Tallahassee . Florida
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE
C. J. STANLEY, JR., CHAIRMAN
W. L. DERRICOTE, SECRETARY
-Address all Communications to-
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE
-PRINTED BY THE FLORIDA A. & M. COLLEGE PRESS-
Issued Quarterly and entered as second-class matter, June 24, 1947, at
the Post Office, Tallahassee, Florida, Under the Act of August 24, 1912
Volume 3 DECEMBER, 1950 No. 4
In This Issue
The Protein Value of Brazil Nuts 1
The Relationship of the Social Studies Teacher
With the Guidance Director 7
Artificial Insemination of Dairy Cattle 13
Further Comments on the Status of Cortisone
as a Therapeutic Agent 16
Characteristics of the Negro Internal Migration
in the United States 19
Agriculture and Industry 24
Plasma Protein Changes in Proteose and Histamine Shock 30
About the Contributors 40
The Protein Value of Brazil Nuts
C. E. ARNSBY
Department of Foods and Nutrition
Nutritionally, there are three qua- of the nut to conduct the experiment.
lities of protein:--One classed as cor- The experiment was divided into two
plete, which will sustain life and pro- parts. In Part I the object was to de-
mote growth when fed in a sufficient termine the ability of Brazil nuts to
quantity; another classed as partially sustain life and promote growth when
complete, which will sustain life when given, in an otherwise adequate syn-
fed in a sufficient quantity, but will not thetic diet, either as the only source
promote growth regardless of quantity; of protein or in combination with
the third classed as incomplete, which another known source of protein. The
will neither sustain life nor promote object of Part II was to determine the
growth regardless of the quantity in value of Brazil nuts as a supplement
which it is fed. Inasmuch as the nutri- to a cereal diet.
tive value of a protein is dependent on The growth promoting value of
its amino acid content, each quality Brazil nuts was investigated by means
class may be defined to that effect. A of feeding experiments with sixteen
complete protein is one which contains albino rats. Albino rats, commonly
all of the ten essential amino acids. called white rats, were used for this
These ten essential amino acids are: ar- experiment because:
ginine, histidine, iso-leucine, leucine, 1. The chemical nature of their nutri-
lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, thr- tional processes is similar to man.
eonine, tryptophane and valine. A par- 2. They can reproduce at any time of
tially complete protein is one which the year.
contains only enough essential amino 3. They can use a dry diet; therefore,
acids to sustain life. An incomplete there is less danger of food spoiling.
protein may or may not contain any 4. Inasmuch as they manufacture Vitamin
essential amino acid but in case it does, C within their bodies, they do not
tial amion acid, but in case it does, have to have any fresh food.
there are not enough of them neither s. They consume small amounts of .food.
to sustain life or to promote growth. 6. They are easily handled.
There is very little information in For the first part of the study, Brazil
the literature concerning the value of nuts as a source of protein in an other-
Brazil nuts in the human or animal wise adequate diet, two pairs of rats
diet. Because there is a large supply of were put on each diet. One pair of rats
this nut available in several South per diet is considered minimum for
American countries and because of the valid results, but it was felt that be-
paucity of previous studies, it was de- cause of the preliminary nature of the
cided that a preliminary study of the study and the lack of information as
protein value of Brazil nuts should be to what results might be expected, two
undertaken. The study was aided by a pairs per diet would be safer and pro-
gift, from an outstanding food pro- vide for more valid preliminary con-
duct company, of a sufficient quantity clusions.
2 FLORIDA A. ra M. COLLEGE
One pair on each diet consisted of Nut Experiment consisted of:
one female and one male; the other Grams
pair was made up of two females. Casein, technical 68
Matching of the sexes in this way pre- Cornstarch 68
vented the difference of growth rates Crisco s
of the sexes from entering into the re- Cod-liver oil 2
suits. All animals in this part of the Salt mixture (Osborne and Mendel) 4
experiment were from Diet 16 back- Concentrate of B vitamin (from
ground obtained from H. C. Sherman's rice polishings) 8
laboratory. Diet 16 is a synthetic diet
which consists of 5/6 whole wheat 100
flour, 1/6 whole milk power, and 2% The Brazil Nut Experiment Diet I-
salt. The whole milk powder is equiva- Nuts Furnishing 10% Protein con-
lent to 1 pint of whole fresh milk. The sisted of:
animals were all numbered and the Grams
letter "S" appeared before the number Brazil Nuts 58.8
to indicate origin. In the female pairs, Cornstarch 27.2
one animal was given either a right or Cod-liver oil 2.0
left ear punch to enable identification. Salt mixture (0. and M.) 4.0
The animals used in Part II-Brazil Concentrate of vitamin B 8.0
nuts as a supplement to a cereal diet-
were four females. These animals were 100.0
obtained from a litter in the Nutrition The Brazil Nut Experiment Diet
Animal Laboratory located at Teachers II-Nuts Furnishing 5 % and Casein
College, Columbia University. Their 5% Protein Consisted of:
dietary background was type A School Grams
Lunch with Thick Split Pea Soup. Brail Nuts 29.4
The numbers of these animals were Casein, technical Y.0
preceded by the letter "T." One fe- Cornstarch 51.0
male in each of the two pairs was Cod-liver oil 2.0
given a right ear punch for identifi- Salt Mixture (0. and M.) 4.0
cation. Concentrate of B vitamins 8.0
The animals were all matched as to
weight, to eliminate the factor of too.
original size for disturbing the results. The Protein was placed at the 10r
The rats in other parts of the experi- level because it was felt that the Brazil
ment were started when they weighed nuts could not be put into the diet at
between 46 and 51 grams. When they any higher level. The Protein was put
are this size, regardless of age, the rats at the same level in all three diets so
are heavy enough to allow for survival that they could be accurately compared.
on a deficiency diet until some obser- The weight of the Brazil nuts was
vations have been made and they have figured, in each case from its known
not yet reached a size at which stores composition, and the Crisco was
of nutrients would interfere with eliminated from the two diets con-
effects of the deficiency diet. training nuts because of the high fat
In Part I of the study, three diets Cellulose was added to the three diets
were used. The Control Diet for Brazil in the third week, when the excessive
fat released from the nuts in the pro- 8. Store diets in refrigerator.
cess of chopping them made it difficult 9. Make arrangements for mixing ad-
to mix fresh quantities of diet. The ditional diet before the previous mix-
cellulose absorbed some of the fat and ture is completely used up so that
supplied the rats with roughage. The experimental animals are never left
cellulose was added to the casein con- without food. Indicate date of start
trol diet as well as to the nut diets to of new mixture of diet fed to rats.
assure control of any other variable All ingredients were dried, when
(s). possible to prevent spoilage. It was es-
Part II consisted of one diet, Diet pecially important that all diets used
16 with Brazil nuts: be completely homogeneous in order
Grams that every mouthful taken by a rat
Wholewheat flour 84 contained all the ingredients of the
Brazil nuts 6 diet in its original proportions.
100 Each pair of animals was housed in
One pair of rats on this diet was a round metal mesh cage with a re-
given 0.5 milliliters of Cod-liver Oil movable wire mesh bottom. The cages
per rat per day by means of a medicine opened at the top and could be fast-
dropper. Distilled water was used with ened down when closed. Each cage was
all diets to prevent introducing ad- supplied with a water cup and a food
ditional variables. cup, both of which were securely
To assure the scientific accuracy of fastened to the sides of the cage by
the experiment, careful mixture of the means of pieces of wire. A cage card
diets was necessary. The detailed pro- was attached to each cage. These cards
cedure was as follows: gave the date, number and sex of the
1. Decide an amount of diet to be mixed animals, title of diet, age of animals at
and calculate the required amounts of start of experiment, source of animals,
each ingredient. Record figures on a and dietary background; provided
special blank, columns for the weekly weights of the
2. Check each ingredient carefully and animals, grams of food given, grams of
3. Be sure that each of the ingredients is food left weekly, grams of food con-
finely ground as the rat will not eat sumed, grams of food consumed per
large particles, gram rat per day, and comments.
4. Check the scale and weigh each in- To assure adequate care of the ani-
gredient carefully, checking the work mals, it was necessary to follow a rigid
sheet. Weigh sticky or liquid ingre- and regular schedule. The daily pro-
dients into a "well" of a dry in- cedure consisted of the following:
gredient to prevent waste.
5. Mix weighed ingredients thoroughly 1. Change paper under cages supplying
in a large bowl. clean folded newspaper.
6. Sieve mixture at least three times so 2. Salvage any food outside food cup,
it will be completely homogeneous. separating carefully from faces and
7. Place final mixture in a clean dry jar returning to cup.
and label to indicate kind of diet, 3. Give fresh water cups filled with dis-
ingredients with amounts, date of tilled water.
mixing, and initials of persons preparing 4. Weigh out and give food if needed.
mixture. Amount given should be uficient to
4 FLORIDA A. ( M. COLLEGE
last several days. Record amount given, diet were small but normal animals,
5. Examine each aminal daily and record otherwise growing from 47 to 99
any noticeable changes in appearance grams, from 48 to 102 grams, from 47
on cage card, noting date. to 117 grams, and from 46 to 154
One day each week was designated as grams, in ten weeks. They did not
weighing day. The procedure on these achieve optimum growth and there was
days consisted of: no reproduction, although the animals
1. Weigh each rat and record weight on were sufficiently matured. These ani-
cage card. mals were autopsied after ten weeks
2. Transfer animals to clean cage, in- and were found to have good tissues,
serting clean cage bottom, good bone calcification, and well form-
3. Weigh the food left, record weight, ed organs for their size.
and place in clean cup. Weigh out ad- The animals on Brazil Nut Experi-
ditional food if needed. Record total mental Diet I, Nuts Furnishing 10%
amount of food in cup to start new Protein, all died before the completion
week. of the ten week experimental period.
4. Calculate the food consumed and re- One animal, going from 47 to 50
cord on cage card. grams, died after three weeks on the
5. Calculate the grams of food eaten per diet. A second animal, going from 47
gram rat per day as follows: to 44 grams died after four weeks. The
Food Consumed third, in a five week period, went from
No. of days x Average total wgt of rats 49 to 46 grams. The longest surviving
Special attention was needed over animal, going from 49 to 54 grams, re-
Special attention was needed over mained on the diet six weeks before
weekends and holidays. This was as fol- succumbing. These animals were very
lows: small and nervous; they spilled much
1. Use double thickness of newspaper food and struggled vigorously when
e food and struggled vigorously when
under cage. handled. They were very anemic in
2. Be sure that there is sufficient food e
appearance, the color of their eyes, ears
and water to last 2 days. and tails being very pale. The animals
3. Special arrangements made for sup-
3. Special arrangements made for p- had a very poor circulation as indicated
elementary feedings. To prevent con- by extremely cold extremities. All the
by extremely cold extremities. All the
fusing rats, it was advised that only animals were very flabby and had very
one cage be handled at a time, and
ne cage be h led at a time, a poor muscle tone. Appetites were poor.
that the cage card be removed from Gross autopsy showed that all of these
only one cage at a time. Fastening the animals had flabby tissues and very
cage cover securely prevented loss of little tissue fat. Calcifcation was
any rats. very poor; there was an indication of
All experiments in the laboratory slight beading of the ribs and curved
were set up on a ten week basis, the rats spines in two of the four animals;
being kept on the selected diet for this and three of the rats had very poor
period, the animals were chloroformed teeth, showing caries in the molars and
and autopsied. Rats dying before the very pale incisors. All animals had
end of the ten week period were refri- very anemic tongues, poorly develop-
gerated until autopsies could be per- ed genital organs (to the point of dif-
formed. ficulty in recognizing them), and flab-
RESULTS AND DIscUSSIONS by organs, particularly the kidneys.
The animals on the casein control The kidneys of three showed excessive
white material and that of one rat Fat was supplied either by Crisco or by
was partly degenerated. In two cases, Brazil nuts. The level of protein was
the liver was grayish in color. 10%; this affected the growth of the
The animals on the Brazil Nut Ex- casein control animals as well as that
of other animals.
perimental Diet II, nuts furnishing of other animals.
5% casein and 5% protein, also died Previous experiments have shown
before the end of the ten week period, that optimum growth is obtained with
Two of the rats, whose weights went 18% protein level, and that 7% pro-
from 46 to 44 grams and from 55 to tein is too low to support any growth.
51 grams were found dead in their res- It is also cited in the literature that
pective cages after an unreasonably "optimum growth of young rats fed
hot week-end. Their deaths occurred with plant protein foods is obtained
after five and a half weeks on the diet. at 12-15% protein levels in the diet."
A third animal, whose weight increas- but that satisfactory comparisons can
ed from 49 to 67 gms, also died after be made when the material is fed at
five and a half weeks on the diet. The the 10-12% levels." Therefore, the
fourth animal lived an additional week 10% level of protein could be expect-
and showed an increase of 49 to 69 ed to support life and some growth, as
grams. These animals were also very it did in the casein control diet.
nervous and spilled a large amount of The animals placed on the diet in
their food daily. They also had very part II, whole wheat flour with Bra-
poor circulation, as shown by the cold zil Nuts, were observed for nine weeks
extremities, and they were extremely only because of limited time. One pair
anemic. Color of ears and tails was of animals went from 50 to 44 to 40
particularly poor. They were very flab- grams and from 51 to 41 grams in
by and exhibited very poor muscle nine weeks. The other pair went from
tone. Appetites were poor. Autopsy 50 to 44 grams and from 48 to 45
showed flabby tissues and very little grams after six and a half weeks. At
tissue fat. Poor calcification, indicated that point, they were started on a daily
by slight beading in the ribs, curved supplementary feeding of 0.5 milliters
spines, and caries in the molars, was of Cod-Liver oil per rat. In two weeks
shown in three out of four on the following this, each of the animals had
diet. The tongues of all the animals progressed to 56 grams.
were anemic. The kidneys of two of
the animals were flabby, and one show- All four of the animals had very
ed excessive white material. The liver, poor circulation, as shown by their
in two cases was flabby, and in one cold extremities. The animals were
case, there were pale spots and a granu- flabby and exhibited very poor muscle
lar, uneven texture. One of the animals tone. Their posture was poor. They
had a liver that was grayish in color. had respiratory difficulties and nasal
The diets provided for all of these congestion. Their eyes seemed to have
animals were adequate in vitamins T been sore and on one occasion had a
an D (Cod-liver-oil), B vitamins (con- very bloody crust. Before being given
centrate), mineral elements (salt mix- Cod-Liver oil. the four animals had
ture), and carbohydrate (cornstarch). very poor appetites.
It is not necessary to provide vitamin The diet was not adequate in Cal-
C in the diet of albino rats, because cium and vitamin A and D, but the
they synthesize it within their bodies, levels of fat, carbohydrate and protein
6 FLORIDA A. ? M. COLLEGE
were adequate. The B vitamins and symptoms shown by the animals can
mineral elements were contained in be attributed to vitamin A deficiency
the whole wheat flour. The whole and not to the source of protein in
wheat flour alone, could not support the diet. These include the poor con-
life and growth as has been observed edition of eyes and respiratory tract.
in previous experiments. Animals in Vitamin A also affects growth and
these studies have not generally sur- appetite. However, the poor circula-
vived after seven weeks. station and poor muscle tone suggest
CONCLUSIONS an amino acid deficiency, although it
was not acute in these animals as in
Because this has been an exploratory the diets in which Brazil nuts furnish-
study, no definite conclusions can be ed 10 or 5% protein. This again sug-
made. However, this study has served gets the supplementary action of the
to introduce further problems as well Brazil nuts and whole wheat flour.
as partly to answer some of the origi- The results of this preliminary study
The results of this preliminary study
nal questions. raise other questions which in turn in-
The extremely poor condition of produce further studies. If amino
the four animals on the Brazil Nut acid deficiency is indicated, what ami-
Diet I-nuts furnishing 10% pro- no acid or acids are lacking in the com-
tein-suggests two possibilities. Al- position of Brazil nuts. Since there is
though the protein level was adequate no information on this in the litera-
for life and growth, the animals did not ture, a study would be necessary in
survive. In addition, they seemed to which a synthetic adequate diet, casein
exhibit an amino acid deficiency. The at the 5 % level, and Brazil nuts furn-
poor circulation, anemia, poor appe- fishing 5% protein could be given in
tite, and extremely poor muscle tone combination with individual amino a-
help support this possibility. The poor cids. A series of diets using different es-
condition of the animals might have sential amino acids would indicate com-
been partly brought about by high position of Brazil nuts through the
intestinal motility caused by high fat growth of the rats. The 5% level of
content. The high incidence of liver Brazil nuts is suggested because of the
and kidney complications also may be early death of the animals on a diet
indicative of the amino acid deficiency with a higher level of nuts. The sup-
and the effect of high fat. The poor plementry role of Brazil nuts would
calcification suggests the possibility also be clarified if the amino acid
that the high fat content might have composition were known.
induced the formation of calcium Brazil nuts as a supplementry source
soaps, draining the animal's bodies of of protein should be investigated fur-
their otherwise adequate supply of other by means of studies using adequate
calcium. diet and other sources of protein with
The four animals on Diet 16 with known growth value and composition.
Brazil Nuts were not in very good con- Further information concerning Bra-
dition, but they survived longer than zil nuts would undoubtedly lead to
could be expected on plain whole further studies on the composition of
wheat flour. This result suggests that other commonly used nuts. In this area,
Brazil nuts may play an important role as in other areas of nutrition investi-
when used as a supplementary source gation, there is room for many years of
of protein. Furthermore, several of the study.
The Relationship of the Social Studies Teacher
With the Guidance Director
LEONARD H. O. SPEARMAN
Department of Elementary Education
More and more school personnel and ferent faculty members in relation to
administrators are becoming convinc- the entire program. Each subject tea-
ed that guidance is a part, an impor- cher has a definite responsibility in the
tant part, of every phase of a child's whole program of guidance through
education. The wealth of literature her contact with her pupils. And in-
that has been published in recent years creasingly, it seems, teachers are re-
on all aspects of guidance bears this cognizing and accepting these respon-
out.' The result of this emphasis is sibilities.
that guidance programs can be found
functioning in the majority of schools IMPORTANCE OF THE SOCIAL
today, for administrators also have STUDIES TEACHER
come to realize that all members of the The social studies teacher has a
school's staff have particular roles in place all her own in the total program
facilitating guidance services. Guid- of guidance. First, she is in a key po-
ance, however, is not a separate some- sition to assume a large share in guid-
thing that can be readily and cor- ance.3 It is within her classroom that
pletely assigned to the guidance direc- she usually becomes aware of the needs
tor. Each faculty member also has a of her pupils. She meets all of them
definite obligation, and he must as- each day for an entire semester or
sume his rightful share of responsi- longer. She has the daily opportunity
abilities by understanding his role in to watch over, talk to, greet, or en-
the total program, courage each pupil, and in so doing, to
Si in s ra d render day-to-day guidance service of
Guidance is provided in several dif- a varied nature. She is one of the first
ferent ways: through regularly sched- to detect symptoms of physical de-
uled classes, homerooms, club groups, fects and malnutrition. Acting as
and other organized settings; through guide, confidante, and friend, she is
supervised study halls, and library often the first person to whom pupils
work; through individual teacher-pu- go with their personal problems.4 Her
pil contacts; and in other ways, as interest in the welfare of each child
well as through various combinations is indispensable. Second, if she is a
of these.2 The director of guidance, good teacher, she can encourage
under authorization of the administra- g in her pupils in subjective, in-
tor, co-ordinates the roles of the dif- growth in her pupils in subjective, in-
tor, co-ordinates the roles of the dif-
"Guidance in The Glencoe Schools, Glen-
1"Personel Services in Education," Educa- coe Public Schools, Glencoe, Illinois, Forward.
tion Index, Bibilography, 1945-1950. 4Spindt, Herman A. and Heart, Leo,
2Trow, Zapf, and McKown, Meeting Diffi- "Counseling in The Secondary School,"
culties (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Cor- Guidance and Educational Problems, 1936,
pany, Inc., 1940), p. 5. p. 1165
S FLORIDA A. $ M. COLLEGE
tangible, and in difficult-to-define areas, teacher, by working in close associa-
such as honesty, dependability, inter- tion with the guidance director can
cultural understanding, citizenship, improve her effectiveness and at the
morality, etc. Third, she senses the same time lessen the pressures that
symptoms of maladjustment in a par- make her work unpleasant. His sug-
ticular child in the incipient stages gestions, which follow, do not require
and brings the guidance organization increased time or effort. The social
to bear on the case. Most significant studies teacher can often accomplish
of all, Reavis says, is the fact that she these things merely by making some
contributes to the diagnosis of the modifications in the way in which she
causes of maladjustment, and assists spends her time and energy. Teachers
in the application of the corrective should:
or remedial measures that are advised 1. Take time to learn about pupils.
by the guidance director.5 Finally, she The social studies teacher can get ac-
is in a position to give specific guidance quainted with each pupil in a number
to pupils, not only in the pursuit of of ways: (1) the cumulative record,
intellectual interests, but also in such (2) the test, inventory, and background
simple things as the development of data blanks, and (3) through conver-
proper study habits. station and observation. Many important
SPECIFIC DUTIES OF THE SOCIAL facts can be learned if these instruments
STUDIES TEACHER are used efficiently.
The most vital responsibility of the 2. Help pupils find security.
social studies teacher is helping to de- The social studies teacher can help pupils
velop the guidance program. She can find some anchors (1) by being kind
do a great deal to further the growth to them, (2) by the way she uses
of guidance services. For example, she her voice, (3) by building on their in-
can assist the guidance director in terests, (4) by helping each one secure
setting up a planned program of some favorable attention, and (5) by
counseling, help establish a better starting her work with things tlcy
testing and cumulative records pro- know how to and can already do.
gram, and really work toward a suc- 3. Locate important outcomes.
cessful end. She can co-operate with In cooperation with parents and admin-
other teachers under the supervision istrators, the social studies teacher can
of the guidance director in a study of deterpiine essential outcomes and be
the characteristics and needs of pupils. guided by these decisions.
Then too, she has the privilege of 4. Study social relationships.
using the results of all these devel- The social studies teacher can use socio-
opments to improve her own teaching. meter scales, friendship charts, and her
According to Erickson," there are own observations to determine a child's
many ways in which the social studies status and needs.
5. Analyze factors conditioning
5Reavis, William C. "Guidance Programs learning.
In Secondary Schools," Guidance and Edu- Each pupil is handicapped or helped in
national Problems, 1936, p. 1149 his learning by one or more of such fac-
6Erickson, Clifford E. Today's Teacher, tors as poor health, fatigue, frustra-
Institute of Counseling, Testing and Guidance, tions resulting in tension, lack of in-
Michigan State College, East Laning, 1948, terest, undesirable attitudes, inadequate
pp. 3-14. basic skills, and many other similar con-
editions. In each case the factor or factors in guidance; they will do it intelli-
should be identified and steps taken to gently and conscientiously if given the
eliminate them. chance.
6. Study the purposes for schoolPORTANCE OF THE
work. IMPORTANCE OF THE
The social studies teacher studies and GUIDANCE DIRECTOR
discusses with her pupils the ways in The question comes up as to how
which school work can be made useful the teacher can learn to do all this
to them. guidance, this is where the guidance
7. Use community resources. director comes into the picture.
The community setting in which the pu- The guidance director should at-
pil lives should not be neglected. tempt to supplement the work of the
8. Engage in Research. social studies teacher and attempt to
The social studies teacher can carry on raise the level of her teaching effect-
three simple but important studies un- iveness. The Sub-committee on Guid-
der the direction of the guidance di- ances states that directors of guid-
rector. First, make a study of drop- ance should not be appointed merely
outs; second, a follow-up study to see to relieve teachers of their normal
how well her pupils perform in the next responsibilities. Nor should directors
grade; and third, make a case study in try to limit the help to pupils provid-
order to learn new techniques of child ed by subject-teachers. It seems ob-
study, new understandings of the psy- vious that the task of helping pupils
chology of behavior, and new resource- solve their problems and perfect their
fulness in helping pupils. plans cannot be done by the social
By working in conjunction with the studies teacher and guidance director
director of guidance, the social stud- alone. Co-operation is essential if guid-
ies teacher will find her work more ance is to bear fruit. By working to
effective and pleasant. At the same gether they can move toward the de
time she will be extremely helpful: sired goal more rapidly. The job oi
a. In providing data for pupil individual counseling is distinctive and requires
inventories, much skill and training. For this rea-
b. In imparting occupational information son then, "A modern educational pro-
c. In pointing out vocational implications gram," states the Subcommittee on
of her particular subject. Guidance, "requires some staff mem-
d. In supervising activities concerned with ber who can make his greatest con-
discusions of everyday problems, work tribution through counseling with
in student self-government, and other pupils as his assigned responsibility."
forms of social-civic orientation. SPECIFIC OBLIGATIONS
e. In teaching guidance information that Realizing that the guidance and.
is related to her subject. counseling program requires the co-
Jensen' says that the subject-tea- operation and participation of each
chers, in the majority of cases, are 8Subcommittee on Guidance of the cbm-
eager, willing, and happy to pioneer mitteee on Fundamentals, "Characteristics of
TJensen, George C. "Characteristics Of A A High School Guidance and Counseling
Sound Guidance Program," Guidance and Program," North Central Association, Qus,
Secondary Eddcational Promblems, 1936, terly, Vol. XXXII, October, 1947, p. 21.
p. 114. 9Ibid.
10 FLORIDA A. e M. COLLEGE
teacher, the guidance director should meetings should be given over primari-
first seek to develop within the social ly to the discussion of problems which
studies teacher: will aid in educational and professional
a. An appreciation of the function and growth of the teacher. Speakers who
practices of the entire guidance and are specialists in phases of guidance
counseling program, should be invited whenever possible.
b. An appreciation of the contribution of Orientation meetings held for new
each faculty member to the program. social studies teachers help them to
c. An understanding of the assistance she adjust to the guidance program. With
might expect from the program, a little encouragement from the gui-
d. An understanding of, and a desire to dance director, the social studies tea-
support the work of the guidance di- cher voluntarily takes courses in men-
rector. tal hygiene and related guidance sub-
To accomplish these aims, the gui- jects to become better equipped. It
dance director must provide the neces- must be understood, however, that
sary training. Robinson'1 believes that wile not all teachers will become good
in each secondary school there should counselors, most of them will become
be a teacher-training program that better counselors when given the pro-
will be carried on as a regular part of per in-service training under the di-
the school organization. The first func- reaction of a guidance expert. For this
tion of such a program should be to reason, the guidance director should
aid the teacher to plan worthwhile be as helpful to teachers as possible.
units of work that take into considera- A particular responsibility of the
tion a wide scope of experiences. The guidance director which should not
second function should be to help the be overlooked is his awareness of his
social studies teacher to recognize, own professional improvement. He
when they occur, the countless oppor- should strive to develop his abilities
tunities which arise to give guidance by association with and study under
and direction. The third function a wide variety of technical specialists,
should be to help the social studies such as psychiatrists, clinical psychol-
teacher actually to apply those prin- ogists, test technicians, occupational
ciples of psychology and of guidance information specialists, social workers,
which she studies in a group, as well visiting teachers, and placement offi-
as to direct and interpret the experien- cers. In doing so he will become better
ces of the pupils in her classroom qualified to promote teacher and pupil
To aid in transferring theory into welfare.
actual practice, Florence Turkenkopf" CO-ORDINATING THE WORK OF THE
says, the guidance director can dis- EA A
tribute circulars dealing with all EACHER AND GUIDANCE DIRECOR
phases of guidance and counseling. Neither the work of the counselor,
In addition, a great many faculty nor that of the social studies teacher
can achieve the greatest effectiveness
10Roinson, Mardele, "Guidance and The without one being supplemented by
Curriculum," Guidance and Secondary Edu- the assistance of the other. McDaniell2
cation Promblems, 1936, p. 1163.
11Turkenkopf, Florence, "The Role of The 12McDaniel, Henry B. "Operation Guid-
Homeroom Teacher In A Guidance Program," ance And The Teacher," School Executive,
High Points April, 1949, p. 61. Vol. LXIX, September, 1949, p. 53.
says that a great deal depends upon the teacher. The social studies teacher
the teacher in making the guidance in daily contact with her pupils has
services reach all the students. Her an advantage which the guidance di-
primary job is to work with students rector can never hope to achieve. She
who have problems related to learning can study the child frequently, study
in the particular course. This may him in all his moods, and at close
involve much individual contact. Up- range. She can use her influence at
on occasion, it must be remembered, the time it -will produce the best re-
the teacher may be better able to en- suits, while the guidance director has
gage in personal counseling than any to set a time and handle the matter in
other person because of particular a more formal way. "The teacher has
circumstances surrounding the case. the opportunity of giving a helping
Further, the social studies teacher word, a sympathetic smile where it
may detect cases for referral to the will do more good than a lengthy in-
guidance director which otherwise terview by the guidance director."'1
would not come to his attention. In
a situation of this kind, the teacher CONCLUSION
gives all the data she has collected on The role of the social studies teacher,
the case to the director. She in turn therefore, is essentially that of being
makes use of the diagnostic data ob- a good teacher. She must be a good
trained from the guidance director, and teacher not only for her group, but,
initiates the therapeutic services upon insofar as possible, for each member
his advice. Always she should be on of the group. She must organize learn-
the alert to notice behavior patterns ing experiences, first in terms of the
or evidences of interests, aptitudes, abilities and needs of the group; then,
plans, or concerns of pupils which within this framework, she must adapt
should be made known to the guidance instructional content, method, and the
director. learning potential of each child. Given
McDaniels"1 goes on to say that a the help that the competent guidance
teacher can render invaluable aid director can offer, she has the oppor-
through participating in case confer- tunity to provide the pupils with an
ences wherein the insights and skills environment for desirable growth in
of all workers on a particular case are these directions. The guidance service
pooled. "Conferences, interviews, home helps her to know her group and its
visits, testing, case studies, and other individual needs. With the help of the
activities of the guidance director fre- guidance director, her work is simpli-
quently result in clues to adaptations fled. She feels that the director is there
and suggestions for classroom activi- to help her to be a better teacher.
ties which can be carried out and eval- The teacher and the guidance di-
uated by the teacher."' rector must share a close relationship
The things that are to be accom- if the general welfare of everyone
polished are team objectives. It would be within the school is to be promoted.
futile for the guidance director to at- Perhaps the first prerequisite to bring-
tempt to improve the individual ad- ing them together is that the teacher
justment without the active help of must understand the counseling pro-
13abid. cess, the relationship between the di-
14Ibid. 150p. cit., Turkenkopf, Florence, p. 61.
12 FLORIDA A. d M. COLLEGE
rector and student, and the relationship Secondary Schools?" Guidance and Secondary
in which the guidance director stands Education Problems, 1936.
to her. These are all interwoven. By JENSEN, GEORGE C. Characteristics Of A
working together closely and continu- Sound Guidance Program In A Functional
ously toward common goals, the teacher Secondary School," Guidance and Secon-
and guidance director will be brought dary Educational Problems, 1936.
into a closer relationship. The bond MATHEWSON, ROBERT, "The Role Of The
will be strengthened if the guidance Counselor," The Harvard Educational Re-
director understands and helps her view, Vol. xvII, January, 1947.
make use of the opportunities for ther- MCDANIEL, H. B. "Operation Guidanee And
apy that lie in the classroom. The Teacher," School Executive, Vol. LXIX
The social studies teacher never has September, 1949.
REAVIS, WILLIAM, "Guidance Programs In
enough time to deal with all of the Secondary School," Guidance and Secondary
many pupil problems which may come Education Problems, 1936.
her way; nor is she qualified to diag- ROBINSON, MARDELE, "Guidance And The
nose cases beyond her lay training. Curriculum," Guidance And Secondary
But with warm and sincere interest in Education Problems, 1936.
Education Problems, 1936.
each student, the guidance program, SPINDT, H. A., and HART, L. "Counseling In
and its available services, she can pave The Secondary School," Guidance And
the way for a good relationship. When Secondary Education Problems, 1936.
she reaches her own limitations as a STRANGE, RUTH, "Guidance While Teaching,"
teacher, she can call on the guidance The Journal of Education, Vol. CXXX,
director for the necessary assistance. January, 1947.
Subcommittee of Guidance of the Committee
BIBLIOGRAPHY on Fundamentals, "Characteristics of a High
BOOKS- School Guidance And Counseling Program,"
T W, ZAP, AND MCK N, Meeting Dif- North Central Association Quarerly, Vol.
TKow, ZAPF, AND McKowN, Meeting Dif-
XXII, october, 1947.
ficulties, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., XXII, october, 1947.
New York 1940. TURRKENKOPP, FLORENCE, "The Rde Of
The Homeroom Teacher In A Guidance
MAGAZINE ARTICLES- Program," High Points, April, 1949.
ALLEN, R. D. "A Guidance Program That PAMPHLETS-
Any High School Principal Should Under- ERICKSON, C. E. Today's Teacher, Institute
take," Guidance and Secondary Educational of Counseling, Testing and Guidance, Michi-
Problems, 1936. gan State College, East Lansing, 1948.
FRAZIER, ALEXANDER, "The Teacher And The Guidance In The Glencoe Public Schools,
Counselor-Friends or Enemies?" National Glencoe Public Schools, Glencoe, Ill., 1948.
Educational Association Journal, Vol.
XXXVIII, February, 1949. PERIODICALS-
HAND, H. C. AND CARLEY, V. "When Shall "Personnel Services In Education," Education
We Have Sound Guidance Programs In The Index, Bibliography, 1945-1950.
Artificial Insemination of Dairy Cattle
Department of Animal Husbandry
Artificial insemination is a develop- was started in 1936, and by 1947
ment in the dairy industry which ranks approximately fifty per cent of the
without equal in improving dairy cat- insemination of cows was artificial.
tle. Although artificial insemination Cole (2) states that the first organi-
is not new, recent development in the nation established in Denmark bred
technique of semen collection, care, 1,187 cows in one year, wth most of
and storage is responsible for its suc- the semen taken from one bull by the
cess. With the introduction and mo- use of an artificial vagina.
dern development of artificial insemi- The first large artificial cooperative
nation, the dairy industry has acquired in the United States was established in
a tool that has proved to be most ef- New Jersey in May, 1938, by E. J.
fective in improving the quality of Perry following his return from Den-
dairy cattle. No other innovation in mark where he became impressed with
the field of dairy production has devel- the idea of its potentialities. This or-
oped as rapidly or met with as wide ganization was proceeded by a small
acceptance. The idea of using artificial experimental unit in Minnesota, ex-
insemination extensively in the dairy perimental insemination work in Mis-
industry within the United States has souri and Nebraska, and a considera-
completely developed during the last ble number of inseminations in private
twelve years. According to Rice (7) herds in Wisconsin.
and Petersen (6), the first work in ar- Since 1938, artificial breeding organ-
tificial insemination was reported by nations have sprung up in nearly every
an Arab chief who mated a prize mare section of the United States. The in-
with the stallion of an enemy chief- creased interest in
tain by stealthy collection of semen breeding has led to a wide-spread de-
from the stallion's sheath and success- mand on the part of farmers for the
fullyiimpregnated his mare. They fur- organization of breeding units. It is
their stated that dogs were first in- wise, however, that any farmer em-
seminated by artificial means in 1780, playing this method of breeding be
and that a pregnancy was produced in fully informed both as to its advan-
the human by this method as early as tages and its limitations.
The first group of cows of any size ADVANTAGES
was inseminated by artificial means There are many advantages which
in Russia in 1909 and, according to can be cited in favor of artificial in-
Petersen (6), by 1938 nearly 1,150, semination, but the more important
000 cattle, approximately five per cent ones are as follows:
of all cattle in Russia, were inseminat- 1. The greatest advantage is that of extend-
ed by artificial means. Denmark was ing the use of a good proved sire and of
the next country to use artificial in- making his services available to many
semination on a large scale. The work small farmers who otherwise could not
14 FLORIDA A. d M. COLLEGE
afford it. With modern developed tech- these services by disseminating inferior
niques of artificial insemination, it is pos- sperm or spreading disease. Although
sible to serve 100 to 150 from one ejacu- artificial insemination is a promising and
lation By natural service a hundred frequently a very useful practice among
would be the outside number for an entire dairy cattle breeders, it is necessary to
year. emphasize the fact that it should be used
2. The cost of bull service is greatly reduced only by individuals who are properly
for small herds. Approximately half of trained technically and have a thorough
the milk produced in the United States appreciation of the necessity for sani-
is produced in herds which have 15 cows tary precautions.
or less. The average net cost of keeping
a bull varies from $150.00 in the south- METHODS O APPLICATION
ern states to $196.00 in the eastern and There are two main conditions un-
midwestern states. The rate for artifi- der ihich artificial insemination is
cial insemination seldom, if ever, ex- used:
ceeds $7.50, the average being $5.00. 1. In 'private herds where many cows are
3. Artificial insemination is most effective bred each year by the individual owner
in preventing the spread of venereal who collects semen from his own bulls or
diseases such as trichomoniasis. buys semen and does the insemination him-
4. High indexed, proved sires may be used self,
for artificial service after they become 2. In cooperative orgPnizations where a
incapacitated for natural service. large number of individual herds are
5. Extremely large sires can be used on im- found:
mature or small females. (a) The cooperative owns the bulls and
hires a technician to do the insemi-
6. Mating may be made between animals at
great distances. Semen shipped from.
(b) The technician sells semen and his
Bucks County, Pa. to Australia resulted
service to the cooperative.
in pregnancy of dairy cattle. These ad-
vantages are in agreement with those stat- In the first case there is no particular
ed by Baltzer (1); Cole (2); Dukes 3); danger because private owners are
Hammond, Edwards, Rowson, and Wal- more careful in exercising their skills,
ton (4); Petersen (5) and (6); Rice (7); abilities, and the necessary precau-
and Winters (9). tions.
The second method presents more
LIMITATIONS problems because a cooperative organ-
Apart from the method of breeding ization has to be so located that it will
itself, artificial insemination has the reach the owners from 600 to 1,000
following limitations: cows. Coles (2) reveals that the coop-
1. The use of inferior or unproved sires erative should be closely associated with
on a large scale because of the scarcity of a production testing program.
sires of proved transmitting ability. The two methods of collecting sem-
2. The difficulty of securing highly train- en are: (a) by means of an artificial
ed technicians to collect the semen and vagina, and (b) by message of the ap-
make the inseminationss. pullae. Not only is it necessary for the
3. The possibility for misinformed individ- technician to be familiar with both
uals to use artificial insemination as a methods as stated by Dukes (3), but
commercial exploitation. According to Cole he should be well informed on sanitary
(2), persons of this type may misuse precautions concerning the animal in-
volved, the equipment, the semen sam- the success of a large scale use of ar-
ples, and his own clothing and person, tificial insemination. Firm control
Each sire used in artificial insemina- measures for better sanitary methods
nation should be carefully selected for with regards to technician, instru-
inheritance and transmitting ability. ments, and animals. The advantages
With these in mind, it is safe to say more than offset the limitations. Cole
that high indexed sires will be less (2) states that improvements from
available in the future. Cole (2) artificial insemination can be expected
gives a wider view of the entire situ- if a normal growth and expansion of
ation by stating that the real hazard the program is allowed that is con-
to the continued success of these or- sistant with the number of high-in-
ganizations is the scarcity of proved dexed sires available, and if financially
sires of sufficient merit to warrant sound units are organized that are
their use on a large scale. It is not lo- equipped to prove young bulls, pre-
gical to use a sire of unknown or in- vent the spread of disease, and give
ferior merit, except in a limited way, the members services consistent with
since the primary purpose of artificial the price they are required to pay.
insemination is to increase the use of
good sires. It is important, therefore, REFERENCES
that no organization proceed with act- 1. BALTZER, A. C. Artificial Breeding For
ual breeding until suitable sires are ob- More Dairy Profit. Mich. State Ext. Folder
trained. Cole (2) also states that it is 138, 1949.
desirable to keep one or more young 2. COLE, C. L. Artificial Insemination. Mich.
bulls to be used in conjunction with State Ext. Bull. 207, 1940.
the older ones, since it is uncertain as
to how long old sires will remain po- 3. DUKES, H. H. The Physiology of Domes-
tent. If the demand for artificial in- tic Animals. Ithaca, N. Y., 1947. Pp. 787-
semination units continues at its pre- 97.
sent rate, it will be impossible to sup- 4. HAMMOND, J.,EDWARDS, J., ROWSON, AND
ply proved sires unless the associations WALTON, A. The Artifical Insemination of
assume the responsibility of proving Cattle. Cambridge. W. Heffner and Sons.
their own sires. 5. PETERSON, W. E. Dairy Science. Phila-
SUMMARY delphia, Pa. J. B. Lippincott Company,
Artificial insemination enables the 1939. P. 21
dairyman with a small herd to secure 6. --- Dairy Science. Philadelphia, Pa.
the use of good sires at a reasonable J. B. Lippincott Company, 1950. Pp. 256-
rate. Insemination by artificial means 266.
should follow a constructive breeding 7. RICE, V. A. Breeding and Improvement of
program, and, if properly conducted, Farm Anmals. New York .McGraw-Hill
will offer a progressive movement it Book Company, Inc., 1942. Pp. 259-274.
dairy cattle Rroduction. The job of 8. THOMAs, R. H., REEVES, P. M., AND
the technician is not only to insemi- PEGRAM, C. W. Dairy Farming in the
nate cows, but also to examine and test South. Dansville, Ill. The Interstate, 1944.
cows for sterility and to examine them P. 89
for pregnancy. 9. WINTrs, L. M.Animal Breeding. New
Proper supervision and control are York. J. Wiley and Son, nc. 1930. Pp.
the two major factors responsible for 1-34.
Further Comments on the Status of Cortisone
as a Therapeutic Agent
WALTER H. ELLIS
Department of Chemistry
In a previous article (1), the author ed. However, Williams (8) immedi-
presented a review of the history of ately pointed out that no single pro-
Cortisone and its application in the cess was suitable for the conversion
treatment of disease. Emphasis was of a variety of sapogenins to Corti-
placed on the fact that the announce- sone; and the maximum conversion
ments concerning the beneficial effect one can expect is in the neighborhood
were of a preliminary nature, and that of 2%. That being the case, the proba-
the reported results were too inconclu- ability is very slim that the supply of
sive to warrant the precipitated excite- any one sapogenin is commensurate
ment. Fortunately, subsequent results with the early demand for Cortisone.
were in agreement with the initial Studies of this problem are stillfin pro-
speculations, but there is still a danger gress, but no results have been an-
of overemphasizing these results (2). nounced as yet.
This paper, as was its predecessor, is
an attempt to review the situation. At the time of the app nce of the
previous paper (1), the critical
Since the last communication (I), shortage of Cortisone was a major
there have been several reviews, lec- shoeage of Cortisone was a major
tures to learned societies, and articles problem, and most of the research was
by various workers in the field of Cor- directed to an alleviation of that short-
tisone research (3, 4, 5, 6), which age. Today the shortage is not as
are indicative of the rapid progress of acute. This is indicated by the fact that
research. This progress has been so ra- as soon as Merck & Company increas-
pid that the original discoverers have ed its output of Cortisone, the special
committee of the National Academy of
been the recipients of numerous prizes commit ee of the National Academy of
and awards, the latest and most impor- Sciences whose function was to sup-
tant of which being the Nobel Prize ervise the distributionn of Cortisone
for Medicine which was given Ken- (9),was disbanded December 31, 1949.
dall, Hench, and Reichstein. (7) Merck & Company then placed Cor-
Sisone on the market and sold it for
Marker's review (3) was concerned $200.00 per gram. The next week
with the extraction of steroidal sap- (January, 1950) the selling price was
ogenins from species of Strophanthus $150.00 per gram. By July, Cortisone
Agave, Yucca, and other plants and was being produced by Julian's me-
the use of the sapogenins as Cortisone thod at the Glidden Company and the
intermediates. Some of these plants are price again dropped, this time to $100
wild and others are firmly established per gram. During the last week of
in the economy of the Western Hem- August, the price was down to $50.00
isphere. Marker believed that it was per gram; and at the present writing
unlikely that any problems of large it is down to $35.00 per gram. This is
scale cultivation would be encounter- still expensive, for it means that only
one dose costs $10.50, and the drug is molecule. This work was reported by
administered daily in order to reap its Gallagher of Sloan Kettering Institute
benefits. This price of $10.50 does not at the fall (1950) meeting of the
include doctor's fee; it is the cost of American Chemical Society. The tech-
the drug. nique of the introduction of radioiso-
With the gradual increase in the topes into organic molecules is nothing
availability of Cortisone, the research new. Studies of the mechanisms of
objectives changed from attempts to numerous biological processes using
increase production to more exacting radioisotopes are being conducted in
chemical and clinical studies of the several places in the United States
compound itself. There has also been and England, notably at Oak Ridge
an increased activity in the prepara- and Argonne National Laboratories.
tion and clinical evaluation of Corti- In the case of Cortisone, it gives us
sone analogs, a tool with which the exact biological
function of Cortisone may be eluci-
For more than one hundred years, 'dated.
scientists have been concerned with the i in i
problem of the relation between chemi- Another interesting chemical study
cal structure and physiological activi- of Cortisone was reported at the spring
ty. There have been instances wherein (1950) meeting of the Federation of
the scientists have discovered a rela- American Scientists for Experimental
tionship, only to lose it by a lack of Biology by Zaffaroni and his co-work-
further substantiating evidence. When- ers. They described the technique by
ever some new drug is discovered, which they separated and identified
attempts are made to find the afore- the compounds of the adrenal glands by
mentioned relationship. It is obvious means of paper partition chromato-
that, if such a relationship is found graphy. Paper partition chromatogra-
and substantiated by corroborating phy is a tool with which one may
evidence, the chemist should be able to separate the components of small
fashion compounds which would be amounts of complex biological mix-
diseases. The ques- tures. What bearing an application of
specifics for certain diseases.this technique will have on the Corti-
tion of whether Cortisone was a speci- thss technique wllthave on the orti-
fic for rhumatoid arthritis was raised sone situation is difficult to say.
when conflicting reports of the acti- The other aspect of Cortisone re-
vity of Cortisone analogs were re- search has been a study of its toxicity
ceived. Kendall clarified the situation and side effects. The results of these
in the Remsen Lecture (6) when he studies up to February of 1950 are
quoted some British reports of nega- amply summarized in the Report of
tive results obtained with Cortisone the Council of Pharmacy and Chemis-
analogs. These studies were conducted try of the American Medical Associa-,
by specialists in the field of Rhuma- tion (2). The main points of the Re-
tology, whereas the studies which gave port as regards toxicity are:
positive results were not conducted 1. Continuous administration of Corti-
by Rhumatologists. sone over long periods of time cannot be
An interesting chemical study of tolerated by all patients.
Cortisone was the preparation of ra- 2. Prolonged administration is beset by
dioactive Cortisone through incorpora- the danger of disturbing the pituitary-
tion of Tritrium into the Cortisone adrenal balance.
18 FLORIDA A. e M. COLLEGE
Later, Rosenberg speaking to the Di- patient did not respond to treatment,
vision of Medicinal Chemistry of the Stock of Sloan Kettering reported that
American Chemical Society presented Cortisone and two of its analogs
data that indicated: inhibited lymphosarcoma in mice. At
1. Initial treatments with Cortisone have the fall (1950) meeting of the Ameri-
been found to improve the condition can Chemical Society, Forsham also
of patients in all cases tested, reported that the destruction and shed-
2. Advanced deformities are not relieved ding of skin following the admini-
by treatment; the only improvements station of certain drugs to which a
effected are relief from pain. patient may be sensitive is abolished
3. No patient has ever been thoroughly by Cortisone. Any of the acute and
relieved of all his symptoms. some of the chronic diseases with in-
4. Tenative conclusions are that the drug flammatory or allergenic background
is non-toxic, but that over action may are controlled. These diseases include
cause increased hair growth, mild acne,, asthma and hay fever.
rounding of the facial contours, irregu-
lar menstruation in women, accumula- more so than a year ago,
tion of water, subcutaneous bruising a patient afflicted with arthritis can
or bleeding or aggravation of existing have a new hope, for the day is near
cases of mild diabetes (oo) at hand when the price of Cortisone
cases of mild diabetes. (10) will be such that the indigent patient
It must be borne in mind that Rosen- will be the recipient of its beneficial
berg's results hold for short term ad- effects.
ministration of the drug. Thus, scien-
tists must wait for some time before 1. ELLIS, W. H., Bulletin Florida A, & M.
data is accumulated from long term College (Research Issue) 2, No. 4 p. 25-
administration of Cortisone. 27 (1949).
It is interesting to note that the 2. Report of the Council of Pharmacy and
majority of the reports on the use Chemistry AMA. American Pharmaceutical
of Cortisone in the treatment of rhu- Association (Practical Pharmacy Edition)
matoid arthritis place little emphasis XI, 173 (1950)
on the number of cases. This indicates 3. MARKER, R. E., Chemical and Engineering
that a large number of cases were being News 27, 3348 (1949)
investigated. As had been expected, 4. SWEET, L. A., Ibid, 28, 31 (1950)
there has been a de-emphasis of case KENDALL, E. CG, Edgar Fahs Sminth
numbers because of the increased avail- Lecture, University of Pennsylvania Mn-
ability of Cortisone. se, March 16, 1950
There have also been many reports 6. KENDALL, E. C.,Remsen Lecture, Maryland
of the use of Cortisone in the treat- Section of the American Chemical Society,
ment of other diseases. Stickney and May 26, 1950.
Bennett of the Mayo Clinic reported to 7. Bulletin of the Associated Press, October
the International Cancer Research 24, 1950
Conference the use of Cortisone in
the treatment of acute leukemia. Cor- 8. WILuaMS, R. R.,Chical an Egineering
tisone was effective in producing a News 27, 316 (1949)
clinical and hematologic remission of 9. --Chemical and Engineering News 27
several weeks duration in some cases, 2366 (1949)
but in a majority of the cases the 10. -- bid 28, 3326, (1950)
Characteristics of Negro Internal Migration in the
CHARLES U. SMITH
Department of Sociology
In the United States, spatial move- Table I shows the net migration
ment of the population seems. to be a from farms by selected years from
national characteristic. Such movement 1910 to 1946.
is not confined to any particular racial TABLE I
or cultural group, though certain areas
or groups may demonstrate higher NET MIGRATION FROM FARMS BY SELECTED
migatory rates than others. In a large YEARS*
sense, the tendency to migrate is one Year Net Migration
overt expression of the freedom of 1920 336,000
opportunity and residence and 1922 1,137,000
achievement which is a fundamental 1930 321,000
part of the American ideal. The search 1932 325,000a
for greater opportunity and advantage 1940 681,000
through migration was encouraged by 1945 60,00ooo
such writers as Horace Greeley whose 1946 266,000
famous quotation "Go West, Young *Paul H. Landis, Population Problems, (New
Man, Go West," implies a land full of York, 1948) p. 425.
wealth to fulfill a man's greatest Table I shows that in the years 1932
hope. and 1945 the net "off-farm" migration
One basic principle underlying most is considerably larger than the "on-
migrations is the fact that almost all farm" movement. Table II further
of these movements occur in response bears out this fact when one observes
to a desire on the part of migrants for that from 1910 through 1933 more
a more tolerable existance in all aspects than 16,500,000 more migrants mov-
of life. This is particularly true of in- ed to urban areas than the reverse.
ternal movements in the United States. TAB
Furthermore, internal migration in the A E
United States cannot be separated from ExcESS OF URaAN OVER RUAL MIGRANTS*
the process of urbanization of which Period Excess urban over rural migrants
it is both a cause and an effect. The 1910-1919 6,00,000
growth of cities in the United States 1920-1929 6,300,000
since 1910 has been nothing short of 1930-1939 3,74s,000
phenomenal. This urbanward trend "Adapted from Paul H. Landis, Popwle-
persisted despite the economic depress- tion Problems, (New York, 1949) pp. 427-
ion of the 1930's. 429.
a. Net Migration To Farms.
1Paul H. Landis, Social Policies In The Mak- While a consideration of this over-
ing (Boston, 1947) ch. III all trend is not the immediate pur-
20 FLORIDA A. & M. COLLEGE
pose of this paper, it is mentioned to underwent a "speeding-up" process,
demonstrate that the internal Negro especially to the west coast and certain
migration subsequently described is key defense centers.
merely part of a national pattern and Generally, Negro internal migration
not an evidence of some peculiar eth- has shown two directional patterns,
nic characteristic. (1) from rural to urban and, (2)
Concomitant with the migratory from South to North. Even in 1790,
search for greater opportunity and the when the first census was taken, Ne-
resulting urbanization is the process groes were found in New York, Phila-
of secularization which has been an delphia, Boston, and Baltimore in the
outstanding sociological factor in respective proportions of 10.1, 5.7,
these movements. Sociologists have 4.2, and 11.7 percent.3 Thus even dur-
long been concerned with the prob- ing slavery, free Negroes concentra-
lems of "strangers," sacred vs. secu- ted not only in the north, but also in
lar, primary vs. secondary, together cities. Between 1860 and 1870 the Ne-
with the accompanying personality gro population in fourteen southern
adjustments and other factors which cities increased 90.7 percent as com-
frequently produce disorganization.2 pared to a 16.7 percent increase of
These considerations are not compre- the white population in these same ci-
hensively discussed in this presenta- ties. In addition, the same period
tion but are mentioned in passing. showed a 51 percent increase of Ne-
Specifically, this paper deals with the groes in eight northern cities.4 From
pattern and direction of the internal this it is noted that the urbanward
movements of Negroes, and only in a trend was established during and im-
minor sense with the consequences of mediately after slavery. Though the
these movements. One recognizes, of cityward migration continued during
course, that the migration of Negroes the next decade, it slowed down to
is frequently complicated by racial such an extent that in 1890 approxi-
prejudice and discrimination. mately 4 out of every 5 Negroes were
Data have been secured from both still in rual areas.5
primary and secondary sources, a small Although the immediately foregoing
portion of which was obtained first- percentages are impressive, their con-
hand. One important limitation of the version to absolute numbers indicates
paper is the fact that it was impossible that by later numerical standards, not
to secure, in any large quantity, accu- a very significant number of migrants
rate information regarding these mi- was involved in these early move-
gratory movements since the early ments. Indeed, one may safely say
1940's. Enough recent data, however, that prior to the second decade of
are available to provide a general des- the 20th century Negroes were com-
cription of the situation and an indi- paratively stable. Greater credence is
cation of major trends. Futhermore, given to this statement by Florant,
limited evidence shows that for the
most part the internal migration of 3U. S. Bureau of the Census, A Century of
Negroes during World War II merely Population Growth, (Government Printng Of-
fice, Washngton) p. 84.
2Howard Becker, "Processes of Seculariza- 4E. Franklin Frazer, The Negro in the Unit-
tion," Sociological Review XXVI (1932), ed States (New York, 1949)
Parts I & II 5Ibid.
who points out that in 1860, 95 per- City Number Percent
cent of all Negroes were in slave states, Increased
and in 1910, 91 percent were still Norfolk 25,039 43,392 73.7
there.0 Detroit 5,741 40,838 611.3
Cleveland 7,477 34,451 307.8
The year nineteen hundred and the Chicago 44,103 109,458 148.2
ten years following saw the beginning *Adapted from Franklin Frazier, The Negro
of Negtlo migration from rural to
ban areas, and from south to north in the United States. (New York, 1949) pp.
uban areas, and from south to north 191-192.
in spectacular numbers. Whereas the
pre-20th century migrants were large- In the 20-year interval 1910-1930,
ly women, because of the demand for two and one quarter million Negroes
domestic workers, these later migra- left the farms and small villages of
tions included more men than women the South for cities.
who responded to the northern indus- By 1930, 60 percent of all urban
trial labor demand. After 1910 these Negroes were concentrated in five
movements were encouraged by the northern cities-New York, Chicago,
curtailment of foreign immigration Philadelphia, Detroit, and Pittsburgh.
during and after World War I togeth- At the same time only 195,000 Ne-
er with the labor demands of wartime groes could be found in the rural areas
industry. From 1900 to 1910 over of the north and west. From 1910 to
333,000 Negroes left the farms and 1930, also, southern cities grew al-
villages7 in the South for both north- most as rapidly as northern and wes-
ern and southern cities. At the same tern cities combined, having an over-
time the total Negro population in all increase of 1,200,000 Negroes as
New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, and compared to 1,300,000 in the North
Detroit increased by nearly three and West. The gains of certain in-
quarters of a million. Also in this de- dividual cities in the North and West
cade, the Negro population of Hous- far surpassed those of the South. In
ton, Texas, and Jacksonville, Florida, this same period, 1910 to 1930, the
increased over 40 percent and Bir- rural Negro population declined from
mingham over 33 1/3 percent. Table 6,900,000 to 6,400,000 as a result of
III shows the number and percentage the disastrous effects of the boll wee-
increase of the Negro population in vil and floods combined with growing
1910 and 1920 by selected cities hav- industrial opportunity in northern
ing 25,000 or more Negroes in 1920. cities.8
TABLE III During the depression decade, 1930-
NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE INCREASE 0* 19 0, Negroes continued to move city-
NEGRO POPULATION IN SELECTED CITIES ward but at a slower rate.
HAVING 25,000 OR MORE NEGROES IN 1920 TABLE IV
(NUMBERS FOR 1910 AND 1920) PERCENTAGE INCREASED OF NEGRO POPU-
LATION IN SELECTED CITIES 1930-1940*
6James Florant, "Negro Internal Migration," Selected Cities 1930-1940*
American Sociological Review, VII (1942) City Percent Increase
pp. 782-783. New York 40
7Frank A. Ross, "Urbanization and the Detroit 24
Negro," Publications of the American Socio-
logical Society, Vol. XXVI, p. 118. 8Florant, op. cit. pp. 782, 791.
22 FLORIDA A. & M. COLLEGE
Chicago 19 18,000 in 1945,12 because of indus-
Washington D. C. 42 trial demands and labor recruiting ef-
Miami 47 forts during World War II. In Seat-
Houston 36 tie, the Negro population increased
*Frazier, op. cit., p. 194. from less than 4,000 in 1940 to a con-
servative estimate of 15,000 inl9-
In the latter years of this decade 50S.' San Francisco and Los Angeles
(1935-1940) 1,141,920 non-white likewise increased considerably. In ad-
persons migrated in the United States edition to westward movement since
from the country in which they were 1940, Negroes have increased their
living in 1935. About 70 percent or numbers by migration in Chicago, De-
808.833 of these migrants in the troit, New York, Cleveland and other
South moved about in the state of eastern and midwestern cities. Thus
their residence or moved to other south- it appears that since 1940 the northern,
ern states, but 253,083 of the non- western, and urbanward migration of
white migrants were in the north. In Negroes greatly accelerated up until
this decade all of the southern states 1945 when war production war serious-
except West Virginia showed a net ly curtailed it.
loss of Negro population, with the
greatest loss in Georgia. Thus, from Although evidence on this point is
1930 to 1940 the south lost less than inconclusive there is some indication
one-half as many Negroes as it did that a good deal of the urbanward
during the prosperous decade preced- movement of Negroes to northern cit-
ing. The West, however, gained more ies during the last fifty years was a re-
than it did from 1920 to 1930, 45, suit of the influx of the southern ru-
000 as compared to 41,000. The North ral migrants to southern cities who
gained over 250,000; less than one- displaced the original city dwellers.
half of the 675,000 gained from 1920 Florant found in a study of one city
to 1930. Population gains were size- that 70 percent of the Negroes mi-
able in California and New York but grants there had originally resided in
Illinois was hardly affected, southern cities. This lends greater cre-
dence to the belief of some students
Data on Negro internal movements that Negro internal migration has been
since 1940 are somewhat sketchy, but a series of gradual steps from rural
Frazier indicates that between 1940 to urban South and from South to
and 1947, 1,187,000 Negroes moved North.14
from the state of their residence in
1940 to a nonadjacent state9 "For the Historically, Negro internal migra-
first time a large proportion of Negroes tions have followed three general
took a westward direction ."'o He routes, with a fourth coming into
estimated that 250,000 Negroes mi- prominence since 1940. Route one con-
grated to Pacific Coast industrial ci-
ties." In Portland, Oregon, the Negro Club Bulletin, XXVI (1945), p. 2.
population increased from 1,900 to 13Charles U. Smith, "Social Change in Cer-
tain Aspects of Adjustment of Negroes in Se-
9Frazier, op. cit., p. 195. attle," (Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation,) The
lolbid. State College of Washington, 1910.
11blld. 14Florant, op. cit., p. 784.
sists of the movement from the Geor- over serious problems of unemployment
gia area up the Atlantic Coast through have resulted. In the Pacific North-
the Carolinas to Pennsylvania and west during World War II and up to
New York. Route two begins in Miss- the present, the shortage of adequate
issippi and Alabama, proceeding north housing in several cities was and is
through Kentucky, Tennessee to In- very acute.1
diana, Ohio, Michigan and Illinois.
Route three originates in Louisiana and despite these difficulties there is no
Arkansas, passing through Missouri to evidence to support the belief that
Illinois. The recent route from the these characteristic internal move-
South Atlantic states, as well as ments will not continue. On the con-
Texas and Louisiana, moves north to trary, all evidence points to a fairly
to California, Oregon, and Washing- steady stream of Negro migrants out
ton. Clearly, the direction of these of the rural and urban areas of the
movements has been from South to South for northern and western cities
North and as the figures indicate, ru- with the est coming to greater
ral to urban.15 Charles Johnson point- prominence as a receiving area. Conse-
ed out that the first three routes fol- quently communities should be aware
lowed the path of the Underground of the trend and anticipate incipient
Railroad of Ante-bellum days."6 problems by preparing to receive such
From the foregoing statements one
From the foregoing statements one In conclusion, it is noted that the
observes that although Negroes were internal movements have been largely
migrating internally before and short- internal movements have been largely
ly after slavery, the bulk of the Ne- confined to a search for greater ono-
gro population was fairly stable un- mic opportunity. Whenever better oc-
til the turn of the century. The great cupatona opportunities have arisen
demand for labor created by two Negroes have responded in significant
world wars served to accelerate Negrby two numbers. Particularly have urban in-
migration to the north and to accelerate Negro dustrial opportunities proved attract-
migration to the north and to urban ive to them. In those urban areas where
communities. World War II saw com- ive to them. In those urban areas where
paratively large numbers of Negroes job opportunities were available to wo-
moving to the West Coast for the men a low sex ratio has resulted. As
moving to the West Coast for the in the case of the Pacific Coast, where
first time. That such movement has ln the case o heacfic olasnt wherm
had disorganizing effects on the mi- mae idustral laor was in demand
grants as well as the receiving com- a high sex ratio may be observed. Dur-
ing World War I and World War II
munities is apparent. Negroes have the migratory rate was greatly ar ccel-
been notoriously high on the relief the m Suhrory rate sea greatly accel-
rolls and dependency lists in many ci- erated. Such widespread internal move-
ties. Because large numbers of war time mmti of Negroes posed serious condi-
migrants remained in industrial cen- tons of adjustment for families which
ters after the wartime job boom was were intensified as a result of the de-
cline in war production at the close
15Ibid. of both wars.
16Charles S. Johnson, The Negro in Ameri- -
.can Civilizaion. (New York, 1930.) "CHARLES U. SMITH Op. cit.
Agriculture and Industry
DWIGHT L. FOSTER
Dpeartment of Agronomy
"Between the soil of the country and the agriculture.'
intelligence of men, there have always
been close analogies which we find are The extent to which agriculture is
logical and necessary, as soon as we in the future likely to supply the raw
understand that the mind invents no- materials for industry, in addition to
thing-discovers everything." food and textiles, involves a forecast
Elie Faure, History of Art of both supply and demand-whether
The mineral kingdom virtually or not the nature of the demands will
does not reproduce itself. When a alter, and whether or not, in meeting
barrel of petroleum is pumped to the them, materials or manufacturing
surface, there is one less barrel in the methods will change fundamentally.
underground reserves. When a ton of
iron ore is scooped out of the crust of Biochemistry and biotechnology are
the Earth, another ton is not put back of great significance, for the future of
in its place. That is not to say that their value will be judged largely by
mineral reserves are going to be ex- their power to save expenditure of
hausted right away. But the funda- materials and energy. For more than a
mental fact is itirefu,table-mineral century, organic chemists have been
resources are not replaceable, while investigating the atomic structure of
plant resources are regularly and fully organic life, and new weapons such as
renewable. Thus those industries which the X-ray and electric diffraction have
look to agriculture and forestry for been of tremendous service.
their raw materials have a constantly
renewable source of supplies. Little is known of the mechanism
It might be observed here that a used by Nature in synthesizing these
community or region that builds up complex substances, although it is clear
i that they are built up on compara-
a local civilization around agriculture that they are built up on compara-
achieves a considerable degree of social tively simple models. The chemist, by
and oonly elucidating their structure, has suc-
and economic permanence. The only .
qualification is that the community needed in synthesizing many of them
must take care to ensure that the soil artificially, but, in spite of his triumphs
itself does not become exhausted or Nature has hitherto proved to be a
eroded away. Agricultural commun- cheaper producer than the factory, and
ities a thousand years old can be found is likely to remain so.
around the world. Extractive mineral Changes brought about by techno-
industries leave ghost towns behind logical research in agriculture are not
them; sound agriculture does not. to be found solely on the farm or even
Industry as well as agriculture has in rural areas. Industry is utilizing
developed greatly in the United States; farm crops on an increasing scale. One
and the very existence of our kind of
government depends upon the comple- 1KELLOG, CHARLES E., The Soils That Support
mentary specialization in industry and Us, Macmillan, New York, 1949, page 307.
needs but to mention a few of the further it uses leather, wool, cotton,
ways in which science, and especially and meat products. Industrial utili-
chemistry, has multiplied the uses to zation is a field in which both govern-
which agricultural commodities, their ment chemists and those in private
residues, and their by-products can be industry are searching harder than ever
put. Cellulose from cotton, wood and for ways to put science to work in
other products are now being used in solving problems connected with agri-
the industries which manufacture syn- cultural products. The government's
thetic lumber and insulation boards special research laboratories provided
for building purposes; in the industries for by the Bankhead-Jones Act and
which manufacture rayon, plastics, those established by the 1938 AAA
and lacquer; and in those which manu- to discover new uses for farm products
facture shoes. The fibre board industry are evidence of a determination to
uses increasing quantities of sugar cane apply technology to agriculture more
bagasse (residue left after the ex- effectively.
traction of the juice), which used to The implications of this in relation
be burned for fuel. Larger quantities Te i t of s in ion
of furfural (liquid derived from dis- to social stability are inescapable. Pro-
tilling bran, sugar, and so on) are ductivity in agriculture will continue
being employed in the petroleum re- to increase. One estimate of this in-
fining industry in the purification of cement is 0.7 per cent per year
finingl i y in te prif n of over the next ten years." Agricultural
petroleum oils. Although at present over the next ten years. Agricultural
not economical, alcohol derived from America will continue to produce a
corn is usable as a motor fuel, and if population in excess of that for which
production economies can be effected it can provide jobs. And it is not
production economic can be effected likely that industry can, in the near
and if gasoline prices rise, this use may future, absorb an ry c large part of
afford an outlet of considerable size to future, absob ay vey arh then s od go
farmers. The striking number as well that excess. Research then should go
farmers. The striking number as well forward on all fronts, in order that
as the variety of industrial raw ma- o on a fr inorrt
trial derived from the farm is no opportunity for contributing
S. to the solutions of human problems
suggested in an advertisement of a shall be overlooked.
leading manufacturer of electrical
goods.2 This one industry uses oat In these United States of America,
hulls, molasses, grain and sugar cane the use of cracked oil gas and natural
for making foundry cores; it also uses gas as starting points for the manu-
lard, sugar, lumber, and tapioca;* and facture of organic chemicals, and also
*Tapioca: Product of the roots of the cav, their production from water gas by
Product of the of the assava, the catalytic processes, and from
a tropical plant, and a cheap, ready source of calci caride ade in the electric
industrial starch. The latter is rated superior calcium care eatened t dilace thei
to corn starch or potato starch as a remoisten- fu ace pla nt products. There isplace the
ing glue for postage stamps, etc. It is also very use of plant products. There a direct
useful for adhesives, paper sizes, and so forth. competition with the products of the
See Wheeler McMillen, New Riches from the disrmentation. On the other hand, theof wood
Soil, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New m or detailed knowlde othr and, the
York, 1946, page 59. more detailed knowledge of plant pro-
2BLAISDELL, DONALD C., Government and 3GooDRICH, CARTER et al., Migration and
Agriculture, Farrar and Rinehart, Inc., New Economic Opportunity, University of Penn-
York 1940, page 139. sylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1936, page 399.
26 FLORIDA A. d M. COLLEGE
ducts has led to great development in is perhaps justifiable only on strategic
their extraction and utilization. The grounds. But in the event that pe-
process of fat hardening, the convers- troleum supplies begin to contract,
ion of molasses into alcohol, glycerine, alcohol will be in a better competitive
and other solvents, and the production position.
of furfural from cereal wastes for use A word might be injected here as
as a solvent or as a constituent of plas- to the future of organic chemistry,
tics are conspicuous examples of this from the industrial stand point. As
development. Research has opened up present supplies of coal and petroleum
completely new fields, such as the cel- decline, what is to replace them as our
lulose products and synthetic resins great source of organic chemicals?
and plastics, in which are being found Someday there will be a turn to an
fresh outlets for agricultural products inexhaustable supply, one that can be
like glycerine, soybeans, and casein.4 replaced as fast as it is used. This
At present only about 20 per cent supply will undoubtedly be the pro-
by value of the world's agricultural ducts of farm and forest. Today, farm
production is now being used for in- crops are a source of many industrial
dustrial purposes, but the proportion chemicals: alcohol, starch sugar, fats
is raised to 40 per cent if forest pro- oils, and celluose. It is not an exag-
ducts are included. The extent to which geration to state that any organic
agricultural materials may replace chemical that man can make today
minerals and metals will depend on from coal or petroleum can be produc-
physical properties and costs. Some ed from plant or animal sources if
plastics are suitable for replacing necessity demands.5 At the present
metals; the use of synthetic resins as time, coal and petroleum are often
adhesives and the improvement in the cheaper to use, and they will continue
manufacture of laminated wood to play an important role for genera-
already make it a successful rival to tions to come; but eventually plants
metal in many fields, for the new and animlas will have to take up the
products possess such advantages as burden of supplying organic chemicals.
absence of fatigue, high ratio of Then, curiously enough, the term "or-
strength to weight, and resistance to ganic chemistry" will revert more
corrosion; while the defects of wood, closely to its original meaning. As in
due to local weakness, are more or less the distillation of coal, the vast num-
eliminated by the laminated structure. ber of products that can be made by
Rubber is also replacing metal in fields heating wood will be even further mul-
where elasticity, freedom from abrasion tiplied as research continues. This in-
and value in reducing noise are re- dicates that chemical products from
quired. The cost of producing fermen- wood and other farm crops will supply
station alcohol from molasses and corn much of our future needs, and that
is higher than that of producing gaso- we can support ourselves on crops
line; and its use as motor fuel today grown from year to year, instead of
/ merely depending upon nature's re-
lPRICE, WILLIAM E., and GEORGE H. BRUCE, Strenuous work has been carried on
Chemistry, and Human Afairs, World Book to promote the usd of farm products
Company, foqLkers-on-Hudson, New York,
1946, pages 659, 688. OPRICE AND BRUCE, op. cit., page 741.
by finding new outlets for established ern pine instead of from the more ex-
crops, by finding new crops like soy- pensive Northern spruce, hemlock, or
beans, tung oil, and southern slash poplar.8 In the Southern states stand
pine to replace products usually im- vast tracts of pine, which grows more
ported, and by better utilization of ag- rapidly than Northern spruce. This
ricultural products. The soybean es- pine was formerly considered unsuit-
pecially has been found to be a particu- able for paper-making because of the
larly valuable crop, and substances large amount of resin in the wood.
extracted or made from it have mani- But Herty discovered that young trees
fold uses. The oil is used in edible pro- do not contain such a high percentage
ducts and in making paints, enamels, of resin, and he succeeded in making
varnishes, soaps, linoleum, and print- a newsprint from them. At the pre-
ing ink. The meal is used mainly in sent time, the making of newsprint is
food stuffs, but a good deal of it goes being gradually developed in the South.
also to the manufacture of protein The making of tough, strong wrap-
glues, paper sizes, washable wall-paper, ping paper from pine wood has also
and protein plastics. been an important industry for many
years in the Southern states.
In Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, and
certain other southern states grow the The manifold activities of the emi-
tung tree. From the nuts is pressed nent scientist, Dr. George Washing-
an oil of superlative quality for its ton Carver, have given status indeed to
purposes. No other, plant yields an oil the peanut. This lowly legume has a
so desirable for paints, varnishes, and potentially brilliant future as an in-
certain forms bf insulation, where dustrial raw material. Its possible uses,
quickness of drying and toughness of although definitely limited at present,
surface are sought. In the electrical reach into many fields. "Prospects for
industry, especially in insulation, no- the use of peanut oil in the manufac-
thing better has been found. The ex- ture of soaps, cosmetics and drug
pension of electronics is expected to products are good; it may be used as
require sizeable quantities of tung.6 a textile lubricant and in insecticides
The oil varnishes made by dissolving also in the future."' The rich protein
synthetic or natural resins in tung oil content of peanut meal, after the oil
are called "spar varnishes" and are ex- is removed, makes possible its use in
ceptionally water-resistant even when textile fibres and adhesives. But de-
the latter is boiling.7 Tung is not like- velopment of peanuts as an industrial
ly to be over produced, for the pro- crop depends upon the devising of new
duction area is definitely limited to low cost production methods.
those lands where the soil is good and Among new outlets for old
the temperature mild. It can help in crops are the use of cotton fabric for
diversifying a part of the South and
can strengthen the national security. SPRICE and BRUCE, op. cit., page 648.
9Da. C. LEWIS WKISAaIA.. of the Southern
In recent years, a Georgia chemist, Research Institute, Birmingham, Alabama, at
Dr. Charles M. Herty, developed a a general session of the Southern Regional
process for making paper from South- chemurgic Council. Reported in the "Miami
Daily News," November 1948. See also Ad-
61bid, page 690. ditional Reference 3, page 76, at the end of
7McMILLEN, Op. cit., page 648. of the paper.
28 FLORIDA A. e M. COLLEGE
reinforcing tarred roads, of inferior lic fluids; it will not leak through the
cotton and cotton linters for making gaskets in the hydraulic system, nor
cellulose derivatives, and of corn for will it gum. From sulphonated castor
corn syrup dextrose, corn oil and corn oil are manufactured textiles for uni-
cake. Sugar or starch derived from forms.
second grade corn or other grain, su- The prospects for a sweet potato
gar beet, and molasses, is being con- s h i stry in the Sot in the
averted into industrial solvents, starch industry in the South in the
averted into industrial solventslate 1930's and early 1940's failed to
American housewives as a rule do materialize." The manufacturing
not like to cook with oil. They have problems have been successfully solved,
long been accustomed to using lard butt farmers cannot now afford to
or butter. When they were shown that grow sweet potatoes for starch manu-
hydrogenated cotton seed oil, used as facture at a price to compete with
a cooking fat, became rancid less easi- other sources of starch, either domes-
ly than lard, and was not so likely to tic or foreign. Waxy corn and waxy
pop hot particles out on their bare sorghum contain starches similar to
arms, millions of them abandoned ani- those of the sweet potato and can
mal fats and adopted Crisco, Spry, or now meet our needs for such starches.
one of the other commercial vege- These crops can be grown and hand-
table fats. This is a simplified illustra- led by entirely mechanized methods
tion of the dramatic science of the far more cheaply for starch than the
organic chemist. He is "a fellow who sweet potato can be, and the grain
can start with a bag of beans which can be easily handled and stored for
the housewife would bake or boil, and long periods.
by subjecting thIem to tremendous
temperature or terrific pressure in the It will be evident that considerable
presence of his mysterious catalysts, energy and skill have been, and are
cause them to emerge as an automo- being still, devoted to discovering new
bile door instead of as a bowl of soup. ways for using many agricultural
An organic chemist once made a silk products in the various fields of in-
purse out of a sow's ears. This purse dustry. Although much progress has
is on exhibition at the laboratory of already been made in this direction,
Arthur D. Little, Inc., at Cambridge, the possibilities for further expansion
Massachusetts."10 are not in any way exhausted. At the
rate the use of carbon compounds is
From flax seed, linseed oil, favorite being extended, we shall soon be ap-
in the paint industry, is derived, while preaching a "cellulose age," and large
the plant is the source of the materi- quantities of cellulose will be required,
al for linen. The castor bean yields which logically and inevitably will
castor oil, which, unlike all other veg- have to be supplied by plants.12 In
etable or animal oils, is insoluble in this respect, subtropical and tropical
mineral oil, is the only known oil solu- regions should provide a particularly
able in alcohol, and flows at an ex- fertile source of the raw materials
tremely low temperature. By virtue __
of the last named property, there is l1BOSWELL, VICTOR R., "Commercial Grow-
no substitute for castor oil in hydrau- ing and Harvesting of Sweet Potatoes," U. S.
D. A., Farmers' Bulletin No. 2020, August
10MCMILLEN, O. cit., page 15. 1950, page 3.
needed. So far only a relatively few materials for industrial purposes, but
major crops like cotton, corn, and su- there must be others whose uses might
gar cane, have provided suitable raw be studied with the same object in view
More attention should be paid to this
problem, even more than has been
12Wood had been put to so many different hitherto, as it offers not only a prom-
uses during the 20's that they were styled ising field for research, but also may
by some persons "the wooden age." See Roche- reveal new outlets for the profitable
least, W. P., Products of The Soil, A. Flanagan disposal of plants and plant products
Company, Chicago, Illinois, 1928, page 34. of regions like the South.
Plasma Protein Changes in Proteose and Histamine Shock
HERBERT H. HARRIS
Department of Chemistry
INTRODUCTION decrease from 276 mgms. per cent to
The literature contains numerous 126 mgms. per cent.
accounts of studies made to determine
the physiological effects of intravenous In 1909 Biedl and Kraus (1) called
injections of histamine upon man and attention to the similarity of peptone
animals and of proteose in animals. shock to anaphylaxis,saying that both
(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6). Few conditions produced in dogs a marked
have attempted to study the quantita- fall in blood pressure. Popielski (1) in
tive changes in the plasma proteins and studying the physiology and chemis-
to determine quantitatively the ex- try of Witte's peptone, extracted, by
tent of such variations when proteose watery precipitation of hot absolute
and histamine are injected intraveno- alcohol a concentrated substance which
urly. he called "vasodilatin" and which was
extraordinary active. This vasodilatin
SUMMARY OF LITERATURE was thought, by Biedl and Kraus, to
Wells (7) states that the work of be close to the actual poison responsible
Underhill, Gibson, and Zunz shows for anaphylactic shock.
that proteoses are definitely toxic
when injected into animals. Gibson EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
noted that blood of dogs injected with Fifty grams of Witte's peptone was
Witte's peptone (a mixture of peptone extracted with 300 ml. of hot absolute
and proteose) extracted with hot alcohol to remove traces of histamine.
80-85 per cent alcohol either clotted A sterile shock solution was kept. A
slowly or failed to clot. Whipple and sterile solution of the alcohol insoluble
Foster (6) injected Witte's peptone portion containing 0.25 gm. per cc. in
intravenously into dogs. Their first sterilized distilled water was prepared
experiments showed a rise in fibrinogen just before the time of injection. The
and a small drop in red cell hemato- Pauly reaction for histamine was
crit, With lethal doses they noted a negative.
loss of fluid to the tissues and a rise in
red cell hematocrit. Whipple and Three normal unanesthetized female
Foster state that under such conditions dogs were used. They were given 0.4
they believe there is a loss of fibrinogen gin. of proteose per kilo body weight,
in two directions: 1, a passive escape receiving it into the jugular vein. In
with the other blood plasma elements; the histamine experiments either one
2, an active escape due to the precipi- or two mgms. of histamine were in-
tation of fibrin in certain areas suf- jected into one jugular vein and blood
ficiently injured by the proteoses. T. was drawn from the opposite one.
B. Jones and H. P. Smith (4) observed Five cc. of blood were drawn at the
that injected peptone into hepatec- beginning of the experiment as a con-
tomized dogs caused fibrinogen to trol for the protein determinations.
Either proteose or histamine was in- as follows:
jected immediately. Twenty minutes 2 mi. of unstrained plasma (first sam-
were allowed for the injected material pie).
to exert its maximum effect when 2mi. olf a 1:200 dilution of the
original 1.5 per cent dye solution.
another 5 ml. of blood were drawn. An 4 ml. of physiological salt solution.
hour and a half after the injection a This is placed in the colorimeter and
final 5 ml. of blood were obtained, matched with a sample of the second plasma
Samples for protein determinations sample (stained) diluted with physiological
were placed in graduated centrifuge salt solution in the proportion of 2 ml. of
the former to 6 ml. of the latter.
tubes into which 0.5 ml. of hot satu- (7) The concentration of the unknown
rated sodium oxalate had been placed expressed in relation to that of the standard
and evaporated on a hot plate. Plasma is given by the colorimeter reading. Taking
proteins were determined by the 15 ml. as the quantity of dye solution injected,
method of Johnston and Gibson (12). the following is a sample calculation.
Later Mblood volume determinations (200 x number of cubic centimeters of
were made to study the changes in dye injected) (oxalate dilution factor)
volume under the influence of injected 3000 x 5/6
proteose and histamine. The dye used, .95
brilliant vital red, was furnished 2637 mi. plasma volume
through the courtesy of Dr. H. P. (Colorimeter reading)
Smith in charge of the department of The oxalate dilution factor is cal-
culated from the quantity of oxalate
pathology. The blood volume was de- solution added and the quantity of the
termined by a modification of the me- second plasma sample. The total auan-
thod of Keith, Rowntree and Geragh- titv of oxalated plasma in the tube
ty (13). minus 1 (i.e., 5 ml.) divided by the
The procedure former quantity (6 ml.) gives the re-
The procedure is: quired figure.
(1) A 1.5 per cent solution of brilliant vi- In order to determine the volume
tal red is freshly made up by dissolving 37s of the whole blood the proportion of
mgm. of the dye in fresh triply-distilled wa- plasma to red cells must be known.
ter. This value is obtained by means of
(2) Ten cubic centimeters of blood are the hematocrit. If the plasma con-
drawn from the vein of the arm and a statutes say 55 per cent of the whole
blood then the total volume is cal-
measured amount of the dye solution, about culated thfrom the formula:ume cal-
0.25 ml. per kilogram of body weight, in- (Plasma volume)
(3) The blood which has been withdrawn 2631 x 100 4783 ml. volume
is placed in each of two centrifuge tubes -5
containing 1 ml. of a 1.5 per cent solution (Plasma per cent)
of sodium oxalate.
(4) A period of from 5 to 6 minutes is whole blood
allowed to elapse in order to insure thorough The rate of disappearance of brilli-
mixing of the dye in the circulation. Ten ant vital red from the blood of each
cubic centimeters of blood are then drawn dog in twenty minutes was determined
from the vein of the opposite arm. This d used as a correction on the blood
quanity is divided into 5 ml. portions and an se as a correction on the blood
placed in centrifuge tubes containing oxalate volume determinations made on the
solution, twenty minutes samples. This averaged
(5) All four tubes are centrifuged for 10 per cent.*
30 minutes at a speed of 3000 revolutions per Hematocrit Method:
minute. The supernatent plasmas are pipetted The hematocrit was determined by
.6) A standard solution is then made up centrifuging the oxalated blood until
32 FLORIDA A. S M. COLLEGE
the readings of the packed cells and not regained at 90 minutes, and a gain
the reading of the fluid level were con- in globulin in one and a loss in the
stant. This usually required from 20- second test at 20 minutes, the albumin-
30 minutes. The per cent cells was globulin ratio being reversed. The cal-
equal to the reading of packed cells culated composition of the "transu-
divided by the reading of the fluid date" (fluid lost from blood), after
level. When blood volume determina- 20 minutes, is given in Table 5. Here
tions were begun, the required 30 min- is seen a tremendous loss of blood plas-
utes of centrifugation were found to ma from the circulation, 52.1 and 33
be sufficient for the hematocrit. per cent respectively, the total protein
The hematocrit was figured from the form-
ula: being about the same on October 3,
Per cent cells equal- 1939, and increased on December 12,
Reading of packed cells 1939, and is associated with a greater
Reading of fluid level_.._l1.0* effusion of the albumin-globulin ratios.
PRESENTATION OF DATA Four tests were made on Dog 1
The results of 5 earlier tests with (13 kg.) with intravenous injections
Witte's peptone (Dog 1, 13 kg.) are of 1 mg. of histamine (Table 6, 7, and
given in Table 1 and averaged in 8). The averaged changes show a
Table 2. These show little change in slightly diminished total protein per-
the plasma proteins though the hema- centage due to greater loss of albumin
tocrit values rose from an average of than gldbulin after 20 minutes, the
42.8 per cent in 20 minutes. With effect persisting at 90 minutes. Blood
improvements in technique, later ex- volumes were done in 3 tests and a
periments are in accord with data on loss of 27.3, 27.8 and 21.5 per cent of
the two other dogs used, and with plasma volume found. The calculated
subsequent experiments on this same total protein increased. This was due in
animal. Two later tests made on Dog 1 2 of the tests to excessive loss of albu-
in which blood volume changes were min from the plasma. In 2 tests in
determined are presented in Table 3 which Dog 1 (13 kg.) received 2 mg.
and averaged in Table 4. There is a of histamine (Tables 9 and 10) the
marked loss in albumin concentration effects were intensified. Plasma volume
in both tests at 20 minutes which is losses were 34.6 and 32 per cent re-
spectively (Table 11), calculated total
(Ten per cent was added to the calculated proteins reaching a level in the first
plasma volume.) test of 8.66 with more than half the
*(Correction for 1 cc. of isotonic sodium total plasma albumin lost in this in-
oxlate solution used as anticoagulent.) stance.
EFFECT OF PROTEASE INJECTION ON PLASMA PROTEIN OF NORMAL
13 KG. DOG RECEIVING 0.4 G. PER KILO
PLASMA PROTEINS-GRAMS PERCENT
Minutes Albumin Globulin Fibrin- Total Hema-
ogen Protein torrit
0 3.40 1.85 0.62 5.87 40.0
20 3.19 2.33 0.56 6.08 44.0
90 2,70 1.37 0.49 4.56 50.0
0 3.31 2.56 0.30 6.16 42.0
20 3.19 2.83 0.30 6.37 53.0
90 3.30 2.54 0.30 6.14 44.0
0 3.70 2.84 0.36 6.90 47.6
20 3.13 2.23 0.34 5.70 43.6
90 3.40 2.67 0.33 6.40 46.7
0 3.50 2.52 0.48 6.50 42.5
20 3.70 3.42 0.48 7.60 48.4
90 3.70 2.20 0.50 6.40 51.3
0 3.00 2.00 0.45 5.45 41.8
20 3.28 1.57 0.28 5.13 62.5
90 2.80 2.12 0.51 5.43 50.0
AVERAGE PERCENT PLASMA OF 6 EXPERIMENTS WITH 13 KG.
DOG GIVEN 0.4 GM. PROTEOSE PER KILO BODY WT.
Minutes 0 20 90
Albumin 3.38 3.30 3.18
Globulin 2.35 2.48 2.18
Albumin-Globulin 1.44 1.32 1.45
Fibrinogen 0.44 0.39 0.42
Total Protein 6.17 6.17 5.78
Hematocrit 42.8 50.3 48.4
EFFECT OF PROTEOSE INJECTION ON PLASMA PROTEIN OF NORMAL 13 KG.
DOG RECEIVING 0.4 G. PER KILO AND IN WHICH BLOOD VOLUME
DETERMINATIONS WERE MADE.
PLASMA PROTEINS-GRAMS PERCENT
0 3.00 2.05 0.30 5.35 37.7 1261 785.60
20 2.22 3.16 0.32 5.70 51.7 776 376.36
90 2.46 2.00 0.39 4.85 46.6
0 3.41 2.35 0.22 5.98 43.0 1346 767.22
20 2.71 2.55 0.18 8.44 49.3 1002 508
90 2.46 3.10 0.14 5.70 43.7
AVERAGE PERCENT OF PLASMA PROTEIN OF 2 EXPERIMENTS WITH PROTEOSE
INJECTION IN WHICH BLOOD VOLUME WAS DETERMINED WITH
A 13 KG. DOG.
Minutes 0 20 90
Albumin 3.20 2.49 2.46
Globulin 2.20 2.85 2.55
Albumin-Globulin 1.45 0.86 0.96
34 FLORIDA A. c& M. COLLEGE
Fibrinogen 0.26 0.25 0.26
Total Protein 5.66 5.59 5.27
Hematocrit 40.3 50.4 45.1
Blood Volume ml. 1303 939
Plasma Volume ml. 777.89 465.74
DOG 1 (13 KG.) CALCULATION OF COMPOSITION OF TRANSUDATE AFTER
WITTE'S PEPTONE 0.4 GM. PER KG. INTRAVENOUSLY.
Minutes 0 20 20
Volume ml. 785.6 376.4 409.2 52.1
Total Albumin gm. 23.59 8.35 15.24 3.70
Total globulin gm. 16.10 11.89 4.21 1.05
Total fibrinogen gm. 2.36 1.21 1.15 0.28
Total protein gm. 42.03 21.45 20.57 5.03
Albumin-Globulin 1.46 0.70 3.53
Volume ml. 767.2 508 259.2 33.0
Total albumin gm. 26.16 13.77 12.39 4.74
Total globulin gm. 18.03 12.95 5.08 1.96
Total fibrinogen gm. 1.69 0.93 0.76 0.29
Total protein gm. 45.88 27.64 18.24 6.99
Albumin-Globulin 1.45 1.06 2.24
*PERCENT OF TOTAL PLASMA AT 0 TIMES.
EFFECT OF INJECTING 1 MG. OF HISTAMINE INTRAVENOUSLY INTO A
NORMAL 13 KG. DOG
0 3.40 2.17 0.51 6.08 39.0
20 3.27 2.33 0.30 5.90 42.6
90 3.19 1.95 0.41 5.55 40.0
0 3.19 2.05 0.26 5.50 42.5 1323 760.72
20 2.31 2.25 0.18 4.74 46.6 1036 553.22
90 2.11 2.55 0.30 4.97 43.8
0 3.70 2.39 0.20 6.29 44.6 1299 719.64
20 3.36 2.00 0.16 5.52 49.4 1027 519.66
90 3:19 1.80 0.31 5.30 50.0
0 3.10 2.50 0.60 6.50 42.6 1410 738.84
20 2.96 2.84 0.44 6.24 48.3 1122 580
90 3.00 2.88 0.62 6.50 46.0
AVERAGE PLASMA PROTEIN OF 4 EXPERIMENTS INJECTING 1 MG. OF
HISTAMINE WITH A 13 KG. DOG.
Minutes 0 20 90
Albumin 3.42 2.97 2.87
Globulin 2.28 2.35 2.29
Albumin-Globulin 1.50 1.26 1.25
Fibrinogen 0.39 0.27 0.41
Total Protein 6.09 5.59 5.57
Hematocrit 43.26 48.10 46.6
Blood Volume ml. 1344 1061.7
Plasma Volume ml. 739.73 550.96
DOG V (13 KG.) CALCULATION OF COMPOSITION OF TRANSUDATE AFTER
INJECTION OF 1 MG. OF HISTAMINE INTRAVENOUSLY
Minutes 0 20 20
Volume ml. 760.3 553.2 207.5 27.3*
Total Albumin gms. 24.26 12.77 11.49 5.54
Total Globulin gms. 15.59 12.44 3.15 1.51
Total Fibrinogen gms. 1.97 0.99 0.97 0.47
Total Protein gms. 41.87 26.22 15.60 7.15
Albumin-Globulin 1.55 1.03 3.66 27.8
Volume ml. 719.6 519.7 199.9 27.8
Total Albumin gms. 26.62 17.46 9.16 4.60
Total Globulin gms. 17.19 10.39 6.80 3.40
Total Fibrinogen gms. 1.43 0.83 0.60 0.39
Total Protein gms. 45.26 28.68 16.58 8.29
Albumin-Globulin 1.55 1.68 1.35
Volume ml. 738.8 580.0 158.8 21.5
Total albumin gms. 25.12 17.16 7.96 5.01
Total globulin gms. 18.47 16.47 2.00
Total fibrinogen gms. 4.43 2.55 1.88 1.18
Total protein gms. 48.02 36.17 11.85 7.46
Albumin-Globulin 1.36 1.04 3.44
*Percent of total plasma at 0 time.
EFFECT OF INJECTING 2 MG. OF HISTAMINE INTRAVENOUSLY INTO A-..
NORMAL 13 KG. DOG.
0 3.50 2.47 0.23 6.20 40.0 1360 816
20 2.50 2.19 0.21 4.90 47.0 1007 533.71
90 3.30 1.60 0.16 5.06 41.5
0 3.70 1.98 0.25 5.93 43.0 1272 725.0
20 3.16 2.00 0.20 5.36 50.0 986 493.0
90 3.00 1.87 0.10 5.06 47.5
36 FLORIDA A. & M. COLLEGE
AVERAGE PER CENT PLASMA PROTEIN OF 2 EXPERIMENTS INJECTING
2MG. HISTAMINE WITH 13 KG. DOG.
Minutes 0 20 90
Albumin 3.60 2,83 3.15
Globulin 2.22 2.09 1.73
Albumin-Globulin 1.61 1.35 1.82
Fibrinogen 0.24 0.20 0.17
Total Protein 6.06 5.12 5.05
Hematocrit 42.5 46.5 44.5
Blood Volume ml. 1316 996
Plasma Volume ml. 770 513.3
DoG 1 (13 KG.) CALCULATION OF COMPOSITION OF TRANSUDATE AFTER
THE INJECTION OF 2 MG. OF HISTAMINE INTRAVENOUSLY
Minutes 0 20 20
Volume ml. 816 533.7 282.3 34.6*
Total albumin gms. 28.56 13.34 15.22 5.39
Total Globulin gms. 20.15 11.69 8.46 3.00
Total Fibrinogen gms. 1.87 1.12 0.75 0.27
Total protein gms. 50.59 26.15 24.44 8.66
Albumin-Globulin 1.42 1.14 1.78
Volume ml. 725 493 232 32.0*
Total albumin gms. 26.82 16.58 11.24 4.85
Total globulin gms. 14.07 9.85 4.21 1.82
Total Fibrinogen gms. 1.81 0.98 0.83 0.37
Tota protein gms. 42.99 26.42 16.37 7.05
Albumin-Globulin 1.81 1.58 2.66
*Per Cent of total plasma at 0 time.
DIscussioN dining temperature and blood pressure,
decreased mobility, sensibility and
Shock is a deficiency in the circu- sensitivity to stimuli, lowered activity
nation, not cardiac, and not vascular of the reflexes and general functional
in origin, characterized, by decreased depression (2).
blood volume flow and by hemo-
concentration. The latter feature The mechanism of shock has recent-
occurs early, is easily detected and ly been explained by the theory of
hence is useful as a criterion of shock, traumatic shock and toxemia (2)
whether this occurs clinically or is pro- During the World War it was found
duced experimentally (3). The clinical that shock resulted most frequently
features include weakness, thirst, from certain types of wounds. These
vomiting, rapid irregular pulse, de- included multiple wounds from shell
fragments which collectively had toms, followed by a loss in tone of
caused such laceration of tissues. The skeletal muscles and a more or less
impact of projectiles traveling at high complete loss of reflexes. In the fatal
velocity was transmitted laterally and type of reaction, the dogs pass into
produced wide areas of destruction in coma, death usually resulting in from
the tissues surrounding the path of the thirty minutes to two hours. In the
projectile. Such wounds were not ac- non-fatal type, the animals usually re-
companied by much hemorrhage. cover from a semicomatose condition
Circulatory deficiency did not develop in from one to two hours, after which
immediately but usually made its
appearance from four to twenty-four they show few symptoms, except the
hours after the injury. Shock developed repeated passage of bloody stools.
much earlier from injuries involving The isolation of histamine (B-imina-
the abdominal viscera. Everything zolyl-ethyl amine) from ergot and the
favoring absorption from the injured study of its effects upon animals were
area favored the development of the starting points of investigations
shock. It developed most readily when the branches of which have now
the area of damage communicated touched numerous aspects of the bio-
with the surface by only a small logical sciences. Dale and Lidlaw (1)
opening. Conversely, when a large area observed that histamine can cause the
of flesh and skin had been carried typical symptoms and pathology of
away, shock was either slight or en- anaphylactic shock when injected into
tirely absent, normal animals. In dogs and cats there
Hemoconcentration occurs early is a marked increase in red blood count.
before other signs of shock appear. This is considered to be due either to a
ost mortem findings indicated capil- loss of fluid from the blood into the
lary atony in extensive visceral areas, tissues, or to a release of corpuscles
marked dilatation and enlargement of from some servoir into the blood.
capillaries and venules with evident Direct measurement of the plasma
stasis of blood in them, edema of soft volume demonstrated that the first ex-
tissues and effusion of the serois planation is the correct one. For
cavities. The edema fluid and effusions example, in one experiment there was
were shown to have a high specific a loss of plasma volume amounting to
gravity and protein content, approxi- 41 per cent. At the same time there
mating that of the blood plasma. He- was an crease of 40 per cent in the
mo-concentration develops gradually hemoglobin value.
after severe trauma, operations, intes- Derer and Steffanutti (1) found
tinal obstruction and burns, but it that in cats intravenous histamine
results immediately after injection of increased the concentration of the
bile peptone, histamine, emetine and blood but in this concentrated blood
other substances which cause damage there was actually less serum protein
to endothelium. than in normal blood. This they at-
tempted to explain on a basis of selec-
Manwaring (8) states the picture tive permeability of the vessel walls.
of acute anaphylactic reaction in dogs
as an almost complete absence of In canine histamine shock (9) the
respiratory distress, the dominating severity of the histamine reaction is
features being gastro-intestinal symp- not reduced in dehepatized dogs nor
38 FLORIDA A. d M. COLLEGE
in eviscerated dogs. Recovery from for with the low blood pressure and
histamine shock takes place as prompt- loss of fluid from the blood vessels a
ly and completely in dehepatized and temporary anuria must occur. This
eviscerated dogs as in intact animals, transudate is shown in the date pre-
Canine anaphylactic, peptone, and sented to be of equal or of greater
histamine shock, therefore, are not concentration in plasma protein than
physiologically indentical reactions. the plasma itself, the albumin tending
The secondary reaction due to low to pass the capillary wall more rapidly
systematic blood pressure is pre- than the gobulin with corresponding
sumably identical in the three shocks, changes in the albumin-globulin ratio.
In the later stages of each shock, the This is to be expected when the com-
secondary reactions conceivably domi- position of ordinary transudate is con-
nate the clinical picture. sidered. Moreover, it is in accord with
Mendel's observation on the compo-
Dragated, Mead and Ayers (10) sition of the lymph from the thoracic
have recently reported that the in- duct in dogs in which protease shock
travenous injection of solution, of had been induced. Fibrinogen seems to
"peptone" into dogs results in the pass out readily, the calculated figures
appearance in the blood stream and for the transudate being equal to or
thoracic duct lymph of vasodepressor above that of the plasma. No outstand-
substance, tentatively identified as ing difference in the action of proteose
histamine. They concluded that pep- as compared with histamine has been
tone shock was, therefore, indirectly noticed. Ninety minutes after the in-
produced and was due to the liberated section, recovery of the blood plasma
histamine and not due to any direct volume and concentration may be evi-
depressor constituents of the peptone dent.
solution used. It is the proteose com- SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
ponent of so-called peptone prepa- Thi ,
rations upon which the capacity to Trty-one tests, 2 of which in-
produce shock depends. cluded blood volume determinations,
were done in three dogs to study the
Toshiteru Yokota (11) states that effect of proteose and histamine shock
because the peptone contains albumose, on the blood plasma changes.
blood becomes non-coagulable when
peptone is injected. Both primary and About one-third of the plasma was
secondary albumose inhibit coagu- lost, presumably, as transudate 20 mn-
lation of the blood. The severity of utes after the injection.
the peptone reaction is reduced in corn- The calculated trasudate figures
pletely eviscerated dogs. In dehepa- show an equal or greater concentration
tized dogs recovery from the shock in total protein than the control plas-
does not take place, the animal dying ma analyses. The change affects the
in about 60 minutes. The liver there- serum albumin to a greater degree
fore, is the dominant organ in peptone with corresponding alteration of the
recovery. albumin-globulin ratio. Fibrinogen is
With the onset of proteose or hista- lost from the plasma in equal or great-
mine shock in the dog, there is a rapid er concentration to the transudate.
loss of blood plasma for 20 minutes, No striking differences in the chang-
the volume falling about one-third. es due to the proteose as compared to
This must be due to a transudation, histamine injections were evidenced.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 10. DRAGSTEDT, C. A., MEAD, P. B., and
1., C AYER S. N., J. Pharm. and Exper. Therapy ,
1. RACEMAN, P. M., Clinical Allergy, 48,
1,191. M a4 63, 400, (1938).
168, (1931). 11. YOKOTA, T., Sei-i-kwai Ned. 1., 48, No.
2. MooN, V. R., Arch. Path., 24, 642,3. English Sect., 2, (1939).
39, 53. English Sect., P. 2, (1939).
S, 12. JOHNSTON. G. W. and GrBsoN, R. B.,
3. MooN, V. H., Annals of Surgery, 110, Am. J. Clinical Path., 8, No. 1, (1938).
26, t1929). Am. J. Cinical Path., 8, No. 1, (1931).
T. 13. BEST, C. H. and TAYLOR, N. B., The
4. JoNEs, T. B., and SMITH, B. P., Amer.
4. Jows T. B, a Physiological Basis of Med. Practice, 24,
J. Physiol., 94, 144.
5. BRAY, G. W., Recent Advances in Allergy, 1. KTH, M., RO L. G., and
14. KEITH, N. M., RouoDTREE, L. G., and
So, 3. a W GERARHTY, J. T., Arch. Internal Med.,
6. FOSTEa, D. P. and WHIPPLE, G. H., Am.
16, 547, (1915).
J. Phyiol., 38, 407, (1921-22). 16, 47, (1915).
J. Pyiol., .8, 407, (1921-22)R. 15. BODANSKY, O., An Introduction to Phy-
(7. 924), W. C, biological Chemistry, 216, 222-241, (19-
8. MANWARING, W. H., J. A. M. Associ. 3)
8.77 849, (1921). H., A. A ., 16. ARNOLD, R. M., and MENDEL, L. B. J.
77, 49, (191). Biol. Chem., 72, 189, (1927).
9. BEST, C. H. and MCHENRY, E. W., Phy-
siol. Rev., 11, 71, (1931).
About The Contributors....
C. E. ARNSBY reports in this issue and Washington State, Ph.D. He was
her findings resulting from her study an instructor at Florida A and M Col-
of the nutritional value of the Brazil lege from 1944 to 1946. Dr. Smith was
nut. She conducted this study at Co- the first Negro teaching assistant at
lumbia University in 1948 under the Washington State. He writes that he
supervision of Dr. Orrea F. Pye. Miss is interested in "all areas of social re-
Arnsby is presently conducting a nu- search, statistics, population problems,
trition study on the girls at the Lucy and intercultural phenomena." He be-
Moten High School. came interested in the movement of
LEONARD H. SPEARMAN the Negro population while in the Pa-
LEONARD H. SEARMAN con- cific Northwest.
tributes his observations on the speci-
fic duties of the social guidance teacher DWIGHT L. FOSTER, a graduate of
in helping the guidance director to im- Imperial College, British West Indies,
plement a program of guidance. A received both the M.SC. (Agricultur-
graduate of Florida A and M College, al Economics) and the Ph. D. (Soil
Mr. Spearman received his M. A. de- Science) degrees from Cornell Uni-
gree in child development and elemen- versity. Dr. Foster served in the Bri-
tary school administration at the Uni- tish Colonial Service as an Agricultur-
versity of Michigan where he studied al Officer in the Caribbean Area. Al-
under Dr. W. C. Olson and Dr. G. though his substantive position at
Ma Wingo. Florida A and M College is Professor
NATHANIEL SAYLOR is a graduate of Agronomy, Dr. Foster's training
oHau and M n and interest in economics have earned
of Hampton Institute and Michigan him admission as a Fellow of the Royal
State College with a B.S. and M.S. de- Economic Society of London. He is
Economic Society of London. He is
agree in Dairying. He is especially in- also a fairly regular contributor of
terested in the development of a pro- mathematical problems and solutions
gram of artificial insemination for to poems in Schl Science
to problems in School Science and
cattle in the Florida A and M College Mathematics and plays a viola in the
area. Mathematics and plays a viola in the
area. Florida A and M College String En-
WALTER H. ELLIS makes his second semble.
contribution to the Research Bulletin HERBERT H. HARRIS is a graduate
ih ,, M HERBERT H. HARRIS is a graduate
in this issue. Mr. Ellis is a graduate of of the University of Illinois, B.S. and
Fisk University, (B.A. and M.A.) the University of Iowa, M.S. He served
where he studied under Dr. St. Elmo
Bra s social field of interest as instructor in charge of the cream-
Brady. His special field of interest is ery at Tuskegee and for nineteen years
ery at Tuskegee and for nineteen years
the chemistry of plants in which he served as Professor of Biochemistry at
plans to do further study. Mr. Ellis Meharry Medical College. Mr. Harris's
writes that his interest in cortisone special interest is blood and urine chem-
arises from the fact that "it illustrates s peciabout is present article, Mr.
the humanitarian value of basic re- istry.is writpres, "The article covers re-
search." Harris writes, "The article covers re-
search done daily at the Iowa Univer-
CHARLES U. SMITH is a graduate of sity Hospital Laboratories from June
Tuskegee, B.S.; Fisk University, M.A.; 1939 to February 1940.