L D A
Tallahassee ..... Florida
ISSUED QUARTERLY AND ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER, JUNE 24, 1947, AT
THE POST OFFICE, TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA, UNDER THE ACT OF AUGUST 24, 1912
VOLUME 11 SEPTEMBER 1958 NUMBER 3
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY
RESEARCH COMMITTEE AND EDITORIAL
CHARLES U. SMITH, Chairman
JAMES HUDSON EMMA BLAKE
A. A. ABRAHAM CARLON PRYOR
O. A. LAMPKINS D. T. TURNER
T. B. COOPER L. R. ADAMS
SAMUEL E. RUSSELL L. H. 0. SPEARMAN
LEADER BOYKIN HERBERT JONES
BERNICE REAVES WILLIAM JOHNSON
C. J. STANLEY A. S. PARKS
The Research Issue is the official medium for the publication of research,
scholarly criticism, and creative writing of the Faculty, Staff, and Student Body
of the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University. It seeks to promote
sound scholarship and contributions to knowledge by publishing works of
merit which are developed by members of the University.
All communications should be addressed to Dr. Charles U. Smith,
Chairman, Research Committee, Florida A. and M. University, Tallahassee,
Printed by the Florida A: and M. University Press
IN THIS ISSUE
Rutherford B. Hayes and the Great Riots of 1887-
A Problem of Presidential Responsibility as Protector
of the Peace .... .... .. ... ............................................... 1
FRANCES J. STAFFORD
A Critique of Shakespeare Criticism ................ ............... 11
Interest Patterns of Passing and Failing Students
in Education .................. ................................................................. 19
A. A. ABRAHAM, SR.
Teachers and Television ...................... .......... ..................... 25
THEODORE B. COOPER
BOOK REVIEWS and LIBRARY NOTES:
Review by Oswald A. Lampkins ............................ ......... .. 28
Review by Darwin T. Turner ........... ...... ............... ........ 29
What Say You?-ToMI PLUMMER ........................................ 18
The Message of the Sea-G. E. COVINGTON .......... .......... 24
Blighted Memories-WALTER B. HUNTER ................................ 27
Bibliography of FAMU Faculty Publications, 1950-58 ........ 32
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES AND THE GREAT
RIOTS OF 1887-A Problem of Presidential
Responsibility as Protector of the Peace
FRANCES J. STAFFORD
Department of History and Geography
The ever-potential threat of domestic disorder was acknowledged by the
framers of the Constitution in 1787, through their incorporation into the new
instrument of government, of the procedure, later supplemented by congression-
al legislation, whereby Federal assistance could be given to states faced with
civil strife. The sum and substance of such procedure and legislation came
to place upon the President the responsibility to use force, if necessary, to
prevent or to subdue domestic violence,1 hence the relationship between internal
crisis-situations and the use of presidential powers has been one of
increasing importance in the development of the institution of the presidency.2
It is the purpose of this paper to examine the role of one President as
Protector of the Peace during a specific situation of domestic strife, namely,
Rutherford B. Hayes and the Great Riots of 1877. While there have been
numerous major disturbances of the domestic peace in the history of this
country, some far more easily recalled and others more frequently referred. to,
the Great Riots of 1877 claimed the attention of the writer because:
1. they characterized the first great industrial strike in the United States;
2. they resulted in the use for the first time of the national army in an
3. they occasioned the first assertion of the presidential initiative in em-
ploying military power to enforce the laws of the United States during
such a crisis, thereby setting the precedent for Cleveland's actions in
1894, and the basis for the reversal by the Supreme Court in the Debs
Case of the assumption under the Act of 1807 that such employment
of the national forces must first be authorized by Congress.3
The Railroad Strike of 1877 is presented only as the historical event that
precipitated the Great Riots. No detailed effort has been made to assay the
justness of the cause of the strike, to praise or condemn the actions of the rail-
road .companies and the public, nor to evaluate the gains or losses realized
by the laborers as a result of the strike. Emphasis is entirely upon the problem
of presidential leadership-the course of action adopted by President Hayes
during domestic insurrection.
PRESIDENTIAL AUTHORITY AND DOMESTIC DISORDER
Although the maintenance of domestic peace is a problem as ancient as
government itself, the people of the United States take comfort in the fact
that by virtue of the constitutional powers of the President and subsequent ones
1Rich, The Presidents and Civil Disorder, p. 1.
2Milton, The Use of Presidential Power, 1789-1943, p. 176.
3Corwin, The President: Office and Powers, pp. 170-171.
2 FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
delegated to him by Congress, the Chief Executive has a broad range of authority
in relation to domestic disorders.4 In time of disaster, violence, or social cala-
mities, the people almost instinctively turn to the President for aid and comfort.5
What reaction could be more logical in view of his function as Protector of
The Constitution gives to Congress the right:
To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the
Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions.
It also provides that:
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a
republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against
invasion, and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when
the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.
However, it specifies that the President
shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United
States, and of the militia of the several states when called into the actual
service of the United States .. .
and that he
shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed. s
Herein lies the original constitutional grant of the presidential function of
Protector of the Peace, supplemented by statutes passed in 1792, 1795, 1807,
and further broadened by Section 5297 of the Revised Statutes, which defines
Federal assistance to the states as:
In the case of an insurrection in any State against the government
thereof it shall be lawful for the President, on application of the legis-
lature of such State, or of the executive when the legislature can not
be convened, to call forth such number of the militia of any other
State or States which may be applied for as he deems sufficient to
suppress such insurrection, or on like application, to employ for the
same purposes such part of the land or naval forces of the United
States as he deems necessary;9
His power has been extended further by Section 5298, which authorizes the
President to enforce the laws of the United States; and by Section 5299, which
the duty of the President, whenever insurrection, domestic violence,
or unlawful combinations in a state hinder the execution of the laws
with the result that any class is denied the equal protection of its con-
stitutional rights to take such measures, by the employment of the
militia or the land and naval forces of the United States, or of
either, or by other means, as he may deem necessary, for the sup-
pression of such insurrection, domestic violence or combinations.10
The domestic disorders with which the Presidents of the United States
have been concerned may be divided into two categories-those directed
4Rich, The Presidents and Civil Disorders, pp. 1; 189.
5Rossiter, The American Presidency, pp. 23-24.
6Article I, sec. 8.
7Article IV, sec. 4.
sArticle II, sees. 2, 3.
9R. S., 5297:1029.
o1R. S., 5299:1029.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 3
against the government and those arising out of social and industrial conditions
in which the authority of the government is used to preserve the peace. Before
the Civil War, the major instances of domestic strife derived from opposition
to state or national government; since the Reconstruction Period, however,
the disorders necessitating Federal intervention have arisen as a result of in-
dustrial or social conflicts. A second factor that distinguishes the earlier instances
of disorder from later ones is the time element. The nature of the opposition to
the Excise Law enabled Washington to move slowly in putting down the Whis-
key Rebellion of 1794; on the other hand, the Railroad Riots of 1877 demand-
ed decisive action on the part of Hayes, for neither before nor since has a civil
conflagration spread so widely and with such amazing speed.11
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES AND THE GREAT RIOTS OF 1877
In less than five months after Rutherford B. Hayes took office as President,
"a profound and irrepressible conflict of class forces""2 arose within the country
which local and even state authorities were helpless to stem. Such was the nature
of the Railroad Strike of 1877, which is traditionally described as "the first acute
labor crisis in American history."13 Its immediate causes lay in the business de-
pression that followed the Panic of 1873. The railroad industry was particularly
hard hit by the financial collapse, and its general situation had not improved
by 1876, due to a destructive rate-reduction war among competing systems. To
compensate, if possible, for resultant loss of income, the Baltimore and Ohio
Railroad Company put into effect a ten per cent wage reduction among its
employees in July of 1877, thereby reducing, for example, the pay of first-
class firemen on the road from $1.50 to $1.35 per day.14 Those who refused to
accept the reduction stopped work only to be replaced immediately by men
drawn by the company from the then existent large pool of unemployed. Probably,
if the poverty and bitterness of the times had been less acute, the matter
would have ended at this point, but on July 17, came the opening of a strike
called by the Trainmen's Union at Martinsburg, West Virginia, a junction of
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.15 The objective of the strike was to compel
the railroad company to recall the order for the reduction of wages.16 The
method of the strikers was revolutionary for it involved the seizure and control
of towns and railroad yards at strategic points of the network and the block-
ading of freight movements for the purpose of achieving the stoppage of the
railroad system upon a nation-wide scale.17 The movement soon spread to
Baltimore, Pittsburgh, and throughout the Middle West, and came to involve
no fewer than fourteen states and the four great trunk lines between the
Atlantic Seaboard and the Western States. Its attendant violence and destruc-
12Josephson, The Politicos, p. 251.
13Eckenrode, Rutherford B. Hayes, p. 298.
14McCabe, The History of the Great Riots, pp. 17-18.
lsJosephson, The Politicos, p. 252.
'1McCabe, The History of the Great Riots, p. 18.
1Josephson, The Politicos, p. 253.
4 FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
tion were such that James Ford Rhodes, the son of an Ohio coal operator was
moved to write that it was a "social uprising" that
seemed to threaten the chief strongholds of society and came
like a thunderbolt out of a clear sky, startling us rudely. For we had
hugged the delusion that such social uprisings belonged to Europe
and had no reason of being in a free republic where there was plenty
of room and an equal chance for all.18
Describing the nature of the riots, a spectator19 later reported.
S. .the laws were set at defiance, the property of the various rail-
way companies seized, injured, or destroyed, the civil authorities over-
powered or overawed The strikes placed an embargo on the entire
freight traffic of more than twenty thousand miles of railroad, put
passenger travel and the movement of the United States mails at the
mercy of a mob, subjected great commercial centres [Sic] like
Chicago and St. Louis to the violent disturbance of all their business
relations, and made the great manufacturing city of Pittsburgh for
hours such a scene of riot, arson, and bloodshed as can never be
erased from the memory of its people Nothing but the insanity
of passion, played upon by designing and mischievous leaders can
explain the destruction [The railroad workers] reinforced by ..
disreputable allies destroyed property, stopped commerce, deranged
the mails, burned great public buildings, broke up tracks and thus
paralyzed the natural circulation of the Commonwealth.20
By July 21st, the strike and rioting extended from Martinsburg through
Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York and out to Pittsburgh where, from
the 21st through the 22nd, the worst clashes of the month occurred. Then
from Cleveland, Chicago, and St. Louis, the disorder prevailed westward to
San Francisco. Here, on July 25th and 26th, the rioting was not so much a
concomitant of the eastern railroad strike as it was ". a brutal and tn-
provoked outbreak of the worst elements of the city [against the Chinese
population] and caused by nothing but a love of violence and disorder on
the part of those who engaged in it."21 With the exception of the situation
in San Francisco, the uprisings followed a fairly consistent pattern-the refusal
by the railroad workers to permit the trains to move, followed by their deter-
mination not to negotiate with railroad officials; outbreaks of defiance
that took the form of burning, wrecking, or otherwise destroying railroad
property' and rolling stock; the summoning of local or state military groups
(sometimes augmented by private, volunteer citizens); renewed and more violent
acts of looting, arson, and murder accompanied by pitched battles between the
1sRhodes, History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850, vol,
VIII, p. 46.
DoColonel Thomas A. Scott, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, whose
observations may not have been entirely objective.
2oScott, "The Recent Strikes," North American Review, Vol. CXXV, pp.351-352.
21McCabe, The History of the Great Riots, p. 430.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 5
mobs of superior numerical strength and the local military forces.22 In brief, it
seemed that, "Hell is open and the lid is off!"23
In view of such a situation in the country, within a matter of hours appeals
went from the governors of four states to President Hayes requesting Federal
aid;24 the "working men" of New York City petitioned him to convene Con-
gress in extra session.22 While realizing the extreme gravity of the crisis (for he
wrote of the Pittsburgh riots as, the dreadful events of that awful Sun-
day,"26) Hayes chose to move with deliberation through prescribed channels
and upon his own responsibility, for never before had the national troops been
used in industrial strife. He required of the governors through the Secretary
of War, a complete statement of facts as to the strength of the insurgents
and the reasons for the respective states' inability to control the disorders,27
War Department, Washington, D. C.
July 18th, 1877
To Governor Henry Mathews, Wheeling, W. Va.:
Your dispatch to the President asking for troops is received. The
President is adverse to intervention unless it is clearly shown that the
State is unable to suppress the insurrection. Please furnish a statement
of facts. What force can the State raise? How strong are the in-
Geo. W. McCrary, Secretary of War.28
Upon the reply of the governor explaining the reasons for the inadequacy
of West Virginia's militia (only four companies of volunteers-two, of which,
were in sympathy with the rioters at Martinsburg), as the result of a previous
action of the state legislature prohibiting the enrollment of militia, Hayes,
acting through the Secretary of War, ordered 400 troops from the Washington
Arsenal and from Fort McHenry to proceed to Martinsburg.29
From July 18th-23rd, President Hayes followed this course of procedure with
Maryland, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana. In maintaining
the constitutional and legal aspects of his position as Protector of the Peace, in
spite of repeated demands for haste, he required the observation of the following
criteria in the states' request for federal aid:
1. Disorder existed.
2. The state authorities were incapable of preserving the peace.
22Ibid., pp. 174-326.
23Josephson, The Politicos, p. 254.
24Ibid., pp. 254-255. Thomas .Scott of the Pennsylvania System telegraphed
the President every hour for two days demanding that the regular army be
25McCabe, The History of the Great Riots, p. 312.
26Williams, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Vol. III, p. 440.
27Rich, The Presidents and Civil Disorders, p. 73.
28McCabe, History of the Great Riots, p. 25.
29Ibid., pp. 25-27.
6 PLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
3. The legislature was not in session.
4. The legislature could not be convened in time to meet the emergency.
5. The appeal to the President was to protect the state against domestic
A further instance of Hayes' adherence to strict legal procedures was his ob-
servance of the statute stating that:
Whenever in the judgement of the President, it becomes necessary
to use the military forces under this title (Insurrection), the President
shall forewith by proclamation, command the insurgents to disperse
and retire peaceably to their respective abodes, within a limited time.31
Hence, as a part of the President's policy a series of proclamations was issued
in conjunction with the dispatch of federal troops to the various areas of
trouble. The proclamation for Pennsylvania read as follews:
By the President of the United States of America:
WHEREAS, It is provided in the Constitution of the United States that
the United States shall protect every State in this Union on application of the
Legislature, or of the Executive when the Legislature cannot be convened
against domestic violence; and,
WHEREAS, The Governor of the State of Pennsylvania has represented
that domestic violence exists in said State which the authorities of said State
are unable to suppress; and,
WHEREAS, The Laws of the United States require in all cases of in-
surrection in any State Whenever in the judgment of the President it
becomes necessary to use the military forces to suppress such insurrection .
he shall forthwith by proclamation command such insurgents to disperse and
retire peaceably to their respective abodes within a limited time:
Now, therefore, I, Rutherford B. Hayes, President of the United
States, do hereby admonish all good citizens of the United States
and all good persons within the territory and jurisdiction of the United
States against aiding, countenancing, abetting, or taking part in such
unlawful proceedings and I do hereby warn all persons engaged in or
connected with the said domestic violence and obstruction of the laws
to disperse and retire peaceably to their respective abodes on or before
twelve o'clock noon on the 24th day of July instant.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the
seal of the United States to be affixed.
Done at the city of Washington this 23rd day of July, in the year of
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven, and of the
independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
R. B. Hayes
3sRich, The Presidents and Civil Disorder, pp. 78-79.
aIR. S., 5300:; 030.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 7
By the President:
William M. Evarts, Secretary of State.32
As Protector of the Peace, every President knows that once he has com-
mitted himself to deal with civil disorder, no aspect of the relationship of the
Federal and state governments is more delicate than that of the use of govern-
ment troops to restrain the actions of residents of a state.33 President Hayes
was entirely aware of the responsibility that he had undertaken. Beginning on
Saturday, July 21st, and continuing until the crisis abated, he held daily meet-
ings with the Cabinet. His notes on these meetings throw light upon official at-
titudes and the course of events-
24 July-Dispatches from Cleveland, Buffalo, St. Louis, Philadelphia-strike
still extending but violence diminishing. U. S. troops everywhere respected.
Secy. Th [ompson] proposed to send Monitor to N. Y. to clear streets
around Custom House. Sh [erman] thinks streets too crooked-Ev[arts]
says the big guns will straighten them! Monitor ordered. ...
25 July-A bitter feeling as to the riots 1000 naval force-marines and
sailors as N. Y.-R. R.s refuse to carry mails alone Pittsburgh danger
of a revival of riots I advise a proclamation to be issued soon ....
26 July-400 regulars-and 2500 militia to go to Pittsburgh to keep open
R.R.s for coal supplies and food strikers, it is suggested are all
carpetbaggers shall the U. S. forces be used to suppress riots in Chicago,
before we issue a proclamation? No, says Ev[arts].
31 July-All quiet except] at Cleveland and at few points a peaceful block-
ade is kept up Sherman calls attention to the need of National action.
Thompson suggests contract between R.R.s.34
President Hayes, further aware of the hazards embodied in this Federal
government state relationship, repeatedly instructed his commanding officers to
act under the orders of the governors who requested aid, although General
Hancock protested this policy to Secretary of War McCrary, stating:
My impression is that he [the President] should not do it [intervene]
through the civil powers of the states which have already failed, but that it
should be done by the intervention of Federal authority by military force
and by the President exercising the control.35
At no time did the President make an effort to take control from the
local authorities on the ground that the strike interfered with the exercise
of a Federal function, the handling of the United States mail. In spite of the
care of the strikers in most cases to permit the mail cars to go through, there
82Richardson, Mpssage and Papers of the Presidents, Vol II, P. 449.
33Howe, "President Hayes' Notes of Four Cabinet Meetings," American
Ifistorial Review, Vol, XXXVII, p. 286.
a4Ibid., pp. 287-289.
35Rich, The Presidents and Civil Disorder, p. 191.
8 PLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
were enough incidents to the contrary to have given justifiable grounds for
action by the national government. Nor did President Hayes use the interrup-
tion of interstate commerce as a basis for Federal action. From his viewpoint,
the use of troops took place for three reasons only:
1. upon receipt of a formal call for aid from a distressed state;
2. to protect Federal property;
3. to enforce the mandates of United States courts that were, at the time,
holding in receivership certain railroad lines in southern Illinois and
That the President gave consideration to proclaiming martial law cannot
be denied in view of the Cabinet discussions of July 25th,37 but such a procla-
mation, if prepared, was never issued.
Between July 18th and August 31st, the states into which the greater
number of troops were sent were:
Pennsylvania 2,185 Indiana 406
Maryland 1,024 Missouri 452
West Virginia 544 Illinois 653
Kentucky 390 Nebraska 51838
As suddenly as the rioting had flared up and spread, just as quickly it subsided
upon the appearance of the troops. Major General W. S. Hancock was to
Wherever the troops appeared they succeeded by their presence alone in
represssing the disorders, and there is no instance of any serious attack being
made upon them, although they had frequently to bear in patience and
silence a good deal of abuse and some personal violence from the rioters."9
The Secretary of War, in like vein, commented in his report to the House:
It is a source of great pleasure to me to be able to announce that the
national forces sent to quell these disturbances met with little resistance,
and were able to execute all their orders without firing a gun and without
President Hayes, in his First Annual Message to the Congress officially summed
up the events by stating:
The very serious riots which occurred in several of the States in July
last rendered necessary the employment of a considerable portion of the
Army to preserve peace and maintain order these disturbances were
so formidable as to defy the local and State authorities, and the National
Executive was called upon, in the mode provided by the Constitution and
laws, to furnish military aid. I am gratified to be able to state that
36Ibid., p.p. 82-83.
37Howe, "President Hayes' Notes," American Historical Review, Vol. XXXVII,
38H. Ex. Doc. No. 6, 45 Cong. 2 sess., Pt. 2, p. 98.
39Ibid., p. 89.
40H. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 34 Cong. 2 sess., Pt. 2, p, XIII.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 9
the troops sent in response to these calls for aid in the suppression of
domestic violence were able, by the influence of their presence to
preserve the peace and restore order without the use of force. In the dis-
charge of their delicate and important duty both officers and men acted
with great prudence and courage, and for their services deserve the thanks
of the country.41
The personal reaction of the President, however, was noted in his Diary, under
the entry dated August 5, 1877:
The strikes have been put down by force; but now for the real remedy.
Can't something [be] done by education of the strikers, by judicious
control of the capitalists, by wise general policy to end or diminish the
Studies of presidential intervention in later labor disputes make it apparent
that the primary reason which caused the Chief Executive to exert his influence
and powers was the pressure of public opinion. At the time of the Railroad
Strike and Riots of 1877, on the other hand, Hayes' action was impelled by
the desire to perform his duty as the head of the nation by restoring order and
by protecting the interests of the public.43 Nevertheless, public opinion as
expressed through the newspapers of the late summer of 1877, was favorably
impressed by the President's "prudence and care" in the execution of his "delicate
and responsible duties." Recent evaluations of the Hayes administration also
agree that his cautious and deliberate policy strengthened rather than weakened
the position of the government in the face of domestic insurrection.44 Yet, "to
treat the powers of the Chief Executive without reference to the individual in-
cumbent is to ignore [a] chief determining factor";45 therefore, it must be
noted that the President's policy was in part conditioned by the inherent
qualities of his personality-" a resolute will, irreproachable integrity and
a comprehensive and remarkably healthy view of public affairs. He was not an
aggressive man although firm in his opinions ."46
Rutherford B. Hayes fulfilled his duty under the Constitution as Protector
of the Peace, and the Great Riots came to an end. Very probably, however, out
of his concern for the welfare of the nation, the President knew that civil
disorders are rarely caused by trifles and that, despite the charges of the news-
papers, local authorities, and railroad owners that the disorders were the
results of communist influences,47 no real solution had been found. The
"education of the strikers the judicious control of the capitalists and
the wise general policy "4 lay far in the future.
41Richardson, Messages and Papers of the Presidents, Vol. VII, p. 472.
42Williams, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Vol. III, p. 440.
43Berman, Labor Disputes and the President of the United States, p. 248.
44Rich, The Presidents and Civil Disorder, pp. 85-86.
45Herring, Presidential Leadership, pp. 10-11.
46Shores, The Hayes-Conkling Controversy, 1877-1879, pp. 274-276.
47Rich, The Presidents and Civil Disorder, p. 84; McCabe, The History of the
Great Riots, pp. 281-283.
48Williams, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Vol. III, p. 440.
10 FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
United States Government Publications:
Constitution of the United States.
Report of the Secretary of War. House Executive Documents 1 and 6, Pt. II. 45
Cong. 2 sess. (1877-1878). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1878.
Revised Statutes of the United States. Washington: Government Printing Office,
Richardson, James D., A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presi-
dents, 1789-1902. Washington: Bureau of National Literature and Art, 1907.
Berman, Edward, Labor Disputes and the President of the United States. New
York: Columbia University, 1924.
Corwin, Edward S., The President: Office and Powers. New York: New York
University Press, 1940.
Eckenrode, H. J., Rutherford B. Hayes, Statesman of Reunion. New York:
Dodd, Mead and Company, 1930.
Herring, Edward P., Presidential Leadership. New York: Rinehart and Com-
Josephson, Matthew, The Politicos, 1865-1896. New York, Harcourt, Brace and
McCabe, James D. (Edward W. Martin), The History of the Great Riots.
Philadelphia: National Publishing Company, 1877.
Milton, George F., The Use of Presidential Power, 1789-1943. Boston: Little,
Brown and Company, 1944.
Rhodes, James F., History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850.
New York: Macmillan Company, 1903-1925. 10 vols.
Rich, Bennett, M., The President and Civil Disorder. Washington: The Brook-
ings Institution, 1941.
Rossiter, Clinton, The American Presidency. New York The New American
Shores, Venila L., The Hayes-Conkling Controversy, 1877-1879. Northampton:
Smith College Studies in History, 1919.
Williams, Charles R., Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes. Columbus:
The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1924.
Howe, George F., "President Hayes' Notes of Four Cabinet Meetings," The
American Historical Review, Vol. XXXVII (1932), pp. 286-289.
Scott, Thomas A., "The Recent Strikes," North American Review, Vol.
CXXV (1877), pp. 351-362,
A CRITIQUE OF SHAKESPEARE CRITICISM
Department of English
During 1947 two Shakespeare scholars, Miss Lily B. Campbell and Dr.
E. M. W. Tillyard, published criticisms of Shakespeare's history plays. In the
preface of her book, Shakespeare's "Histories," Mirrors of Elizabethan Policy,
Miss Campbell declares her intention of "discovering the principles and methods
of historiography which were current in sixteenth-century England and of
demonstrating the way in which Shakespeare applied them when he wrote
his histories." She also aims to demonstrate that "there is in the history plays
a dominant political pattern characteristic of the political philosophy of
Dr. Tillyard, in Shakespeare's History Plays, proposes to show: the origin
of "the main ideas about the course of English history from Edward III to
Henry VII current among the educated men of Shakespeare's day"; the sources
from which Shakespeare "derived both these ideas and his more general philo-
sophy of history"; the relative influence of the Chronicle and Morality Play
on Shakespeare; his earlier plays, especially the three parts of "Henry VI," worthy
of more consideration; the extent of his debt to chroniclers Hall and Holinshed;
the history play as "an independent and authentic type of drama"; and Shakes-
peare himself as educated, "a poet more rather than less like Dante and Milton
in massiveness of intellect and powers of reflection."2
Each writer provides a provocative background for his discussion of the
plays. Miss Campbell's, broader in terms of history and geography, dates back
to the classicists; Dr. Tillyard's, while acknowledging a general debt to the early
Greeks and Romans, goes back only to the Middle Ages and gives equal con-
sideration to writers, ideologies (such as the doctrine of order or degree and the
Tudor Myth), and both non-dramatic and dramatic literature.
Miss Campbell finds it necessary, initially, to define a history play as one
concerned "with the doings of men which in philosophy are discussed under
politics."3 In her discourse on this matter she implies disagreement with one
of Dr. Tillyard's premises that "England is the hero of the plays England,
or in Morality terms Respublica."4 She offers, in substantiating her definition,
the common aims and purposes and methods of all forms of historical writing
as revealed in the writing and interpreting of history in sixteenth-century Tudor
'Lily B. Campbell, Shakespeare's "Histories," Mirrors of Elizabethan Policy
(San Marino California, 1947), p. 6.
2E. M. W. Tillyard, Shakespeare's History Plays (New York, 1947), pp.
SCampbell, op. cit., p. 17.
4Tillyard, op. cit., p. 160.
12 FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
Miss Campbell holds that historiography is a product of both the revival
of humanism and the Reformation. The translators of the classics justified the
reading and writing of history because history perpetuated the fame of nations;
"explained the rise and fall of nations"; embodied the past experience of men
and of nations and consequently was the best of teachers, especially for the
prince of magistrate"; and, because human nature remained the same, like
causes produced like results."5
The men of the Renaissance learned from the classicists not only why history
should be recorded, but also how. Cicero held that "the historian must tell
the truth and the whole truth without partiality or malice," must insure
"chronological arrangement and geographic representation," relate cause and
effect, detail important events, and use 'the kind of language and type of
style easy and flowing, which run their course with an unvarying current
and a certain placidity .' Further, the ancient orators and rhetoricians
"influenced the concept of history as a form of creative writing" and inferred
its use as "an effective instrument for capturing men's interest and directing
The Reformation also affected historiography profoundly. With Saint
Augustine as a precursor and Melanchthon, Simon Grynaeus, Johan Sleidan,
and Joseph ben Gorion as influential disciples of the Saint, the Reformers
influenced the acceptance of "history, both Biblical and profane, both ecclesias-
tical and secular, as an important part of learning. They emphasized the value
of universal history in showing the relation of God to men and nations. They
recognized the particular place in political teaching which history occupied. With
Thucydides they believed that 'like time bringeth like examples, so long as
the world lasteth and the course of nature remaineth,' but God the eternal
played an important part in their thinking of the persistent laws of cause and
effect they [also] found the truth of history an antidote to the popular
fiction of the time."7
Turning in emphasis from the broad sweep of movements to individuals,
Miss Campbell begins a discussion which Dr. Tillyard parallels; he balances her
general treatment with a more detailed consideration of historigraphers and an
exposition of ideologies mentioned only incidentally by the other critic. Miss
Campbell compensates in part for this lack of minutiae by pointing out the
influence of individuals as she discusses each play.
Both writers look back to fourteenth-century England and Higden, the
monk of Chester, in whose Polychronicon each critic sees virtues. Interested
more in aspects of historiography, Miss Campbell sees in the "Proheyme" of the
Polychronicon "What may be called the continuity of historical theory, for it calls
history a perpetual consevator of the past the mother of philosophy .
5Campbell, op. cit., p. 20.
Most of these tenets, as well as Shakespeare's familiarity with them are dis-
cussed by Dr. Tillyard on pp. 55-58 of his work.
6Campbell, op. cit., 6. 25.
7Jbid., p. 41,
RESEARCH BULLETIN 13
the nurse of good learning," and a more effective teacher than poetic fable.
It also parallels secular and religious history.8
Dr. Tillyard, interested primarily in the course of English history, sees in the
Polychronicon itself a combination of world history in which are presented a
theological approach to the creation and subsequent events, an increasingly
detailed and objective treatment of English history, and consideration of the
little world of man the microcosm. Dr. Tillyard notes that these "qualities
. persisted right up to the time of Shakespeare."9
It is somewhat surprising that only Dr. Tillyard considers Froissart important
enough to be mentioned in connection with the historiography of the fourteenth-
century. After his work was translated by Lord Berners during the reign of
Henry VIII, "Froissart became one of the recognized authorities for the reigns
of Edward III and Richard II." Medieval in tone, he adds to history "an unsleep-
ing psychological curiosity" and the kind of drama which shows interest "not
only in action, but in the springs of action."10
Machiavelli is recognized as one of the most original thinkers of the sixteenth
century by both Dr. Tillyard and Miss Campbell. Dr. Tillyard finds, however, that
Machiavelli influenced the political thinking of average Elizabethan Englishmen
none, for his doctrine of disorder was diametrically opposed to their grounded
belief in order as the norm. Miss Campbell cites the Italian statesman for
demonstrating the political significance of history, as well as Jean Bodin for
formulating problems of the relationship between history and politics, Francois
Baudouin for the idea of the mutual interpendence of law and history, and
Robertello for seeing the writing of history as a part of rhetoric.
Miss Campbell mentions other continental and English writers whose
combined expressions make up an amalgamation of humanistic and Reformation
theories of history and historiography accepted by England with such practical
unanimity that they were commonplaces by the time Shakespeare wrote his
history plays. Of this group Miss Campbell cites Sir Thomas North, whose
translation of Plutarch's Lives, with a preface by Amyot, she considers "most
important to the study of Shakespeare."11 Dr. Tillyard agrees only in part,
through T. S. Eliot, that Shakespeare extracted much essential history from
Plutarch. The Shakespeare scholar does not mention other writers of the
period listed by Miss Campbell.
The two critics concur, nevertheless, on the identity of most of the import-
ant English historians of the sixteenth century. Their comments differ, as
should be expected when the approaches, even to the same general objective,
are unlike. Polydore Vergil was, according to Miss Campbell.
the first of the humanist historians to write the history ot England,
[and] indirectly, by furnishing Halle and later English writers with
8Ibid., p. 57.
9Tillyard, op. cit., p. 25.
lOIbid., pp. 25-26.
11Campbell, op. cit., p. 47.
14 FLORIDA A. & M. UNI\ERSIIV'
much of their material contributed greatly to the writing of English
history for popular consumption. He wrote history as a connected,
unified narrative, relating cause and effect, interpreting events, gen-
eralizing their significance so that they might serve as useful lessons
ever capable of new application, and in so doing he set the pattern
for the popular chronicles.2
Dr. Tillyard further reveals Vergil as:
an innovator among English chroniclers because he writes in con-
scious competition with the classical historians and because he has
the critical spirit. His descriptions of character and the reported speeches
emulate the vividness and conciseness of Livy and Tacitus.
The single exception is his treatment of Henry V, about whom Vergil "ceases
to be a critical historian and becomes a classicising cleric."13
These comments indicate the tenor of the criticisms of Shakespeare's history
plays by Miss Campbell and Dr. Tillyard; the former is concerned primarily with
political events, the latter with characters as involved in events.
Ranking with Vergil in Miss Campbell's estimation is Sir Thomas More,
so considered because "he wrote The History of Richard the Third with such
theatrical effectiveness that no one has yet been able to change or to qualify
in the popular mind the picture which he presented of the usurping tyrant and
his dreadful end."'4 In his writing More also adhered to the high humanistic
standards of historiography as set down by the scholarly Roger Ascham. This
composition had a double influence, for the first published version carried an
addition by R. Grafton which reflected the influence of the Reformation in the
conspicuous use of God as a stage manager of the worldly events. Miss Campbell
is certain that "the effect of More's Richard upon the chronicles which we have
specially to consider as the sources of Shakespeare's historical plays can scarcely
Dr. Tillyard is generous also in his praise of More's work. He sees in Richard
echoes of both Froissart and Polydore and ventures the opinion "that it not
only set the pattern of Shakespeare's 'Richard III' but was a direct incitement
to him to write dramatically rather than anecdotally."16
In almost identical terms Miss Campbell and Dr. Tillyard agree on Edward
Hall's "great importance" as a historiographer. They explain that, in Dr.
he is the first English chronicle-writer to show in all its complete-
ness that new moralising of history which came in with the waning of
the Middle Ages, the weakening of the Church, and the rise of nation-
alism. And the special literary importance of this feat is to have
introduced a sense of drama into his manner of expression the sense
12Ibid., p. 60.
"Tillyard, op. cit., pp. 32-33.
14Campbell, op. cit., p. 64.
~1Ibid., p. 67.
16Tillyard, op. cit., p. 39.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 15
of the moral concatenation of great events this moral drama in-
spired the authors of the Mirror for Magistrates; and to the influence
of the Mirror on the literature of the great Elizabethan age it is
difficult to set a term He [also] developed and settled the Tudor
historical myth; for if he moralises history he does so in the particular
organic stretch of it that issues into the 'Triumphant Reign of Henry
Dr. Tillyard's oblique reference to Richard Grafton, publisher of More
and Hall and predecessor of Holinshed, is understandable in view of Miss Camp-
bell's statement that:
Grafton's importance as a source for Shakespeare has not been yet
In his three historical works, the greatest of which is
the two-volume history of the world which served to orient England's
history he makes history theatrical. He analyzes and describes. He
universalizes particular events by pointing out their significance. He
relates cause and effect. He sees history, however, even more definitely
as exhibiting the judgments of God. Yet he does not fail to quote Cicero
and to show his familiarity with humanistic theory and practice in
Holinshed is the next writer of English history upon whom both Miss
Campbell and Dr. Tillyard comment, the latter more critically. Miss Camp-
bell points out that Holinshed demonstrates 'the precepts of Renaissance
historiography he made clear his understanding of cause and effect in human
actions and the vengeance exacted by God for sin ..."19 The summary of the
character and achievement which Holinshed inserts at the end of the reign of
each king expresses his political philosophy and reflects Tudor thinking. Thus
it would have been impossible for Shakespeare to have read Holinshed and
others and ignore the general significance of the facts.
Dr. Tillyard feels that Holinshed enjoys a "fame beyond his deserts." He
was useful to his contemporaries because he "was more ample and more up to
date than Polydore or Fabyan or Grafton, he covered far more history than
Hall His style is simple, and his sense at once more understood on a quick
reading." But he "was not great gifted He is indeed a compiler, whose
crime is to miss the point of the more distinguished of his sources."20
Miss Campbell justifiably praises Sir Walter Raleigh's great preface to his
History of the World as the "culminating document of Renaissance historio-
graphy." Since, however, the whole work was published only two years before
Shakespeare's death, it could not have influenced the writing of his plays and
hence deserves mention only as an excellent index of Elizabethan thought. This
Dr. Tillyard does.
I'Ibid., p. 42.
IsCampbell, op. cit., pp. 71-72
19Ibid., p. 74.
20Tillyard, op. cit., pp. 50-52.
16 FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
Inasmuch as the authors of only about half the stories which comprise
the Mirror for Magistrates are known, both Miss Campbell and Dr. Tillyard
give it, rather than its creators, primary consideration. Each critic rates "this
political mirror for those in authority" sufficiently important to devote more
pages to it than to any other Shakespeare influence. Miss Campbell classifies
it as poetry, Dr. Tillyard as non-dramatic literature; but the latter gives a more
detailed account of it as a verse composition. The opinions of both concerning
its content and function are expressed in Dr. Tillyard's summary:
It is first concerned with instructing the prince or magistrate through
the example of the past It copies and enlarges the process of
moralising history by close tracing of cause and effect. It is
entirely orthodox and most emphatic in its ideas about history repeat-
ing itself and hence being a most valuable practical study, [sic] about
the importance of obedience to the king and the wickedness and
misery of civil war. It is also up to the average of the time in nation-
alist sentiment. [Its] chief importance is that it assembled
so many current political ideas and gave them a quite new animation
by putting them into a poetical form, not indeed at all polished, but
on the whole sincere and extremely popular.
The two Shakespeare scholars concur again in thinking that, uncqui-
vocally, Warner's Albion's England and "Gorboduc" are "literary progeny"
of the Mirror for Magistrates. Albion's England "epitomises history from Noah to
Elizabeth."21 It teaches "political lessons [of history] generalized for universal
application," but not always with the authenticity of some of its forerunners.22
"Gorboduc" has special significance only for Dr. Tillyard, who considers it an
integral part of Shakespeare's dramatic literary background. He sees this work
as a chronicle play "in general political doctrine orthodox and close to
to the Mirror for Magistrates." Not addressing men in office generally as the
Mirror does, "Gorboduc" is "a piece of solemn contemporary didacticism .
intended to enlighten no less a person than [Queen Elizabeth."2 It expresses
in blank verse most of the ideas about history on which Shakespeare's history
plays are founded.
Miss Campbell and Dr. Tillyard believe alike that Shakespeare is less
indebted to the chronicle play than he is presumed to be. Dr. Tillyard never-
theless thinks that this dramatic form is worthy of some discussion because
it marks the transition from the dramatization of historical events to the
dramatic portrayal of historical principles which both critics consider a major
characteristic of Shakespeare's history plays.
Dr. Tillyard also explains in detail the Tudor myth, the doctrine of re-
bellion, and the doctrine of order or degree because of their prominence in
the plays and their pre-eminence in the Elizabethan mind.
21Ibid., pp. 90-91.
22Campbell, op. cit., p. 112.
23Tillyard, op. cit., pp 93-95.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 17
Turning from this ample background of principles, doctrines, techniques,
and history to Shakespeare himself, I discover a striking difference in point
of view. Miss Campbell does not discuss Shakespeare as a person; she appears
to see him only in the actual act of composition. Dr. Tillyard, on the other
hand, goes to great lengths to show, by references to Shakespeare's early
life, excerpts from his plays (the early ones mainly), and citations from other
volumes, that we should "link [Shakespeare] with the best educated and
most thoughtful writers outside the theatre as well as in."24
Both Miss Campbell and Dr. Tillyard do link Shakespeare with Samuel
Daniel, whom Dr. Tillyard describes as a person educated at Oxford who
"must have commanded respect if not awe through his severe academicism"25
Each of the critics points out parallels in the intent, content, and political
philosophy of Shakespeare's second tetralogy and the first installment of
Daniel's proposed History of the Civil War Between the Houses of York and
My chief concern now, however, is not a comparison of Shakespeare's
works with other compositions, but of critiques of his history plays by Miss
Campbell and Dr. Tillyard. I find significant agreements and divergencies in
their points of view at the outset. Both doubt Shakespeare's complete author-
ship of "Henry VIII," one of the ten dramas classified as histories by the
editors of the first folio edition of Shakespeare's works. Because "there can
scarcely be said to be a general opinion about the authorship of
the three parts of 'Henry VI, "26 Miss Campbell does not discuss them.
Dr. Tillyard, supported by the opinion of Professor P. Alexander, expresses a
firm belief "that Shakespeare wrote all three parts of 'Henry VI.' "27
Campbell questions the use of the term "cycle" in other criticisms of the plays
as a unit and finds unsatisfactory all previously pronounced "unifying factors."
She minimizes the importance of sequence and interdependence for her treat-
ment of the dramas. She sees each play as an entity except Parts I and II of
"Henry IV"; these she studies as one. Miss Campbell does decide, however, that:
each of the Shakespeare histories serves a special purpose in eluci-
dating a political problem of Elizabeth's day and in bringing to bear
upon this problem the accepted political philosophy of the Tudors.
In this connection she stresses that:
Shakespeare chose for his histories kings who had already been
accepted as archetypes and who had been used over and over again
to point particular morals he] like all other writers who used
history to teach politics to the present, cut his cloth to fit the pattern.
She therefore examines "King John," "Richard II," the two parts of "Henry
IV," "Henry V," and "Richard III" to point out "the traditional nature of
24Ibid., p. 64
2-Ibid., p. 238.
26Campbell, op. cit., p. 120.
27Tillyard, op. cit,. vii.
18 FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
Shakespeare's interpretations and the effect of contemporary political situations
upon the selection and alteration of historical facts in the plays."28
In turn Dr. Tillyard views the ten history plays in the traditional pattern
of two tetralogies and two isolated plays, all "distributed in a curious regular-
ity." He observes marked dependencies among the parts of the tetralogies and
says that the eight plays themselves comprise a single unit. All ten "have English
history as their theme."29 Dr. Tillyard classifies them as "political writings" too;
but, with Greenlaw, "stops short of finding in them elaborate allegories of
recent political events." He has "much to say about Shakespeare's ideas on
politics and on the Tudors, but nothing about Shakespeare and the Earl
Miss Campbell examines six of the history plays in determining Shakespeare's
"Political Use of History." I am considering exclusively the treatment of three
of these plays by her and Dr. Tillyard, whose criticism appears in Part II of
his work. I shall follow the order of presentation established by Miss Campbell.
(To be Continued)
28Campbell, op. cit., p. 125.
-"Tillyard, op. cit., p. 147.
WHAT SAY YOU?
What say you?
'Tis said that schools are neglecting fundamentals.
That with Science and English we are
Much too gentle.
That too much time is spent on frills
And not nearly enough on skills.
That much time is spent in recreation
And little is left for application.
'Tis said that schools are group intent
And (too) little time with the individual
That school discipline has neglected
And that mores are being affected.
That methods and techniques are outmoded
And taught by dottering old fogies.
What say you?
INTEREST PATTERNS OF PASSING AND
FAILING STUDENTS IN EDUCATION
A. A. ABRAHAM, SR.
Director, Test Service Bureau
From year to year a distribution of aptitude test scores for the students
in the School of Education at Florida A. and M. University reveals a level
of expected intelligence for an institution of this type. Yet, a persistent problem
faced by the faculty has been that of numerous failures on the part of students.
As a rule, the number of failures is proportionally much larger than it should
be. Among other things, this suggests that adequate aptitude does not neces-
sarilly mean that the student will prove able to master the requirements of a
To determine possible causes of mortality, students' aptitudes were studied
from several slightly different angles. This study reports the results of the
analysis of the interest patterns of the subjects.
METHODS OF PROCEDURE
The subjects of this study were 168 freshmen. Of this number, only 50,
or 30 per cent, made at least a "C" average, while 118, or 70 per cent, made
less than a "C" average. Although "D" is the passing grade in the University,
the "C" average was used in this study because it is required for graduation
and certification as a teacher in Florida. Correlations obtained between test
scores for academic aptitude and grade-point averages (hereinafter referred
to as GPA) suggested that the passing and failing rates may well have been
Measures of interest were secured by the Kuder Preference Record, Voca-
tional-Form B. The scales were: (1) mechanical, (2) computational, (3)
scientific, (4) persuasive, (5) artistic, (6) literary, (7) musical, (8) social
service, and (9) clerical. According to the author, results from the Kuder may
be used (1) to point out vocations with which the student may not be familiar
but which involve activities of the type for which he has expressed preference,
(2) to check on whether a person's choice of an occupation is consistent
with the type of thing he ordinarily prefers to do.
The performance of the subjects in terms of GPA's and results from the
Kuder was treated in the following manner:
1. The raw scores from each of the Kuder scales were analyzed in relation
to grade-point averages for the entire group. The Pearson product-moment
zero order technique was employed for this purpose. The Critical Ratio
Technique was also applied to the distributions of scores made on each of
the scales by passing and failing students.
2. Many studies reported have shown that interest patterns as measured
by the Kuder do not correlate significantly with over-all grades (2, 3). Some
20 PLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
studies have shown, however, that results were more revealing when scores
from the Kuder were correlated with grades in similar subject-matter areas
(1, 2, 6, 8). Therefore, grade-point averages in certain subject-matter areas:
mathematics, science, English, and social studies were analyzed in relation to
scores from corresponding scales on the Kuder: computational, scientific, lit-
erary, and social service.
3. The author has said that the Kuder was not constructed to predict de-
grees of success or failure; therefore, it cannot be evaluated on that basis. He
did point out, however, that the Kuder may be used to discriminate between
occupational groups with reference to characteristic interest patterns. With this
idea in mind, an effort was made to determine the extent to which scores on
the Kuder scales differentiated between students grouped according to whether
or not they were passing or failing. It has been pointed out that of the 168
freshmen, 50 were doing passing work while 118 were failing with grades
below a "C" average.
The problem of this study was to determine the extent to which implications
may be obtained from interest patterns for use in academic counseling. An
analysis of interest patterns as they relate to freshman achievement and voca-
tional choices revealed the following coefficients of correlation:
GPA and mechanical interest -.31
GPA and computational interest .00
GPA and scientific interest -.24
GPA and persuasive interest .03
GPA and artistic interest .11
GPA and literary interest .11
GPA and musical interest -.14
GPA and social service interest .13
GPA and clerical interest .12
It is obvious that when grade-point averages were correlated with mechani-
cal and scientific interests negative results were obtained; however, the corre-
lations were significant at the .01 level of confidence. There was a discernible
positive relationship between grade-point averages and persuasive, artistic, literary,
social service, and clerical interests.
Since several studies have shown a higher relationship between interest
patterns and grades in similar subject-matter areas, certain Kuder scales were
employed in a like manner for this study. The following results were obtained:
Computational interest and GPA in mathematics -.03
Science interest and GPA in science -.11
Literary interest and GPA in English .13
Social service interest and GPA in social science .18
There was improvement in the relationship when scientific interest was
correlated with grades in science courses, but the correlation was still negative.
When social service interest and GPA in social science courses were analyzed
RESEARCH BULLETIN 21
in relation to each other, a correlation of .18, significant at the .05 level of
confidence, was obtained. If these correlations are disappointing, it should
be kept in mind that the grade-point averages were based on just one year
of academic achievement m similar subject-matter areas.
The author has pointed out that the Kuder was not constructed to pre-
dict degrees of success or failure. He does claim, though, that the Kuder may
be used to discriminate between occupational groups with reference to
characteristic interest patterns. Based on this argument, the subjects were divided
into a group of 50 and a group of 118 failing students. On this basis certain
comparisons were made between the performance of the two groups on the
Kuder. Table 1 presents a distribution of the high and low mean preferences
made on the scales by passing and failing students.
TABLE 1 COMPARISON OF HIGH AND LOW MEAN PREFERENCES
MADE ON THE KUDER SCALES BY 50 PASSING AND 118
Kuder scale High group Low group
Mechanical Failing Passing
Computational Failing Passing
Scientific Failing Passing
Persuasive Failing Passing
Artistic Passing Failing
Literary Passing Failing
Musical Passing Failing
Social Service Passing Failing
Clerical Passing Failing
It may be noted from Table 1 that failing students made up the high
mean group on four of the scales: mechanical, computational, scientific, and per-
suasive. The passing students constituted the high mean group on five scales:
artistic, literary, musical, social service, and clerical. In keeping with the Kuder
Manual, high scores on the literary and social service scales suggest teaching as a
primary vocational choice.
Kuder has stated that when there are no scores above the 75th percentile,
scores below the 75th percentile-especially above the 65th percentile-should
be inspected for counseling implications. On the other hand, scores below
the 25th percentile should be considered. The idea is that occupations
calling for high interest in such activities should be eliminated from con-
sideration. Continuing his argument, Kuder has pointed out that low scores
may be quite as significant as high scores with respect to certain occupations.
It is, therefore, important to eliminate occupations which include activities that
are disliked as well as to select occupations which involve activities that are liked.
22 FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
Thus, low scores obviously form an important part of the total picture of a
person's characteristics and should therefore be considered carefully.
With the above purpose in mind, a critical analysis of the performance of
passing and failing students was made. The analysis concerned itself with the
percentages of both groups falling below the 25th percentile, between the
25th and 75th percentiles, and above the 75th percentile. The results of this
analysis are presented in Table 2.
TABLE 2. PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF KUDER SCORES MADE
BY 50 PASSING AND 118 FAILING FRESHMEN
Below 25th 25th Percentile Above 75th
SCALE Percentile to 75th Percentile Percentile
S C A L hj ----------------------------- - -- ----
Pass- Fail- Pass- Fail- Pass- Fail-
ing ing ing ing ing ing
Mechanical 26.00 20.34 60.00 53.39 14.00 26.27
Computational 18.00 13.56 70.00 66.10 12.00 20.34
Scientific 34.00 25.42 50.00 54.24 12.00 20.34
Persuasive 14.00 13.56 68.00 65.25 18.00 21.19
Artistic 16.00 15.25 66.00 70.34 18.00 14.41
Literary 16.00 13.56 62.00 72.00 22.00 14.41
Musical 22.00 21.19 38.00 49.15 40.00 29.66
Social Service 04.00 11.86 62.00 61.02 34.00 27.12
Clerical 10.00 16.95 72.00 74.34 18.00 21.61
From Table 2, it may be observed that the passing group had the larger
percentage of students above the 75th percentile on the artistic, literary, musical,
and social service interest scales. This group also had the larger percentage of
students below the 25th percentile on the mechanical, computational, scientific,
persuasive, artistic, literary, and musical interest scales.
The failing group had the larger percentage of students above the 75th
percentile on the mechanical, computational, scientific, persuasive, and clerical
interest scales. This group also had the larger percentage of students below the
25th percentile on the social service and clerical interest scales.
The passing group had the larger percentage of students ranking between
the 25th and 75th percentiles on the mechanical, computational, persuasive,
and clerical interest scales. The failing group had the larger percentage on the
scientific, artistic, literary, and musical interest scales.
The findings in this study seemed to warrant the following conclusions:
1. The scores from the Kuder alone are of relatively little value for pre-
dicting academic success. In spite of this fact, a logical relationship was found
RESEARCH BULLETIN 23
to obtain between GPA's in general and the Kuder scores from the persuasive,
artistic, literary, social service, and clerical interest scales. A little closer relation-
ship was found to obtain when GPA's in specific subjects were correlated with
scores from corresponding scales on the Kuder.
2. Based on the Critical Ratio, the differences between the passing and
failing students were not statistically significant. Yet, the scales did discriminate
between the passing and failing students with reference to characteristic occu-
pational interests associated with teaching. To a great extent, this finding is in
keeping with results reported by Perry and Shuttleworth (4), Phillips and
Osborne (5), and Shaffer (7). They employed the Kuder in three separate
studies, and the results showed that most of the subjects had made degree and
curricular choices in keeping with their interests.
3. Passing students were found to be less variable than failing students
in interest patterns above the 75th percentile, while failing students were found
to be more variable than passing students in interest patterns below the 25th
4. The problem of the disparity between measured interest and vocational
choice was apparent among the majority of the subjects.
5. Finally, it has been shown that the Kuder discriminated between the
two groups with reference to interest patterns characteristic of passing and fail-
ing students. Assuming that the high rate of failure was related to low or no
motivation for a vocational choice by failing subjects, the results of this study
suggest that the Kuder scores can be used for the purpose claimed by the
author in counseling similar populations.
1. Crosby, Richard C., "Scholastic Achievement and Measured Interests,"
Journal of Applied Psychology 27:101-103, 1943.
2. Frandsen, Arden N., "Interest and General Educational Development,"
Journal of Applied Psychology 31:57-66, 1947.
3. Hake, D. T., and Ruedisili, C. H., "Predicting Subject Grades of Liberal
Arts Freshmen with KPR," Journal of Applied Psychology 33:553-559, 1949.
4. Perry James D., and Shuttleworth, Frank L., "Kuder Profiles of Fresh-
men by Degree Objectives," Journal of Educational Research 41:363-365,, 1948.
5. Phillip, Wendell S., and Osborne, Robert T., "A Note on the Relation-
ship of the KPR Scales to College Marks, Scholastic Aptitude and Other
Variables," Educational and Psychological Measurement 9:331-339, 1949.
6. Romey, A. Kimball, "The Kuder Literary Scale As Related to Achieve-
ment in College English," Journal of Applied Psychology 34:40-51,1950.
7. Shaffer, Robert H., "The Measured Interests of Business School Seniors,"
Occupations 27:462-466, 1949.
8. Triggs, Frances O., "A Study of the Relation of Kuder Preference Rec-
ord Scores to Various Other Measures," Educational and Psychological Measure-
ment 3:341-354, 1943.
24 FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
THE MESSAGE OF THE SEA
I went down to the sea to meditate;
I went down to the ocean, God to contemplate.
To my bewilderment, the sea to me a message bore;
I heard the music of its murmuring voice
Which to me a message bore.
I am as old as time; I am the cradle of every living thing;
I nourish in my bosom and give every one its being.
I am kissed by the moonlight, warmed by the sun;
I wash the feet of every continent,
Send my breath over lowland and highland; yet
My work is never done.
I do not the hierlings' chore nor seek their meagre pay
If denied my lunar dance all things living must decay.
I tell the story of the God of the ages;
There is more to be learned in me than in all the volumes
of your sages!
From me went the beast and the fowl of lofty peak
I made the marshes through which the saurian creeps;
By me the tall green willows weep,
And the cooling waters through the hardened earth do seep;
The tiny oyster, deep in mud, boasts its jeweled pearl
While overhead lazily glides the carnivorous gull;
In search of sustentation, to his great original
Returns the distant brother.
And each in his own way must call me mother.
I am as versatile as time;
The fish, the fowl-everything is mine.
The puny tyrant on his throne, struts in public light;
The homeless beggar presents a plaintive sight.
Both without my gift of mist and rain
Would soon dry up to lord and languish never again.
All to me must look for the very breadth of life.
I am, you see, an instrument of His eternal Might.
-G. E. COVINGTON
Department of Religion and Philosophy
TEACHERS AND TELEVISION
THEODORE B. COOPER
School of Education
Educational television for classroom instruction in Florida is scheduled to
be available in several areas of the State beginning sometime during the 1958-59
school year, as the first links of a proposed state-wide educational television net-
work authorized by the 1957 Legislature are put into operation.1
The links that constitute the educational television network were planned
first because they will interconnect institutions and educational television
stations which already have studio facilities or will have them this fall or next
year; and these links qualify, under present rules and regulations of the Federal
Communications Commission, for grants of micro-wave frequencies necessary
to connect studios with educational television broadcast transmitters.2
The estimated audience to be served in the Gainesville-Jacksonville area is
781,046 persons; in the Tampa-St. Petersburg area, 778,026 persons; in the
Tallahassee area, 153,100 persons. Thus the total potential audience of all four
of the first links is 1,711,965 persons.
The Commission has also asked its consulting engineer to determine the
most economical means of providing an interconnection between Channel 2,
educational television station, Miami, and community junior colleges at West
Palm Beach, to extend educational television services into Broward and Palm
The Channel 2 station, WTHS-TV, Miami, has been successfully operated
by the Dade County school system for the last two years. These and other
links will be interconnected later to form the proposed state-wide network.
Because Florida A. and M. University is to be a part of the educational
television network and because we educate teachers primarily to work in Florida,
we' felt we had an urgent responsibility to the people these teachers guide,
to assist them in bringing their "know-how" up to date so that they could take
advantage of this new medium of instruction. To do this we planned a work-
shop from June 16-July 3, 1958 which had as a theme "Improving Instruction
Through Educational Television." This workshop was largely made possible
by a grant from the National Association of Educational Broadcasters.
We utilized campus faculty and visiting consultants. It should be men-
tioned here that we received cooperation from the local commercial television
station that was the finest one could wish for.
Our program for the three weeks consisted d the following topics and
1Prospects for Educational Television in Florida During the 1958-59 School
Year, (Florida Educational Television Commission), p. 1.
26 FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
1. Welcome to workshoppers
2. Educational television from the point of view of the Florida Educational
3. Definition of terms in educational television
4. Role of educational television in Florida schools
5. Report on research in educational television
6. Psychological conditions that foster learning via educational television
7. How television works
8. Standards for selecting television equipment
9. Visit to station WCTV
10. Technical requirements for educational television
11. Educational television in modern education
12. The role of commercial television in modern education
13. Educational television and effective teaching
14. Standards for selecting television programs
15. Preview and discussion selected rinescopes
16. Current trends in educational television utilization
17. Current trends in educational television programming
18. The role of dramatic techniques in educational television
19. The role of music in educational television
20. The role of graphic techniques in educational television
21. Writing an educational television script
22. Professional laboratory sessions in producing educational television
The persons who attended our workshop (30) had little or no previous
experience with educational television; so we had a "grassroots" situation. Also,
most of them (28) were classroom teachers; the other two were elementary
The atmosphere that permeated the workshop was one of enthusiasm and
hard work. The participants seemed to enjoy this enterprise. It appeared that
their greatest happiness came when each group produced its shooting script on
television. The members of each group were required to produce the necessary
instructional materials related to their production. After each presentation
there was an evaluation session. Interestingly these teachers soon discovered that
all good classroom teachers do not always make good television teachers.
These are some of the major findings of our workshop:
1. That television can be used effectively to implement the teaching-
2. That teaching via television requires much more preparation on the
part of the teacher than regular classroom teaching;
3. That all good classroom teachers are not always good television teachers
and this factor is related more nearly to the teacher's personality than to
4. That television is not a panacea for all our instructional problems;
RESEARCH BULLETIN 27
5. That television teaching in the absence of a class before you is difficult
for most classroom teachers;
6. That television programs intended for instructional purposes should be
evaluated where feasible along these ideas fundamental to the learning
a. That they should contribute to the students' desire to want to learn;
b. That they should contribute substantially to the learning process;
c. That students are human and must be treated as such;
d. That students do grow and as they grow they are able to do things
they were not able to do before;
e. That any learning experience ought to leave the learner better equipped
to do something better;
f. That there is an urgent need for additional creative research in this
It is our hope that as a result of this workshop experience we will do a
better job of guiding the growth and development of the students we teach.
Into my heart a thought that stabs
From a spring of festered weeds,
Where fled those moments, those passion-filled moments!
Where gone the pain of ecstasy?
What was the worth?
What end regret and despair?
The tranquil days were the days primeval.
The festered weeds, the yellow fog engulf the light
The vultures shadow the blighted night.
-WALTER B. HUNTER
Department of English
BOOK REVIEWS and
THE KING MUST DIE-MARY RENAULT
REVIEWED BY OSWALD A. LAMPKINS
Department of English
Mary Renault's second historical novel, The King Must Die, threads for the
second time the maze that intertwines fact and fiction in ancient Greek mytho-
logy. And it must be admitted that what she has done comes off brilliantly. Under
her skillful pen, memory begins to quicken, and characters but dimly perceived
in the past come to life with a meaningful plausibility never before realized.
The King Must Die passes that most acid of all tests: It rings true. Than that
no greater praise can be bestowed.
This time Miss Renault is concerned with the exploits of Theseus, son of
the Athenian king Aigeus, that same king who aided the sorceress Medea when
she fled to him from Corinth after achieving the death of the Corinthian
king Creon and his daughter Creusa, having at the same time slain her two
sons in order to revenge herself upon her erstwhile husband Jason. Theseus
himself tells the tale, beginning with' his early childhood in Troizen and end-
ing with his return to Athens after he has slain the would-be tyrant Asterion,
son of the Cretan king Midas.
As a child, Theseus believed himself the son of Poseidon, guardian of the
deep. And, although he was early disillusioned as to his lofty sire, it is not until
he is sixteen that his mother reveals the means whereby he may discover the
identity of his real father Aigeus. Shortly after this revelation, Thesus sets off
for Athens, where he hopes to be received by his father. Here the real action
of the story begins.
The core and climax of the tale, however, take place in Crete, that legen-
dary country where King Minos caused the fabulous labyrinth to be built after
his wife Pasiphae conceived a son, the result of her monstrous infatuation for
a bull which Poseidon had given him to be used in sacrifice but which he
retained. The labyrinth was his effort to hide his shame. To Crete Theseus
comes as one of a group of boys and girls sent periodically to the Cretan king
as tribute. He comes of his own free will after Poseidon sends him a sign that
he should do so. How Theseus masters the technique of the bull leapers,
falls in love with the Earth Goddess Ariadne, meets for the first time his wife-
to-be Phaedra, slays his mortal enemy the Minotaur, and finally contrives his
and the other Athenian boys' and girls' escape after an earthquake has leveled
the Cretan palace is a tale which no lover of antiquity can afford to miss. Miss
Renault has woven a tapestry of magnificent splendor, one in which the reader
readily engages in that "willing suspension of disbelief" so often attempted and
so rarely achieved.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 29
What contributes most to the success of this novel is perhaps Miss Renault's
use of the first person point of view. The reader relives each experience as
Theseus himself relates it. In language similar to a degree to the poetry peculiar
to the epic singer, yet near enough to modern times not to strike a false note,
Thesus relives those golden moments of his past in a manner that does in-
deed at times seem to stop time in mid-flight to recapt-re an experience that
can be truly appreciated only in reflection. Yet this is no introspective tale
of an introvert. Theseus, as Miss Renault has pictured him, is a man who lives
each day to the hilt, leaving the morrow with whatever it will bring to the
whim of the gods. Nor is Theseus a man with regrets. He lives life according
to his understanding, making the proper sacrifices to the gods, remembering
whenever perplexed or in doubt to call on Poseidon for guidance. He is possibly
a realist; for, as he says, "Man born of woman cannot outrun his fate A
bound is set to our knowing, and wisdom is not to search beyond it. Men are
What further contributes to the verisimilitude of this novel is the beauty
and exactness of the author's descriptions. The creepiness that envelops the
reader as he goes with Theseus on his first visit to Ariadne, following through
dusty, unused passages that long, unending piece of string; the hatred betrayed
in Medea's eyes as she hands Theseus a cup of poisoned wine; the feeling
of exhilaration Theseus feels when he finally kills the wild boar; the sense
of hopelessness in the young king's eyes, knowing as he does that the night's
revelry is the prelude to his own death on the morrow: all these are unfor-
gettable. The brilliance, too, of the author's picturization of the decadent, effete
Cretan civilization, with its preoccupation with non-essentials, its constant seek-
ing after novelty, its tacit acceptance of domination is breathtaking in its
barbaric splendor. The hungry eagerness of the Athenian boys and girls to live
in the face of certain death contrasts poignantly, too, with the weariness of life
which envelops the supposedly more civilized Cretans.
This is not necessarily a novel with a message. The author seems interested
mostly in quickening to life a page from the past and in offering thereby a fasci-
nating tale for the lucky reader. If she is saying anything else, it is simply that
man, universal man, always has been and always will be the same: hungering
after the unattainable, and finding, when he has attained it, that it leads
only farther along the road "to dusty death." No man, she may be saying,
is complete "master of his fate," although he can be, if he will, "captain of his
soul." Good, Miss Renault could be saying (although she probably would never
be platitudinous), invariably triumphs over evil. For she discreetly ends her
tale with Theseus riding high, with a full, rich life lying before him. That
Lady Luck in later life deserted him is not her present concern.
ICE PALACE-EDNA FERBER
REVIEWED BY DARWIN T. TURNER
Department of English
Alaska, current focus of international interest, has been explored in a recent
novel: Edna Ferber's Ice Palace (Garden City: Doubleday and Company, Inc.,
30 FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
1958), a sympathetic potrayal of a nation in cultural transition and a percep-
tive depiction of the inhabitants-the natives, the aliens, the despoilers, the
Edna Ferber, author of Showboat, So Big, and other novels, has chronicled
the development of Alaska in the romanticized stories of its giants: Thor Storm,
an idealistic early settler who relinquished a title in order to pioneer in a new
land; Czar Kennedy, an early settler who achieved power and fame by exploiting
a wilderness; and Chris Storm, their granddaughter, who, driven by Thor's
idealism and by the Czar's determination, symbolizes the new Alaska.
The importance of Ice Palace, however, does not result from its
central characters. Memorable, but rarely credible, they seem to be the legends
upon which a nation grows. The Rolands, the Siegfrieds, the Arthurs, the
Daniel Boones: these are the ancestral molds of the dominant men and women
of Ice Palace. A fearless, philosophical crusader for the freedom and the sacred-
ness of a new territory, Thor Storm provides a spiritual contrast to the opposing
pioneer spirit of greed represented by Czar Kennedy, soft-spoken, but ruthless
and domineering. President of the Pole Star Chapter of Women of the Moose;
charter member of the Far North Poker Poke, of the Pioneers of Alaska,
and of eleven other civic organizations; official greeter of visitors; self-appointed
guardian of Chris; and arbiter of disputes between Thor and the Czar, Bridie
Ballantyne becomes the Mother Earth of Alaska, offering comfort and domestic
familiarity to waifs who have come to her wilderness. Ross Guildenstern, a tall,
handsome, intelligent native, of Eskimo-Danish descent, represents the idealized
original settler who blends the native's love for the traditions of his homeland
with the educated man's ability to discern the strengths and weaknesses of its
customs. The giant spirit of Ice Palace is Chris Storm, beautiful, blonde with
black eyes, one-quarter Eskimo, one-quarter Norwegian, one-half American, proud
of having been born inside a caribou, proud of being Alaska. Although the
novel ends before the union is achieved, a reader anticipates the marriage
of Ross and Chris, which should produce the Alaskan superman, the champion,
of his people. These are characters to people a legend, men and women drawn
on a scale beyond the reach of credibility.
"Every third woman you passed on Gold Street in Baranof was young,
pretty, and pregnant." With this disarming approach, Edna Ferber introduces
a plot which is disappointing to readers who seek a carefully structured, in-
tensely dramatic novel. Ice Palace is basically a chronicle of Alaska. The initial
situation provides a romantic interest in the relationship between Chris and
Ross. The initial situation also shows the political intrigue of Americans who
are attempting to use Alaska as a proving ground for a future President. The
central sections of the novel meander into the past to explain the forces which
have created the initial situation. Dramatic intensity erupts only spasmodically
in romantic interludes between Chris and Ross and in the conflicts between
Thor and the Czar.
Although the uncertainty of Alaska's chances for statehood at the time
of the composition of Ice Palace may have suggested to Edna Ferber the
RESEARCH BULLETIN 31
desirability of a static situation, it is more probable that the chronicle structure
results from the author's paramount intentions. The importance of the book
rests upon her intention to answer the criticism which Thor expresses in an
editorial in his newspaper: "Ice Palace. That would be the name of all Alaska.
The people inside can see out, but the people outside can't see in, though it
Edna Ferber has provided the opportunity for outsiders to see into Alaska.
On the verso of the title page, the author has stated, "In Alaska there is no
town of Baranof. There is no village of Oogruk. There is no building called
the Ice Palace." She has inspired Baranof, Oogruk, and the Ice Palace with
so much life, however, that for the reader they become the real Alaska. From a
semi-mythical waste of ice, igloos, a forgotten gold-rush, of Eskimos and Dan
McGrews, Alaska crystallizes in imagination as a land of contrasts: a vast
treasure house of untapped natural resources; a land of cold, black winters and
hot, midnight-sun summers; a land of the aboriginal traditions of Eskimo villages
and the atomic age culture of American air bases; a land of people, from New
York, from California, from Florida, from Minnesota, from Europe-pioneers
who have been sent by their governments, pioneers who have come for adven-
ture and wealth and who will return to their homes after they have stripped
the land to satisfy their need or their greed, pioneers who have come to grow
with a new country and who will remain to help the native Alaskans to rebuild
after the ravages of the despoilers. The romanticized characterization and the
chronicle structure fail to dispel the illusion of reality which convinces a
reader that Ice Palace is Alaska.
PUBLICATIONS OF THE
FLORIDA A. and M. UNIVERSITY FACULTY
BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS
Abraham, A. A. They Came to College. Test Service Bureau, Florida A. and M. Univer-
sity, August, 1957.
Covington, G. Edwin. What They Believe: A Survey of Religious Faith Among Groups
of College Students. Philosophical Library, New York, 1956.
Minor, Edward Orville and Irye, Harvey Raymond* Lettering Instructional Materials.
Indiana University, Bloomington, 1954. (Motion Picture)
Summary Report: Audio-Visual Programs in Negro Colleges and Univer-
sities. Indiana University, Bloomington, 1955.
-. Titles for Television. Indiana University. Bloomington, 1954.
Russell, Samuel E. Multilith. Technical Institute, Baghdad, Iraq, 1957.
.The Platen Press. Technical Institute, Baghdad, Iraq, 1955.
Printing for Beginning Students in Iraq. Technical Institute, Baghdad,
Smith, Charles U. and Killian, Lewis M.* The Tallahassee Bus Protest. Anti-Defamation
League of B'nai B'rith, New York, 1958.
Abraham, A. A. "More About Discipline and Counseling." Florida A. and M; Univer-
sity Research Bulletin, September, 1955, pp. 4-8.
S"A Follow-up Study of Selected FAMU Graduates." Florida A. and M.
University Research Bulletin, pp. 19-25, September, 1956.
S"You and the Florida State-Wide 12th Grade Testing Program." Florida
State Teachers Association Bulletin, 32:22-23, March, 1957
S"Meeting the Needs of Students for Better Teachers." Florida State Tea-
chers Association Bulletin, March, 1958. ."R
S"The Guidance Implications of Thesis Writing," The Negro Educational
Review, 9:34-38, January, 1958.
S"Interest Pattern of Passing and Failing Freshmen, "Florida' A. and
M. University Research Bulletin, pp. 19-23, September 1958.
Adams, Lucy Rose. "Teaching Tips in Business Education." American Business Education,
S"Workshop for Secretaries," Systems for Educators. Vol. 5, No. 2, (Nov.-
Dec., 1958) p. 8.
Boykin, Leander L. "Differentials in Negro Education," Journal of Educational Research,
Vol. VLIII, No. 7, March, 1950, pp. 533-540.
"The Equalization of Public School Facilities for Negroes in Louisiana,"
Journal of Louisiana Education Association, Vol. 30, No 3, March, 1951.
--o-u- "The Status of Public Education for Negroes in Louisiana," Journal of the
Louisiana Education Association, Vol. 30, No. 6, Sept., 1951.
S"Trends in the Elimination of Differentials Between White and Negro
Education in Louisiana," Journal of the Louisiana Education Association, Vol. 31, No. 7,
S"The Adjustment of One Hundred Twenty-four Sophomores at Southern
University as Revealed by the Bell Adjustment Inventory," Bulletin, Southern Univer-
sity and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Research and Creative Issue, Vol 5,
No. 3, April, 1953, pp. 52-58.
S"Some Fallacies in the Evaluation and Interpretation of Data Involving
the Education of Negroes in the Southern States," Negro Education Review, Vol. 5,
No. 3, April, 1954, pp. 52-58.
E "The Passing of Louisiana's Small Rural Negro Schools" Journal of Loui-
siana Education Association, Vol. 33, No. 6, September, 1954, pp. 18-20.
"The Evolution of Teacher's Workshops," Journal of Teacher Education,
Vol. 4, No. 2, February, 1954, pp. 191-193.
"What Is a Workshop?" Progressive Education, Vol. 32, No. 1, January,
1955, pp. 5-7.
"Let's Get It Straight: What Are Human Relations?" The Social Studies,
Vol. 46, No. 2, February, 1955, pp. 56-59
"What Is a Workshop?" The Educational Quarterly, Vol. VII, No. 27,
Ministry of Education, Government of India, September, 1955, pp. 274-275.
"What Is a Workshop?" The Teachers Journal, Vol. XIII, No. 4, October,
November, and December, 1955, National Teachers College, Manila, Phillippines,
RESEARCH BULLETIN 33
S"Who Should Do What?" The Allocation of Duties and Responsibilities
Among the Personnel Deans," Educational Administration and Supervision, Vol. No. 7,
November, 1955, pp. 197-401.
"The Reading Performance of Some Negro College Students," Journal of
Negro Education, Vol. XXV, No. 1, Fall, 1955.
"Symbol of Our Concerns in An Age of Transition With Emphasis on the
Negro Child," Journal of the Louisiana Education Association, Vol. 35, No. 2,
February, 1956, p. 11.
"The Reading Ability of Freshman Students at Southern University,"
Southern University Bulletin Creative and Research Issue, Vol. XLII, No. 2, February
1, 1956, pp. 6-18.
"What is Evaluation?" Progressive Education, Vol. 34, No. 1, January,
1947, pp. 16-18.
"The Adjustment of 2,078 Negro Students," The Journal of Negro
Education, Vol. XXVI, No. 1, Winter, 1957, pp. 75-79
"Priorities in the Education of Teachers," Teachers College Record, Vol.
58, No. 5, February, 1957, pp. 254-260
"Toward a Rationale for the Education of Teachers for the Separate Negro
School," The Quarterly Review of Higher Education Among Negroes, Vol. XXV, No. 1,
January, 1957, pp. 43-53.
"Trends in American Higher Education with Implications for the Higher
Education of Negroes," The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. XXVI, No. 2, Spring,
1957, pp. 193-199.
"Basis for the Establishment and Improvement of Reading Programs in
Negro Colleges and Universities," The Negro Educational Review, Vol. VIII, No. 1,
January, 1957, pp. 4-12.
S"The Significance of the Child Development Approach in the Education
of Teachers," Journal of the Louisiana Education Association, Vol. XXXVI, No. 4,
April, 1957, pp. 12-13
"The Role of Higher Education for Negroes in a Changing Social Order,"
Association of American Colleges Bulletin, Vol. XLIII, No. 2, May, 1957, pp. 315-319.
"Let's Eliminate the Confusion: What Is Evaluation?" Educational Admin.
istration and Supervision, Vol. 43, No. 2, February, 1957, pp. 115-121.
S"Who Is the Exceptional Child?" The Elementary School Journal, Vol.
LVIII, No 1, October, 1957, pp. 42-47.
"The Negro Child and the Question of Values," The Social Studies,
Vol. XLVIII, No. 5, May, 1957, pp. 162-166.
"What Is Evaluation?" Journal of Educational Research.
"In Defense of the South," Educational Forum, Vol. XXII, No. 1, Novem-
ber, 1957, pp. 59-60.
"An Experiment in Reducing the Number of Over-Aged Pupils in Green-
ville Elementary School," Journal of the Louisiana Education Association, Vol 36,
No. 5, Sepember, 1957, pp. 24-27.
"The Workshop As An In-Service Education Medium," Educational Admin-
istrations and Supervision, Vol. 43, No. 7. November, 1957, pp. 439-446.
."Summary of Reading Investigations Among Negro College Students,
1940-1954," Journal of Educational Research, Vol. LI, No. 6, February, 1958, pp. 471-
"What Is Evaluation," Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 51, No. 7,
March, 1958, pp. 329-534.
Bright, Sr., Sylvester R., "A Study of Adult Education, Its Problems, Goals, and Future."
Florida Adult Educator, Jan.-Feb. 1955.
Clarke, L. B., College Algebra, Pitman, 1956.
Clark, Wilhelmina O. "Physical Education Through Dance." Negro Educational Review.
Collins, Margaret S. "Species Differences in Resistance to Drying in Termites." (Isopters
Reticulitermes) Ecology, June, 1950.
"Studies on Water Relations in Termites of the Genus Reticulitermes,"
Florida A. and M. College Research Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 3, Dec., 1951.
"Changes in the Fat Body with Age in Reticulitermes Flavipes," (Koller)
Anatomy Record, Dec., 1952.
"Caste Differences in Survival Time and Rate of Water Loss in Flavipes,"
(Koller) Anatomy Record, Dec., 1952
Cooper, Theodore B. "Adjustment Problems of Undergraduate Negroes." Florida A. and M.
College Research Bulletin, 1951.
"Using the Tape Recorder to Help the Counselor," Educational Screen,
Vol. 35, No. 4, April, 1946, p. 140.
"How About Radio," Educational Screen, Vol. 36, No. 4, April, 1957,
Copeland, Emily A. "Appeal to Recruits by Showing them a Library," Library Journal,
81:1583-85 (June, 1956).
__. "Florida A. and M. University, Department of Library Service." Florida
Libraries, 7:28-29 (June, 1956).
"Florida State Library Association." Florida Libraries, 7:30-31 (June,
6 -Handbook on Library Careers. Ed., for The Joint Committee on
Librarianship As a Career. American Library Association.
34 FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
-, and Edward W. Brice. "The Elements of Research and Library Information:
An Attempt Toward Integration." Journal of Educational Research, 45:287-98
and Leander J. Shaw. "The Library as Presented in Selected Textbooks
of Secondary School Administration and Supervision." National Association of Sec-
ondary School Principals Bulletin, 41:81-92 (March, 1957)
-. "Professional Growth of College Teachers." Educational Administration
and Supervision, 37:469-77 (December, 1951).
S"Student Library Internship in the Undergraduate College." Florida
Libraries, 6:8-9 (December, 1955).
"Teaching Through the Library-the Social Studies Approach," Florida
Agricultural and Mechanical Research Bulletin 4:6-11 (December, 1951).
Edmonds Irene C. "An Aristotelian Interpretation of Garnet's Memorial Discourse."
Florida A. and M. College Research Bulletin, vol. 5, no. 3, September, 1951.
S"Faulkner and the Black Shadow." Southern Renascence, Edited by Louis
D. Rubin Jr., and Robert D. Jacobs, The Johns Hopkins Press, p. 192-206, 1953.
S"Robert Penn Warren and the Tragic Mulatto." New York Review,
Spring Quarter, 1958.
"A New Philosophy for Children's Theatre." NADSA Encore, 1953.
Edmonds, S. Randolph. "Four European Playwrights of African Descent," NADSA Encore,
"The NAACP and Negro Drama." Courier Magazine, November, 1952.
"Education and the Humanities." The Quarterly Review of Higher
Education Among Negroes, 21:129, October, 1953.
"The Emperor Jones Controversy." The Afro Magazine, June 25, 1955
Play, "Old Man Peter," in American Literature by Negro Authors edited
by Herman Dree. The MacMillan Company, New York, 1950.
"Slide Rule Measurement for the Humanities." The Quarterly Review of
Higher Education Among Negroes, July, 1955.
"Who are the Three Greatest American Playwrights?" Southeastern
Theatre Bulletin, 1955.
."Objectionable Stereotypes and Themes in Negro Drama." Florida A. and M.
College Research Bulletin, 1949.
Ellis, Walter H. "The Present Status of Cortisone as a Therapeutic Agent." Florida
A. and M. College Research Bulletin, vol. 3, no. 4, 1949.
"Correlation Between Aptitude and Achievement in Beginning Courses in
Chemistry, English and Mathematics." Florida A. and M. College Research Bulletin,
vol. 6, no 3.
Gaither, Alonzo S. "Importance of a Program of Health and Physical Education in the
Public Schools of Florida." Florida Teachers' Bulletin, 1949.
Gayles, Anne Richardson "A College Staff Studies Itself." The Newsletter of the Council
on Cooperation in Teacher Education, 11:14, February, 1957.
"A College Staff Studies Itself," The Newsletter of the Council on Co-
operation in Teacher Education, Feb. 1957.
"Cultural Relativity to Education," Rust College Sentinel, July, 1957.
S"Report on the Tenth National Conference on Higher Education," Herald
Official Bulletin for Georgia State Teachers Association) Fall, 1956.
S"Report on a Marriage Institute," The Family (Official Bulletin of the
American Council on Family Relations) Spring, 1952.
-. "Report on the Fourteenth Workshop of the Association of Student
Teaching," The Fort Valley State College Alumni Journal, October, 1958.
Gore, George W. (Jr.). "Passage of S246-What It Would Mean to Negro Children."
The NEA Journal, p. 97-98, February, 1950.
"Tribute to President Daniel." Virginia State College Gazette, p. 11-12
e "The Importance of Health." Proceeding of the First Institute of Public
Health, Veterans Administration Hospital, Tuskegee, Alabama, p 11-19, March, 1952.
"So You Belong?" The Bulletin, Florida State Teachers Association, Inc.,
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RESEARCH BULLETIN 35
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36 FLORIDA A. & M. UNIVERSITY
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