more economical route.

5. The road must be in safe and satisfactory condition for the
operation of a bus of the type and size to be used in the
area.

6. Where it is necessary for a bus to turn around, a suitable
turning area must be available.

7. Pupils living less than two miles from school shall not be
transported. Exceptions, if made, shall occur when pupils
can be accommodated on regularly established routes with-
out overcrowding buses, creating a dangerous situation for
pupils who must ride school buses, or causing excessive
double-tripping and poor scheduling.

8. Pupil-loading stops shall not be established less than 1/8
mile (660 feet) apart.

9. Transportation routes shall not be arranged to accommo-
date pupils moving from the attendance area of one
school to the attendance area of another. Parents of chil-
dren moving after the third month of a school year from
the attendance area of one school into the attendance area
of another for pupils of the same grade may make applica-
tion to the county superintendent for their children to con-
tinue in the school in which they were originally enrolled









for the remainder of the school year provided the parent
furnishes any necessary transportation.

The county superintendent, after consultation with school
principals and his professional staff, shall recommend in writing
applicants as drivers on each school bus route. The county board
shall act upon the recommendations of the county superintendent.
A recommendation for any position may be rejected by the county
board for cause, in which case the superintendent shall make a
second and, if necessary, a third recommendation.
A supervisor of transportation shall be employed to exercise
supervision of buses during periods of operation and of school bus
maintenance programs.
Note: In the smaller administrative units, supervision of trans-
portation may be assigned to an assistant to whom a combina-
tion of other duties is also assigned.

The county superintendent, prior to August 1st of each school
year, shall recommend to the county board a physician or physi-
cians to examine school bus driver applicants.
The county superintendent, after due warning, shall have
the authority to withhold the pay check of any employee of the
transportation system who willfully fails to file reports. Or he
may suspend for ten days any employee who fails to comply
with stipulated requirements of the position.
No person shall be allowed to drive a school bus transporting
pupils to school or school activities without having demonstrated
ability to handle safely a vehicle of the type in use and complied
with all requirements of the law for school bus drivers.
Six days of sick leave annually will be allowed each school
bus driver on the basis of either a doctor's certificate or the
driver's own certified statement.
Prior to the opening of schools each school year, a meeting of
school principals and bus drivers shall be held, at which time the
school bus drivers shall be given general instructions by the
supervisor of transportation and by the school principals as to
their responsibilities and authority in maintaining classroom con-
duct on the part of pupils transported.
The county superintendent and his professional staff shall








recommend the number, size, and special equipment of buses
for purchase each school year.
The organization and use of school bus patrols shall be en-
couraged as an assistance to bus drivers and as a learning expe-
rience for pupils.
The county superintendent and his professional staff shall
recommend specifications for purchasing gasoline, motor oil, tires,
batteries, and other supplies for school buses and procedures for
making such purchases. Whenever practicable, supplies shall be
purchased by competitive bids.
The use of school buses for special trips or extra-curricular
use shall be in accordance with the following:
1. Transportation may be provided for these types of activi-
ties or functions if conducted as a part of the regularly
organized program of the school and under the supervision
of an instructor of the school.
a. Regularly scheduled athletic events
b. Band trips
c. Field trips when necessary to broaden learning expe-
riences in connection with regularly organized class
work, such as social science or agricultural classes
2. Application for the use of buses for school activities other
than the above must be presented to the board by the
superintendent.
3. Under no circumstances may buses be used for non-school
functions.
4. Use of school buses for out-of-county trips shall be lim-
ited to:
a. Athletics once each month for each school having reg-
ularly scheduled athletic contests
b. Band activities-three trips per year
c. Class field trips on special application. (The number
of trips annually shall be limited, however, to the
number of teachers employed in a school.)
5. All out-of-county trips for which school buses are used shall








be limited to points within seventy-five miles of school.

6. Regularly qualified school bus drivers shall be used.

7. Events shall be scheduled so as not to interfere with the
daily transfer of pupils to and from school.

8. Personnel desiring to use school buses for extra-curricular
trips, when in accordance with these provisions, shall make
application in writing through the school principal to the
county superintendent at least two weeks in advance of
the date of such special use.
a. The request shall include information concerning the
purpose of the trip, date, schedule time of departure
and return, and approximate number of pupils to be
transported.
b. The county superintendent shall give written approval
in accordance with policies adopted by the board gov-
erning such use.
c. The superintendent shall notify the transportation de-
partment of the pending use of such buses.
d. It shall be the duty of the principal and mechanic to see
that buses are in proper condition and that flares and
other special equipment are provided when needed for
night operation.
e. Passengers on buses used for extra-curricular trips
shall be limited to pupils participating in the activity
(not including spectators) and county employees super-
vising such activities.
f. The principal requesting use of the bus shall be respon-
sible for prompt payment of the driver, including per
diem or expenses for out-of-town trips. A charge of
fifteen cents per mile from the point of storage and
return shall be assessed the using agency, with checks
made payable to the school board.

The safety and health of all pupils shall be primary require-
ments in operation of the transportation program.
The chief mechanic shall have charge of the mechanical shop
for maintenance of motor vehicle equipment under the supervi-








sion of the supervisor of transportation who shall serve under the
direction of the county superintendent.
The supervisor of transportation and chief mechanic shall
keep records and make such reports as required by the county
superintendent.
The chief mechanic shall inspect buses monthly, giving par-
ticular attention to items allied to safety and road failures, and
make records of such inspections.
The supervisor of transportation or chief mechanic shall con-
sult with the county superintendent frequently regarding pur-
chase of parts and supplies; he shall not make any purchase of
more than fifty dollars except upon approval of the county
superintendent. A purchase of more than three hundred dollars
shall not be made without formal approval of the county school
board.
In order to assign buses to those routes for which they are best
suited, such factors as drivers, roads, load, traffic conditions, and
periodic servicing must be considered.

Summary

Administration is a most important factor in the safe, efficient,
adequate, and economical operation of school buses. The school
board in its capacity as a legislative body is responsible for the
adoption of policies to guide the superintendent and his staff
in administering the program. Counties that have not adopted
such policies and exercised every care in their administration
should study carefully the programs under which they are
operating with the objective of providing and improving super-
vision of school bus services.












CHAPTER 3




Supervision

SUPERINTENDENTS of school administrative units which have
public school transportation sometimes point out that the ad-
ministration of the transportation program requires a major por-
tion of the superintendent's time. Furthermore, transportation
is a specialized service involving areas of responsibility for which
the average school administrator has received little or no train-
ing.
Important aspects of the transportation program in most
Florida counties which should be subjected to close super-
vision are safety, pupil accounting, garage management, the
conduct of the maintenance program, and managerial responsi-
bilities related to purchasing, storing and accounting for parts
and materials used for repair and maintenance of school buses
and other motor vehicles, and employment and qualifications
of drivers. The size of the buses used on the various routes
and the specifications for use in purchasing buses and supplies
must be determined. The efficiency with which school buses
are routed may also have an impact upon the educational pro-
gram. Children are not in a good conditioning for learning if
they are required to ride long distances and are tired when
they reach school. This requires working closely with prin-
cipals and school bus drivers.
The complexity of the functions he administers, of which
transportation is only a part, does not give the county super-
intendent time to do a desirable job of supervising the school
bus program. Many county school boards are finding a solution
in the employment of a supervisor of transportation who can
give proper time to the detailed and technical responsibilities
involved in administration of the program.








The Supervisor Of Transportation
Generally, a full-time supervisor can be economically em-
ployed when thirty or more school buses are in regular service
in an administrative unit. Some administrative units operating
a larger fleet, because of finances or public criticism of a large
central staff, have combined supervision of transportation with
other administrative responsibilities. School building main-
tenance, school ground maintenance, school supply manage-
ment, and management of textbooks are often assigned singly
or collectively to the person who has responsibility for trans-
portation. Such collective assignments should also be considered
in counties operating less than thirty buses. The most com-
mon difficulty in such an assignment arises from overloading
the staff member, thereby making it impossible for a good job
to be done in any area. Oftentimes the qualifications and special
interests of the person to whom the work is assigned are a
major factor in determining how well a combination of duties
will work. Whatever the responsibilities assigned the super-
visor of transportation, he should serve under the direct super-
vision of the county superintendent under broad policies adopted
by the county school board.
Adding personnel to the staff of the school administrative
unit will not accomplish desired results unless the duties are
clearly defined and policies adopted to foster effective admin-
istration. As with other phases of the school program, an ef-
ficient transportation program requires coordination of its many
parts. The supervisor of transportation should have sufficient
authority to administer the program in a businesslike manner.
Reversal of decisions of the supervisor by the superintendent or
school board will make his position intolerable. Unlike some
phases of the school program, school transportation is tangible
in that measurements to its effectiveness can be applied, in-
cluding the dollar balance on the ledger sheet.
The varied duties performed by the supervisor of trans-
portation warrant extreme care in his selection. The following
qualifications should be considered in selection of personnel for
the position:
1. He should be able to organize and conduct a safety pro-
gram and possess a never-ending interest in safety.








2. He should be a natural leader and be able to inspire school
bus drivers and mechanics to do a better job.

3. He should know when a mechanical job is economically
and efficiently done.
4. He should be tactful in his contacts with children, parents,
teachers, principals, the superintendent, school bus driv-
ers, mechanics, and business representatives, each hav-
ing an interest in the program and, perhaps, personal con-
ceptions of the service.

5. He should have the fundamental concepts of the school
administrator who views transportation as part of the
total school program rather than as a disconnected com-
mercialized service.
6. He should be trustworthy because many hundreds of
dollars of equipment and property may be under his di-
rect supervision.
7. He should be aware that excessive expenditures for trans-
portation serve to limit the total school program for the
benefit of all the children.
8. He should have a professional rather than a political
concept of the job.
Locating a person with most of the above qualifications may
be somewhat difficult. Some of these qualifications are im-
perative; others may be developed aft e r employment. The
school administrator should make every effort to find the most
qualified person available. When the p e r s o n employed has
proved his ability, he should be given tenure. An efficiently
operating transportation program should not be subjected to the
political misfortunes of the superintendent or the employing
board. Forward-looking school administrators should give more
thought to developing educational standards for the position.
A few colleges are now giving some attention to the transporta-
tion program and limited instruction in the area is offered. A
program of professional training should be encouraged in every
way possible. Perhaps when the salary schedule is high enough
to make the position more attractive the demand for instruc-
tion in this field will increase.








The School Principal
The role of the school principal in administration of the
transportation program in Florida has been varied and general-
ly not well defined. The conduct of pupils while traveling to
and from school, including those being transported, is a legal
responsibility of the school principal under Florida Statutes.
He may delegate much of the responsibility to the school bus
driver. Even so, some principals scarcely know the drivers
assigned to duty at their schools, and coordination is lacking.
More active interest in the administration of the transporta-
tion program by the school principal is considered desirable.

Summary
The many and varied responsibilities of the county super-
intendent drastically limit the superintendent's time for super-
vision of the transportation program in most counties. The em-
ployment of a specialist to supervise the program has been gain-
ing in favor. His duties should be clearly defined, and the
qualifications and salary should be commensurate with his
varied responsibilities. The qualifications of the person for this
important position should be carefully considered and policies
and procedures developed with equal caution. The diligence
with which school buses are supervised will have a definite
bearing upon the financial aspects of the program.













CHAPTER 4


Pupils Entitled to Transportation

F LORIDA STATUTES outline the basic purposes of the pub-
lic school transportation program as follows:
(1) to provide adequate educational facilities and op-
portunities which otherwise would not be available;
(2) to transport pupils whose homes are more than a
reasonable walking distance, as defined by Regu-
lations of the State Board, from the nearest ap-
propriate school; provided, that no state funds shall
be paid for the transportation of pupils whose homes
are within two miles from the nearest appropriate
school .
The phrase "two miles or more from the nearest appropriate
school," except for the physically handicapped, is reiterated in
Chapter 236, Florida Statutes, in establishing the formula for
the apportionment of state funds for pupil transportation.
The Florida Principal's Record and Report Book defines a
transported pupil as:
S. any pupil regularly transported at public expense who lives
two or more miles from school by the nearest traveled route
over which he could walk to school, or who is physically handi-
capped. Note that this refers to distance of the pupil's home
from school, and not to miles the pupil may ride the bus. Pupils
living less than this distance (unless physically handicapped)
and pupils transported at private expense regardless of distance
must not be reported as transported pupils.
School principals and teachers who report pupils trans-
ported should use every care in preparing accurate reports, mak-
ing use of all available information including that from school








bus drivers as to pupils who live two miles or more from school.
It is on the basis of these reports that State funds are ap-
portioned. Where reasonable doubt exists as to the distance of
the home of any pupil to school, measurement should be made
by the calibrated odometer of a passenger car.
The penalty provided by law for falsification of reports for
which the teacher, principal, other school personnel, or school
official is responsible is severe. The teaching certificate may
be revoked, or the employee or official may be removed from
office after proper hearings are conducted.
It may also be reasoned that pupil accounting under the
Minimum Foundation Program of Florida is a basic part of
financial accounting for which the county superintendents and
the county school board members are responsible. Accuracy
is stressed and penalty for violation is provided.

Summary

Accurate pupil accounting is a responsibility of teachers,
principals, county superintendents, county boards of public
instruction, and school bus drivers. Except for physically handi-
capped, the basic two miles or more for eligibility as a trans-
ported pupil at state expense must be adhered to. Falsification
of reports could result in a penalty for the individual submit-
ting such reports.












CHAPTER 5


Financing The Program

AN EFFECTIVE TRANSPORTATION program, like other
phases of the school program, must be adequately financed.
The cost of public school transportation in Florida is shared by
the State and local administrative units. Transportation is in-
cluded as one of the four major classifications of school expendi-
tures in the determination of the cost of the Minimum Founda-
tion Program. These four items are: teachers' salaries, other
current expense, capital outlay, and transportation. Formulas
have been established by statute in Florida for calculating the
cost of the Minimum Foundation Program for education in each
county.
The percentage of the total local contribution to the Minimum
Foundation Program fund which each county must raise from
local sources is determined from an index of taxpaying ability
which represents the county's percentage of the taxing ability
of the State. The index of taxpaying ability, or each county's
percentage of the total local contribution to the Minimum Foun-
dation Program fund, is determined by formula from five objec-
tive measures of the wealth or taxpaying ability of the several
counties as related to the total wealth or taxpaying ability of
the State. The amount of the State's contribution to the Minimum
Foundation Program is the difference between the cost of the
total program and the aggregate amount which the counties
must contribute. By including the major cost items of the schools
in the Minimum Foundation Program and limiting the county's
share for participation to a fractional part of the funds that could
be raised locally through equitable taxation policies, the law has
made it possible for all counties to provide an enriched program
in all areas. Obviously, if through administrative policies the








cost in any one area is permitted to exceed substantially the
amount included in the program, enrichment of the remainder of
the program is retarded proportionately.
The minimum and the maximum millages that can be levied
by a county are fixed by the Constitution. County assessing
authorities can, by lowering the local valuation of property, force
the county school officials to a minimum program in every re-
spect, including the ability of the county to purchase buses,
provide adequate maintenance for them, and otherwise insure
safe transportation.

Apportionment Formula
The formula for calculating the transportation portion of the
Minimum Foundation Program contains the following basic
provisions:
1. A transportation unit is included in the Minimum Founda-
tion Program for each eighty transported pupils in average
daily attendance who live two miles or more from school,
or are physically handicapped.
2. A transportation unit is included for each fifty-six land
sections served. A regular government land section, or its
equivalent, is counted as served by transportation if it lies
wholly or partly within one and one-half miles of a bus
route served by a bus having a combined passenger seating
space in excess of eighteen linear feet, and the land sec-
tions actually traversed by a smaller vehicle used to trans-
port pupils.
3. Other provisions of the apportionment formula are:
a. The State Board of Education may, by regulation,
compensate for travel over unpaved roads by reducing
the number of land sections required to earn a trans-
portation unit from fifty-six to forty-eight sections.
b. Land sections earned by the making of spur routes less
than one and one-half miles in length may be counted
only when in accord with rules adopted by the State
Board of Education.
c. A land section may not be counted twice, but is com-
puted separately for the white and the Negro races.








d. A transportation unit may be allowed for each bus
used exclusively for transporting ten or more excep-
tional children and a proportionate fraction of a unit
for a vehicle used to transport less than ten when
authorized by regulations of the State Board of
Education.
4. The amount included in the Minimum Foundation Pro-
gram for transportation is determined by multiplying the
total transportation units by $1250.

Financing New Buses
Methods of financing the purchase of new buses are (1) using
local funds derived from racing commission funds or from county
or district current operation tax; (2) levying a special millage
for a building and bus reserve fund; (3) borrowing on a loan
under Section 237.27, Florida Statutes; (4) using a portion of
the transportation allotment in the Minimum Foundation Pro-
gram. The latter is almost theoretical in nature, because most
counties are finding it necessary to spend the Minimum Founda-
tion Program allocation for transportation operation.

Summary
The cost of transportation is shared in Florida by the State
and local units. The local unit must provide from local sources
its share of the cost of the Minimum Foundation Program for
transportation and all of the cost of transportation in excess of
the minimum program. Local sources include revenue from
county and district school tax levies and, in many cases, racing
commission funds.
The cost of new buses is financed from the revenue derived
from current county or district school tax levies for support and
maintenance, from special building and bus reserve levies, or the
proceeds of a loan.
Careful administration and supervision of all phases of the
transportation system are necessary to provide adequate services
within the limits of the funds available for this purpose.













CHAPTER 6


Routing School Buses

ONE of the most important phases of any public school trans-
portation program in planning for safety, efficiency, ade-
quacy, and economy in operation is the routing of school buses.

Philosophy
Of major importance is the philosophy of the school adminis-
trative unit toward the transportation program. As conceived
originally, school transportation was for the purpose of making
an educational :opportunity available. This basic conception is
imbedded in Florida Statutes in that transportation shall be fur-
nished "when and only when transportation is necessary to
provide adequate educational facilities and opportunities which
otherwise would not be available." More recently there has been
a tendency to think of the program in terms of convenience as
well as of necessity. Parents may insist that buses be routed to
their door because of such factors as traffic, muddy roads, rattle-
snakes, Brahma bulls, and inclement weather.
The school administrators of today should decide on a position
probably between these extremes to which they can adhere. By
every reasonable criterion in providing the best educational op-
portunity for all the children of a county, the decision should be
conservative in its application.
In every consideration the viewpoint should be long range in
its objective. A decision made in an unguarded moment can bring
charges of inconsistency.

Planning
Without careful planning the mileage and travel time of buses








may be excessive and either force the driver to drive too fast
or pick up pupils extremely early in order to meet the schedule.
Equalizing the mileage or starting time of buses as nearly as
possible should be a prime objective. Policies followed in routing
buses determine how well the program meets the needs of trans-
ported pupils and of the school. Changes made in bus routes
should be carefully considered in terms of consistency and estab-
lished principles.
The number of buses serving an area should be carefully
determined by the number of pupils to be transported, the condi-
tion of roads, mileage, and time schedules. In no instance should
a bus route be extended to serve pupils who are within walking
distance of a shorter or more practicable route to serve the
pupils. School buses, unless routing is based on careful studies,
may be operated in areas where it is necessary to cross blind rail-
road grade crossings, over roads overgrown with weeds and
brush, over bridges having insufficient carrying capacity for the
loaded school bus, and over roads that are not all-weather roads.
Pupils have been blinded in one eye when a small limb of a tree
adjacent to the roadway flipped through the open window of a
school bus. Before establishing a bus route over a road where
pupils will be subject to unusual hazards, school administrators
should be aware of the fact that once established it is difficult to
discontinue the service so long as a pupil lives in the area.
Many school bus drivers point out that the program of hard-
surfacing roads has helped school bus operation very little in
some areas. Improvement of roads often results in straightening
of the old road bed, invariably by-passing the homes of some
pupils; consequently, in order to give the children living in those
homes the service demanded, it is necessary to continue operating
over the old road, which may be parallel to or wind back and
forth over the new, improved road.
Florida Statutes, in outlining duties of school authorities,
make county school boards, after considering recommendations of
the county superintendent, responsible for school bus "routes ar-
ranged efficiently and economically, provide necessary transpor-
tation facilities and, when authorized under regulations of the
State Board of Education and if more economical to do so, provide
limited subsistence in lieu thereof." They also specify that "each
route shall serve pupils living only in those areas where trans-








portation by school bus is the most economical method for pro-
viding adequate educational facilities."

Isolated Pupils
State Board of Education Regulations have broadened and
clarified the duty of the county board in providing transportation
for isolated pupils under the above provisions by authorizing
limited compensation for use of a passenger car for the transpor-
tation of small groups. The Statutes further make it a responsi-
bility of the county board to zone all areas of the county for
which it is unnecessary or impracticable to furnish transportation.
Irrespective of these provisions, there apparently prevails an
idea among many rural people that a county board must furnish
transportation by school bus from home to school without regard
to road conditions, economy in operation, or impact upon estab-
lished bus schedules.

Staggered School Hours
School buses have been becoming increasingly more expensive.
Also, as a bus becomes older, it becomes less desirable for oper-
ation from a service point of view. The school bus which serves
a short route transporting a few pupils is expensive due to the
capital investment and salary of the driver. The greater the
number of pupils which may be transported by a single bus, the
lower the per-pupil cost.
Recognizing this, many Florida counties have adopted a plan
of staggered school opening hours to increase the trips a bus may
make during the day. The plan is not practical except in areas of
concentrated school population. Under this plan an elementary
school may open at 7:45 or 8:00 o'clock in the morning, a junior
high school at 8:00 or 8:15, and a senior high school at
8:30 or 8:45. One or more loads of pupils are transported by a
bus to the elementary school. The bus then returns to the same
general area, transports a load to the junior high school, and in
the remaining time before the high school opens, carries a load to
the senior high school. In the afternoon the routing is reversed
and the elementary school pupils are taken home first, then the
junior high pupils, and finally the senior high pupils. In this way
buses are used about three to four hours per day, and the ex-








cessively long periods of waiting on the school grounds are
avoided. In areas where elementary pupils ride high school buses,
it is desirable to have at least one elementary school operating on
the same schedule as the high school. Under this staggered plan
of school transportation, Pinellas County, Florida, transported in
1957-58 an average of 274 pupils per bus daily on each of 58 school
buses. Such a plan may be altered to conform to local conditions
and needs.

Types Of School Bus Routes

School bus routes may be divided into three general types:
(1) continuous or shoestring, (2) circuitous, and (3) spur routes.

The continuous, or shoestring, route is by far the most widely
used type in the rural areas. The first pupil picked up is usually
a considerable distance from school, near the outer edge of the
attendance area. In most instances it is impractical, because of
the expense, for the driver assigned to this type of route to return
home during school hours.

The circuitous route is more practical in areas of dense popu-
lation. This type of route usually starts in the vicinity of the
school and makes somewhat of a circle, returning to the school by
a series of connecting roads. Routes of this type are widely used
where a school bus makes two or more trips.

The spur route is found in areas where one or more families
live on a road leading off from the main trunk road over which
the school bus operates enroute to school. The distance involved
may be one block or one or two miles. To provide the service re-
quested on this type route, it is necessary for the bus to retrace
the same road to and from the main trunk route. Where the num-
ber of children to be served is substantial, this type of route may
sometimes be justified. However, more often than not, there are
only one or two children involved. The road is usually not so good
as the one over which the main trunk route is operated. Many
requests also come from parents living on roads that intersect the
main road only a few miles from school.
Factors which should be given careful attention by the school
administrator when requests for a spur route are received in-
clude:








1. Will the walking time of pupils to the trunk road when
combined with the riding time to school exceed the riding
time for the pupils who board the bus first in the mornings
if the bus operates over the normal route?
2. Will providing more convenient service for a small group
cause an added inconvenience to a larger group?
3. Is the road an all-weather road?
4. Is there a satisfactory place where the bus can be turned
around?
5. Will the change require children who board the bus first
in the morning to leave home at an unreasonable hour?
6. Could the extra expense necessary to serve the spur route
be applied to a greater advantage in another situation?
7. What has been the established policy governing decisions
in similar situations?

Frequent Review Of Bus Routes

Every school administrator having responsibility for public
school transportation should recognize that in a changing popula-
tion bus routes should remain somewhat fluid in nature. The exit
of one family from an area may make it possible to discontinue
service in the area or make a substantial change in the route de-
sirable. A family moving into an area without school bus service
may request such service. School bus routing of a county, there-
fore, should be subject to constant study. The individual routes
should be studied in relationship to the whole, for many times
when one change is made, desirable adjustments can be made in-
volving several bus routes.

Doubtless many of the criticisms of the routing of school buses
in Florida can be attributed to a misunderstanding of responsi-
bilities and failure to follow a logical plan in the establishment
and changing of school bus routes. A coordinated program of
routing buses cannot be carried on if policies have not been estab-
lished. Each request for a change should be given careful study
in terms of the policies adopted. The school bus driver may be of
major assistance in planning changes in school bus routes, a
fact sometimes overlooked by the county superintendent or his
professional assistant.








When an analysis has been made of requests involving changes
in bus routing, it will be found that a firm "no" must be given in
many instances if buses are to operate with the highest degree of
safety, efficiency, adequacy, and economy.

Summary
The routing of school buses is an important factor in providing
safe, efficient, adequate, and economical operation. School bus
routes should be planned according to carefully formulated poli-
cies which are consistent with the needs of the schools and the
financial ability of the county. In counties where the routing of
buses has developed without careful planning, a survey made by
someone who can view the situation from an objective, unbiased
viewpoint is recommended.












CHAPTER 7


School Transportation Surveys

U SING SURVEY TECHNIQUES as a means of evaluating
local practices for purposes of making improvements in
school plant planning is well established. Surveys of transporta-
tion programs are also proving of great value in reorganizing
transportation systems.
Survey Methods
In order to make an objective study of school bus routing,
it is necessary to know:
1. The exact route served by each school bus
2. The children transported by each bus by grade classifica-
tions and the schools attended
3. General road conditions
4. Miles of bus travel with and without pupils on the bus
5. The schedule of the bus both in the morning and in the
afternoon
6. Location of pupil stops
In some counties much of the information needed for a study
is readily available, and plans for a survey can be made accord-
ingly. This plan has been developed by the State Department
of Education for making surveys of transportation routes in those
counties where adequate information is not available:
1. At the request of the county school board either a survey
team or a specialist is appointed to make the study.
2. The team or specialist rides over each route with the








school bus driver: (a) The bus route and other data are
plotted on a road map of the county. (b) A log of the
route is made showing the location of pupil stops. Odo-
meter readings at the start of the route, at pupils stops,
right and left turns, intersections, and landmarks, all aid
in placement of pupil stops. (c) Mileage by types of road
is calculated, and notations are made about road condi-
tions. If the specialist is experienced in reading a map,
the necessary data, including that for making a spot map,
can be collected in one trip over each route. The schedule
prepared by the bus driver on Form Tr 1, School Bus
Schedule and Report Book, if properly prepared, has the
pupil stops listed in the order in which they are made, the
number of pupils boarding the bus at each stop, grade and
school attended. These data are essential in keeping the
log of the bus route.
3. The location of each elementary pupil is indicated on the
spot map prepared from the data by means of a round dot
or circle, a junior high pupil by a triangle, and a senior
high pupil by a square. Pupils riding buses to the same
school may be shown in the same color to reflect the
attendance area of that school. In addition to a study of
the bus routes, the spot maps may be used for reorganizing
school attendance areas and determining the best location
for school centers.
In some instances, especially in those administrative units
where there are few schools, where attendance areas are well
defined, and where no consideration is being given to reorganizing
school centers, a study may be made in which the pupils in each
grade classification are spotted on the map in the same color.
The bus routes may be shown in a different color on the map,
or in less congested areas a single color may be used for all routes
of buses. A symbol, i.e., a square in which the bus number is
inserted, is used to indicate the starting point of each trip. An
oval in which the bus number is placed, with connecting arrow
indicating direction of travel, is inserted at intervals along the
route to indicate the exact route traversed by the bus.
Scope Of Surveys
A transportation survey, in addition to a study of the routing








of buses, may include a study of (a) administrative policies; (b)
loads transported by buses; (c) school bus schedules; (d) own-
ership; (e) purchasing procedures; (f) attendance areas; (g)
condition of equipment; (h) finance; (i) safety; (j) maintenance
practices; (k) adequacy of shop, equipment, and labor employed;
(1) size of buses; and (m) records.

Summary
An objective scientific study of a transportation program
provides an excellent means of evaluating the program in opera-
tion and will serve as a basis for reorganization of the program
if the study indicates changes are desirable.













CHAPTER 8


The School Bus Driver

T HE SCHOOL BUS DRIVER is responsible for the safety
and behavior of pupils when entering the bus, en route, and
while getting off the bus and for the care of expensive equip-
ment while in operation.
The role of the school bus driver in the total educational pro-
gram is of major importance. The physical well-being of the
pupils whom the driver transports is largely his while they ride
to and from school. He is a teacher by precept and example.
The efforts of teachers of language arts and social studies may
be considerably undermined by the school bus driver. Pupils
on the bus will be driving motor vehicles in a few years, if
not already. Their knowledge of and respect for traffic laws,
rules of the road, and sound driving practices may be largely
formulated while riding with the school bus driver. The untidy
school bus driver and a dirty, ill-kept school bus must have an
influence upon the child.
School Bus Driver Qualifications
Progressive educational leaders have long recognized that
standards of performance for school bus drivers must be raised.
Section 234.14, Florida Statutes, 1955, stipulates that each school
bus driver shall:
Be of good moral character, of good vision and hearing, able
bodied, free from communicable diseases, mentally alert, suf-
ficiently strong physically to handle the bus with ease and to
make emergency repairs, and not a user of alcoholic beverages
or narcotics, and shall possess such other qualifications as shall
be prescribed by the state board.
School board members and school trustees are prohibited
by Florida Statutes from driving a school bus.








Each school bus driver is required by Florida Statutes to
pass a physical examination not more than three months prior
to employment each school year. A School Bus Driver's License
is issued by the Florida State Department of Education based
primarily upon the driver's passing the physical examination.
A chauffeur's license is also required of school bus drivers.
Responsibilities For School
Bus Driver Selection And Qualifications

After considering recommendations of the county super-
intendent, the county board may: (a) prescribe qualifications
of school bus drivers consistent with the law and State Board
Regulations; (b) establish salary schedules; (c) prescribe reg-
ulations governing absences, including those for sick leave al-
lowed by statutes; (d) name a physician or physicians to ex-
amine school bus drivers; and (e) adopt additional regulations
not inconsistent with laws and State Board Regulations.
The county superintendent, as secretary and executive of-
ficer of the county board, has the responsibility of recommend-
ing: (a) positions to be filled; (b) applicants for employment;
(c) salary schedules; (d) contracts; (e) suspension of em-
ployees, and (f) policies.
The county board, when considering recommendations of
the county superintendent for school bus drivers, can reject
the recommendation for "good cause." When the recommenda-
tions of the county superintendent are rejected for valid rea-
sons, the county superintendent must make a second and, if
necessary, a third recommendation. The Attorney General
for the State of Florida, when asked to clarify the questions
projected by the phrase "good cause," wrote:
S. The cause for rejection must be something more than a
mere frivolous objection on the part of the school board based
either on personal animosity or political prejudice. The cause
must consist of some act or characteristic on the part of the
employee who is being considered which would give reasonable
grounds that the person is not properly qualified from a moral,
mental or physical standpoint to meet the requirements ordi-
narily expected of a school bus driver. I believe that it is the
duty of the county board in rejecting a recommendation by the
county superintendent to give the reasons for such rejection
and that the reasons must be such that an ordinarily prudent
person considering them in an impartial manner would accept
such reasons as being sufficient grounds to warrant the Board
in rejecting the recommendation.








As pointed out, under the Statutes the county board of
public instruction is a policy-making body, and the county
superintendent is its administrative officer. The selection of
school bus drivers under school board policies is an admin-
istrative matter. The school bus driver should look to one
person for leadership, direction, and counsel. One of the gen-
erally accepted principles of sound organization for adminis-
tration is that of a single head. Community concepts and prac-
tices of long standing in the employment of school bus drivers
have not all been set aside since passage of the new school
laws, but progress has been made.
The School Bus Driver And The School Principal
The school principal is an important link in the administra-
tive plan of public school transportation. He is in a good posi-
tion to know the type of service rendered by the school bus
driver. Even though it is a responsibility of the county super-
intendent to recommend school bus drivers, the county super-
intendent or his administrative assistant should consult with
the school principal regarding the service rendered by drivers
serving his school.
Licensing Of School Bus Drivers
As was pointed out earlier, each school bus driver appli-
cant must pass an annual physical examination not more than
three months prior to employment each school year. A re-
examination may be required by the county superintendent or
county board at any time.. The license, based primarily upon
the driver's passing the physical examination, must be posted
inside the school bus at all times.
Summary
Selection and qualifications! of persons to drive school buses
are most important factors :in providing safe, efficient, adequate,
and economical operation of school buses. Minimum qualifi-
cations and procedures for .selection are well defined in the
Statutes and Regulations of the State Board of Education. The
safe operation of school buses by competent drivers is a vital
concern to parents, motorists, school personnel, and the tax-
payer.












CHAPTER 9


School Bus Driver Training

T HE NEED for careful selection and more intensive training
of school bus drivers has increased over the years. Not only
has the number of pupils transported risen sharply in the past
decade, but the per cent of the total enrollment transported in
Florida has also increased. Other factors that necessitate careful
recruitment, selection, and training of personnel to drive school
buses are the phenomenal increase in vehicles on Florida high-
ways, the speeds at which these vehicles now travel, and the
technical advances in transportation.

The State Department of Education, in recognition of the
need for school bus driver training, is providing, through the
Trades and Industrial Section of the Vocational Division, a full-
time instructor for this service. Training is provided on a co-
operative basis with the State paying cost of instruction and the
county paying such incidental expenses as may be incurred,
providing a bus for demonstration purposes and any necessary
remuneration for school bus drivers.

Most school bus drivers have done an excellent job in pro-
viding safe transportation, have developed an understanding of
children, and have known how to get along with them. These
accomplishments of the average school bus driver, in addition
to that of maintaining a good safety record, may cause the casual
observer to rate the school bus driver as highly satisfactory for
the job. However satisfactory a school bus driver may be in
these respects, he may not know how to avoid abuse of the
vehicle to which he is assigned. Many school bus drivers have
received only limited instruction in driving techniques, and sel-
dom has this instruction been given by a trained instructor.








Factors which should be considered in determining the need
for training school bus drivers include:

1. The volume of highway traffic and the speed at which
motor vehicles operate have increased at an unprece-
dented rate during the past fifteen years.

2. The size of the average Florida school bus has increased
from a 42-pupil capacity to a 54-pupil capacity in a twelve-
year period.

3. The school bus mechanism is subject to constant change
and improvement, including equipment which requires
additional knowledge and skills on the part of the driver.

4. The number of pupils transported per bus and the per-
centage of enrollment transported have increased steadily,
placing added emphasis upon efficient transportation
service.

5. The transit-type school bus has been approved for use in
Florida, but its effective use requires a change in driving
procedures in comparison with those used for the school
bus of conventional design.

6. Many school bus drivers have not developed the techniques
of observing and diagnosing engine noises and other indica-
tions of developing mechanical defects for the purpose of
making proper reports to the maintenance department.

7. The role of the school bus driver in the total educational
program needs to be clarified.
8. The school bus driver should have an appreciation of how
his vision, hearing, and general physical condition affect
his ability to operate a school bus safely.
9. School bus drivers should realize that although they have
satisfactorily passed the physical examination required of
school bus drivers, fatigue and emotional disturbances
may temporarily limit their ability to drive safely.
10. The increasing use of school buses for extra-curricular
purposes, especially at night, makes it desirable to em-
phasize the individual driver's responses to glare from








the lights of approaching vehicles and the special care
needed for night-driving conditions.
11. School bus drivers need to have accurate concepts of safe
stopping distances.
12. The school bus driver should know the fundamentals of
first aid and the steps to follow in case of accident.
13. A trained school bus driver should enhance public confi-
dence in public school transportation.
14. A skilled driver may influence pupils who ride with him
to adopt sound driving practices when they become drivers.
15. Studies indicate that more than 80% of all casualties in
1955 occurred in accidents where there was some driving
violation.

Sunmary
The program of training for school bus drivers should be
promoted by school administrators. Trained and competent
drivers are able to conserve the' investment of the school board
in school bus equipment, increase the safety with which buses
are operated, and reduce maintenance costs. As the competency
and dependability of the drivers improve, the premium rates for
liability insurance may be reduced.












CHAPTER 10




Preventive Maintenance

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE is a most important factor
in providing safe, efficient, adequate, and economical school
bus operation. Preventive maintenance is that "stitch in time
that saves nine," the finding of: mechanical defects while in a
stage of development, and the making of adjustments and cor-
rections while they can be made at a nominal cost before road
failures occur and expensive repairs are necessary.
Preventive maintenance can be illustrated by the importance
of keeping water in the battery. The level of the electrolyte
in the battery should be maintained so that the plates are cov-
ered, preferably to a depth of % of an inch at all times; how-
ever, over-filling should be avoided. Failure to keep the plates
covered with electrolyte .will result in the following defects,
the extent and seriousness of which will be in direct proportion
to the period of neglect:
1. Reduction in amperage capacity of the battery due to
sulphation or hardening of the active material in the
battery plates
2. Warping and possible shorting of plates
3. Stepped-up corrosion at battery connectors, causing re-
sistance which may lead to:
a. Burning out of generator
b. Burning of ignition points
S To illustrate further, neglecting to adjust a loose fan belt
may result in an overheated motor. If sufficiently overheated,
the block will become cracked or scored and will have to be
replaced-an expensive operation. :








Filling the battery cells with water and adjusting a loose
fan belt are simple operations, each requiring five minutes or
less of the mechanic's time. Failure to follow such simple steps
increases the possibility of having to replace parts and there-
fore adding to the total repair cost.

Other examples might be given. Failure to keep spring U-
bolts tight will increase spring breakage and allow the chassis
to get out of line, resulting in excessive tire wear, creating steer-
ing difficulties, increasing the overall cost, and at the same
time affecting the safety with which the bus may be operated.
It may be seen from these examples that preventive main-
tenance is closely allied to the safety, efficiency, adequacy, and
economy of school bus operation.

The Inspection Program
Inspection is the maintenance man's first line of attack. Ade-
quate inspections determine the difference between a main-
tenance program and a repair program. If an inspection is to
determine developing defects, the inspection must be thorough
enough to reach all parts of major units likely to fail. Some
parts of the school bus are subjected to severe strain and there-
fore wear out before others. The parts or units having approxi-
mately the same trouble-free expectancy period should be
grouped together in making periodic inspections. Important
units such as (a) fan belts, (b) water hose, (c) radiator, (d)
spring U-bolts, (e) springs, (f) drag link, (g) tie rods, (h)
horn, and (i) service brakes operate under considerable strain
and are vital to safe and economical operation. These parts
on a school bus should possibly be inspected at two-week inter-
vals. An inspection form may be prepared locally for the impor-
tant units and as many additional items as local experience indi-
cates should be inspected at intervals of about two weeks.

Other units of the school bus, with reasonable care, will in
all probability last longer, and road failures can be prevented
by inspection and appropriate remedial steps each thirty days.
A suggested form for use in monthly inspections of school buses
is included in the Florida School Bus Driver's Schedule and
Report Book, published annually and made available to county
superintendents by the Florida State Department of Education.








Some mechanical units of a school bus will operate for a full
school term without causing road failure, unless there is severe
abuse or outright breakage. Therefore, the inspection of school
buses during the summer months should be more thorough and
include items that are not normally inspected monthly. The
monthly form in the Florida School Bus Driver's Schedule and
Report Book previously referred to may be expanded to in-
clude items which local experience indicates should be in-
spected annually.
Inspection programs should be adapted to fleets of different
makes and to mechanical and operating conditions. If a form
is not used during inspections, some important items may be
overlooked. Notes should be made of needed repairs that can-
not be corrected at the time of the inspection. The chief me-
chanic should study the inspection reports carefully, because
every inspection should be followed by prompt and adequate
corrective repairs. The inspections are obviously of little value
unless this is done. The aggressiveness with which the mechanic
performs these tasks will determine how well the maintenance
program functions.
Summary
An inspection program as a basis for a preventive main-
tenance program should be of primary concern to every one
charged with operation of school buses. Inspection forms as
a guide in the making of inspections are highly desirable. The
inspection must be flexible in that it should be based upon a
careful analysis of the individual fleet. Every inspection should
be followed by aggressive remedial action by the school main-
tenance employee.












CHAPTER 11


School Bus Maintenance Personnel

T HE MOST IMPORTANT responsibility of the school admin-
istrator in developing a good maintenance program is in
securing efficient, adequate personnel. The quality of the staff
of the school bus garage largely determines the effectiveness of
the maintenance program.

In considering personnel for the maintenance of school buses,
the school administrator should consider that the distinguishing
characteristics of the maintenance man may be those of a good
mechanic, but the good mechanic. may not have the specific
qualifications and concepts required of a maintenance man. The
attitude of the individual selected and placed in charge of main-
tenance is most important. A good. mechanic has the qualifica-
tions necessary to repair the school bus after a failure has oc-
cured, but the good maintenance, man has the interest, insight,
and knowledge necessaryy to anticipate possible failures and plan
remedial action before mechanical failures occur.

Preventive maintenance, as was pointed out in the preceding
chapter, requires periodic inspections. The school administrator
in charge must exercise care to be sure the program functions.
In an operation where two or more people are employed in a
maintenance program, the one having less technical skill in
making repairs might have the right conception of the program
and do an effective job of inspection. If, however, this person
of lower rank is designated inspector of buses, it could develop
that he would be handicapped in his work, especially if the
person possessing the basic skills to make repairs is appointed
chief mechanic for repairs. If the chief mechanic is not in com-
plete accord with the objectives of the inspection program, he








might interfere with the inspection of buses by assigning the
inspector to other duties that would keep him from thoroughly
inspecting the buses.
Special Skills
The employee in a school bus garage should be a generalist
in the sense that he should be skilled in all or several of the
areas of work carried on in the maintenance of a fleet of school
buses. If the school bus maintenance program is to operate
with maximum efficiency, the widest possible range of work
in connection with the maintenance of the buses should be
done in the central garage. Areas of work in the school bus
garage may include: (a) maintenance and repair of the motor
and other mechanical units of the school bus; (b) minor machine
work, especially reaming and honing; (c) repairs to electrical
units and wiring; (d) sheet metal work; (e) welding; (f)
painting; (g) glazing; and (h) upholstery repair. The school
administrator should recognize that certain personal qualifica-
tions may disqualify the applicant who can demonstrate skill
in all of these areas of work.
Personal Qualifications
Honesty and integrity of the school bus mechanic is of prime
importance. The school bus mechanic may have direct charge
of parts valued at several hundred dollars, in addition to gaso-
line, motor oil, and other supplies. Individual savings usually
made in the operation of a school bus garage are small,, though
the opportunities for savings are many. The mechanic should
exercise keen judgment as to the extent of wear or serviceability
of each part examined. Contrary to the commercial shop, there
is no financial gain when a new part is installed on a school bus
if the old part, with reasonable certainty, would last to the next
service period. A small item, like spillage of gasoline when
tanks are filled, may mean dollars wasted in a year's time.
The health of the prospective employee should be con-
sidered. School ;buses must operate each school day in good
weather and bad. This may mean more than an ordinary amount
of exposure to the elements for the worker.
A school bus mechanic should be able to get along well with
school bus drivers, mechanics, and other school personnel. He








should possess a sincere interest in his work and an apprecia-
tion of the importance of the job. The work done must be care-
fully and skillfully performed in the interest of safety of pupils
transported and conservation of equipment.
Because there are frequent changes in the internal mechanism
of school buses, mechanics need to keep informed. Not only
should they have a desire to improve their knowledge and skills,
but they must also read and study if they are to keep abreast
of changes.
The mechanic should keep the necessary records, should be
able to figure discounts and assist school authorities in drawing
up specifications for school buses, shop equipment, and supplies.
The record of applicants should be checked thoroughly before
employment which should be permanent only after a proba-
tionary period. It should be observed, however, that honesty
and ability to get along with others are prime requisites of a
school bus mechanic. Thus, in making a choice between two
applicants, the employing board should be guided by these basic
concepts and characteristics to the extent of selecting the person
with the more limited knowledge of mechanics, since mechani-
cal knowledge may be more easily acquired than important
personal qualifications.
The desirable school bus mechanic thinks differently, works
differently, and evaluates the work he is doing differently from
mechanics in some other types of employment. He thinks dif-
ferently because he is aware of the tremendous responsibility
that he shares in providing safe transportation for pupils. He
cannot be simply a skilled repair man who remains at the
garage for the breakdown to occur or come to him. Instead,
he must have the initiative to be constantly on the alert to
check for small defects. He should be able to determine when
safety demands that a part be replaced. The efficient school bus
mechanic cannot be a clock-watcher and expect to leave the
garage at a given hour, because regardless of the time, the
children are dependent upon that bus to reach school or home.
The number of employees needed to maintain a fleet of a
given size is dependent on such factors as road conditions, age
of equipment, loads carried, ability of mechanics, ability of
drivers, miles traveled, and the scope of the maintenance pro-








gram. Generally, in counties that perform all or nearly all of
the services needed to maintain the fleet, from fourteen to
eighteen vehicles is a work load for each employee.
Many tasks like washing school buses, moving equipment,
servicing buses with gasoline and oil, cleaning parts, and clean-
ing of garage and of grounds can be assigned to a helper or a
person who is not highly skilled.

Summary
The school bus mechanic is a most important individual in
providing safe, efficient, adequate, and economical operation of
school buses. Applicants for this position should be carefully
considered. The desirable school bus mechanic is not only
skilled in the various jobs in connection with the maintenance
of school buses but is also honest, healthy, able to get along
with others, interested in his work, and in improving his
knowledge of the job. It must be emphasized, however, that
equipment and facilities are necessary if mechanics are to work
at maximum efficiency.












CHAPTER 12




Maintenance Records and Reports

A CAREFUL JOB ANALYSIS by the school administrator
will serve to emphasize the desirability of keeping adequate
records of the transportation program. A good maintenance pro-
gram is dependent upon records. In case of a severe; accident
traceable to a mechanical failure, an irate public might be con-
soled if it could be shown from the records that the bus had been
given periodic, thorough inspections over a long period of time.
The gasoline, oil, parts, and supplies on hand in a county rep-
resent an investment of public funds and are subject to audit.
The school administrator should be able to show when the mate-
rial was purchased and when and how it was used.
The average small county operation is not conducive to record-
keeping. The mechanic who stops to clean his hands in order to
record information each time a part is needed loses valuable time.
However, records made with grease-smeared hands present a
problem. If, under these conditions, a dozen or more parts are
used during a day on several buses, the chances are that some
items will not be charged properly or even forgotten.
Simplicity is essential. A record which is not used is of no
value and is really worse than no record at all since the time and
materials consumed in its preparation are wasted. Only a few
counties in Florida at this time provide clerical help at the ga-
rage to assist with keeping records. Therefore, any recommenda-
tions made concerning records must necessarily be adjusted to
local needs.
Stores Account
A perpetual inventory of items carried in stock is desirable.









This is accomplished by maintaining a card of each stock item,
providing for entries or additions when a new supply of the item
is received and for charges or deductions when one of the items
is removed from stock. The balance on the card should reflect
the number on hand. This provides a ready reference as to wheth-
er parts are being accounted for properly.

Currently, most parts are packaged when received from the
jobber or distributor. The price paid for the item may be recorded
on the package. When the part is needed, it can be removed from
the package, the bus number on which it is to be installed marked
on the empty carton, and the carton deposited in a convenient box.
At the end of the day the empty cartons may be used in identify-
ing, pricing, and charging items to the proper vehicle. Parts which
are not packaged may be used in the same way with appropriate
tags attached.

Gasoline And Oil

The Florida School Bus Driver's Schedule and Report Book
provides for a daily entry of gasoline and oil issued to each bus.
Some administrators desire to have the school bus odometer read-
ing recorded each time the bus is serviced with gasoline and oil.
In these instances it is necessary to prepare special report forms.
A periodic report should be prepared of transactions at each
school-owned gasoline tank in the county. The report may be
prepared weekly or monthly and should contain essentially the
following information:

Tank Location .................................................... Date..............................
1. Gasoline Inventory and Receipts
Inventory of tank, end of...------- day,-- ......-month --
Received during period -_ to ..-... -.-.-
Total to be accounted for
2. Gasoline Disbursements and Inventory
Disbursed to (a) buses ---
(b) other vehicles ---
(c) other purposes
Inventory end of ...._-- day, .....-_month -- -
Total accounted for ..
Shortage (gals.) ...................... Overage (gals.) ......................








In the above analysis, if the total of Item 1 equals the total of
Item 2, the tank account is in balance. If the total of Item 2 is less
than the total of Item 1, the difference represents a shortage and if
the total of Item 2 is greater than the total of Item 1, there is an
overage.
There should be a record of each repair to a vehicle. This may
be termed a repair order. This information is needed on the repair
order to meet the basic requirements: date, bus number, repairs,
mechanic's name, time, parts or supplies, and costs. Other impor-
tant information may be added to the repair order: size and type
of rings installed, size of bearings, carburetor number, and the
like.
The repair order may be made in duplicate if desired, depend-
ing upon whether a copy is needed by the central office. A copy
should be filed at the garage for future reference.

If the county school administrator is to know where the money
is spent on the transportation program, he must have information
as to expenditures on each vehicle. When such records are kept, it
is almost certain that expenditures on some vehicles will look
excessively high; on others the same costs will be very low. The
cost-conscious school executive will want to know the reason,
which may be traceable to the vehicle's condition, the roads,
loads, the driver, or a combination of these factors.

A ledger sheet should be prepared for each bus showing a
cumulative total monthly of each of the following items: bus num-
ber, date, miles traveled, cost of parts, cost of tires and tubes, gal-
lons of gasoline, miles per gallon of gasoline, quarts of oil, cost of
gasoline and oil, driver's salary, total expenditures. Since
drivers' salaries may vary within a county, a total of operating
expenditures without drivers' salaries may provide a more equit-
able comparison of vehicle operating costs. A cumulative record
in which the total is brought forward each month will be of most
value in determining long-range peaks in expenditures in the
fleet.

Perhaps there may be some differences of opinion as to the
value of tire mileage records. The average school bus operates
about 9,000 miles per year, and the tires should last two school
terms or more. It may be debatable, therefore, as to whether a








mileage record-considering the possibility of bruises and cuts
on tires and wheel alignment problems-can be effectively used
to measure the comparative quality of several brands of tires.
Even though it is decided not to keep a tire mileage record, there
should be a record kept of the date when tires are placed in serv-
ice and when and how they are expended.

Summary
Records are of paramount importance to the maintenance man
and the school administrator. A record of gasoline and oil trans-
actions, the stores account, repair orders, and a monthly summary
are desirable. A tire record for inventory purposes should be
kept.












CHAPTER 13


The School Bus Garage

A GOOD GARAGE is an essential facility for the main-
tenance of school buses. One major factor in the size and
type of garage in Florida is whether the facility is to serve only
as a maintenance and repair shop or as a combination shop and
storage facility. Few counties could arrange, without excessive
expense, for a substantial number of buses to return to a cen-
tral storage shelter at night.

Location
It is usually desirable for the county school bus garage to
be located in or near the county seat. This facility under Flor-
ida Statutes is operated under the general supervision of the
county superintendent. Another prime factor is a location
convenient to the largest number of buses to be served. In
general, a spot near a school where bus routes terminate is
desirable. If the garage is located on the same site with the
school, the approach to the garage building should be away from
play areas. The building should be set back a sufficient dis-
tance from the street to provide ample space to maneuver
buses. A parking area large enough to accommodate the en-
tire fleet should be convenient to the central garage. If these
conditions cannot be met on the school campus, it will undoubt-
edly prove wise to locate the garage away from the school.
It is well to avoid a location too near the central business dis-
trict. Frequent visitors at the garage may consume workers'
time that may be needed to get buses in operation on schedule.
Any building provided for a school bus garage should be
constructed so that not more than two buses are parked in








tandem. Openings should be provided so that each bus can
be moved without the necessity of moving another.

Construction

There have been' no definite standards adopted in Florida
as to the type of striicture for a school bus garage.

Factors which should be considered in planning a building
for use as a school bus garage include:

1. A structural design in keeping with buildings of the gen-
eral area

2. ,Natural and artificial light equivalent to that of a well-
lighted classroom

3. A roof structure of sufficient strength to support the added
weight of a hoist rail for lifting and moving motors
4. Good drainage of the area, including that for parking of
buses
5. A roof height sufficient to permit raising of buses by a
two-post lift
6. A floor constructed with a slight crown in center to fa-
cilitate cleaning
7. A hardener applied to the finish coat of the floor to re-
sist chipping and retard the penetration of grease, worked
to a smooth trowel finish
8. A separate, well-lighted and ventilated area for painting
buses
9. Office, storage areas, and washrooms
10. Provision for installation of such equipment as air com-
pressor and battery charger
11. A concrete slab for washing buses
12. Three-phase current for operation of welding equipment
and heavy motors
13. Ample electrical outlets and artificial lights in all work
areas








14. Air lines to all work areas and convenient outlets for
lubricating buses
15. A drive-through arrangement for some of the work stalls
16. A work stall of about sixteen feet by fifty feet for each
fifteen vehicles serviced by the garage
17. Provisions for growth
18. Arrangement for servicing of buses with gasoline and oil
Summary
The school bus garage should be planned and located to
serve adequately the buses without excess mileage for service
operations. The efficiency of the maintenance personnel, to a
large degree, depends upon the arrangement and equipment of
this facility. School buses must be in good mechanical condi-
tion if drivers are to transport pupils safely.













CHAPTER 14




Purchase of Buses, Parts, and Supplies

T HE FLORIDA STATUTES and regulations of the State
Board of Education prescribe certain standards and proce-
dures for the purchase of school buses, parts, and supplies. Each
county school board should adopt policies which are adapted to
the local situation, conform with state requirements, and develop
sound practices in the purchase, storage, and accounting for
school bus parts and supplies.

Purchase Of School Buses
With few exceptions, funds made available to counties for
transportation through the Minimum Foundation Program are
expended for operation and, therefore, for the most part school
buses are purchased from county or district current operating
funds or a building and bus reserve fund.
Normally, funds should be provided annually to replace ap-
proximately one-tenth of the buses in operation in the county and
to provide for any contemplated expansion of the service. Plans
for the purchase of school buses in Florida contain the following
provisions:
1. The State Board of Education adopts minimum standards
or specifications for school buses.
2. The manufacturers or distributors certify on forms pro-
vided by the state superintendent the models of school bus
equipment to be offered for sale in Florida which meet the
specifications of the State Board of Education.
3. The state superintendent or his authorized representative
reviews the certified models, approving those models of








school bus equipment which meet the standards of the
State Board of Education.
4. The state superintendent provides county superintendents
a list of the models of bodies and chassis that are approved.
5. The county school boards request bids for body and chassis
separately, except those where the unit is of integral de-
sign, using forms approved by the state superintendent.
6. The bidders are given ten days in which to return bids.
7. The bids are opened publicly at the hour set forth in the
bid invitation.
8. The state superintendent shall furnish county school boards
information relating to prices paid for school bus equip-
ment.
9. Two or more counties may pool their needs for school
buses, bids being requested by the State in the name of
the participating counties.
10. Should the pool purchase result in attractive prices, the
prices so received should become established prices and
made available to counties not participating in the pool
following the procurement of local bids.
11. The form furnished by the State Department of Education
for requesting bids on the school bus equipment provides
for f.o.b. chassis price at stipulated body plant locations, the
f.o.b. factory price of body, and also the cost of delivery of
the completed bus to the county seat of the school board
requesting bids. The purpose of the delivered price is to
have a common basing point for determination of the lowest
net bid. (The cost of the chassis f.o.b. body plant and f.o.b.
factory cost of body and delivery of the complete unit to
the using agency are added to determine the lowest net
bid.)
Purchase Of Parts And Supplies
Those responsible for the administration of a county system
of public school transportation should formulate efficient prac-
tices for the purchase of parts and supplies in order to provide
for the economical maintenance of the,,fleet. Requisitions should








be made and the purchase order approved before the material is
ordered or purchased. However, there are certain emergency situ-
ations that may arise which should be provided for in the policies
established. To a certain extent emergencies can be provided for
by the storage of parts and supplies in frequent demand at the
central garage. This plan should be adopted and an item placed in
stores account only after a careful analysis of frequency of use.
Experience has shown that there may be a cycle of failures of a
certain part on school buses occurring within a short period, but
this does not necessarily mean a continuation of such failures
over a long period, which would justify advance purchase of an
expensive item. When the items to be carried in the stores account
have been determined, a perpetual inventory will be useful in cal-
culating the periodic requirements and also of value in seeing that
all items are charged out properly.
There are certain items such as bolts, nuts, rivets, cap screws,
and cotter pins that can be purchased to an advantage on bids.
Specifications for these items are easily drawn. If specifications
are carefully drawn, bids may be used to purchase many of the
replacement parts needed for repair of buses.

Purchase Of Tires

The State Purchasing Commission has been for several years
establishing a ceiling price for a complete line of tires and tubes.
The price established by the commission is extended to county
school boards.

Purchase Of Gasoline And Motor Oil
Gasoline is purchased on competitive bids by most Florida
county school boards. The following procedures are recom-
mended:
1. Use a specification of which the one prepared by the State
Oil Laboratory for the Board of Commissioners of State
Institutions is typical.
2. Request bids for an annual supply of gasoline, giving com-
plete details as to tank locations, capacity and approximate
quantity needed.
3. The school board own the tanks and pumps; however, if








this is not the case, the call for bids may specify the instal-
lation of tanks and pumps at each location.
4. Limit purchases to approximately one month's supply of
gasoline for any one locality.
5. Should there be reasonable doubt as to the quality of gaso-
line delivered, the State Oil Laboratory should be asked
to test samples of gasoline delivered periodically to deter-
mine if gasoline delivered is in compliance with specifi-
cations.
6. Periodic inventories should be made of all tanks. Disburse-
ments should be balanced against receipts as a safeguard
against excessive shrinkage or loss.
7. The grades of gasoline purchased should be adjusted to the
needs of the fleet. The purchase of premium grades of gas-
oline may not prove to be most economical.
A specification for motor oil is more difficult to formulate
than that for gasoline. Furthermore, the State Oil Laboratory is
not equipped to pre-determine performance of motor oil in school
bus operation. Perhaps the most widely used specification for
purchasing motor oil is Federal Specification #H.D. MIL-L-
2104A. The use of this specification should enable a company to
bid on motor oils recommended for fleets and to which little or
no advertising costs are charged and thus available at lower
prices.
Companies submitting bids on oil when the Federal Specifica-
tion is used should provide proof that the oil so furnished will
meet the specification in one or more of the following forms: (a)
by furnishing the qualification number; or (b) by an affidavit
that the oil to be furnished has been qualified under Federal
Specification MIL-L-2104A.
Lubrication engineers advise against mixing of two or more
brands of oils in the crankcase of motor vehicles, especially those
brands of oil having high detergent qualities. Therefore, any
change in the brand of motor oil in use could best be made during
the course of the summer repair program.
Plan For Purchasing
In formulating a plan for the purchase of supplies, the follow-
ing provisions of the Statutes should be observed:








1. The plan must be approved by the county board.
2. Purchases of more than $300 must be specifically author-
ized by the county board.
3. The county superintendent or a business assistant under
his jurisdiction may be authorized to make purchases up
to an amount prescribed by the county board.
4. Expenditures for unauthorized purchases shall not be ap-
proved by the county board.
5. The county superintendent shall propose standards and
specifications.
6. Bids of three or more parties shall be requested for all
authorized purchases of more than $300.

Summary

Policies should be approved by each county school board for
the purchase of school buses, parts and supplies, and for gasoline
and motor oil for adequate maintenance and servicing of school
bus equipment. The policies should be in conformance with Flor-
ida Statutes and Regulations of the State Board of Education.
Plans formulated carefully may result in county school boards
effecting substantial savings on the purchase of parts, gasoline,
and motor oil.
A sufficient number of school buses should be purchased an-
nually to retire worn out buses from service and to provide for
expanding enrollment.












CHAPTER 15


Other Uses of School Buses

FLORIDA STATUTES authorize the county school board to
"make provision for transportation of pupils to the public
schools or school activities they are required or expected to at-
tend." Apparently it was the intent of the legislature in establish-
ing this principle that school buses could also be used for the ex-
pansion of educational opportunities for children. The ques-
tion immediately arises, however, as to what constitutes a school
activity. Obviously, this can only be answered by the local
county school board, since an activity at one school would
not necessarily be an activity at another. In the final analysis,
questions involving such operation might logically be subject
to determination by the courts.
In an effort to safeguard school administrators from possible
legal action growing out of such extra-curricular use of school
buses, the State Board of Education has adopted regulations
outlining the procedures under which such use should be
granted. These are:
1. The county board of public instruction shall adopt policies
governing such operation.
2. The principal of the school desiring to use school bus
equipment shall make written application for such use.
3. The county superintendent shall authorize operation in
writing in accordance with policies adopted by the county
board.
The county superintendent should take such other desir-
able steps for the protection of pupils participating in such ac-
tivities as notifying the chief mechanic in order that the bus








may be serviced for operation, including mechanical check,
lubrication, and special equipment for night operation. The
county school board should determine if the liability insurance
policy carried for the protection of pupils transported covers
pupils riding school buses in extra-curricular use.
The basic argument for use of school buses in extra-curricular
services is that it is an extension of the classroom-that the pupils
can be taken to manufacturing plants, the State Capitol, and on
field trips to observe activities which are related directly to the
subject being studied. This line of reasoning appears to be in con-
formity with the principle established by the Statutes.

Summary

It was the apparent intent of the Florida Legislature to en-
dorse the principle whereby school buses would be used to
extend the experiences and learning opportunities for school
pupils. Policies should be adopted by each county school board
in conformance with the Statutes, under which the local county
superintendent may authorize buses to be used in extra-curricular
activities.












CHAPTER 16


Liability Insurance

BY LEGISLATIVE ACT Florida has set aside, insofar as trans-
ported pupils are concerned, the traditional immunity origi-
nating in the common principle that "the king can do no wrong."
The law which sets this immunity aside has made county boards
of public instruction liable for protection of pupils "for damages
on account of bodily injury (or death resulting therefrom)" to
the extent of insurance carried.
Important provisions of the Statutes regarding insurance for
the protection of pupils are:
1. The insurance must be carried in a company duly author-
ized to do business in Florida.
2. The protection must be provided for pupils legally enrolled
in the public schools, by reason of the ownership, mainte-
nance, operation, or use of school buses and other vehicles
while said pupils are being transported to or from school
or school activities.
3. The liability insurance carried shall not be less than $5,000
nor more than $100,000 for any one pupil or person, and
not less than $10,000 nor more than $200,000 for any one
accident.
4. Property damage may be carried in the amount of $5,000.
5. Premiums shall be paid from county current school fund,
district current school fund, or state fund apportioned to
the county for transportation.
6. County school boards may require owners of private vehi-
cles being used for and in the interest of its public schools








or in the furtherance of a school activity to carry property
damage insurance.
7. Immunity of school boards is waived to the extent of
insurance carried.
8. The members of any county board failing to comply with
the provisions of law requiring liability insurance for the
protection of pupils transported are subject to removal
from office and shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor.

Summary
Florida, by legislative act, requires county school boards to
carry insurance for the protection of pupils transported to the
public schools or school activities and has waived the traditional
immunity of county school boards to the extent of the insurance
carried. There is a basis for considering raising the minimum pro-
vision due to the increasing number of pupils transported per bus
and the expanding use of school buses for school activities.













APPENDIX


Public School Transportation Laws

THESE SECTIONS from the Florida School Code pertain to
school bus transportation and are arranged according to
(1) administration and supervision; (2) school bus standards;
(3) use of school buses and pupils entitled to transportation; (4)
school bus driver qualifications; (5) operation and maintenance;
(6) attendance areas, routes, and schedules; (7) records and
reports; (8) contracts and purchase of school buses; (9) liability;
(10) operators of other vehicles; (11) pupil transportation; and
(12) financial support for public school transportation. (For com-
plete Florida School Code see FLORIDA SCHOOL CODE, Stat-
utes, 1957.)

I. Administration And Supervision
A. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE STATE
229.01 State functions.-Public education is basically a function
and responsibility of the state. The responsibility for establishing
such minimum standards and regulations as shall tend to assure
efficient operation of all schools and adequate educational oppor-
tunities for all children is retained by the state. The responsibility
for the actual operation and administration of all schools needed
within the counties in conformity with regulations and minimum
standards prescribed by the state, and also the responsibility for
the provision of any desirable and practicable opportunities author-
ized by law beyond those required by the state are delegated by
law to the school officials of the respective counties.
229.06 Regulations and standards have force of law.-All rules and
regulations and minimum standards adopted or prescribed by the
state board in carrying out the provisions of the school code shall, if
not in conflict therewith, have the full force and effect of law.
B. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE STATE BOARD
229.08 Duties and responsibilities of state board.-It shall be the
responsibility of the state board to exercise all powers and perform
all duties prescribed below:
(19) PROVIDE FOR ENFORCEMENT OF LAWS AND REGU-
LATIONS.-To provide for the proper enforcement of all laws









relating to the state system of public education and of all regu-
lations or actions of the state board.
(20) PRESCRIBE MINIMUM STANDARDS AND RULES AND
REGULATIONS.-To prescribe such minimum standards and
rules and regulations as are required by law or as are recom-
mended by the state superintendent in accordance with the provi-
sions of subsection (20), section 229.17, and as it may find desir-
able to aid in carrying out the purposes and objectives of the
school code.
C. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE STATE SUPERIN-
TENDENT
229.16 General powers of state superintendents.-The state super-
intendent shall have the following general powers: ...
(2) RECOMMEND TO, AND EXECUTE POLICIES OF STATE
BOARD.-To advise and counsel with the state board on all mat-
ters pertaining to education; to recommend to the state board for
approval such matters and policies as, in his opinion, should be
acted upon or adopted; and to execute or to provide for the exe-
cution of all such measures and policies as are approved.
(3) RECOMMEND AND SUPERVISE EXECUTION OF RULES
AND REGULATIONS.-To prepare and organize by subjects and
submit to the state board for adoption such rules and regulations
as, in his opinion, will contribute to the more orderly operation of
any aspect of public education, and, when such rules and regu-
lations have been adopted, to see that they are properly executed.
(4) RECOMMEND AND PUT INTO EFFECT MINIMUM
STANDARDS.-From time to time to prepare, organize by sub-
ject, and submit to the state board for adoption such minimum
standards relating to the operation of any phase of the state
system of public education as, in his opinion, will aid in assuring
more adequate educational opportunities for all, and to see, inso-
far as practicable that such minimum standards as are adopted
by the state board are put into effect and are properly observed.
229.17 Duties and responsibilities of state superintendent.-It shall
be the responsibility of the state superintendent to exercise all pow-
ers and perform all duties prescribed below; provided, that in those
fields in which policies are required by law to be approved by the
state board the state superintendent shall act as the advisor and
executive officer of the state board. .
(19) LAWS AND REGULATIONS.-To see, insofar as prac-
ticable, that all laws and regulations of the state board relating to
education are properly observed and to report to the state board
any violation which he does not succeed in having corrected.
(20) MINIMUM STANDARDS AND RULES AND REGULA-
TIONS.-To prepare, organize, and recommend to the state board
such minimum standards and rules and regulations in the follow-
ing fields as are required by law or as he may find necessary to
aid in carrying out the purposes and objectives of the school code;
and to execute such standards and rules and regulations as are
adopted by the state board in the following fields: (1) establish-
ment, organization, and operation of schools, agencies, services,
and institutions, including the classification or accreditation of
parochial, denominational, and private schools; (2) personnel;
(3) child welfare; (4) courses of study and instructional aids;
(5) transportation; (6) school plans; (7) finance; (8) records and
reports. ..








(22) CONDUCT SPECIAL STUDIES AND SURVEYS.-To con-
duct in cooperation with county boards or with other school offi-
cials any special studies or surveys which he may consider desir-
able as a basis for bringing about improvements in the educa-
tional program.
229.20 Organization of state department.-The state department
shall be organized into such divisions, branches, or sections as may
be found necessary and desirable by the state superintendent to
perform all proper functions and render maximum services relating
to the operation and improvement of the state system of public
education; provided, that the organization shall be such as to
promote coordination of functions and services relating to admin-
istrative and financial problems, on the one hand, and to instruc-
tional problems, on the other hand.
D. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COUNTY BOARD
230.02 Scope of county system.-A county school system shall in-
clude all public schools, classes, and courses of instruction and all
services and activities directly related to education in that county
which are under the direction of the county school officials ....
230.11 County board members to represent entire county.-The
county board of each county shall represent the entire county. Each
member of the county board shall serve as the representative of the
entire county, rather than as the representative of any district in
the county. .
230.22 General powers of county board.-The county board, after
considering recommendations submitted by the county superintend-
ent, shall exercise the following general powers:
(1) DETERMINE POLICIES.-The county board shall deter-
mine and adopt such policies as are deemed necessary by it for
the efficient operation and general improvement of the county
school system.
(2) ADOPT RULES AND REGULATIONS.-The county board
shall adopt such rules and regulations to supplement those pre-
scribed by the state board as in its opinion will contribute to
the more orderly and efficient operation of the county school sys-
tem. ...
230.23 Powers and duties of county board.-The county board act-
ing as a board shall exercise all powers and perform all duties
listed below: .
(2) CONTROL PROPERTY.-Retain possession of all property
to which title is now held by the county board and to obtain pos-
session of and accept and hold under proper title as a body cor-
porate by the name of "The Board of Public Instruction of
-_-_--- County, Florida," all property which may at
any time be acquired by the county board for educational pur-
poses in the county; .
230.23(5) PERSONNEL.-Designate positions to be filled, pre-
scribe qualifications for those positions, and provide for the ap-
pointment, compensation, promotion, suspension, and dismissal of
employees as follows, subject to the requirements of chapter 231.
(a) Positions and qualifications.-Act upon recommendations
submitted by the county superintendent for positions to be filled
and for minimum qualifications for personnel for the various
positions.
(b) Appointment; other than instructional staff and other em-
ployees in district schools.-Act on written recommendations sub-










mitted by the county superintendent of persons to act as admin-
istrative, supervisory, attendance or health assistants, his office
assistants, and bus drivers, and appoint persons to fill such posi-
tions. .
(e) Compensation and salary schedules.-Adopt a salary sched-
ule or salary schedules to be used as a basis for paying members
of the instructional staff and other school employees, such sched-
ules to be arranged, insofar as practicable, so as to furnish incen-
tive for improvement in training and for continued and efficient
service; fix and authorize the compensation of members of the
instructional staff and other school employees on the basis of
such schedules ....
230.23(6) (d) Control of pupils.-Adopt rules and regulations for
the control, disciplining, and suspension of pupils and decide all
cases recommended for dismissal. .
230.23(8) TRANSPORTATION OF PUPILS.-After considering
recommendations of the county superintendent to make provision
for the transportation of pupils to the public schools or school ac-
tivities they are required or expected to attend; authorize transpor-
tation routes arranged efficiently and economically; provide the
necessary transportation facilities, and, when authorized under
regulations of the state board and if more economical to do so,
provide limited subsistence in lieu thereof; and adopt the neces-
sary rules and regulations to insure safety, economy, and efficiency
in the operation of all buses, as prescribed in chapter 234.

E. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT
228.041(15) ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL. Administrative
personnel comprises the county superintendent and those persons
who may be employed as professional administrative assistants to
the county superintendent...
230.03(3) COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT.-Responsibility for the
administration of the schools in the county shall be vested in
the county superintendent as the secretary and executive officer of
the county board, as set forth in Sections 230.24-230.33 ....
230.32 General powers of county superintendents.-The county su-
perintendent shall have the authority, and when necessary for the
more efficient and adequate operation of the school system, the
county superintendent shall exercise the following powers: .
(2) ADVISE, COUNSEL, AND RECOMMEND TO COUNTY
BOARD.-Advise and counsel with the county board on all edu-
cational matters and recommend to the county board for action
such matters as should be acted upon.
(3) RECOMMEND POLICIES.- Recommend to the county
board for adoption such policies pertaining to the county school
system as he may consider necessary for its more efficient opera-
tion.
(4) RECOMMEND AND EXECUTE RULES AND REGULA-
TIONS.-Prepare and organize by subjects and submit to the
county board for adoption such rules and regulations to supple-
ment those adopted by the state board as, in his opinion, will
contribute to the efficient operation of any aspect of education
in the county. When rules and regulations have been adopted,
the county superintendent shall see that they are executed. .
230.33(6) ESTABLISHMENT, ORGANIZATION, AND OPERA-
TION OF SCHOOLS, CLASSES, AND SERVICES.-Recommend the









establishment, organization, and operation of such schools, classes,
and services as are needed to provide adequate educational oppor-
tunities for all children in the county. ...
230.33(7) (b) Assistants and bus drivers.-Recommend in writing to
the county board persons to act as administrative, supervisory, at-
tendance, or health assistants, his office assistants, and bus driv-
ers .
230.33(7) (h) Suspension and dismissal.-Suspend members of the
instructional staff and other school employees during emergencies
for a period of not to exceed ten school days, notify the county
board immediately of such suspension, and, when authorized to do
so, serve notice on the suspended member of the instructional staff
of the charges made against him and of the date of hearing; rec-
ommend employees for dismissal under the terms prescribed here-
in. ...
230.33(10) TRANSPORTATION OF PUPILS.-Ascertain which
pupils should be transported to school or to school activities, deter-
mine the most effective arrangement of transportation routes to
accommodate these pupils; recommend such routing to the county
board; recommend plans and procedures for providing facilities for
the economical and safe transportation of pupils; recommend such
rules and regulations as may be necessary and see that all rules and
regulations relating to the transportation of pupils approved by
the county board, as well as regulations of the state board, are prop-
erly carried into effect, as prescribed in chapter 234 ....
230.33(7) (e) Compensation and salary schedules.-Prepare and
recommend to the county board for adoption a salary schedule or
salary schedules to be used as the basis for paying members of the
instructional staff and other school employees, arranging such
schedules, insofar as practicable, so as to furnish incentive for
improvement in training and for continued and efficient service.
230.33(7) (f) Contracts and terms of service.-Recommend to the
county board terms for contracting with employees and prepare
such contracts as are approved; .
230.33(12) (i) Contracts.-Recommend to the county board the
desirable terms, conditions, and specifications for contracts for
supplies, materials, or services to be rendered; see that materials,
supplies, or services are provided according to contract. ...
230.33(16) ENFORCEMENT OF LAWS AND REGULATIONS.-
See, insofar as practicable, that all laws and regulations of the state
board, as well as supplementary regulations of the county board,
are properly observed; report to the county board any violation
which he does not succeed in having corrected.
230.33(17) COOPERATE WITH COUNTY BOARD.-Cooperate
with the county board in every manner practicable to the end that
the county school system may continuously be improved. .
230.33(19) CONFERENCES, INSTITUTES, AND STUDY
COURSES.-Call and conduct institutes and conferences with su-
pervisors, principals, teachers, attendance assistants, janitors, bus
drivers, trustees, patrons, and other interested citizens.

F. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SCHOOL PRINCIPAL
232.25 Pupils subject to control of school.-Subject to law and
rules and regulations of the state board and of the county board,
each pupil enrolled in a school shall, during the time he is being









transported to or from school at public expense, during the time
he is otherwise enroute to or from school, during the time he is
attending or is presumed by law to be attending school, and during
the time he is on the school premises, be under the control and
direction of the principal or teacher in charge of the school, and
under the immediate control and direction of the teacher or other
member of the instructional staff or of the bus driver to whom
such responsibility may be assigned by the principal.
232.26 Authority of principal.-Subject to law and rules and reg-
ulations of the state board and of the county board, the principal
or teacher in charge of a school may delegate to any teacher or
other member of the instructional staff or to any bus driver trans-
porting pupils of the school such responsibility for the control
and direction of the pupils as he may consider desirable. He
may suspend a pupil for willful disobedience, for open defiance
of authority of a member of his staff, for use of profane or ob-
scene language, or for other misconduct when other means of
correction have failed to bring about proper conduct; provided,
that each such suspension with the reasons therefore shall be report-
ed immediately in writing to the parent and to the county super-
intendent; and provided further, that no one suspension shall
be for more than ten days and that no suspension shall be made
a dismissal unless so ordered by the county board in a resolution
adopted and spread upon its minutes. He may suspend any
pupil transported to or from school at public expense from the
privilege of riding on a school bus for a period of ten days, or
until such suspension is modified or made a dismissal by the
county board, giving immediate notice in writing to the county
superintendent and to the parent as provided above.
G. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE SCHOOL BUS DRIVER
232.28 Authority of school bus driver.-The driver of a school
bus shall assume such authority for the control of pupils being
transported to or from the school as may be assigned to him by
the principal. He shall preserve order and good behavior on the
part of all persons being transported to or from school or school
functions at public expense. Any pupil who persists in disorderly
conduct on the bus shall be reported to the principal of the
school he attends, but no pupil shall be suspended from being
transported or be given physical punishment by the bus driver
or be put off the bus at other than the regular stop for that
pupil except on permission of the principal or parent.

H. Statutory Provisions Governing School Bus Standards

A. BASIC REQUIREMENTS
234.06 Definition of transportation equipment.-"Transportation
equipment" is defined as any vehicle or conveyance used for trans-
portation of pupils when the cost of rent, lease, purchase, main-
tenance, or operation of said vehicle or conveyance is defrayed
in whole or in part from public school funds.
234.07 General requirements for equipment.-All transportation
equipment shall be of such construction as to provide for safe,
comfortable, and economical transportation of passengers. Equip-
ment which is used to transport nine or more public school pupils
at one time shall be constructed, maintained, and operated in
accordance with all requirements of law and regulations of the
state board relating to school buses.









234.08 School buses.-School buses shall be defined as set forth
below and shall meet specifications as follows:
(1) DEFINITION.-For the purpose of the school code, a
school bus is defined as a motor vehicle regularly used for the
transportation of pupils of the public schools to and from school
or to and from school activities, and owned, operated, rented,
or leased by any county board, excepting motor vehicles of the
type commonly called pleasure cars and carrying eight pupils or
less; and excepting motor vehicles subject to and meeting all
requirements of the state railroad commission and operated by
carriers operating under the jurisdiction of the state railroad
commission but not used exclusively for the transportation of
public school pupils.
(2) SPECIFICATIONS.-Each school bus with a total seating
space of more than fifteen lineal feet which is rented, leased,
purchased, or contracted for purchase, and each and every school
bus with a total seating space of more than fifteen lineal feet,
shall meet the following requirements:
(a) All structural parts of the school bus body, including sides,
top, frame, braces, and any section or member in which struc-
tural strength is necessary, shall be of steel or metal that is
equivalent to steel.
(b) All windshield, window, and door glass shall be of shatter
proof construction.
(c)The front, rear, and sides of the bus shall be painted a
uniform color as approved by the state board of education.
(d) Each school bus shall be properly designated as such
in black letters in accordance with requirements prescribed by
the state board.
(e) Each school bus shall be equipped with adequate brakes,
horn, lights, and such other equipment as may be required
by regulations of the state board, all of which shall be main-
tained in good operating condition.
(f) Each school bus shall meet with such additional specifi-
cations and standards which are in accordance with law and
which, upon recommendation of the state superintendent, are
prescribed by the state board as essential for the safe, com-
fortable, and economical transportation of pupils.
B. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE STATE BOARD
229.08(20) PRESCRIBE MINIMUM STANDARDS AND RULES
AND REGULATIONS.-To prescribe such minimum standards and
rules and regulations as are required by law or as are recommended
by the state superintendent in accordance with the provisions
of subsection (20), section 229.17, and as it may find desirable
to aid in carrying out the purposes and objectives of the school
code.
C. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT
229.16(4) RECOMMEND AND PUT INTO EFFECT MINIMUM
STANDARDS.-From time to time to prepare, organize by sub-
jects, and submit to the state board for adoption such minimum
standards relating to the operation of any phase of the state
system of public education as, in his opinion, will aid in assuring
more adequate educational opportunities for all, and to see, insofar
as practicable that such minimum standards as are adopted by
the state board are put into effect and are properly observed.









D. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COUNTY BOARD
230.22(3) PRESCRIBE MINIMUM STANDARDS.-The county
board shall adopt such minimum standards as are considered
desirable by it for improving the county school system.
E. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT
230.32(5) RECOMMEND AND EXECUTE MINIMUM STAND-
ARDS.-From time to time to prepare, organize by subjects, and
submit to the county board for adoption such minimum standards
relating to the operation of any phase of the county school system
as are needed to supplement those adopted by the state board
and as will contribute to the efficient operation of any aspect
of education in the county; to see that minimum standards
adopted by the county board are observed.

IH. Statutory Provisions Governing Use of School Buses and
Pupils Entitled to Transportation

A. BASIC REQUIREMENTS
234.01 Purpose.-County boards, after considering recommenda-
tions of the county superintendent and any suggestions which
may have been submitted by trustees of the district shall pro-
vide transportation for each pupil who should attend a public
school when and only when transportation is necessary for ac-
complishment of one of the following purposes: (1) to provide
adequate educational facilities and opportunities which other-
wise would not be available; (2) to transport pupils whose homes
are more than a reasonable walking distance, as defined by regu-
lations of the state board, from the nearest appropriate school;
provided, that no state funds shall be paid for the transportation
of pupils whose homes are within two miles from the nearest ap-
propriate school; and, provided further, that in each case where
transportation of pupils would be impracticable, the county board
is authorized to take steps for making available educational
facilities as are authorized by law and as, in the opinion of the
county board, are practical ...
236.05(1) UNITS FOR TRANSPORTATION BASED ON NUM-
BER OF PUPILS TRANSPORTED.-One transportation unit shall
be allowed for each eighty pupils in average daily attendance dur-
ing the preceding school year who were transported at public
expense to public schools in the county approved for transporta-
tion under regulations of the state board and whose homes were
two or more miles from the nearest appropriate school; pro-
vided, that this mileage limitation shall not apply to the trans-
portation of physically handicapped pupils as authorized under
regulations of the state board; ..
232.06 Certificates of exemptions authorized in certain cases.-
Children within the compulsory attendance age limits who hold
valid certificates of exemption which have been issued by the
county superintendent shall be exempt from attending school.
A certificate of exemption shall cease to be valid at the end of
the school year in which it is issued. Children entitled to such
certificates and the conditions upon which they may be issued
are as follows: .
(2) DISTANCE EXEMPTION-Children from six years of
age to ten years of age, inclusive, unless deaf, blind, or seriously
crippled, who, because of distance and lack of public transporta-









tion, would be compelled to walk more than three miles by the
nearest traveled route to the school or to the nearest publicly
maintained school bus route to attend a public school, and chil-
dren eleven years of age or older, unless deaf, blind, or seriously
crippled, who, because of distance and lack of public trans-
portation, would be compelled to walk more than four miles by
the nearest traveled route to the nearest school or the nearest
publicly maintained school bus route to attend a public school.

B. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COUNTY BOARD
230.23(8) TRANSPORTATION OF PUPILS.-After considering
recommendations of the county superintendent to make provision
for the transportation of pupils to the public schools or school
activities they are required or expected to attend; authorize
transportation routes arranged efficiently and economically; pro-
vide the necessary transportation facilities, and, when authorized
under regulations of the state board and if more economical to do
so, provide limited subsistence in lieu thereof; and adopt the
necessary rules and regulations to insure safety, economy, and
efficiency in the operation of all buses, as prescribed in chapter
234 .
234.11 Zoning.-Each county board, after considering recom-
mendations from the county superintendent, shall designate, by
map or otherwise, nontransportation zones, which shall be com-
posed of all areas in the county from which it is unnecessary or
impracticable to furnish transportation. Nontransportation zones
shall be designated annually prior to the opening of school and
prior to the designation of bus routes for the succeeding school
year.

C. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT
230.33(4) SCHOOL PROPERTY.-Act for the county board as
custodian of such school property as may be placed in his charge
by the county board. .
230.33(10) TRANSPORTATION OF PUPILS.-Ascertain which
pupils should be transported to school or to school activities, de-
termine the most effective arrangement of transportation routes
to accommodate these pupils; recommend such routing to the
county board; recommend plans and procedures for providing
facilities for the economical and safe transportation of pupils;
recommend such rules and regulations as may be necessary and
see that all rules and regulations relating to the transportation of
pupils approved by the county board, as well as regulations of
the state board, are properly carried into effect, as prescribed
in chapter 234.
D. RESPONSIBILITY OF PARENTS
232.09 Parents responsible for attendance of children.--Each
parent of a child within the compulsory attendance age shall be
responsible for such child's school attendance provided, that
no parent of a child shall be held responsible for such child's non-
attendance at school under any of the following conditions: .
(5) DISTANCE EXEMPTION.-That attendance was impos-
sible because of the distance of the home of the child from
the nearest school and the lack of transportation at public
expense, as set forth in Section 232.06.









IV. Statutory Provisions Governing School Bus
Driver Qualifications and Supervision

A. BASIC REQUIREMENTS
231.02-Qualifications of personnel.-To be eligible for appoint-
ment in any position in any county school system a person shall
be of good moral character and shall, when required by law, hold
a certificate or license issued under regulations of the state board
of education or the state board of health ....
234.14 General qualifications.-Each school bus driver shall:
(1) Be of good moral character, of good vision and hearing, able-
bodied, free from communicable disease, mentally alert, sufficiently
strong physically to handle the bus with ease and to make
emergency repairs, and not a user of alcoholic beverages or nar-
cotics, and shall possess such other qualifications as shall be
prescribed by the state board, and
(2) Hold a school bus driver's license which is current and valid;
provided, that persons less than twenty-one years of age, and
who are seventeen years of age or more, shall be eligible for a
chauffeur's license to drive a school bus when otherwise quali-
fied, and shall be eligible to drive a school bus for transporting
pupils to and from school or school functions when and only
after the state board has adopted rules and regulations authoriz-
ing such persons to drive and governing the conditions under which
they may be permitted to drive school buses; provided, further,
that for the duration of a war emergency, persons who are be-
tween sixteen and seventeen years of age and who are otherwise
qualified shall be eligible for an emergency chauffeur's license to
drive a school bus for transporting pupils to and from school and
school functions, but such emergency chauffeur's license shall be
issued and used only after the state board of education has adopted
rules and regulations authorizing such persons to drive and govern-
ing the conditions under which they may be permitted to drive
school buses.
234.15 Annual physical examination.-Each driver or applicant
shall, not more than three months prior to employment each
school year, pass a physical examination in accordance with
procedure prescribed by the state superintendent, except that in
emergency a driver may be employed upon condition that during
the first two weeks of employment he shall pass said physical
examination. A re-examination may be required by the county
superintendent or the county board at any time. ....
234.20 School officials not to drive.-No school board member or
school district trustee shall be a contractor for transporting school
children or shall be a school bus driver in the county in which
he holds office. ...
234.18 Revocation of license.-The state board, upon recom-
mendation of the state superintendent, shall invalidate and re-
voke any bus driver's license upon sufficient evidence that the
holder of the license does not fulfill all qualifications required by
law and regulation of the state board for a school bus driver.

B. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT
234.16 Licensing requirements.-The state superintendent shall
designate such uniform procedures and prescribe such forms as
are necessary to license each school bus driver who is duly quali-
fied in accordance with law and regulation of the state board









and shall issue said license when the prescribed procedure has
been fulfilled and recorded on the prescribed forms and the
following specific requirements have been met:
(1) APPLICANT.-Each applicant for a license to drive a
school bus shall:
(a) Submit a written application on a form prescribed by
the state superintendent, such form to include provision for
information as to age, sex, race, criminal record if any, ex-
perience as driver of vehicles, and experience in school bus
driving;
(b) Be examined by a physician designated by the county
board as prescribed in section 234.15;
(c) If required by state board regulations, pay a fee as pre-
scribed by said regulations to cover cost of licensing; pro-
vided, that said fee shall not exceed one dollar.
(2) PHYSICIAN.-A physician, designated by the county board
to examine bus driver applicants, shall report, on a form pre-
scribed by the state superintendent, information concerning
the physical condition of applicant, and shall certify that the
applicant, at a time not more than three months prior to the
date when the license becomes effective, is physically fit for
the responsibilities of a school bus driver. .
231.33 School bus driver's license.-Each driver of a school bus
shall hold a school bus driver's license which shall be issued, ex-
tended, and revoked as prescribed in sections 234.14-234.21. Fees
paid by applicants shall be remitted by the state superintendent
to the state treasurer to become a part of the "Educational Cer-
tification and Service Fund" and shall be disbursed as a part of
that fund.
C. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COUNTY BOARD
116.10 Nepotism prohibited.-Any state officer, member of state
board, county officer, member of county board who shall
knowingly employ, either directly or indirectly, any person re-
lated within the fourth degree, either by consanguinity or by
affinity, to such state officer, member of state board, county
officer, member of county board ., shall be deemed guilty
of misfeasance and malfeasance in office and subject to re-
moval therefore; provided, however, that the provisions of this
section shall not apply to the officers above who employ only one
person related to them as above set out .
230.23(5) (b) Appointment; other than instructional staff and
other employees in district schools.-Act on written recommen-
dations submitted by the county superintendent of persons to act
as administrative, supervisory, attendance or health assistants,
his office assistants, and bus drivers, and appoint persons to fill
such positions. .
230.23(5) (h) Suspension and dismissal.-S u s p e n d or dismiss
members of the instructional staff and other school employees; .
231.04 County board may prescribe qualifications.-The county
board of any county may, in addition to and not inconsistent with
qualifications prescribed by law or by regulations of the state
board, prescribe those qualifications for any or all positions which,
in the opinion of the county board, will best promote progress in
the public school system of the county ....
231.35 Appointment of employees.-All employees of the county









school system shall be appointed as prescribed in chapter 230;
provided that the terms 'to consider the recommendations of"
or "to act upon the recommendations of" shall be interpreted to
mean that neither the trustees nor the county board shall act
on the appointment of employees without having considered any
recommendations or nominations submitted as prescribed by law,
that such recommendations or nominations may be rejected
only for good cause, and that when any such rejection has been
made, a second and if necessary a third recommendation or
nomination shall be requested ....
231.48 Absences of other personnel.-The county school board
shall make regulations governing absences of any personnel not
covered by the school code; provided, any bus driver employed
in the public school system of the state who is unable to per-
form his or her duty because of illness (and) has to be absent
from his or her work shall be granted leave of absence, not to
exceed six days, per annum by the school board. Such bus driver
shall be entitled to receive full compensation for sick leave so
granted. ... .
234.02 Safety and health of pupils.-Maximum regard for safety
and adequate protection of health shall be primary requirements
which must be observed by county boards in routing buses, ap-
pointing drivers, and providing and operating equipment .
234.05 Physical examination of bus drivers.-Each county board
shall designate a physician or physicians to examine and report
the physical condition of bus drivers and driver applicants in
accordance with regulations of the state board and procedure
prescribed by the state superintendent.

D. RESPONSIBILITY OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT

230.33(7) (a) Positions and qualifications.-Recommend to the
county board duties and responsibilities which need to be per-
formed and positions which need to be filled to make possible
the development of an adequate school program in the county
and recommend minimum qualifications of personnel for these
various positions.
230.33(7) (b) Assistants and bus drivers.-Recommend in writing
to the county board persons to act as administrative, supervisory,
attendance, or health assistants, his office assistants, and bus
drivers. .
234.16(3) COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT.-The county super-
intendent, not more than three months prior to the date when
the license becomes effective, shall certify on a form prescribed
by the state superintendent that the applicant fulfills all re-
quirements for a school bus driver.

E. RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOL BUS DRIVERS
234.19 Posting of license.-Each school bus driver shall at all
times keep his license to drive a school bus conspicuously posted
in the bus he is driving. .
234.21 Responsibility of school bus drivers.-Each school bus
driver shall keep such records and make such reports and shall
perform such duties as are required by law or by regulations of
the state board or the county board.









V. Statutory Provisions Governing Operation and
Maintenance of School Buses
A. BASIC REQUIREMENTS
234.07 General requirements for equipment.-All transportation
equipment shall be of such construction as to provide for safe,
comfortable, and economical transportation of passengers. Equip-
ment which is used to transport nine or more public school pupils
at one time shall be constructed, maintained, and operated in
accordance with all requirements of law and regulations of the
state board relating to school buses.
B. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COUNTY BOARD
231.01(5) TRANSPORTATION PERSONNEL.-includes all per-
sons involved in the operation or maintenance of school buses,
or assisting otherwise in transporting pupils to school .
234.02 Safety and health of pupils.-Maximum regard for safety
and adequate protection of health shall be primary requirements
which must be observed by county boards in routing buses, appoint-
ing drivers, and providing and operating equipment....
234.22 Maintenance of equipment.-All equipment maintained or
operated from public school funds shall be in safe operating con-
dition. Each county board shall designate and adopt a specific
plan for adequate examination, maintenance, and repair of trans-
portation equipment. Examination of the mechanical condition
of each school bus shall be made by a capable mechanic at least
once each month that the bus is in operation.
C. RESPONSIBILITIES OF GENERAL APPLICATION
234.09 Withdrawal from use of buses not meeting requirements.-
The county superintendent shall notify the county board of any
school bus owned, leased, rented, or operated by the county board
which does not meet all requirements of law and regulations of
the state board, and the county board shall, if such school bus
is in an unsafe condition, withdraw it from use as a school bus
until the bus meets said requirements. The state superintendent
may inspect or have inspected any school bus to determine
whether the bus meets requirements of law and regulations of
the state board. The state superintendent may, after due notice
to a county board that any school bus does not meet certain re-
quirements of law and regulations of the state board, rule that
such bus shall be withdrawn from use as a school bus, this ruling
to be effective forthwith or upon a date to be specified therein,
whereupon the county board which owns, leases, rents, or operates
said bus shall withdraw same from use as a school bus until the
bus meets requirements of law and regulations of the state board
and until the state superintendent has officially revoked his
said ruling. .
234.12 Highway hazards.-County superintendents with the as-
sistance of school principals, teachers, and bus drivers, shall re-
port, or cause to be reported, those hazards on or near public
sidewalks, streets, and highways which endanger the life or
threaten the health or safety of pupils who walk or are trans-
ported regularly between their homes and the school in which
they are enrolled, said reports to be submitted promptly in writing
to the mayor or manager of the city or to the board of county
commissioners, respectively, according to location of the hazard
reported, and, until such hazards are corrected, the county super-
intendent shall take or cause to be taken such precautions as









are necessary to safeguard pupils who are transported at public
expense.
234.13 Municipal and county officials to investigate and report
on hazards. Upon receipt of information from the county super-
intendent concerning sidewalk, streets, or highway hazards which
threaten the safety of pupils, the board of county commissioners,
or the municipal official having proper authority, shall investigate.
or cause to be investigated, the place or situation reported, and
with reasonable diligence and promptness shall take such steps
as are practicable to correct the hazard reported or shall report
to the county superintendent that it is impracticable to make
corrections necessary to overcome the reported hazards .
235.09 Obscenity on school buildings or buses.-Whoever willfully
cuts, paints, pastes, marks, or defaces by writing or in any other
manner, any school building, furniture, apparatus, appliance, out-
building, ground, fence, tree, post, school bus or other school
property with obscene word, image, or device shall be punished by
imprisonment in the county jail for a period not exceeding fifteen
days, or by fine of not exceeding one hundred dollars. This section
shall not apply to any pupil in and subject to the discipline of
the school.

D. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SCHOOL BUS DRIVER
234.24 School buses to observe rules of the road.-Each school
bus shall be operated in conformity with all rules of the road
duly established by law and shall observe traffic requirements for
the route over which it travels.
234.25 School buses to stop at crossings.-Each school bus shall
be brought to a full stop before crossing any railroad track and
before entering or crossing any arterial highway or dangerous
thoroughfare and shall not proceed until the driver has clearly
observed that it is safe to proceed.

VI. Statutory Provisions Governing Attendance Areas,
School Bus Routes and Schedules

A. RESPONSIBILITIES OF COUNTY BOARDS
230.232 Pupil assignment; powers and duties of county boards
of public instruction.-. .
(2) In the exercise of such authority the board shall
prescribe school attendance areas and school bus transportation
routes and may adopt such reasonable rules and regulations as
in the opinion of the board shall best accomplish such pur-
poses. ..
234.10 Designation of routes.-Each county board, after consider-
ing recommendations from the county superintendent and sugges-
tions which may have been submitted by the trustees, shall
specifically designate the route to be traveled regularly by each
school bus, and each route shall meet the following requirements:
(1) Each route shall be planned and adjusted to the capacity
of the bus, and insofar as is practicable the normal capacity
of each bus shall be used.
(2) Each route shall serve regularly only pupils whose homes
are beyond a reasonable walking distance to the nearest appro-
priate school.
(3) Each route shall serve pupils living only in those areas
where transportation by school bus is the most economical









method for providing adequate educational facilities.
(4) A route shall not be extended for the purposes of accom-
modating pupils whose homes are within reasonable walking
distance of a shorter or more economical route which is avail-
able to serve the pupils.
(5) District lines shall not interfere with the routing of any
school bus.
(6) Where it is practicable to extend a school bus route to
serve any territory which lies in more than one county so that
pupils living in the extended area to be served by the bus may
have improved educational facilities, county boards of the re-
spective counties shall cooperate and make such mutual plans
and agreements as necessary to make these improved facilities
available to the pupils. Pupils shall not be transported at public
expense from one county to or from the schools of another
county, unless a valid agreement exists between the respective
county boards. This agreement shall state the responsibility of
each county board for operation of the bus and maintenance
of the daily schedule. Whenever a bus crosses a county line,
all rules and regulations of the county in which it is traveling
shall be observed, unless otherwise provided in the agreement
between the county boards.
234.11 Zoning.-Each county board, after considering recom-
mendations from the county superintendent, shall designate, by
map or otherwise, nontransportation zones, which shall be com-
posed of all areas in the county from which it is unnecessary or
impracticable to furnish transportation. Nontransportation zones
shall be designated annually prior to the opening of school and
prior to the designation of bus routes for the succeeding school
year.
B. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT
230.33(6) ESTABLISHMENT, ORGANIZATION, AND OPERA-
TION OF SCHOOLS, CLASSES, AND SERVICES.-Recommend
the establishment, organization, and operation of such schools,
classes, and services as are needed to provide adequate educational
opportunities for all children in the county. .
230.33(10) TRANSPORTATION OF PUPILS.-Ascertain which
pupils should be transported to school or to school activities,
determine the most effective arrangement of transportation routes
to accommodate these pupils; recommend such routing to the
county board; recommend plans and procedures for providing
facilities for the economical and safe transportation of pupils;
recommend such rules and regulations as may be necessary and
see that all rules and regulations relating to the transportation of
pupils approved by the county board, as well as regulations of
the state board, are properly carried into effect, as prescribed
in chapter 234.

VII. Statutory Provisions Governing Records and Reports
A. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE STATE BOARD
229.08(18) AUTHORIZE FORMS AND REQUIRE REPORTS.-
To authorize, approve, and require to be used such forms as are
needed to promote uniformity, accuracy, and completeness in
executing contracts, keeping records, and making reports, and to
require such reports to be made in such manner as may be recom-
mended by the state superintendent.









B. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT
229.17 (18) FORMS AND REPORTS.-To prepare for approval of
the state board such forms and procedures as are deemed neces-
sary to be used by county boards, school officials, principals,
teachers, and other employees and to assure uniformity, accuracy,
and efficiency in the keeping of records, the execution of contracts,
the preparation of budgets, and the submission of reports; to
furnish at state expense, when deemed advisable by him, those
forms which can more economically and efficiently be provided
in that manner; and to notify the county board of any county for
which any report has not been filed in the manner or by the date
prescribed by law or by regulations of the state board that the
salary of the county superintendent must be withheld until the
report has been properly filed.
C. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COUNTY BOARD
230.23(12) RECORDS AND REPORTS.-Provide for the keeping
of all necessary records and the making of all needed or required
reports, as follows:
(a) Forms, blanks, and reports.-Require all members of the
instructional staff, attendance assistants, bus drivers, and other
employees to keep accurately all records and to make promptly
in the proper form all reports required by law or by regulations
of the state board, such records and reports to be kept on forms
and blanks provided by the state board, or, if such forms and
blanks are not provided, to prescribe the necessary forms and
blanks for these records and reports; require the keeping of
such additional records and the making of such additional re-
ports as may be deemed by the county board to be necessary
to provide data essential for the operation of the school system,
and to prescribe such forms and furnish such blanks as may
be required for these records and reports.
(b) Reports to the state superintendent.-See that the county
superintendent prepares all reports to the state superintendent
that may be required by law or by rules and regulations of the
state board, using therefore such forms and blanks as may be
prescribed by the state board; provided, that these reports and
such other reports as shall be required or authorized in the
school code shall be the only reports required to be filed with
state officials or agencies; see that all such reports are promptly
transmitted to the state superintendent; to withhold the further
payment of salary to the county superintendent when notified
by the state superintendent that he has failed to file any report
within the time or in the manner prescribed; and to continue
to withhold the salary until the county board is notified by the
state superintendent that said report has been received and
accepted; provided, that when any report has not been received
by the date due and after due notice has been given to the
county board of that fact, the state superintendent, if he deems
it necessary, may require the report to be prepared by a member
of his staff, and the county board shall pay all expenses con-
nected therewith. Any member of the county board who shall
be responsible for the violation of this provision shall be subject
to suspension and removal.
234.23 Report forms and procedure.-Each county board shall
prescribe such forms and reporting procedure on the part of school
bus drivers, school principals, and transportation supervisors as
are necessary to supplement forms and procedure prescribed by
the state board and state superintendent (1) to obtain an adequate
accounting of transportation costs; (2) to determine adequate









information concerning need for transportation; (3) to determine
observance of law and regulations of the state board relating to
transportation; (4) to properly map and designate all transporta-
tion routes and nontransportation zones. Each county board shall
require to be kept records prescribed by the state board concern-
ing transportation and shall submit such reports and maps to the
state superintendent concerning transportation as are authorized
by law or prescribed by the state board.
D. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT
230.33(14) RECORDS AND REPORTS.-Recommend such rec-
ords as should be kept in addition to those prescribed by regula-
tions of the state board or by the state superintendent; prepare
forms for keeping such records as are approved by the county
board; see that such records are properly kept, and make all reports
that are needed or required, as follows:
(a) Forms, blanks, and reports.-See that all members of the
administrative and instructional staff, attendance assistants, bus
drivers, and other employees keep accurately all records and
make promptly in proper form all reports required by the school
code or by regulations of the state board, such records and reports
to be kept on forms and blanks authorized by the state board
and provided by the state superintendent, or, if such forms and
blanks are not provided, prepare necessary forms and blanks for
these records and reports; recommend the keeping of such
additional records and the making of such additional reports as
may be deemed necessary to provide data essential for the opera-
tion of the school system, and prepare such forms and blanks as
may be required and see that these records and reports are
properly prepared.
(b) Reports to the state superintendent.-Prepare for the ap-
proval of the county board all reports that may be required by
law or by rules and regulations of the state board to be made
to the state superintendent, using therefore such forms and blanks
as may be prescribed by the state board, and to transmit
promptly all such reports, when approved, to the state superin-
tendent, as required by law; provided, that if any such reports
are not transmitted at the time and in the manner prescribed
by law or by state board regulations the salary of the county
superintendent shall be withheld until such report has been
properly submitted. Unless otherwise provided by regulations of
the state board, the annual report on attendance and personnel
shall be due on or before July first, and the annual school
budget and the report on finance shall be due on or before
August first of each year.
E. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SCHOOL BUS DRIVER
232.22(5) BUS DRIVER'S REPORTS.-Drivers of school buses
shall make such reports to principals and county superintendents
from time to time as may be required by the county board, or by
regulations of the state board ....
234.21 Responsibility of school bus drivers.-Each school bus driver
shall keep such records and make such reports and shall perform
such duties as are required by law or by regulations of the state
board or the county board.
F. RESPONSIBILITY OF SCHOOL PERSONNEL
232.142 Falsification of attendance records; penalty.-The pre-
sentation of reasonable and satisfactory proof that any teacher,
principal, and other school personnel or school officer, has falsified









or caused to be falsified attendance records for which he is
responsible shall be sufficient grounds for the revocation of his
teaching certificate by the state board of education, or for dismis-
sal or removal from office; provided that such individual shall be
entitled to hearing as provided by law or state board of education
regulations.

VII. Statutory Provisions Governing Contracts and
Purchase of School Buses

A. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT
229.23 Special services of the state department; pooling of pur-
chases by county boards.-The state department of education shall
render such special services as will be of benefit to the schools of
the state. As one phase of these services it shall assist county
boards in securing school buses, equipment, and supplies at as
reasonable prices as possible by providing a plan under which
county boards may voluntarily pool their bids for such purchases.
The state department of education shall prepare bid forms and
specifications, obtain quotations of prices and make such infor-
mation available to county boards in order to facilitate this
service. County boards from time to time, as prescribed by the
state board, shall furnish the state department of education with
information concerning the prices paid for such items and the
state department of education shall furnish to county boards peri-
odic information concerning the lowest prices at which school buses,
equipment, and school supplies are available based upon com-
parable specifications; provided, that no county board shall make
any such purchases which exceed three hundred dollars at any
higher prices except during emergencies as prescribed by the state
board; provided, further, that all prices are to be computed f.o.b.
point of destination.
B. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COUNTY BOARD
125.081 County, municipal and district purchases may be made
under state contract.-Any county officer, board, bureau or depart-
ment and any municipality and any district having the power to
make purchases from public funds may, after complying with all
laws limiting, restricting or defining the manner or means of
making such purchase make any purchase of any goods, supplies
or materials under any state contract (if the terms of such contract
permit) established by the state or any department or board or
commission thereof, when the state contract price for such goods,
supplies or materials is in each case lower and better than any
bid received or offer made for the sale of such goods, supplies or
materials and the purchase of such goods, supplies or materials
at said contract price is herewith authorized and determined to be
for a state purpose. ...
237.02 Expenditures.-Expenditures shall be limited to the amount
budgeted under the classification of accounts provided for each
fund, and to the total amount of the budget, after the same have
been amended as prescribed by law. .
(1) PURCHASES.-The plan for making purchases in any
county shall be approved by the county board. Purchases of any
item costing more than three hundred dollars must first be spe-
cifically authorized by the county board. The county superintend-
ent may be authorized to make purchases or to approve purchases
of a business assistant functioning under his direction of small
items where the total amount of the purchase does not exceed an









amount prescribed by the county board. No person, unless author-
ized to do so under regulations of the county board, may make
any purchase involving the use of school funds; no expendi-
tures for any such unauthorized purchase shall be approved by
the county board. Before making any purchase which he is
authorized by the county board to make or before recommending
any purchase to the board, the county superintendent shall, inso-
far as possible, propose standards and specifications which are
to be prescribed for materials to be purchased. He shall see that
all materials thus purchased conform to those standards and
specifications, and shall take such other steps as are necessary
to see that the maximum value is being received for any money
expended.
(2) BIDS.-Bids shall be requested from three or more sources
by the county board for any authorized purchase costing more
than three hundred dollars. The county board shall have the
authority to reject any or all bids and request new bids. In the
acceptance of bids, the county board shall accept the lowest and
best bid.
(3) REQUISITIONS.-In so far as practicable, all purchases
shall be based on requisitions. Within limits prescribed by the
county board, the county superintendent shall be authorized to
approve requisitions under regulations of the county board;
provided, that in so doing he shall certify that funds to cover
the expenditures which would be required by the requisitions are
authorized by the budget and have not been encumbered. ...
230.22(4) CONTRACT, SUE, AND BE SUED.-The county board
shall constitute the contracting agent for the county school system.
It may, when acting as a body, make contracts, also sue and be
sued in the name of the county board; provided, that in any suit,
a change in personnel of the county board shall not abate the suit,
which shall proceed as if such change had not taken place. ...
230.23(10)(i) Contracts for materials, supplies, and services.-
Contract for materials, supplies, and services needed for the county
school system; provided, that no contract for supplying these needs
shall be made with any member of the county board, with the
superintendent, or with any trustee in the county, or with any busi-
ness organization in which any county board member, the county
superintendent, or any trustee has any financial interest whatso-
ever, except that any trustee may submit sealed competitive bids
and be awarded a contract as provided by law for the lowest and
best bid. ...
237.31(4) SCHOOL CONTRACTORS.-All contractors paid from
school funds shall give bond for the faithful performance of their
contracts in such amount and for such purposes as prescribed by
law or by regulations of the county board or of the state board
relating to the type of contract involved; provided, that it shall be
the duty of the county board to require from every contractor a bond
adequate to protect the school and school funds involved.
C. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT
230.33(12) (i) Contracts.-Recommend to the county board the
desirable terms, conditions, and specifications for contracts for
supplies, materials, or services to be rendered; see that materials,
supplies, or services are provided according to contract. .
230.33(4) (a) Recommend purchase and plans for control.-Recom-
mend to the county board plans for contracting, receiving, pur-
chasing, acquiring by the institution of condemnation proceedings
if necessary, leasing, selling, holding, transmitting, and conveying
title to real and personal property.










IX. Statutory Provisions Governing Liability, Compensation,
and Insurance in the Operation of School Buses, Including
an Opinion of the Attorney General

A. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COUNTY BOARD
230.23(9) (d) Insurance of school property.-Carry insurance on
every school building with its contents and on all school buses and
other property under the control of the county board or title to
which is vested in the county board, except as exceptions may be
authorized under regulations of the state board ....
234.03 Liability insurance.-Liability insurance shall be carried
on school buses and may be carried on other motor vehicles as pro-
vided below:
(1) LIABILITY INSURANCE REQUIRED TO PROTECT PU-
PILS TRANSPORTED.-County boards are required to secure
and keep in force, in companies duly authorized to do business in
Florida, insurance covering liability for damages on account of
bodily injury (or death resulting therefrom) to pupils legally
enrolled in the public schools, by reason of the ownership, main-
tenance, operation, or use of school buses and other vehicles while
said pupils are being transported to or from a school or school
activity.
(2) LIABILITY INSURANCE; PERMITTED ON OTHER MO-
TOR VEHICLES.-County boards of public instruction are hereby
permitted, in their discretion, (although not required) to secure
and keep in force, or require owners to secure and keep in force,
in companies duly authorized to do business in Florida, insur-
ance covering liability for property damage or bodily injury (or
death resulting therefrom) to all persons and property by reason
of the ownership, maintenance, operation, or use of any vehicle
being used for and in the interest of its public schools or in the
furtherance of a school activity. Such coverage must be separate
and apart from or in addition to coverage for protection of pupils
as required for school buses and other vehicles as set forth in sub-
section (1) above.
(3) LIMITS OF COVERAGE AND SOURCE OF FUNDS.-Lia-
bility insurance as set forth in subsections (1) and (2) above
shall be carried in the sum of not less than five thousand dollars
and may not be more than one hundred thousand dollars for
bodily injury (or death resulting therefrom) to any one pupil or
person. Said insurance shall not be less than ten thousand dollars
and may not be more than two hundred thousand dollars for
bodily injury (or death resulting therefrom) to pupils or persons
in any one accident and not more than five thousand dollars to
property. The premiums for such insurance shall be paid from
the county current school fund, the district current school fund,
or the state fund apportioned to the county for transportation.
(4) WAIVER OF IMMUNITY.-In consideration of the pre-
mium at which each policy shall be written it shall be a part of
the policy contract between the county and the named insured
that the company shall not be entitled to the benefit of the
defense of governmental immunity for the insured by reason of
exercising a governmental function on any suit brought against
the insured. Immunity of the county board against liability dam-
ages is waived to the extent of liability insurance carried by the
county board. Provided, however, no attempt shall be made in
the trial of any action against a county board of public instruc-
tion to suggest the existence of any insurance which covers in









whole or in part any judgment or award which may be rendered
in favor of the plaintiff, and if a verdict rendered by the jury
exceeds the limit of the applicable insurance, the court shall
reduce the amount of said judgment or award to a sum equal to
the applicable limit set forth in the policy.
(5) PENALTY.-The members of any county board which owns
or operates a school bus or other vehicle used for the transporta-
tion of pupils without complying with the provisions of this
section shall for such failure be subject to removal from office,
and any person owning or operating a school bus or other vehicle
used for the transportation of pupils as set forth in this section
and failing to comply with its provisions shall be deemed guilty
of a misdemeanor.
B. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT
230.33(11)(d) Insurance of school property.-Propose plans and
procedures for insuring economically every plant and its contents,
as well as school buses and other property, under the control of the
county board and see that the proper records are kept of such
insurance.
X. Statutory Provisions Governing Operators of Other Vehicles
With Relation to School Buses
234.04--Traffic to stop for school bus.-Any person using, operating,
or driving a motor vehicle upon or over the roads or highways of
this state, upon approaching any school bus used in transporting
school pupils to or from school, while such bus is stopped upon
the roads or highways of the state, is required to bring such motor
vehicle to a full stop before passing such school bus; provided, that
said bus is properly identified by being painted a uniform color as
approved by the state board of education, with the words "school
bus" on the front and back in black letters at least four inches
high. If a stop signal which meets standard requirements prescribed
by the state board shall be displayed from the bus, said signal shall
be due warning to the driver of any approaching vehicle that chil-
dren may be on the highway and such vehicle shall not pass the
school bus until the signal has been withdrawn. Any person failing
to comply with the requirements of this section, or violating any of
the provisions hereof, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and
upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not to exceed
three hundred dollars or by imprisonment in the county jail not
to exceed ninety days.
XI. Statutory Provisions Pertaining to Pupil Transportation
230.23(4) (d) Cooperate with boards of adjoining counties in main-
taining schools.-Approve plans for cooperating with county boards
of adjoining counties in this state or in adjoining states for estab-
lishing school attendance areas composed of territory lying within
the counties and for the joint maintenance of county-line schools
or other schools which are to serve those attendance areas. The
conditions of such cooperation shall be as follows:
1. Establishment.-The establishment of a school to serve at-
tendance areas lying in more than one county and the plans for
maintaining the school shall be effected by resolutions spread
upon the minutes of each county board concerned, which reso-
lutions shall set out the territorial limits of the areas from which
children are to attend the school and the plan to be followed in
maintaining and operating the school. ..
235.15 Survey required.-As soon as practicable, unless a school









whole or in part any judgment or award which may be rendered
in favor of the plaintiff, and if a verdict rendered by the jury
exceeds the limit of the applicable insurance, the court shall
reduce the amount of said judgment or award to a sum equal to
the applicable limit set forth in the policy.
(5) PENALTY.-The members of any county board which owns
or operates a school bus or other vehicle used for the transporta-
tion of pupils without complying with the provisions of this
section shall for such failure be subject to removal from office,
and any person owning or operating a school bus or other vehicle
used for the transportation of pupils as set forth in this section
and failing to comply with its provisions shall be deemed guilty
of a misdemeanor.
B. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT
230.33(11)(d) Insurance of school property.-Propose plans and
procedures for insuring economically every plant and its contents,
as well as school buses and other property, under the control of the
county board and see that the proper records are kept of such
insurance.
X. Statutory Provisions Governing Operators of Other Vehicles
With Relation to School Buses
234.04--Traffic to stop for school bus.-Any person using, operating,
or driving a motor vehicle upon or over the roads or highways of
this state, upon approaching any school bus used in transporting
school pupils to or from school, while such bus is stopped upon
the roads or highways of the state, is required to bring such motor
vehicle to a full stop before passing such school bus; provided, that
said bus is properly identified by being painted a uniform color as
approved by the state board of education, with the words "school
bus" on the front and back in black letters at least four inches
high. If a stop signal which meets standard requirements prescribed
by the state board shall be displayed from the bus, said signal shall
be due warning to the driver of any approaching vehicle that chil-
dren may be on the highway and such vehicle shall not pass the
school bus until the signal has been withdrawn. Any person failing
to comply with the requirements of this section, or violating any of
the provisions hereof, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and
upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine not to exceed
three hundred dollars or by imprisonment in the county jail not
to exceed ninety days.
XI. Statutory Provisions Pertaining to Pupil Transportation
230.23(4) (d) Cooperate with boards of adjoining counties in main-
taining schools.-Approve plans for cooperating with county boards
of adjoining counties in this state or in adjoining states for estab-
lishing school attendance areas composed of territory lying within
the counties and for the joint maintenance of county-line schools
or other schools which are to serve those attendance areas. The
conditions of such cooperation shall be as follows:
1. Establishment.-The establishment of a school to serve at-
tendance areas lying in more than one county and the plans for
maintaining the school shall be effected by resolutions spread
upon the minutes of each county board concerned, which reso-
lutions shall set out the territorial limits of the areas from which
children are to attend the school and the plan to be followed in
maintaining and operating the school. ..
235.15 Survey required.-As soon as practicable, unless a school









survey has been made in the county within the past ten years, each
county board shall arrange for a survey of the county school system
to aid in formulating a long-time program for the schools of the
county. The report based on the survey shall show the location and
condition of all school buildings, the location of pupils and the
transportation routes, the places where schools for the various
grades should be maintained temporarily or permanently, and shall
include such other information as may be required under regula-
tions of the state board. The county board may request assistance
from the state department in carrying on the survey or may utilize
such other agency as may be approved under regulations of the
state board. A copy of each such survey report with accompanying
maps shall be filed with the state department.
XII Statutory Provisions Governing State Financial
Support for Transportation
236.05 Procedure for determining number of transportation units
for grades one through twelve and for junior colleges.-The number
of transportation units to be allowed each county board for trans-
porting pupils for grades one through twelve shall be determined as
set out in subsections (1) and (2) of this section and for junior
colleges operated pursuant to section 230.46 as set out in subsection
(3) hereof.
(1) UNITS FOR TRANSPORTATION BASED ON NUMBER
OF PUPILS TRANSPORTED.-One transportation unit shall be
allowed for each eighty pupils in average daily attendance during
the preceding school year who were transported at public expense
to public schools in the county approved for transportation under
regulations of the state board and whose homes were two or more
miles from the nearest appropriate school; provided, that this
mileage limitation shall not apply to the transportation of physic-
ally handicapped pupils as authorized under regulations of the
state board; and provided, further, that in event the county board
reports that a school or department is to be discontinued the
ensuing year and the pupils of said school or department are to
be transported to another school, the instruction units which
otherwise would have been allowed for instructional personnel
may, for the ensuing year only, upon application of the county
board, be allowed as units for transportation. In computing said
units a proportionate part of one unit shall be allowed for any
remaining number of such transported pupils in average daily
attendance less than eighty.
(2) UNITS OF TRANSPORTATION BASED ON AREA.-One
transportation unit shall be allowed for each fifty-six land sec-
tions of school transportation area computed as follows: Each
regular government-survey land section, or the equivalent of such
section where not established by government survey, shall be
counted which is wholly or partially within one and one-half
miles of the regular route of any school bus which has a com-
bined passenger seating capacity in excess of eighteen linear feet,
and each additional such land section shall be counted which is
traversed by a regular route served by a smaller motor vehicle
which transports pupils at public expense; provided, that no
section shall be counted twice and no sections shall be added
for a side route used to pick up children living within one and
one-half miles of the trunk route except as prescribed by regu-
lations of the state board; provided, further, that when author-
ized by regulations of the state board, a transportation unit shall
be allowed for each bus used exclusively for the purpose of trans-









porting ten or more physically handicapped pupils to a public
school; and a proportionate fraction of a unit shall be allowed
for a vehicle used exclusively for the transportation of a smaller
number of exceptional children as prescribed by regulations of
the state board; provided, further, that the number of units for
transportation based on area allotted for any county shall not
be in excess of two and one-half times the number of units
allowed that county for transportation based on number of
pupils transported; and provided, further, that the state board
may prescribe regulations under which uniform adjustments may
be authorized whereby one unit may be allowed for a smaller
number of land sections which shall not be less than forty-eight
in counties having more than thirty per cent of the total school
bus route mileage over unpaved or unsurfaced roads. In com-
puting said units, a proportionate part of one unit shall be
allowed for any remaining sections of transportation area.
(3) NUMBER OF TRANSPORTATION UNITS FOR JUNIOR
COLLEGES.-One transportation unit shall be allowed the
county board furnishing the transportation for each thirty pupils
in average daily attendance during the preceding school year who
are transported at public expense to a junior college and whose
homes were more than two miles from the junior college; pro-
vided that the mileage limitation shall not apply to transporta-
tion of physically handicapped students as authorized under
regulations of the state board; provided further that in com-
puting the units for a junior college a proportionate part of one
unit shall be allowed for any remaining number of such trans-
ported pupils in average daily attendance less than thirty; and
provided further that during each of the first two years of the op-
eration of a junior college one transportation unit shall be allowed
the county board furnishing the transportation for each thirty
pupils in average daily attendance during the first month of each
year of operation of the junior college. .
236.07(4) DETERMINING THE AMOUNT TO BE INCLUDED
FOR TRANSPORTATION.-Multiply the number of units for
transportation determined for each county according to law by one
thousand two hundred and fifty dollars and the product shall be
the amount included in the minimum foundation program for
transportation. The state board shall have authority to decrease
the value of the transportation unit to not less than one thou-
sand dollars during any year when studies show that transporta-
tion costs have decreased sufficiently to justify any proposed de-
crease in the value of the unit. No county shall be permitted to use
foundation program funds to purchase buses, chassis or other
transportation equipment at prices which exceed those found by
the state department of education to be the lowest which can be
obtained, as prescribed in section 229.23. Any county which spends
or proposes to spend for transportation, exclusive of the amount
for purchase of buses, a sum which exceeds one hundred fifteen per
cent of the amount included in the minimum foundation program
for transportation for that county, shall submit all proposed ex-
penditures for salaries of bus drivers, contract prices for transpor-
tation and prices for purchases of buses and chassis to the state
board for review in accordance with standards prescribed by it until
such county reduces its annual expenditures for transportation
exclusive of the amount spent for purchase of buses and chassis
to not more than one hundred fifteen per cent of the amount in-
cluded in the minimum foundation program for transportation, or
provides the state board with evidence satisfactory to it that the
cost cannot be further reduced.














ADDENDA


DURING THE TIME that A Handbook: Florida Public School
Bus Transportation was at the printer's, the Legislature in its
1959 session enacted legislation amending two sections of Florida
Statutes relating to transportation. The Statutes amended are
Section 234.04 (page 78) and Section 231.48 (page 69). These two
amended Statutes are included here:

234.04-Traffic to stop for school bus.-
(1) Any person using, operating or driving a motor vehicle upon
or over the roads and highways of this state, upon approaching any
school bus used to transporting school pupils to or from school which
is properly identified by being painted a uniform color as approved
by the state board of education, with the words "school bus" on
the front and back in black letters at least four (4) inches high,
while such bus is stopped upon the roads or highways of this
state, is required to bring such motor vehicle to a full stop before
passing such school bus. If a stop signal which meets standard
requirements prescribed by the state board shall be displayed from
the bus, said signal shall be due warning to the driver of any
approaching vehicle that children may be on the highway and such
vehicle shall not pass the school bus until the signal has been
withdrawn.
(2) The driver of a vehicle upon a divided highway where the
one-way roadways are separated by an intervening unpaved space
of at least five feet or physical barrier need not stop upon meeting
or passing a school bus which is on a different roadway.
(3) Any person failing to comply with the requirements of this
section, or violating any of the provisions hereof, shall be deemed
guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction shall be punished by
a fine not to exceed three hundred dollars ($300.00) or by impris-
onment in the county jail not to exceed ninety (90) days.
231.48-Absences of other personnel.-The county school board shall
make regulations governing absences of any personnel not covered by
the school code; provided that any bus driver employed in the school
system of the state unable to perform his or her duties because of
illness requiring absence from work shall be granted a leave of
absence by the school board and shall be entitled to not more than
six (6) days per annum sick leave, which may be made accumu-
lative not to exceed 36 days. Such bus driver shall be entitled to
receive full compensation for sick leave granted.















Index To Appendix

THIS INDEX applies only to statutory provisions in the Ap-
pendix. All major headings are printed in boldface type. All
cross references are printed in italics, as See also Bus drivers.


Subject


Section


Absences of personnel-illness ...................... 231.48
Administrator, See also County superin-
tendent. ......................................................... 230.03(3)
Apportionment, method of, See also State
Minimum Foundation Program Fund.... 236.05
Attendance areas .............................................. 230.232(2)
Attendance of pupils, parents' responsibility 232.09
Board of County Commissioners, See County
Commissioners.
Buses, See School buses.
Capital outlay, See Purchases.
City mayor or manager
Hazards corrected and reported ............ 234.13
County board, duties of, regarding trans-
portation, general powers
Act as contracting agency ...................... 230.22(4)
Adopt rules and regulations ............... ... 230.22(2)
Determine policies .................................... 230.22(1)
Prescribe minimum standards .................. 230.22(3)
Represent entire county .......................... 230.11


Page
69

61

79
71
66


County board, specific powers and duties
Attendance areas ......................................
Bus routes, See also Routes. .................
Control property ........................................
Cooperate with other county boards ......


230.232(2)
234.10
230.23(2)
230.23(4) (d)
234.10(6)


Health, duties regarding Insurance ........ 234.02
Liability .................................................. 230.23(
School property and buses ................ 234.03(
Maintenance equipment, See also School
bus. .......................................................... 234.22
Personnel, See also Personnel.
Absences of-illness ............................ 231.48
Administrative .................................... 228.041
Appointment of .................................... 230.23(


Bus drivers ....................................
Physical examination of ....


9) (d)
1)-(5)


(15)
5) (b)


231.35
230.23 (5) (b)
234.16(2)
234.05


Re-examination of ...... 234.15
Maintenance personnel .............. 230.23(5) (b)
Supervisor of transportation,
See also Personnel. .............. 230.23(5) (b)
Compensation and salary schedules 230.23(5) (e)
83


71
71
60
78
72
69,70
77
77
70
69
61
60,68
68
60
68
69
67
60
60
61











County board, specific powers and duties
(Cont.)
Contracts for services ........................ 230.23(10) (1) 76
Qualifications, county board may
prescribe ........................................ 230.23(5) (a) 60
231.04 68
Recommendations of county super-
intendent ...................................... 230.23(5) (a) 60
Suspension and dismissal .................. 230.23(5) (h) 68
Transportation personnel ................ 231.01(5) 70
Provide educational opportunities .......... 230.23(8) 66
Pupils, control of, See also Pupils ......... 230.23(6) (d) 61
Purchases, See also Purchases. .............. 237.02(1) 75
Pool plan, county board may enter 229.23 75
Records and reports, duties regarding.... 230.23(12) 73
Report forms and procedure, duties
regarding .................................... 234.23 73
Safety, duties regarding .......................... 234.02 69
School buses, withdrawal from use ........ 234.09 70
Surveys, duties regarding ........................ 235.15 78
Transportation of pupils .......................... 230.23(8) 66
Zoning, non-transportation zones .......... 234.11 66
County commissioners
Highway hazards reported ...................... 234.12 70
County school system, scope of ...................... 230.02 60
County superintendent, general powers
Administrator of schools .......................... 230.03(3) 61
County board, to advise, counsel, and
recommend .............................................. 230.32(2) 61
Establishment and organization of
schools .................................................. 230.33(6) 61,72
Minimum standards, execute .................... 230.32(5) 65
Policies, recommend .................................. 230.32(3) 61
Rules and regulations, to recommend
and execute ........................................ 230.32(4) 61
County superintendent, specific duties and
responsibilities
Conferences, institutes, and study
courses .................................................. 230.33(19) 62
Cooperate with county board .................. 230.33(17) 62
Contracts .................................................... 230.33(12) (1) 76
Driver, certify applicant ............................ 234.16(3) 69
Employees, See Personnel.
Enforcement of laws and regulations ....... 230.33(16) 62
Forms, blanks, and reports .............. 230.33(14) (a) 74
Highway hazards .................................... 234.12 70
Insurance on school property, responsi-
bilities regarding ................................ 230.33(11) (d) 78
Materials, supplies, and services
Contracts for, to recommend ............ 230.33(12) (i) 62
Personnel
Assistants, employment of .............. 230.33(7) (b) 62,69
Bus drivers, employment of .......... 230.33(7) (b) 62,69
Certify applicant .......................... 234.16(3) 69
Compensation and salary schedules 230.33(7) (e) 62
Conferences, institutes, study
courses .......................................... 230.33(19) 62
Contracts and terms of service ........ 230.33(7) (f) 62
Nomination of employees, reject for
cause ............................................ 231.35 68


Subject


Section Page









Subject
County superintendent, specific duties and
responsibilities (Cont.)
Positions and qualifications of, to
recommend ....................................
Suspension and dismissal ................
Purchase plan, to recommend, See also
Purchases. ..............................................

Records and reports, See also Records
and Reports ..........................................
Forms, blanks, and reports, duties
regarding ............ ......................
State superintendent, report to ........
School buses not meeting requirements,
duties regarding ..................................
School centers ..............................................
School property
Custodian of ........................................
Insurance of .........................................
Transportation of pupils, See also
Transportation. ..................................


Section


230.33(7) (a)
230.33(7) (h)

230.33(4) (a)
237.02(1)

230.33(14)

230.33(14) (a)
230.33(14) (b)

234.09
230.33(6)

230.33(4)
230.33(11) (d)

230.33(10)


Definitions
School bus, See School bus.
Transportation equipment, See Equip-
ment.
Driver, See School bus driver.
Equipment, transportation, defined, See also
School bus. ................................................... 234.06
Requirements, general .............................. 234.07
Funds
County current school, for insurance...... 234.03(3)
District current school, for insurance .... 234.03(3)
Minimum foundation program, See also
State minimum foundation pro-
gram .................................................... 236.07(4)
Transportation unit .................................. 236.05(1)-(3)
Garage, maintenance, See School bus.
Handicapped children, provision for .............. 236.05(1) (2)
Highway hazards .................................. .......... 234.12
Illness, See Absences.
Insurance, liability ............................................ 234.03(3) (4)
Inter-county transportation ............................ 234.10(6)


License of bus drivers ......................................

Posted in conspicuous place .................
Revoked .........................................................


234.16(1) (2)
237.33
234.19
234.18
231.33


Maintenance, See School bus.
Minimum foundation program, See State
minimum foundation program.
Nepotism, prohibited ........................................ 116.10
Operation of school bus, See School bus.
85


69
62

76
75

74

74
74

70
61,72

66
78

62,66,72






63
63,70

77
77

80
79,80


79,80
70

77
72
68
68
69
67
68


Page









Subject
Owners
Contract


Section Page


230.23(10) (i)
237.31(4)


Insurance, may provide additional .......... 234.03(2)
Penalty
County board, failure to insure pupils .... 234.03(5)
County superintendent, failure to keep
forms and reports ................................ 229.17(18
230.23(12
Reports, false .............................................. 232.142
Traffic, failure to stop ............................. 234.04
Personnel, Refer to respective officers; see
also School bus driver.
Maintenance .............................................. 231.01(5)
Physically handicapped children, See Handi-
capped children.
Policies, Refer to respective boards and
officers.
Principal
Highway hazards ...................................... 234.12
Pupils, control of, See also Pupils. ........ 232.25
Relationship to bus driver ...................... 232.26
Reports, See also Penalty. ................... 234.23


)
)(b)


Pupils
Assignment of ..........................................
Control of, See also County board.........
Distance exemption, certificate of ..........
Injury to ............................................
Parents responsible for attendance of....
Physically handicapped, provisions for..
Safety and health of ..............................
Transported pupil ......................................
Purchases, plans for .........................................
Bids ..........................................................
County board to provide information to
State Department of Education ......
Pool purchase plan for school buses ........
Requisitions ..............................................
State contract, purchase on ....................
Purpose ............................................. .............
Railroads, school buses stop for ........................
Record and report forms
County board duties regarding ...............


230.232
232.25
232.06
234.03(1)
232.09
236.05(1)
234.02
236.05
237.02(1)
237.02(2)

229.23
229.23
237.02(3)
125.081
234.01
234.25


230.23(12) (a)
234.23


County superintendent to prepare and
require .................................................. 230.33(14)
Records, attendance, of pupils ..................... 232.142
Reports and records, Refer to respective
officers.
Attendance .................................................. 232.142
Bus driver .................................................. 234.21
Principal ................................... .... .... 234.23
Transportation costs ................................ 234.23
Requisitions, See Purchases.









Subject
Routes
Agreements with nearby counties ............
Capacity of bus, to adjust ......................
County board prescribes ............................

County superintendent recommends ......
District lines not restricting ....................
Hazards .......................................................
Limitations of ............................................
Pupils, transported ........................... .........
Surveys
Duties of county board regarding....
Duties of state superintendent re-
garding ..........................................
Safety
Highway hazards reported .......................
Safe transportation ....................................

Safety and health ........................................
Safety glass, See School bus.
Salary schedules, See Personnel.
School bus
Defined ....................................................
Economical operation of ............................

Extracurricular use of ..............................
Insurance ......................................................
Maintained and operated according to
requirements of law ..........................


Section Page


234.10(6)
234.10(1)
234.10
230.232
234.10
234.10(5)
234.12
234.10(1) (4)
234.10(2)-(4)

235.15

229.17(22)


234.12
234.07
234.22
234.02



234.08
234.07
234.10
230.23(8)
234.03

234.22
234.08(2) (e)


Monthly inspections of .............................. 234.22
Obscenity on ................................................ 235.09
Purchase of, See Purchases.
Railroad, highway, and other crossings,
to stop for ............................................ 234.25
Requirements for, when transporting
nine or more children ...................... 234.08
Rules of road and traffic requirements.... 234.24
Specifications for ........................................ 234.08(
Color and identification of .............. 234.04
Safety glass ........................................ 234.08(
Structure requirements for .............. 234.08(
Stop signal to be displayed on ........... 234.04
Traffic to stop for ........................................ 234.04
Withdrawal from use, when not meeting
requirements ........................................ 234.09
School bus driver
Absences, leave granted ......................... 231.48
Appointment of .......................................... 230.33(
Authority of, controlling pupils ................ 232.28
Conferences, study courses, See County
superintendent.
Crossings, to stop at ................................ 234.25
Highway hazards reported by ................ 234.12
Illness, See Absences.
License for .................................................. 234.16
Physical examination of .......................... 234.15
234.05


2)

2)(b)
:2)





(7) (b)


72
71
71
71
71
72
70
71,72
71,72

78

59

70
63,70
70
69



64
63,70
71
66
77

70
64
70
71

71

64
71
64
78
64
64
78
78

70

69
62,69
63


71
70

67
67
69









Subject Section Page
School bus driver (Cont.)
Pupils, control of, by ................................ 232.28 63
Qualifications of .......................................... 234.14 67
Records kept, responsibility for ............ 234.21 69, 74
Relationship to principal ........................ 232.25 62
Report forms and procedure .................... 234.23 73
232.22(5) 74
234.21 74
School officials not to drive school bus.... 234.20 67
Traffic rules observance by ........................ 234.24 71
Specifications, See School bus.
State board, responsibilities of
Authorize forms and require reports .... 229.08(18) 72
Color of school bus, to prescribe ............ 234.04 78
License, to revoke ........................................ 234.18 67
Physical condition of drivers .........--.... 234.16 67
Prescribe minimum standards, rules and
regulations ............................................ 229.08(20) 59,64
Provide for enforcement of laws and
regulations ........................................ 229.08(19) 58
Qualifications of bus drivers, to
designate ......................-.....-.................. 231.02 67
234.14 67
Regulations and standards have force
and effect of law .................................. 229.06 58
Standards ----.........----.......... .....................229.08(20) 59,64
Stop sign, to prescribe ................................ 234.04 78
State board of health .......................................... 231.02 67
State department of education
Organization of ........................................... 229.20 60
Pool purchase plan, duties regarding .... 229.23 75
State functions ................................................... 229.01 58
State minimum foundation program fund
Apportionment ............................................ 236.05 79
Transportation unit .................................... 236.05(1)-(3) 79, 80
Value of ......................................................... 236.07(4) 80
State railroad and public utilities commis-
sion, duties regarding ................................ 234.08(1) 64
State superintendent, responsibilities of
Forms and reports ...................................... 229.17(18) 73
Licenses, See Licenses.
Minimum standards, and rules and
regulations ............................................ 229.17(20) 59
Physical examination of bus drivers ...... 234.16(2) 68
Pool purchase plan, See Purchases.
Provide for enforcement of laws and
regulations ..-----...................................... 229.17(19) 59
Purchases, See also School bus.
Report prices paid .............................. 229.23 75
Recommend to, and execute policies of
state board ............................................ 229.16(2) 59
Recommend, put into effect minimum
standards .............................................. 229.16(4) 59,64
Recommend, supervise execution of
rules and regulations ........................ 229.16(3) 59
Specifications not met by buses, duties
regarding .............................................. 234.09 70









Subject Section Page
Stop signal, use of .............................................. 234.04 78
Supervisor of transportation, See Personnel.
Reports by .................................................... 234.23 73
Surveys, See also Routes.
Duties of county board regarding .......... 235.15 78
Duties of state superintendent regarding 229.17(22) 59
Teachers
Attendance records .................................... 232.142 74
Forms and reports ...................................... 229.17(18) 73
Traffic
Motor vehicles must stop before passing
school bus ............................................ 234.04 78
Transportation
Purposes ........................................................ 234.01 65
Transported pupil, See Pupils.
Transportation units, See State mini-
mum foundation program.
Trustees
Suggestions submitted for routes ............ 234.10 71
Zoning, non-transportation zones designated
annually ........................................................ 234.11 66,72




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