Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Reaction of α, β-dibromopropyl...
 Analysis of the major stressors...
 Developmental changes in the feed...
 Nutritional analysis of certain...
 Improving writing and speaking...
 Finding the maximum of a linear...
 Merit pay issue in Florida
 What should a humanities student...
 In Africa: Zambia and its...

Group Title: Research bulletin - Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Title: Research bulletin - Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University. 1984.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000202/00004
 Material Information
Title: Research bulletin - Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University. 1984.
Uniform Title: Research bulletin - Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1984
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000202
Volume ID: VID00004
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB7892

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Reaction of α, β-dibromopropyl ether with organomagnesium halides: Stereochemistry
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Analysis of the major stressors for k-12 teachers
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Developmental changes in the feed value of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth)
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Nutritional analysis of certain grasses, forbs, crop residues, and crop by-products in selected areas
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Improving writing and speaking in selected speech classes
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Finding the maximum of a linear function in E^2 (or E^n)
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Merit pay issue in Florida
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    What should a humanities student know? An analysis of the standardized tests
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    In Africa: Zambia and its people
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
Full Text



Tallahassee, Florida


The Florida Agricultural
and Mechanical University

Research Bulletin

Volume XXVIII, Number 1
September, 1984

Tallahassee, Florida
ISSN 0195-3834

The Florida Agricultural
and Mechanical University


Editorial Board
Charles U. Smith, Editor
School of Graduate Studies, Research and Continuing Education

Associate Editors
Anne Gayles
Herbert Jones
Charles Walker
Grace Maxwell
Barbara Cotton
William P. Foster

Advisory Editors
Karam Soliman Thelma Gorham
A. S. Shetty Virden Evans
Charles A. Foster Sunil K. Pancholy
Thorbjoern Mann Walter Mercer
Larry E. Rivers Louis Pratt
Johnie F. Blake Nancy Morris
Herbert Beacham Charles J. Stanley

Editorial and Publication Policy
The Research Bulletin of Florida A&M University is the official
medium for the publication of research, essays, scholarly criticism,
and creative writing by the faculty, staff, and students of Florida
A&M University. Manuscripts submitted by persons outside the Uni-
versity will also be considered for publication. Each outside man-
uscript must be accompanied by a self-addressed, stamped, return
envelope. The Research Bulletin is published semiannually, as funds
permit. All published materials become the property of Florida A&M

Communications should be addressed to:
Charles U. Smith, Editor
P.O. Box 895
Florida A&M University
Tallahassee, Florida 32307

Table of Contents

Reaction of au, p -Dibromopropyl
Ether with Organomagnesium
Halides: Stereochemistry ................... James L. Day .. 1

Analysis of the Major Stressors
for K-12 Teachers ........................ Virden Evans .. 9
Dewayne Johnson
Joe Ramsey
Shirley Reese
Steve Chandler

Developmental Changes in the Feed
Value of Perennial Peanut (Arachis
glabrata Benth) ........................ Inyang D. Inyang .. 17
Sheikh M. Basha
Sunil K. Pancholy

Nutritional Analysis of Certain
Grasses, Forbs, Crop Residues, and
Crop By-Products in Selected Areas
in Haiti ........................... Claude H. McGowan .. 31
Sheikh M. Basha
V. Murugesu

Improving Writing and Speaking
in Selected Speech Classes ............... Adeline L. Evans .. 43

Finding the Maximum of a Linear
Function in E2 (or E) .................. Wendell L. Motter .. 57

Merit Pay Issue in Florida ........ Anne Richardson Gayles .. 63

What Should a Humanities Student
Know? An Analysis of the
Standardized Tests .................... Julian E. Compton .. 73

In Africa: Zambia
and Its People .......................... Doris M. Laird .. 83

Reaction of a, 3 -Dibromopropyl Ethyl
Ether with Organomagnesium Halides:

James L. Day
Associate Professor
College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Florida A&M University

The reaction of erythro and threo a 3 -dibromopropyl ethyl ether
(I) with organomagnesium halides was investigated. Erythro and
threo I were both found to produce a mixture composed of 55% erythro
and 45% threo 2-bromo-3-ethoxybutane when reacted with meth-
ylmagnesium iodide. Erythro and threo I were both found to produce
a mixture composed of 92% erythro and 8% threo 2-bromo-l-eth-
oxy-l-phenylpropane when reacted with phenylmagnesium bromide.
Based on steric interactions, the reaction can best be interpreted as
an SN1 type mechanism.
The reaction of Grignard reagents with a -halo alkyl ethers is
broadly applicable for the synthesis of ethers1.


The a -chloroethers are highly reactive compounds and their mecha-
nism of reaction with Grignard reagents has been reported as SN2 as
well as SN1 and El reactions2. Of particular synthetic interest in this
reaction is the fact that R' may also contain halogen and it is always
less reactive than the halogen on the alpha carbon. Boord et al.3
took advantage of the more inert nature of bromine in the beta
position of ethers to develop intermediates for the synthesis of
alkenes. Spath and Goring4 also used this type of reaction to form an
intermediate in their stereoselective synthesis of pseudoephedrine.
Although the reactivity of a 0 -dibromoalkyl ethers with various


Grignard reagents has been well documented and the mechanism is
thought to probably proceed through an SN1 type, the stereochemis-
try of this reaction has not been reported.
The addition of bromine to cis 1-ethoxypropene (1) and trans 1-
ethoxypropene (2) has been investigated5 and found to be a stereo-
specific anti addition in which threo a ( dibromopropyl ethyl
ether (3) is obtained from cis 1-ethoxypropene and erythro a 3 -
dibromopropyl ethyl ether (4) from trans 1-ethoxypropene. If a subse-
quent Grignard reaction with methylmagnesium iodide were to
proceed by an SN2 mechanism then inversion of configuration would
occur. Thus threo 2-bromo-3-ethoxybutane (5) would be expected to
be formed from threo a ( -dibromopropyl ethyl ether and erythro
2-bromo-3-ethoxybutane (7) from erythro a P -dibromopropyl
ethyl ether as shown in Scheme I. If the Grignard reagent used is
phenylmagnesium bromide, then threo 2-bromo-l-ethoxy-l-phe-
nylpropane (6) would be expected to be formed from threo a -
dibromopropyl ethyl ether and erythro 2-bromo-l-ethoxy-l-phe-
nylpropane (8) from erythro a P -dibromopropyl ethyl ether as
shown in Scheme I.
Standards were prepared in order to determine the ster-
eochemistry of the products obtained from the reaction of threo (3)
and erythro a, P-dibromopropyl ethyl ether (4) with the Grignard
reagents methylmagnesium iodide and phenylmagnesium bromide.
The reaction of methylmagnesium iodide with either threo or
erythro a ( -dibromopropyl ethyl ether was found to produce a
mixture of threo (5) and erythro 2-bromo-3-ethoxybutane (7) which
could not be chromatographically separated for analysis. Scheme II
was used to prepare the standards threo 3-ethoxy-2-butanol (12) and
erythro 3-ethoxy-2-butanol (17) which could be esterified to the
threo ester (13) and erythro ester (18). The mixture of threo (5) and
erythro 2-bromo-3-ethoxybutane (7) was reacted with silver acetate
which has been shown to proceed with neighboring group participa-
tion8 to produce a mixture of threo (13) and erythro 3-ethoxy-2-
butanol acetate (18) which could be chromatographically separated
for analysis. The stereochemistry of the silver acetate reaction has
been confirmed by using threo (5) and erythro 2-bromo-3-ethoxy-
butane (7) which had been prepared from cis (9) and trans 2-butene
(14) respectively as shown in Scheme II. Scheme III was used to
prepare the standards threo 2-bromo-l-ethoxy-l-phenylpropane (6)
and erythro 2-bromo-l-ethoxy-l-phenylpropane (8) for the analysis
of the reaction mixture obtained when phenylmagnesium bromide
was used.


Results and Discussion
Two different mixtures of cis (1) and trans 1-ethoxypropene (2)
were reacted with bromine to form a 3 -dibromopropyl ethyl ether.
Since there is an anti addition to the double bond5, the first mixture
(composed of 67% cis: 33% trans 1-ethoxypropene) would be expected
to form 67% threo (3) and 33% erythro a 3 -dibromopropyl ethyl
ether (4). The second mixture composed of 94% cis: 6% trans 1-
ethoxypropene should likewise produce 94% threo and 6% erythro
a p -dibromopropyl ethyl ether when reacted with bromine. When
these two mixtures of the dibromoether were subsequently reacted
with methylmagnesium iodide, the product of each reaction was
found to be a mixture composed of 55% erythro (7) and 45% threo 2-
bromo-3-ethoxybutane (5). When the same two mixtures of cis (1) and
trans 1-ethoxypropene (2) as above were reacted with bromine and
then phenylmagnesium bromide, the product of each reaction was
found to be a mixture composed of 8% threo (6) and 92% erythro 2-
bromo-1-ethoxy-l-phenylpropane (8). From the results of these reac-
tions, it can be concluded that the configuration of the dibromoether
had no influence on the products formed in the subsequent reaction
with the Grignard reagents.
The groups used in the formation of 2-bromo-3-ethoxybutane and
2-bromo-l-ethoxy-l-phenylpropane were assigned conformational
energies and then designated as small (H), medium (Br, OC2H5) or
large (CH3, Ph). If the interactions are purely steric in origin, then the
erythro configuration will be more stable than the threo6. Since the
difference in conformational energy between large and medium
groups for 2-bromo-3-ethoxybutane is not great, this could account
for the high amount (55%) of threo (5). Since the difference in
conformational energy between the large and medium groups for 2-
bromo-1-ethoxy-l-phenylpropane is relatively large, this could
account for the small amount (8%) of threo (6) which is formed. The
reaction of the Grignard reagents with a 3 -dibromopropyl ethyl
ether can best be interpreted as an SN1 type mechanism to give the
most stable product.

Figure 1
C2H50 H H OC2H5 C2H50 H H OC2H5

H -Br HBr H Br H Br

Erythro Threo




Experimental Section
Unless otherwise noted, materials were obtained from commer-
cial suppliers and were used without further purification. Boiling
points are uncorrected. Gas-liquid partition chromatography (GLC)
was done with a Varian Aerograph A-700 gas chromatograph
equipped with a thermal conductivity detector using a 20 ft. x 0.375
in. SE 30 30% or 6 ft. x 0.25 in. LAC 728 column. Refractive indexes
were measured using an AO Spencer Abbe Refractometer.
Cis and trans 1-ethoxypropene (1,2) were prepared as described
by Farina 8. Product was composed of 67% (1) and 33% (2) as shown by
GLC (SE 30 column): bp 69C (760 mm); lit.8 1 bp 690C (755 mm), 2 bp
75C (758 mm.) Cis isomer (1) was further purified by GLC to 94%.
Erythro 3-bromo-2-butanol (10) was prepared from 9 (99% pure-
Matheson Co., Inc.) as described by Winstein 9: bp 54C (13 mm) nD25
1.4760; lit.10 bp 53.1C (13 mm) nD25 1.4767.
Threo 3-bromo-2-butanol (15) was prepared from 14 (99% pure-
Matheson Co., Inc.) as described by Winstein9: bp 45C (11 mm) nD25
1.4750; lit.10 bp 50.5C (13 mm) nD25 1.4756.
Trans 2-butene oxide (11) was prepared from 10 as described by
Wilson 11: bp 54-55C (760 mm) nD20 1.3715; lit.11 bp 53.6-54.1C
(760 mm) nD20 1.3726.
Cis 2-butene oxide (16) was prepared from 15 as described by
Wilson11: bp 60-61C (760 mm) nD20 1.3815; lit.11 bp 59.9-60.4C
(760 mm) nD20 1.3826.
Threo 3-ethoxy-2-butanol (17) was prepared from 16 as described
by Winstein9: bp 54-55C (38 mm) nD25 1.4065; lit.12 93.7C (173
mm) nD25 1.4072.
Erythro 3-ethoxy-2-butanol (12) was prepared from 11 as
described by Winstein9: bp 63-640C (43 mm) nD25 1.4105; lit.12
83.5C (109 mm) nD25 1.4106.
Threo 3-ethoxy-2-butanol acetate (18) was prepared by esterifica-
tion of 17 using acetic anhydride. From 2 g (0.017 mol) of 17 was
obtained 1 g (35%) of 18 using GLC (SE 30 column): bp 162C (760
mm) nD25 1.4030.
Erythro 3-ethoxy-2-butanol acetate (13) was prepared like 18.
From 2 g (0.017 mol) of 12 was obtained 1.58 g (59%) of 13 using GLC
(SE 30 column): bp'160.5C (760 mm) nD25 1.4030.
Threo 2-bromo-3-ethoxybutane (5) was prepared from 14 using
the procedure of House13: bp 56-57C (30 mm) nD25 1.4440; lit.14 bp
74.5-75.5oC (55 mm) nD20 1.4450 (configuration not given).
Erythro 2-bromo-3-ethoxybutane (7) was prepared from 9 using
the procedure of House13: bp 54-55C (27 mm) nD25 1.4440; lit.14
74.5-75.5C (55 mm) nD20 1.4450 (configuration not given).
1-Phenylpropyne (19) was prepared as described by Hurd15: bp
65C (7 mm) nD18 1.5630; lit.15 bp 71C (10 mm) nD18 1.5610.
Cis 1-phenylpropene (20) was prepared as described by Dewar16.


Product was composed of 76% cis (20), 4% trans (22) and 20% 1-
phenyl-1-propane as shown by GLC: bp 64-680C (20 mm); lit.16
95-96C (80 mm).
Threo 2-bromo-l-ethoxy-l-phenylpropane (6) was prepared from
20 in the above mixture using the procedure of House13. Product was
composed of 89% threo (6) and 7% erythro (8) as shown by GLC: bp
79-800C (0.6 mm) nD25 1.5235; lit.17 bp 113C (9 mm) (configuration
not given).
Trans 1-phenylpropene (22) was prepared from 21 as described
by Gauthier'l. Product was composed of 95% trans (22) and 5% cis
(20) as shown by GLC: bp 56-57C (7.5 mm) nD16 1.5890; lit.18 bp
64-65C (10 mm) nD16 1.5903.
Erythro 2-bromo-l-ethoxy-l-phenylpropane (8) was prepared
from 22 in the above mixture using the procedure of House13. Product
was composed of 89% erythro (8) and 4% threo (6) as shown by GLC:
bp 98-990C (3.5 mm) nD25 1.5210; lit.17 bp 113C (9 mm) (configura-
tion not given).
Threo 3-ethoxy-2-butanol acetate (13) was also prepared from 5
using the procedure ofWinstein9. Product was composed of 95% threo
(13) and 5% erythro (18) as shown by GLC.
Erythro 3-ethoxy-2-butanol acetate (18) was also prepared from
7 using the procedure of Winstein9. Product was composed of 88%
erythro (19) and 12% threo (13) as shown by GLC.
Formation of 3-ethoxy-2-butanol acetate from a 67% (1) and 33%
(2) mixture using the methylmagnesium iodide Grignard reagent. To
17.5 g (0.2 mol) of a mixture of 67% (1) and 33% (2) at 150C was
added 10.5 mL (0.2 mol) of bromine. The formed a 3 -
dibromopropyl ethyl ether was added dropwise to a cooled meth-
ylmagnesium iodide Grignard reagent with stirring. After being at
4C overnight, the product (2-bromo-3-ethoxybutane) was isolated by
distillation to give 13.6 g (38%): bp 54-55C (26 mm) nD25 1.4385;
lit.14 74.5-75.50C (55 mm) nD20 1.4450. Treatment with silver ace-
tate9 resulted in the formation of a mixture composed of 55% erythro
(18) and 45% threo (13) as shown by GLC.
Formation of 3-ethoxy-2-butanol acetate from a 94% (1) and 6%
(2) mixture using the methylmagnesium iodide Grignard reagent. A
17.5 g (0.2 mol) mixture of 94% (1) and 6% (2) was reacted with
bromine and then methylmagnesium iodide as described above to
give 14.1 g (39%) of the product (2-bromo-3-ethoxybutane). Treat-
ment with silver acetate9 resulted in the formation of a mixture
composed of 55% erythro (18) and 45% threo (13) as shown by GLC.
Formation of 2-bromo-l-ethoxy-l-phenylpropane from a 67% (1)
and 33% (2) mixture using the phenylmagnesium bromide Grignard
reagent. A 17.5 g (0.2 mol) mixture of 67% (1) and 33% (2) was reacted
with bromine and then phenylmagnesium bromide as described
above to give 36 g (74%) of the product: bp 83-84C (1.3 mm) nD25


1.5210; lit.17 bp 113C (9 mm). Product was a mixture composed of
92% erythro (8) and 8% threo (6) as shown by GLC.
Formation of 2-bromo-l-ethoxy-l-phenylpropane from a 94% (1)
and 6% (2) mixture using the phenylmagnesium Grignard reagent. A
17.5 (0.2 mol) mixture of 94% (1) and 6% (2) was reacted with bromine
and then phenylmagnesium bromide as described above to give 34 g
(70%) of the product: bp 83-84C (1.3 mm) nD25 1.5210. Product was a
mixture composed of 92% erythro (8) and 8% threo (6) as shown by



C- H

[ BR2


H- C- BR

BR- C- H


C2H50- C- H


H- C- BR
C2H50- C- H



BR- C- H
C2H50- C- H


BR- C- H
C2H50-C- H


6 7


H20 HO-C-H
2 1




H /CH3




H--C-- OH
c 5O---H




1. %- I
--H H20 HO---H


H\ /CH3


C2HO-C- -H


H- C



C2H50- C-H







CH3 CH3 H3
1 3 c"3 ?C3
III II 2-.-.-% I
C PD/C H-C C2H50H C2H50-C-H

19 20 6

H- C- OH H-C C2H5OH C2H50--H

21 22 8

1. L. Summers, Chem. Rev., 55 (1955) 301.
2. J. D. Roberts and M. C. Caserio, Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.,
W. A. Benjamin, Menlo Park, Calif (1977) 704.
3. C. E. Boord, H. B. Dykstra and J. F. Lewis, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 52 (1930) 3396.
4. E. Spath and R. Gohring, Monatsh., 41 (1920) 325.
5. G. Dana, O. Convert and G. Perrin, J. Org. Chem., 40 (1975) 2133.
6. E. L. Eliel, Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds, McGraw-Hill, New York (1962)
7. J. Delaunay, A. Lebouc and 0. Riob6, Org. Mag. Res., 12 (1979) 278.
8. M. Farina, M. Peraldo and G. Bressan, Chim. e ind. (Milan), 42 (1960) 967.
9. S. Winstein and R. B. Henderson, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 65 (1943) 2196.
10. S. Winstein and H. J. Lucas, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 61 (1939) 1576.
11. C. E. Wilson and H. J. Lucas, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936) 2396.
12. G. K. Helmkamp and H. J. Lucas, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 74 (1952) 951.
13. H. O. House and R. S. Ro, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 80 (1958) 182.
14. M. V. Likhosherstov, R. A. Arkhangel'skaya and T. V. Shalaeva, J. Gen. Chem.
(U.S.S.R.), 9 (1939) 2085.
15. C. D. Hurd and A. Tockman, J. Org. Chem., 23 (1958) 1087.
16. M. J. S. Dewar and R. C. Fahey, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 85 (1963) 3645.
17. R. G. Bossert and W. R. Brode, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 56 (1934) 165.
18. D. Gauthier and P. Gauthier, Bull. Soc. Chem., 53 (1933) 323.

Analysis of the Major Stressors
for K-12 Teachers*

Virden Evans
College of Education
Florida A&M University
Dewayne Johnson
College of Education
Florida State University
Joe Ramsey
Associate Professor
College of Education
Florida A&M University
Shirley Reese
Graduate Student
Florida State University
Steve Chandler
Graduate Student
Florida State University
The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the
major sources of job related stress among K-12 public school teach-
ers. A secondary purpose was to determine the relationships and
effects of major stressors on the total stress of public school teachers.
*Paper presented at the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recre-
ation and Dance National Convention, Atlanta, Georgia, April 17-21, 1985.


The subjects were 442 teachers of the 600 teachers who were ran-
domly selected. The teachers were asked to complete a personal data
sheet and the Teacher Stress Inventory. The 50-item Likert type of
skill inventory was designed to measure the relative level of stress
aroused by problems associated with public school teaching. Fifteen
subscores and a total stress score were obtained. The data were
analyzed using a one way analysis of variance and a stepwise multiple
regression analysis. The criterion of rejection was the .05 alpha level.
Based on the data provided by this study, the following major job
stressors experienced by the K-12 public school teachers appear to be
job scope, workload, job uncertainty, conflict with principals, and
demands of supervisors. Based on the results of this study, it was
concluded that most of the job related stress experienced by public
school teachers is related to school administration and not to the
interaction with students, co-workers, parents, discipline in school,
and rebellious students.

Despite major conceptual and methodological advances in the
field of educational research during the past few years, little is known
about how teachers are affected by certain stressors in the school.
While there is a great amount of attention being paid to raising the
quality of instruction in the schools, there is, however, little or no
attention being paid to the working conditions for public school teach-
ers which are considered sources of dissatisfaction or stress.
A number of researchers in work behavior have explored the
antecedents and consequences of stress, Kyriacou & Sutcliffe, 1977;
Beehr & Newman, 1978; Roth, 1978; Young, 1978; Walsh, 1979;
Johnson, et al., 1984a, b; Evans, et al., 1985. According to the
literature, the development of stress consists of both physiological
and psychological changes in teachers that may stem from their role
as teachers, insufficient teaching materials, poor financial incentives,
subjective teacher evaluations, and the inability to participate in the
decision-making process concerning their life profession.
Many teachers feel hopelessly entrapped in the teaching profes-
sion because of the increased job responsibilities with little oppor-
tunity for upward mobility and financial rewards. As a result of these
problems confronting teachers, there has been a very significant
increase in the pressures that teachers on all levels of the public
schools have to face and it is leading to teacher stress. In 1976, the
National Education Association President recognized the critical
nature of the stress problem among teachers. He noted that one-third
of the teachers surveyed indicated that if they were "starting their
teaching career again," they would not choose to become teachers,
while about two-thirds of the teachers reported that they plan to
remain in the teaching profession until retirement (National Educa-


tion Association, 1979). Evidence of disillusionment is notable in that
a substantial number of university and college teacher-education
programs have experienced a severe decline in enrollment.
Notwithstanding the increased awareness of the problem of
teacher stress, there is a paucity of empirical studies dealing with the
"school climate" as potential sources of stress. Research studies have
shown that the school climate can influence the achievement and
motivation of students (Lezzotte, et al, 1980). Likewise, it is
assumed that the school climate can also affect the work behavior of
teachers. Much of the literature containing problems about teachers
assumes that stress is indigenous only to teachers who are employed
in urban schools. However, many studies related to teacher stress
have suggested that the problem of stress arises from any one of the
following six areas:
1. general coping problems at school
2. problems of underachieving students
3. staff relationship
4. criticism in the media
5. disagreements with supervisors
6. denials of promotion
While many studies have shown that there is a positive rela-
tionship between the role ambiguity and role conflict among teachers'
stress, few studies reflect the multidimensionality of stress and how it
affects teachers. With these methodological and conceptual issues in
mind, the purpose of this study was to examine stress of K-12 public
school teachers. More specifically, the purposes of this study were as
1. To analyze the perceived stress of K-12 teachers.
2. To determine the major sources of stress among public school
3. To ascertain the effects of the major stressors on the total
stress measurement of teachers.

Data and Instrumentation
To carry out the purpose of this study, a questionnaire was
constructed and administered to 600 teachers employed in 67 school
districts. The questionnaire was designed to elicit demographic infor-
mation and to assess the relative magnitude of stress induced by a
variety of problems common to public school teachers.
The Teacher Stress Inventory (TSI) consisted of 50-item poten-
tially stressful situations that result in stress. The questionnaire
constructed was based on the Girdano and Everly (1979) stress eval-
uation instruments. The wording of the items from Girdano's instru-
ment was modified to reflect the public school work environment
rather than a general statement about work. Each item was a state-


ment about teachers' work environment and was worded either
positively or negatively in a random order. The content validity of
each of the dimensions was established by three judges. The reliabil-
ity of the instrument was established using the split-half method
with a group of 100 teachers. The reliability coefficients were in the
range of .69 to .87. The instrument provided 15 sub-scales and a total
stress measurement score. Teachers were asked to respond on a
summative model instrument with a 1-5 Likert scale ranging from
"no stress to extreme stress." The 15 sub-scales were identified as
being "conflict with co-workers," "conflict with self," "demands of
supervisors," "workload," "job scope," "insufficient teaching mate-
rials," "conflict with principal," "inadequate preparation," "decision-
making," "interaction with peers," "uncertainty on job," "racial issues
at school," "conflict with parents/public," "lack of recognition," and
"discipline in the school."
Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and stepwise
multiple regression analysis with the total stress measurement
scores serving as the dependent variables and the school related and
teacher related variables serving as the independent variables. The
.05 level of confidence served as the acceptance level.

Four hundred and forty-two (N = 442) or 74 percent of the 600
teachers from 67 school districts responded to the Teacher Stress
Inventory designed for this study. The means and standard devia-
tions for the total stress management score are presented in Table 1.

Means and Standard Deviations of Teachers'
Total Stress Scores (N = 442)

Major Fields N Means SD
Guidance 26 90.81 13.32
Physical Education 73 75.21 16.23
History/Social Studies 23 111.60 35.13
Elementary Education 40 90.23 25.61
Mathematics/Science 39 75.92 17.03
Music/Arts 27 91.18 11.73
Principals 55 84.24 19.24
Language/Speech/English 93 79.43 24.60

Business/Vocational Education

68 90.25 22.01


Of the 442 teachers, 26 were guidance counselors; 73 physical
educators; 23 history/social studies teachers; 40 elementary teach-
ers; 39 mathematics/science teachers; 27 music/art teachers; 55 prin-
cipals/supervisors; 93 speech/reading/language art teachers; and 68
business/vocational teachers. As shown in Table 1, the 23 history/
social studies teachers achieved a higher mean stress score, while the
physical educators and mathematics/science teachers obtained low
mean scores on the stress inventory.
Demographic data obtained from the 442 teachers are reported
in Table 2. The descriptive data reported were age, sex, race, school
level/grade taught, school size, and city size.

Demographic Data of Teachers' Total Stress Score

Demographic N Means SD F-Ratio
Age Groups 3.34
30-or less 127 81.95 23.26
31-40 191 86.15 19.91
41-50 84 79.52 18.05
51+ 40 102.00 13.86
Sex 1.59
Male 217 82.29 19.36
Female 225 84.89 21.78
Race 7.14**
Black 116 82.73 19.45
White 326 88.79 20.83
School Level 4.25*
Elementary 49 92.36 23.28
Middle 61 85.68 26.06
High 332 82.65 19.28
School Size 15.84**
600 or less 43 92.44 20.97
600-1000 53 99.91 26.09
1001-2000 314 80.06 18.45
2001 and more 32 90.00 19.61
Size of City 14.05**
Rural 214 103.00 25.44
Urban 228 90.70 21.98

*p < .05 **p < .01


Results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences
in total stress measurement scores among the teachers according to
race, school level/grade taught, school size and city size where the
teachers were employed. In each demographic category, there was a
significant difference found among the 442 teachers' total stress
measurement scores, except between the sexes and among the age
The means and standard deviations for the 15 sub-scales are
shown in Table 3.

Means and Standard Deviations of Teachers' Stressors


Conflict with Co-workers
Conflict within Self
Demands of Supervisors

Job Scope
Insufficient Materials/Information to
Complete Job
Conflict with Principal
Inadequate Preparation
Interaction with Peers
Uncertainty on Job
Racial Issues at School
Conflict with Parents/Public

Lack of Recognition
Discipline in the School

Mean SD
8.49 3.40
8.84 4.39
11.47 4.14
12.10 4.85
10.50 2.76

8.21 3.84
9.08 3.56
7.96 2.73
7.75 3.75
7.78 3.57
9.99 3.56
7.43 2.94
8.75 4.06
8.63 4.13
18.34 4.02

Data related to the 15 sub-scales revealed that workload, de-
mands of supervisors, job scope, conflict with principals, and uncer-
tainty on the job had the largest mean scores. These five sub-scales
were identified as the major stressors for the 442 teachers in this


Presented in Table 4 are the results of the stepwise multiple
regression analysis of the five sub-scales identified as major stressors
for this study.

Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis for the
Relationship Between Stressors and the Frequency
of Teachers' Total Stress

Variables Entered Multiple
Steps in Equation R R2 F
1 Demands of Supervisors .96 .92 1689.49**
2 Workload .98 .95 2182.09**
3 Job Scope .98 .97 2526.03**
4 Uncertainty .99 .98 2923.51**
5 Conflict with Principals .99 .98 3411.98**

**p < .01

The five sub-scales with the highest mean scores were identified
as the major stressors. These stressors were used in the stepwise
regression analysis as independent variables. Multiple correlations of
.96 through .99 were found between the total stress measurement as
the criterion and each of the major stressors: demands of supervisors,
workload, job scope, uncertainty and conflict with principals for the
442 teachers. Collectively, these five stressors accounted for 98 per-
cent of the variance in the total stress measurement of the teachers.

Discussion and Conclusion
The results of this study indicated that the sources of stress
experienced by teachers in the performance of their jobs are functions
of race, school level/grade taught, school size and city size. Age and sex
appear not to be a source of stress for the 442 teachers in this study.
Several studies alluded that females experienced significantly more
stress than males. The results of this study gave partial support to
this contention. It was found that females achieved a higher mean
score; however, it was not statistically significant from that of the
In addition to other findings, the results suggested that a signifi-
cant difference exists between urban and rural teachers' total stress
measurement. The data suggest just the opposite between rural and
urban teachers as in previous studies. The evidence presented here


indicates that rural teachers have other inherent factors that are
stressful in their teaching roles in rural areas.
A major finding of this study indicated that workload, demands of
supervisors, job scope, conflict with principals, and uncertainty on
the job were the major stressors of the 442 teachers. The results of the
stepwise multiple regression analysis for these identified stressors
accounted for 98 percent of the variance. These results and their
interpretation demonstrate the relative importance of these five sub-
scales as major stressors in the total stress of the 442 teachers.
Based on the results of this study, it may be concluded that most
of the stress experienced by public school teachers in this study is
related to school administration and not to the interaction with
students, co-workers, parents, discipline in school, rebellious stu-
dents, lunchroom assignments, evaluation of teachers, or decision-
making. The overall findings of this study support the contention that
teacher stress in this study that may affect teachers' level of efficiency
on the job is administratively based. Some would speculate that the
stress presented by school administrators is a factor of their not
knowing what to do and thereby being unable to provide clear cut
directions to their subordinate employees -the teachers.

Beehr, T.A. & Newman, J.E. (1978). Job stress, employee health, and organizational
effectiveness: A facet analysis, model, and literature review, Personnel Psychology,
31, 665-699.
Evans, V., Ramsey, J.P., Evans, A.L., & Johnson, D. (1985). The effect of job related
variables on teacher stress. Journal of the Southeastern Association of Educational
Opportunity Program Personnel, 4, 22-34.
Girdano, D. & Everly, G.S. (1979). Controlling stress and tension: A holistic approach.
Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Johnson, D., Evans, V., & Ramsey, J.P. (1984a). Effect ofjob related variables on coaches'
burnout. The Reporter: New Jersey Journal ofHealth, Physical Education, Recrea-
tion and Dance, 57, 18-30.
Johnson, D., Evans, V., & Ramsey, J.P. (1984b). Stress of K-12 teachers. Florida
Journal of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 12, 14-16.
Kyriacou, C. & Sutcliffe, J. (1977). Teacher Stress: Prevalence, sources and symptoms.
British Journal of Educational Psychology, 48, 159-167.
Lezotte, L.W. et al. (1980). School learning climate and student achievement. SSTA
Center, Teacher Education Project, Florida State University.
National Education Association. (1976). Teacher supply and demand for schools. Wash-
ington, D.C.: NEA.
National Education Association. (1979). National education resolution. Research
paper presented at the Annual National Education Association Meeting, Detroit,
Roth, R.H. (1978). Incongruence of perceived role expectations and positional stress:
Secondary school teachers in England and the United States. Unpublished doc-
toral dissertation, Duke University.
Walsh, Debbie. (1979). Classroom stress and teacher burnout. Phi Delta Kappan, 61,
Young, B.B. (1978). Anxiety and stress: How they affect teachers, teaching. NASSP
Bulletin, 62, 78-83.

Developmental Changes
in the Feed Value
of Perennial Peanut
(Arachis glabrata Benth)

Inyang D. Inyang
Graduate Student
College of Engineering Sciences, Technology
and Agriculture

Sheikh M. Basha
College of Engineering Sciences, Technology
and Agriculture

Sunil K. Pancholy
College of Engineering Sciences, Technology
and Agriculture

The objective of this study was to find out the changes taking
place in chemical components of Perennial Peanut Florigraze during
its seasonal development. This period ofregrowth began from March
until October, 1984. Samples were collected biweekly and brought to
the laboratory. Fresh weight and dry weights were obtained, then
the materials were ground and stored frozen in glass bottles for
chemical analysis. The components to be analyzed included chlo-
rophyll, soluble carbohydrates, a-nitrogen, protein, amino nitrogen
and dry matter. The major findings of the study were:


(1) Significant differences were found in the developmental
changes of this crop from the first to the last biweekly
collections of the whole plant, and leaves only.
(2) The changes in percent nitrogen, protein, chlorophyll and
soluble carbohydrates followed the pattern of moisture
received from the rainfall during the growth cycle.
(3) The crop had higher nutritive value as a feed or hay when
harvested during the months of July and August.
Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) is a legume which
possesses the value of grazing and hay crop (5). It was first noticed
among other similar crops by B.M. Prine in the Spring of 1962 in
Gainesville, Florida. This peanut has been tested and named Flori-
graze as Gainesville Selection No. 1 (GS-1). The seedling is supposed
to have come from Arb, a species of perennial peanut which was
originally brought to Florida from Brazil by W. Archer. Florigraze is
one of the Rhizoma peanuts, as a common name belonging to
perennial members in section Rhizomatosae. It has rhizomes or
underground stems which enable it to live long and thrive year after
year. A. glabrata is native to South America from eight to thirty
degrees latitude South (6). In Florida, it grows most rapidly during
the warm and moist periods of the year, about May to August. It can
also survive in winter when temperatures drop as low as three
degrees Fahrenheit or (-14 degrees centigrade) (7). The rhizomes
grow from two to three inches below the surface of the soil.
It has been reported that a well drained soil with pH of 5.7 will
support the growth of Florigraze (8). To get a complete coverage by
the end of the first season of planting, about forty bushels of
rhizomes per acre (3.5 m3/ha) is required, but higher rates give
faster coverage (9). It could be planted in any of the three methods. It
can be broadcasted and harrowed in, or planted in shallow furrows
and covered to a uniform depth, or by using a sprig planter. For best
results, it was recommended that Florigraze should be planted
between the months of January and February (10). It can be grown
alone or in a mixture with perennial summer grasses. Grasses like
bahiagrass, digitgrass and bermudagrass in mixture have proved to
grow well with Florigraze. Without fertilizer these grasses are
dependent on the peanut for nitrogen. If the field is fertilized with
nitrogenous material, they will compete and reduce the peanut
establishment. Tall weeds can also destroy peanut stands (11).
Florigraze, like other legumes, receives its need of nitrogen from
rhizobium bacteria. Its digested organic matter intake values were
reported to be favorable when compared to four and a half week-old
Florida 66 alfalfa (1.8:2.1%). The same was tested and proven to be
better than 'Suwannee' bermudagrass (1.3:1.8%) and 'Pangola' digit-
grass (1.3:1.7%) (4). Florigraze peanut development is reported to
be as good where crops were grown, as on areas where crops were not


(12). Other crops it can be inter-cropped with include corn, soybean,
sorghum, southern peas and peanut. This practice is useful because
it offers economic returns during the few years of establishment. It
also has growth potential to dominate over grass in mixture. It
produced more yield than other perennial peanut cultivars such as
Arb and Arblick when planted together. For example, the percent
peanut forage average in hay for five growing seasons was 90%,
while Arb was 60% and Arblick 60% in mixed planting (13). Shade is
an inhibiting factor to its growth. The growth rate is proportional to
the amount of shade it receives. Most established fields can with-
stand shade for long periods of time.
Most of the previous studies dealt with the growth pattern and
seasonal yields of perennial peanuts. Little work has been done in
the area of quality of forage. It has been reported in previous studies
(14) that the crude protein of leaves averaged 14 percent. Some
minerals including Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in leaves
were 2.24, 0.28 and 1.74 percent respectively. It was observed that in
vitro organic matter digestion percent value would be above 60 when
they were not extremely mature or left mixed with mature weeds.
Plots where materials for these experiments were collected had been
fertilized annually with 500 lb. per acre of 0-10-20 (15).
Experiments are underway to test this crop for lawn use and
road shoulders design along the highways. Presently, no serious
damages by any type of disease or pests have been encountered by
the growers. The effect of Mosaic stripe virus to perennial peanut is
not yet understood. Phyllosticta and Stemplylium fungi are causal
agents of two leaf spot diseases identified. No harmful nematode
buildup in the plant has been detected so far. Nevertheless, it should
be expected that vectors in the form of insects, nematodes and fungi
might emerge with new and unknown diseases as the crop-fields
increase over the States and become susceptible to infections.
Since this crop has shown reasonable properties to be developed
for grazing and hay, the interest of farmers and researchers in this
plant has increased considerably over the years. The interest
includes, production management in the farm, nutritive value of the
crop as a feed for cattle, goats and pigs. Therefore this study was
designed to investigate the developmental changes in the feed value
of Perennial Peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth), regarding Nitrogen,
Protein, Chlorophyll, Soluble Carbohydrates, Alpha Amino-Nitro-
gen and Dry Matter contents. The results will be helpful to scientists
and farmers who propagate this crop for use as hay and forage for
animal feeds.

Materials and Methods
The rhizomes of Florigraze (Arachis glabrata Benth) PI. 118457
were originally collected from the Institute of Food and Agricultural


Sciences Research Center, Brooksville, Florida, and planted in
Tallahassee at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University by
Dr. C.B. Owens in 1962. This nursery plot is located on FAMU farm
on Orange Avenue, midway between Adams and Wahnish Way
South. An area of forty by thirty feet was designated within the
center of the plot for sample collection.
Sample Collection:
Plants were picked randomly at ground level from the designated
area biweekly. The collection was always done on a dry day between
the hours of 11 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. to ensure that there was no
moisture on the plants. They were brought to the laboratory immedi-
ately for further processing.
Fresh Weight and Dry Weight Determination:
At first collection, majority of plants which had grown, had three
leaf-positions: P1, P2, P3 (Figure I). A hundred and fifty such plants
were randomly divided into six groups with twenty-five plants in
each. Three of these six groups were used to obtain the weight of the
whole plants, and the other three groups for weight of leaves.
First sample collection was labeled 'treatment one' (T1), collec-
tion two 'treatment two' (T2) etc. Each of the three groups (a, b, c) was
used as a replication in each treatment. Ten sample collections were
made and used for ten treatments in all. Plants collected for each
treatment showed similar growth properties, such as, equal number
of leaf-positions, and with majority number of leaf positions. For
instance, during treatment two collection, some plants had regrown
with three leaf-positions, few had five leaf-positions and majority had
four leaf-positions. This was used to provide for the close similarity in
age, weight and components of the plants. In the process, fresh
weights (FW) of whole plants (WP) were obtained by group. The
weight of individual plant (WP) or leaf (L) or stem with leaf stalks
(SS) was obtained by dividing the total weight of a group by the
number of individuals in it.
Dry weight (DW) was obtained from the same materials which
were dried in a lyophilyzer for seventy-two hours. The same weigh-
ing balance was used each time.
SSample Preparation:
Each of the dried sample was ground to powder with a grinder,
and transferred into glass bottles and stored frozen for chemical

Protein Analysis:
Protein content of the samples was determined by the micro-
Kjeldahl method (2). Sample meal (40 mg), digestion mixture (1.0g)
and 1.5 ml H2SO4 were added into the digestion flask and digested
for approximately thirty-five minutes on a coil heater. The digested


material was distilled at 100 degrees C and the distillate was
titrated with 0.01 M HC1. Starting and end points of titration were
recorded for nitrogen analysis. Percent protein content was obtained
by multiplying percent nitrogen by a factor of 5.42.
Chlorophyll Extraction:
Two hundred and fifty milligrams of each plant sample was
weighed and added to tubes. Eighty percent ethanol was added to
the meal, warmed-up for 5 minutes and centrifuged at 14,000
revolutions per minute (rpm). This was repeated three times using 8,
4, and 3 ml ethanol, respectively. The volume was made up to 15 ml
and stored in a refrigerator for chemical analysis. Two hundred p1 of
the supernatant of each sample was diluted with 1.8 ml eighty
percent ethanol to reduce the concentration so that chlorophyll a
and b contents would be read at 645 and 665 nm using a Beckman
Soluble Carbohydrates:
Yemm and Willis method was used to analyze the soluble
carbohydrates (19). Fifty p1 of each ethanolic extract was added to
tubes. Volume in each tube was brought up to 500 .1 by adding 450
Cl ethanol. Two ml anthrone solution was added, and tubes were
incubated in boiling water for 10 minutes. Glucose was used as the
standard. Readings of both plant samples and standards were taken
at 600 nm on a spectrophotometer.
Five hundred micro-liters of ethanolic extract of each sample
was added to tubes and dried, 100 p1 of ascorbic acid and 1 ml of 3%
ninhydrin were added respectively to each tube. The tubes were then
boiled in water for 10 minutes, cooled to room temperature before
diluting the mixture with 3 ml of 80% ethanol. Readings of both the
standard and plant samples were taken at 570 nm on the spec-
trophotometer. Percent alpha amino nitrogen was calculated from a
standard curve (20).
Dry Matter:
Dry matter percentages were determined using the method of
AOAC (3). Clean porcelain crucibles were dried for an hour at 105
degrees C before they were weighed. One gram of air dry sample
meal was added to the crucibles and weighed again. Crucible and
sample were dried in the oven at 105 C overnight, cooled in a
desiccator for two hours and weighed again.
Percent dry matter = dry matter x 100.
Fresh and Dry Weights:
Fresh weights of samples were obtained by weighing each set of
fresh samples immediately after they were collected from the field
into the laboratory. The dry weights were obtained from the same


samples correspondingly after they were freeze-dried for seventy-
two hours in a lyophilyzer.

Results and Discussion
The temperature and rainfall pattern during the experimental
time period are shown in Figure 2. The mean month temperature
rose from 65 degrees F to 74 degrees F in May and to 80 degrees F
and above during months of June, July and August. A decline in
temperature was observed in the month of September.
The average monthly rainfall in inches is also shown in Figure
2. Maximum rainfall was observed in the month of July and
thereafter it diminished to 4 inches in August and 2 inches in
Percent nitrogen content reflects the percent protein content of
a plant. The average protein from April to September was 13.5%.
This showed the ability of perennial peanut plant to exist without
any fertilizer application as compared to 14% protein average from
crops which were fertilized seasonally (15).
The data obtained on percent nitrogen content in Arachis
glabrata show that, even though the foliage growth of the plant was
increasing steadily over the weeks, the protein content did not
increase significantly (Table I). As a matter of fact, the protein
content went down sharply from the fourth week to the eighth week
of sprouting. Between the periods of eighth, tenth, and twelfth
weeks it stayed almost the same. However, during the 14th week it
increased to 14.13% and stayed around 14.5% until the 18th week of
growth cycle. Thereafter, a decline in protein content was observed.

The Nitrogen and Protein Content of Whole Peanut
(Stem, Leaves, Leaf-Stalk and Flowers)

Weeks % Nitrogen % Protein
4 3.128 16.95
6 2.433 13.83
8 2.267 12.28
10 2.38 12.90
12 2.34 12.70
14 2.608 14.13
16 2.64 14.31
18 2.69 14.62
20 2.33 12.66
24 2.00 10.86


When protein was analyzed on leaves only, without the stalks,
stems and flowers, the pattern of increase and decrease looked alike,
(Figure 3). The variation shown in the table reflects protein values in
samples collected at 15-day intervals between 4 and 28 weeks. Such
variations are expected due to varying growth levels and changing
climatic conditions. Since this data is shown in Table I, it is omitted
in Table II.
There was a highly significant increase between the mean
percent protein in the stems and the mean percent protein in the
whole plants. This analysis showed that there was more percent
protein in leaves than in stems when compared by weight of sample

The Protein Percent Content Averages
of Various Parts of A. glabrata

Part % Protein
Whole Plant 13.29
Stems and Stalks 9.64
Leaves 16.77

Chlorophyll content in a plant is important because its amount
reflects the potential quantity of starch and sugars the plant can
manufacture. Chlorophyll was extracted from each plant sample.
This extract was used to determine chlorophyll a and b which are
present in greater amount in plants than c and d. The two readings
at 645 nm and 665 nm on the spectrophotometer, showed the
amount of chlorophyll a and b present respectively in the plant
materials. The numbers 665 nm were used because chlorophyll a
absorbance can be read at this wavelength of the spectrum, and
chlorophyll b at 645 wavelength of the spectrum (17). Readings were
taken after diluting 200 pJ of each sample extract with 1.8 ml 80%
ethanol. The readings showed a similar trend of increase and
decrease as nitrogen and protein percentages (Table III). Chlo-
rophyll b showed a narrower range of increase and decrease than
chlorophyll a. It decreased from 0.114 to 0.072 in the 8th week.
Thereafter it increased steadily to a peak of 0.106 on the 18th week,
then decreased to 0.073 on the 24th week of the period of sample
collection. The readings showed that there was twice as much of
chlorophyll a as chlorophyll b in these plants. On the 4th week
chlorophyll a content was 0.320. It decreased sharply to 0.2 on the
8th week, then rose gradually to 0.247 and 0.286 on the 12th and
16th weeks respectively. After levelling off period of 16th and 18th


weeks, the content dropped linearly through 20th to the 24th week
of the study period.

The Chlorophyll Content of Whole A. glabrata Plant

Week a b
4 0.302 0.114
6 0.232 0.085
8 0.200 0.072
10 0.214 0.078
12 0.247 0.088
14 0.260 0.098
16 0.286 0.105
18 0.286 0.105
20 0.252 0.092
24 0.197 0.073
Alpha Amino-Nitrogen:
Free amino acid percentages were determined by analyzing the
alpha-amino-nitrogen. Amino acids are the organic molecules which
contain nitrogen, hence, the determination of amino-nitrogen will
give the percent content of amino acids. Amino acids are important
in this study because they are the building units of proteins (16). The
overall pattern of increase and decrease corresponded with the
chlorophyll content (Table IV). A decrease during the first eight
weeks, followed by an increase between 10-18 weeks period and
then again a decrease in final weeks of 20-24.

The Alpha Amino-Nitrogen Content
of Whole A. glabrata Plant

Week % Alpha Amino-Nitrogen
4 5.3
6 3.1
8 4.2
10 5.2
12 4.5
14 6.5
16 5.3
18 6.2
20 4.4
24 3.8


Fresh and Dry Weights:
Fresh and dry weights were determined on individual plant basis
(Table V). Fresh weight showed a point of decrease on the 12th week.
This is the period when most of the nutrient content also showed a
decrease. There was almost a continuous increase which levelled off
during the last four weeks when all the stems began senescence. The
dry weight, also, on individual plant basis showed a very gradual
increase without any point of decrease (Table V).

The Fresh and Dry Weights of Whole A. glabrata Plant
Weeks Fresh Weight/Plant Dry Weight/Plant
in Grams in Grams
4 0.35 0.11
6 0.65 0.21
8 0.71 0.21
10 0.78 0.27
12 0.71 0.28
14 0.87 0.28
16 1.23 0.36
18 1.47 0.43
20 1.75 0.84
24 1.76 0.80

Dry Matter:
Dry matter content per plant stayed constant for the first 10
weeks and then a gradual increase from 55.5 to 99.5 in the 24th week
took place (Table VI). It is evident that the moisture content in the
plant decreased with the duration of time and in final weeks very
little moisture was present.

Dry Matter Content of A. glabrata Plant

Weeks % Dry Matter/Gram
4 87.2
6 85.4
8 86.4
10 55.5
12 86.5
14 97.9
16 87.5
18 89.5
20 87.5
24 99.5


Soluble Carbohydrates:
Soluble carbohydrates include sugars which are soluble in 80%
ethanol from sample meal in process of chlorophyll extraction. The
insoluble carbohydrates are still left in the pellet. The two major
concerns for carbohydrates in this study are that it could be used
either as source of food and energy or to form proteins.
The soluble carbohydrate percent content showed a gradual
decline from 4th to 20th week (Table VII). The lowest level was
observed during 18th week after sprouting of the plant.

Soluble Carbohydrate Content ofA. glabrata Plant

Weeks % Soluble Carbohydrate
4 9.66
6 6.90
8 7.39
10 6.60
12 6.46
14 5.30
16 5.47
18 4.99
20 6.26
24 8.39

The results show a similar pattern of increase and decrease in
percent protein, nitrogen and chlorophyll. The weather changes had
significant effect especially on chlorophyll and protein content. Since
the sample plot did not receive any irrigation, the only source of water
supply to the plants was rainfall. It was evident that the regrowth of
the stems, and synthesis of their chemical components and their
changes mostly depended upon the rain water supply.
Average temperature rose from 58.8 F to 81.1 F from April to
August 1984 without any decrease (1). The only decrease shown was
between the last four weeks which also was the last month of the
growing season of this crop. The fall in temperature was one control-
ling feature of the life span of the regrowing stems.
Observations and measurements indicated a substantial dif-
ference between plants whose rhizomes were taken from the same
plot and raised in the greenhouse with adequate supply of water and
temperature and the plants which grew from the parent rhizomes on
the plot. Both the field samples and greenhouse samples were not
fertilized. These measurements were chosen for this because almost
all the components analyzed showed the highest percent content in
July of the period of study (Table VIII).


Measurements ofA. glabrata Plant Samples Raised in
Greenhouse and Those in the Field
Field Greenhouse Date Measured
Stem 34.1 cm 64.5 cm July 1, 1984
Leaf 4.5 x 1.5 cm 5.5 x 2.0 cm July 1, 1984

After the month of July the chemical component started to
decrease with one exception. Soluble carbohydrate percent content
indicated a remarkable reverse of the common pattern of percent
increase and decrease of other chemical components of this crop.
As their name implies, these carbohydrates might be the
degraded products of complex carbohydrates for use by the plants in
the process of manufacturing other components. Proteins can also be
formed from carbohydrates, provided ammonia is furnished. During
the process of producing proteins, the soluble carbohydrates were
used either for the requirements of synthesis or as energy source for
the plant itself. Therefore when more proteins were produced, more
soluble carbohydrates were converted and vice versa.
Percent free amino acid showed a similar pattern as other
components, but decreased abnormally in the 16th week when
nitrogen and protein had highest percent of content, except soluble
Three equal replications were used in this study. Duncan's new
multiple-range test was applied to determine the significance or
insignificance of the results of the study (18). The results showed
that the only insignificant variance was between the twelfth and
twentieth weeks' data on percent nitrogen and percent protein. All
the rest of variance were significant. This was an indication that
during biweekly collection of data, there were significant develop-
mental changes in the Feed Value of Florigraze in the regrowth

Figure 1
A. glabrata plant showing leaf-positions

V \ -1 leaf polon 1


Figure 2
The average monthly temperature (2A)
and rainfall (2B) of the experimental site,
FAMU Farm, Tallahassee, Florida (April-Sept., 1984)





I I I I i


Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep.

I m



Figure 3
The percent protein content ofA. glabrata leaves



w 16-
g H -ftfl-r-
j d 1~

4 8 12 16 20 24 28



1. Gleeson, Thomas A. Personal Communication. University of Florida Dept. of
Meteorology and National Climate Data Center, Asheville, N.C. May, 1985.
2. Horwitz, William, Peter Chiclio and Helen Reynolds (Ed.). "Official Methods of
Analysis of The Association of Official Analytical Chemists". 11th Edition. Wash-
ington, D.C. 1970, 34.
3. Horwitz, William, Peter Chichilo and Helen Reynolds (Ed.). "Official Methods of
Analysis of The Association of Official Analytical Chemists". 11th Edition. Wash-
ington, D.C. 1970, 131.
4. Moore, J.E. and O.C. Ruelke. Composition and Quality of "Florida 66" alfalfa,
"Suwannee" bermudagrass and "Pangola" digitgrass hays. The Florida Beef Cattle
Research Report 1978, 61-64.
5. Prine, G.M., L.S. Dunarin, J.E. Moore, and R.D. Roush. Florigraze Rhizoma
Peanut, Circular S-275, Jan. 1981, 1.
6. Prine, G.M., L.S. Dunarin, J.E. Moore, and R.D. Roush. Florigraze Rhizoma
Peanut, Circular S-275, Jan. 1981, 1.
7. Prine, G.M., L.S. Dunarin, J.E. Moore, and R.D. Roush. Florigraze Rhizoma
Peanut, Circular S-275, Jan. 1981, 2.
8. Prine, Gordon M. First Season Establishment Instructions and Rhizome Sources
for Florigraze Rhizoma Peanut. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, U.F.
Agronomy Research Report. AY83-1, July, 1982, 1.
9. Prine, Gordon M. First Season Establishment Instructions and Rhizome Sources
for Florigraze Rhizoma Peanut. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, U.F.
Agronomy Research Report. AY83-1, 2.
10. Prine, Gordon M. Establishment of Florigraze Rhizome Peanut. Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences, U.F. Agronomy Research Report AY84-1, 3.
11. Prine, G.M., L.S. Dunarin, J.E. Moore, and R.D. Roush. Florigraze Rhizoma
Peanut, Circular S-275, Jan. 1981, 16.
12. Prine, G.M., L.S. Dunarin, J.E. Moore and R.D. Roush. Florigraze Rhizoma Pea-
nut. Circular S-275, Jan. 1981, 7.
13. Prine, G.M., L.S. Dunarin, J.E. Moore, and R.D. Roush. Florigraze Rhizoma
Peanut. Circular S-275, Jan. 1981, 10.
14. Prine, G.M., L.S. Dunarin, J.E. Moore, and R.D. Roush. Florigraze Rhizoma
Peanut. Circular S-275, Jan. 1981, 13.
15. Prine, G.M., L.S. Dunarin, J.E. Moore, and R.D. Roush. Florigraze Rhizoma
Peanut. Circular S-275, Jan. 1981, 11.
16. Raven, Peter H., Ray E. Evert and Helena Curtis "Biology of Plants". Second
Edition. Worth Publishers, Inc. New York.
17. Stecher, Paul G., Martha Windholz, Dolores S. Leahy, David M. Bolton and Leslie
G. Eaton. "The Merck Index". Merck Co., Inc., New Jersey, 1968, 245.
18. Steel, Robert G.D. and James H. Torrie. "Principles and Procedures of Statistics".
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York. 1960, 101-111.
19. Yemm, E.W. and A.J. Hills. The estimation of carbohydrates in plants by Anthrone.
Biochemistry J. 57, 1954, 508-514.
20. Yemm, E.W. and E.C. Cocking. The estimation of amino acids with ninhydrin.
Analyst 80, 1955, 209-213.

List of Figures
1. A. glabrata plant showing leaf-positions.
2. The average monthly temperature and rainfall of the experimental site, FAMU
Farm, Tallahassee, Florida (April-Sept., 1984).
3. The protein content of A. glabrata leaves.

Nutritional Analysis of Certain Grasses,
Forbs, Crop Residues, and Crop By-Products
in Selected Areas of Haiti

Claude H. McGowan
Assistant Professor
College of Engineering Sciences, Technology
and Agriculture
Florida A&M University
Sheikh M. Basha
College of Engineering Sciences, Technology
and Agriculture
Florida A&M University
V. Murugesu
Graduate Student
College of Engineering Sciences, Technology
and Agriculture
Florida A&M University

Goats are an integral part of Haiti. The hardy goat has become
an even more important source of protein and income for Haiti's
small farmers since the recent loss of all pork production throughout
the country to African Swine Fever. The local goats are small with
Does attaining 15 to 25 kilogram lightweight at maturity and bucks
weighing 23 to 27 kilograms. The doe has poor reproductive traits
usually having only one offspring per kidding. She characteristically
does not produce enough milk to meet nutritional requirements of
her young and thus mortality rates are high and growth rates very
low among kids.


While it is evident that a well-balanced, long term strategy for
Haiti must take into account other factors in livestock development
such as animal health, livestock management, improved breeding
practices, and better marketing of livestock products, the primary
relationship which must be dealt with as the highest priority is that
of the individual animal to its feed. This situation is even more
critical during the dry season which may vary from 6 to 8 months.
During this time most trees (shrubs) lose their leaves, and the pro-
duction of herbaceous feeds (forages) during the growing season for
harvest or reserved grazing is completely neglected in developing
countries. The longer the normal dry season for a region, the greater
is the need to institute programs to demonstrate the feasibility of
supplying feeds, and the best methods for using these feeds on a
year round basis.
Livestock producers have at least three methods available to
them for use separately or in combination to make more feed avail-
able to animals on their farms. They are:
1. Improvement of existing pasturelands.
2. Intensification in the use of on-farm crop residues and crop by-
products; and
3. Greater use of agro-industrial by-products in the form of pro-
cessed feeds.
The existing pastureland in Haiti is almost entirely composed of
indigenous grass species. The pastureland has never been the sub-
ject of a comprehensive scientific investigation to determine its
inherent worth for livestock production but the general consensus
among non-specialists in Haiti is that the grasses are of low
nutritive value during most of the year. After an initial flush of new
growth at the beginning of the rains, these grasses are apparently
subject to rapid lignification and buildup of silica which quickly
lowers their digestibility when grazed by ruminants. The result is a
short grazing period of perhaps four or five months on these pas-
tures followed by severe reductions in forage availability during the
dry season.
The principal by-products available on farms in Haiti fall into
three general categories: stovers, haulms and leaves from harvested
plants, like corn, millet, sorghum and various grain legumes; fruits,
tubers and their by-products; and assorted brans, meals and cracked
grains from household preparation of food-grains and pulses. By-
products in all of these categories are likely to be highly variable
with respect to their nutritive values and usefulness as livestock
feeds. Crop by-products fed in combinations with protein supple-
ments and / or small quantities of molasses or urea, these feeds can
be made much more valuable as the roughage bases for on-farm
ruminant rations.


Haiti seems to be relatively fortunate in having large quantities
of fruit and tuber by-products available on farms for livestock feed-
ing. Bananas, plantains, yams, sweet potatoes, cassava, and citrus
and their by-products have all been shown to be acceptable feeds,
particularly for swine and cattle, if handled properly.
The available agro-industrial by-products in Haiti can be
grouped in two categories: bulk roughages and concentrates. The
former consist of sugarcane by-products, like bagasse and cane tops;
citrus rinds; cacao pod wastes; coffee hulls and pulp; and rice prod-
ucts like hulls and straw. The concentrates consist of by-products
from crops grown in Haiti, such as rice bran, corn bran, molasses,
copra meal and coconut oil meal; and cottonseed meal; and by-prod-
ucts from grains and other agricultural products imported into the
country. These latter by-products consist of wheat bran and mid-
dlings, the bulk of the corn bran, brewery residues, soybean oil meal,
and blood meal.
The need exists to provide a scientific basis for improving live-
stock production in Haiti through increased utilization of agri-
cultural crop residues and crop by-products as supplemental sources
of nutrients, and more selective use of grasses and forbs as primary
sources of nutrients for animals that are locally available.
The objective of the research projects is to conduct a nutritional
analysis of certain grasses, forbs, crop residues, and crop by-prod-
ucts in selected areas of Haiti.

The nutritional analyses of feeds includes determinations of
selected chemical constituents of grasses, crop residues, crop by-
products, shrubs and forbs that are used, or are available for use, as
livestock feed, and industrial wastes that are available to local farm-
ers. The Central Plateau (Hinche Agricultural District) was selected
as the primary zone of operation. Samples of some materials were
also to be obtained from other selected areas, especially the
Gonaives region.
Collection Procedures
Representativeness is the most important aspect of sample col-
lection. Hence every attempt was made to include the most represen-
tative material from the gross area. Also, samples were collected
from at least 3 representative areas of the Central Plateau and pack-
ed separately. It was necessary to collect the plant parts that were
most likely be available for livestock feeding.
For fresh products, the initial sample was approximately 4 kg to
5 kg, which when dried yielded between 40% to 60% of the initial
weight. In the field, samples were collected in bags with proper
aeration such as synthetic fiber, jute or cloth bags. Following drying


(sun drying), for 2 to 3 days, the samples were crushed into powder
either manually or mechanically and then transferred into sealed
plastic bags.
The above sampling procedure yielded about 3 or 4 samples for
each crop residue, representing major areas of the pleateau. Care
was exercised at every step not to get the samples wet (rain or other
source of moisture).
Crop residues. Crop residues were collected at various matu-
rities during both rainy and dry seasons following harvesting and
processing for seeds and tubers. Immediately after the collection of
the residues, they were dried in the sun for 3 to 4 days or until the
material felt dry and crushed easily. Following drying, the sample
was crushed either manually or mechanically into a powdery form to
facilitate efficient packing, and transferred into ziplock bags for la-
beling and shipping to Florida A&M University for analysis.
Grasses. Leaf and stem samples of grasses were collected at
various maturities from 3 to 4 representative areas and packed sepa-
rately. Again, at least 3 kg to 4 kg of fresh tissue was collected and
transported to Hinche to be dried. The grasses dried for at least 2 to
3 days, crushed, packed in ziplock plastic bags, and labeled for ship-
ping to Florida A&M University for analysis.
Crop and industrial by-products and wastes. These materials
were collected at different times during the year, with respect to
their availability. Approximately 2 kg to 3 kg of the above materials
were collected, from the point of origin or site of distribution. Since
storage conditions and duration have an effect on the quality of these
products, attempts were made to collect the least affected products.
The samples were collected directly in the plastic bags designated
for shipping. However, precautions were taken to ensure their dry-
ness. If they were found to contain excessive moisture, they were sun
dried for at least 12 to 24 hours to prevent fungal contamination.

Analytical Methods
Dry Matter and Organic Matter
Porcelain crucibles to be used were dried at 105C and then
cooled in a dessicator and then weighed. One gram of sample was
placed in the crucibles and then dried at 105C overnight. The sam-
ples were cooled in a dessicator and weighed. The samples were
ashed at 600C for 3 hours before weighing (AOAC, 1980). Percent
dry matter was calculated using the formula:
wt. of oven dried sample x 100 and the
wt. of sample
percent organic matter = wt of washed sample 100
wt. of oven dried sample
Crude Fiber
One gram of air dried sample was digested with the digestion
mixture in a large centrifugal tube by placing it in boiling water for


20 minutes. The sample was then cooled and filtered through scin-
tered glass crucible (fritted disc.), then the residue was washed with
hot water, hot 95% ethonol, benzene, hot 95% ethonol and finally
ether (AOAC, 1980). The sample was then placed in an oven at 110C
overnight. The sample was cooled by placing it in a dessicator for
approximately 2 hours and then weighed. The weighed samples
were then ashed at 500C overnight. The sample was cooled in a
dessicator and then weighed.
Percent (dry matter basis) crude fiber was determined using the
Dry wt. of crucible + sample ashed wt. of crucible + sample 100
weight of sample x % dry matter in sample
Total Nitrogen and Crude Protein
About 30-40 mg of sample were digested in a Kjeldahl flask by
adding 1 gm of digestion mixture and 1.5 ml of concentrated H2SO4
to each flask. Three to four drops of H202 were added to the sample
before total digestion. Digestion was complete when sample was
clear and pale green. The flasks were then cooled and 20 ml of
distilled water was added.
The digested sample was distilled by placing 5 ml of 4% boric
acid in a 50 ml erlenmeyer flask and by adding 4-5 drops of indicator
solution, beneath steam shunt. Ten ml of NAOH Na2S203 solu-
tion was added to the digestion flask and ammonia was collected for
3 minutes.
The distillate was titrated with 0.01 N HCI. Percent nitrogen
was determined using the formula:
ml. of 0.01 N HC1 used
x 15.09 (factor)
mg. of sample used
Percent crude protein was determined by multiplying the per-
cent nitrogen by a factor of 6.25.
Total Carbohydrates
Thirty mg of sample was placed in a centrifuge tube. To this 4 ml
of 0.04 N H2SO4 was added and boiled for 1 hour. The sample was
cooled and centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 15 minutes. The resulting
pellet was reextracted with 3 ml of 0.04 N H2SO4 then centrifuged
for 15 minutes at 12,000 rpm. The above two supernatants were
mixed and made up to a known volume (Basha et al., 1976). An
aliquot of the supernatant was analysed for free sugar content fol-
lowing the Anthrone-H2SO4 method of Yemm and Willis (1954).
Two grams of sample were ashed in a glazed porcelain dish at
5500C for 4 hours. The sample was cooled and 10 ml of 3 N HCI was
added and boiled for 10 minutes. The material was transferred into a
200 ml volumetric flask by filtering through a No. 3 filter paper (AO


AC, 1980). An aliquot of the sample was loaded into an atomic
absorption spectrophotometer and the amount of various metals
were determined using the following standards.
Calcium: Lanthanum Oxide
Iron: Iron stock solution (pure iron wire)
Copper: Copper stock solution (pure Cu metal)
Manganese: Manganese stock solution (MNO2)
Magnesium: Magnesium stock solution (pure Mg metal)
Zinc: Zinc stock solution (pure Zn metal)

Results and Discussion
Table 1 shows the chemical composition of leaves from various
plant materials. Tree foliage appear to be plentiful in Haiti and thus
could be a major feed source for goats.
Crude Protein As shown in Table 1 the crude protein content of
the leaves ranged between 15 and 36. Of the plant materials tested
benzolive showed highest amount (36.5%) of crude protein followed
by cassava (sweet), leucaena, yam and kempesh. In contrast avocado
leaves contained least (12.6%) amount of protein. Table 1 also indi-
cates that the crude protein content of the seeds and pods of the
byahunn tree was lower (13.1%) than the leaves (30%).
Total Carbohydrates Total carbohydrates which include free
sugars, starch and other polysaccharides ranged between 7 to 33%
(Table I). Kempesh had the lowest (7.5%) amount of carbohydrates
while kas / senna contained the highest (33%). The seeds and pods
of the byahunn tree contained a higher level of carbohydrates (47%)
than leaves of the same tree during early (8%) and mid season (19%)
growth. Thus the amount of carbohydrates (sugars) which makes
plant materials sweeter may play a role in feeding preferences of the
Cellulose Cellulose which indicates the amount of fiber pres-
ent has a major role in animal nutrition. Fiber content varied
greatly among the plant materials (Table I). Dividivi leaf contained
the lowest (8.4%) amount of cellulose, while pigeon pea leaf con-
tained the highest (33%) amount of cellulose. The seeds and pods
(fruit) had a higher level (17%) of cellulose than the leaves (11%) of
the byahunn plant.
Dry Matter and Organic Matter These halves reflect the
amounts based on air dry sample weight. These vary depending on
the moisture content of the air dried sample, and hence, may differ
from time to time depending on the extent of drying. For example in
freshly harvested samples, and in certain plant species (cassava and
yam) dry and organic matter will be low (on a fresh weight basis) due
to their high water content.
Minerals Of the seven minerals analyzed calcium was present
in relatively higher amounts compared to the others, followed by


magnesium and phosphorus. Calcium content was highest (3%) in
Spanish plum followed by benzolive (2.7%). Phosphorus was high
(.29%) in dividivi leaves while magnesium was high in leucaena
(.4%) leaves. Calcium and phosphorus levels for seeds and pods of
the byahunn tree were lower (1.15% and .078% respectively) than in
the leaves (1.37% and .12% respectively).
Seasonal Variations
The date of sampling appears to greatly alter the composition of
plant material and thus affect their nutritional value. Table II shows
the changes in the leaf composition of these type species during the
spring and summer collection. Of the chemical components protein
carbohydrates cellulose, calcium and phosphorus varied signifi-
cantly. For example, byahunn contained 15.5% protein during sum-
mer collection. Similarly, carbohydrate content was only 8-9%
during spring while it increased 2 to 3 fold (20-24%) during summer
collection. Thus these variations indicate significant changes in the
nutritional value of the plant material depending upon the season,
and hence may require different feed proportions in different sea-
sons to meet the nutritional requirements of the animals.
Crop By-Products and Residues
Table III shows the chemical composition of crop by-products
and a crop residue. Soybean meal had the highest protein (53%) level
followed by cottonseed meal (31%), while rice flour was rich (88%) in
carbohydrates. Soybean hulls (49%) and rice hulls plus bran were
high (46%) in cellulose. Among the minerals soybean hulls con-
tained the highest (.48%) amount of calcium followed by dividivi
(.25%) fruit. Interestingly, rice polish was extremely rich in phos-
phorus (.1%) followed by cottonseed meal (.75%) and soybean meal
Tomato skin and seeds contained a maximum amount (28.6%) of
protein while corn stalks contained only 10.6%. Corn stalks were
rich in carbohydrates (42%) compared to tomato seeds (12%). Inter-
estingly tomato skin and seeds were significantly rich in phosphorus
(.53%) compared to corn stalks (.06%) while corn stalks were richer
in calcium (.40%) compared to tomato skin and seeds (.16%).
Protein, carbohydrates and cellulose content of grasses ana-
lyzed during early growth were similar and ranged between 11 to
13%, 11 to 14% and 34 to 38% respectively (Table IV). However,
the mineral content of the grasses varied significantly. For example,
guinea grass contained 0.42% calcium while tomaki contained only
0.05% calcium. Similarly, guinea grass was rich (0.36%) in magne-
sium compared to bluestem (0.13%) grass.

Analysis of Plant Materials (Trees, Leaves, Seeds, and Pods)





-- I1

Cassava (Sweet)
Cassava (Sour)
Peigon Pea
Spanish Plum
Panama Gum
Hog Plum
Kas / Senna
Byahunn (Seeds & Pods)

34.64* 14.014
30.52 11.375
22.35 8.964
33.60 8.562
19.55 7.564
20.225 11.155
15.55 8.189
25.00 9.312
21.56 17.36
19.31 21.57
16.06 29.96
31.12 15.93
21.62 13.25
23.68 32.81
30.43 19.15
33.68 22.45
12.62 26.18
19.62 24.86
36.50 22.87
13.06 47.13

10.83 89.04 91.90 1.548 .271
16.73 86.05 92.97 1.249 .234
8.43 58.03 95.07 .234 .288
19.14 93.0 89.57 1.28 .09
12.10 89.44 92.13 2.09 .164
32.89 58.97 89.63 .998 .217
13.16 98.0 93.06 2.82 .094
11.21 91.73 91.89 2.238 .149
17.86 92.90 90.72 2.027 0
14.31 94.09 90.78 3.019 .124
19.00 92.00 89.42 1.934 .09
20.06 92.75 94.11 2.003 .068
18.07 94.43 91.94 2.227 .126
11.68 91.82 91.65 1.829 .114
11.06 94.87 94.76 1.37 .118
9.09 95.16 93.63 1.448 .129
16.77 90.03 92.46 1.348 .08
10.66 93.56 96.52 .676 .081
11.00 79.02 81.76 2.765 .201
17.20 91.93 95.61 1.15 .078


.0007 .011
.0006 .012
.0010 .001
0 .001
.0009 .003
.0006 .0062
.0002 .0038
.003 .0049
0 .0029
.0001 .0036
.0001 .0065
.001 .0032
.011 .0053
.0005 .0068
.0003 .0041
.0001 .010
.0005 .0076
.0007 .0064
.0002 .0048
0 .0018

.001 Z

*Mean average of three replications. Variations among replications were less than 5 percent.

Seasonal Variation in the Nutritional Composition of Plant Residues



Dividivi-1. Early Gwth. 22.35* 8.964 8.43 58.03 95.07 .234 .288 .066 .0010 .001 .093 .020
2. Mid Season 19.62 24.86 10.66 93.56 96.52 .676 .081 .009 .0007 .0064 .113 .0030
Byahunn-1. Early Gwth. 15.55 8.189 13.16 98.0 93.06 2.82 .094 .027 .0002 .0038 .196 .002
2. Mid Season 30.43 19.15 11.06 94.87 94.76 1.37 .118 .016 .0003 .0041 .264 .0035
Leucaena-1. Early Gwth. 25.00 9.312 11.21 91.73 91.89 2.238 .149 .018 .003 .0049 .406 .0097
2. Mid Season 33.68 22.45 9.09 95.16 93.63 1.448 .129 .023 .0001 .010 .366 .0034
*Mean average of three replications. Variations among replications were less than 5 percent.

Analysis of Crops By-Products and Residues

Percent* 0

Rice Polish 13.58* 51.760 8.71 59.66 90.46 .085 1.046 .015 .0003 .0067 .463 .0051
Rice Flour 9.49 88.196 0.99 60.47 99.18 .053 .068 .017 .0002 .0013 .027 .0023
Rice Bran 7.02 15.034 46.55 61.43 72.04 .101 .536 .008 .0004 .0085 .258 .0043
Rice Bran (Heated Paddy) 7.85 7.371 29.86 97.26 79.82 .152 .412 .025 .0084 .0098 .252 .0038
Rice Bran (Unheated Paddy) 6.34 11.999 31.66 97.64 79.68 .125 .436 .013 .00009 .0093 .227 .0023
Cotton Seed Meal 30.80 7.894 40.65 60.14 91.49 .235 .752 .013 .0004 .0013 .389 .0056
Soybean Meal 52.98 15.541 10.95 57.54 87.33 .202 .699 .008 .0015 .0037 .270 .0044
Soybean Hulls 12.38 11.013 48.78 96.85 94.71 .482 .106 .051 .0008 .0026 .207 .107
Dividivi (Fruit) 7.02 13.829 13.35 57.66 94.38 .249 .088 .023 .0005 .0014 .043 .0022
Corn Stalks (Early Gwth.) 10.62 42.13 28.87 90.29 91.66 .400 .06 .023 .00009 .0051 .203 .0069
Tomato Skin & Seeds 28.56 12.26 21.77 92.30 97.06 .155 .528 .010 .0007 .0039 .249 .0034
*Mean average of three replications. Variations among replications were less than 5 percent.

Analysis of Grasses

Kos (Early Growth) 13.18* 10.95 37.09 94.80 88.74 .279 .158 .038 .0005 .0036 .160 .143
Guinea Grass (Early Gwth) 12.5 12.74 38.41 94.40 90.41 .424 .139 .010 .003 .0048 .358 .019
Angleton Bluestern
(Early Growth) 12.31 13.91 36.80 99.06 89.54 .219 .079 .012 .0001 .0032 .129 .0018
Tomaki (Early Gwth) 10.75 14.10 34.35 93.08 88.20 .0494 .157 .010 .0005 .0020 .193 .0045
*Mean average of three replications. Variations among replications were less than 5 percent.


Improving Writing and Speaking
in Selected Speech Classes

Adeline L. Evans*
Associate Professor
School of General Studies
Florida A&M University

A research investigation was conducted to ascertain whether
selected speech classes improve both writing and speaking skills. The
investigation in a pretest, treatment, and posttest design sought
answers to the following questions: Will writing and speaking experi-
ences in selected speech classes improve the writing and speech skills of
the students as measured by five essays written and three speeches
presented by the students? Will factors such as selected subjects and
course content subjects affect the writing and speaking performances of
the students?
A total of 53 students in four speech classes served as subjects. All
subjects wrote five essays, of which 26 wrote three essays based on
traditional essay format and 27 wrote essays based on course content
subjects. All students presented three speeches. The essays were rated
by three teachers; whereas the speeches were rated by the classroom
teacher and the classroom students.
The results indicated that the students as a group and that the
subgroups improved in their writing from the first essay to the fifth
essay; however, they did not improve in their speechmaking ability from
the first speech to the third speech.
From these results, the premise on which the writing section of the
Gordon Rule is based seems sound: students who write more and have
that writing evaluated improve in their writing ability.

*The author thanks the University Research Committee of Florida A&M Univer-
sity for a grant, which supported this investigation.


Several recently established programs mandated by the State of
Florida have had and will continue to have tremendous influences on
the programs at Florida A&M University (FAMU) and possibly on
those at the other eight state-supported universities and twenty-eight
community colleges for several decades to come. These programs are
the Florida Statewide eleventh grade test, the Florida Teacher
Certification Examination, the College Level Academic Skills Test
(CLAST), and Rule 6A-10.30, Florida Administrative Code, "Other
Assessment Procedures," presently known as the "Gordon Rule,"
named for the senator who presented it to the Florida Senate. A discus-
sion of the impact of each on Florida A&M University follows.
When the Florida Statewide eleventh grade test, encompassing
communicative and computational skills, was administered in 1977 to
eleventh graders in the public schools of Florida, 77 percent of the black
students who took the test failed one or both sections of the test, as
compared to 25 percent of the white students who took the same test
(The testy topic, p. 8A). The percentage of black students who failed
during the first time administration decreased considerably to 50 per-
cent in 1982. Although the court declared that the test results could not
invalidate a student's diploma until 1983, a critical examination of the
results of the test reveals that, if the percentage of the black students
who fail the Statewide eleventh grade test does not decrease substan-
tially, the black students who might otherwise be admitted to FAMU
would be unable to matriculate at the University.
In 1980, when the Florida Teacher Certification Examination was
first administered, approximately 32 percent of the seniors in teacher-
education at FAMU who took the test passed it, as compared to 88
percent of the students at the other universities. Since the skills
involved are those of communication, mathematics, and professional
education, the College of Education, the School of General Studies, and
the mathematics and English departments at FAMU might lose their
credibility if a large percentage of the teacher-education majors con-
tinue to fail the Florida Teacher Certification Examination.
The most recent of the State tests is the College Level Academic
Skills Test (CLAST) administered in October 1982. The goal of this test
is to raise the communicative and computation skills of those students
who enter the upper division in college. As a group, the students at
FAMU who took the test scored below the mean on all skills. Should
this trend continue, very few students will be entering professional
programs at the University. Consequently, teaching strategies must be
revised and planned to raise the test scores of the students at FAMU.
The Gordon Rule, which was designed to raise the level of the basic
skills of students at the college level, requires, among other things, that
students write at least 24,000 words in graded essays. The essays may
be written and evaluated in any college level course. This requirement


seems to be based on the assumption that more writing leads to better
writing regardless of the evaluation of the writing. The establishment of
the Gordon Rule and the State tests, the Statewide eleventh grade test,
the Florida Teacher Certification Examination, and the College Level
Academic Skills Test, provided the climate and the motivation for the
present study.
The research questions of the investigation were as follows:
1. Will writing experiences in selected speech classes improve the
writing skills of the students as measured by five essays written by the
students in one semester?
2. Will speaking experiences in selected classes improve the speak-
ing ability of the students as measured by teacher's and students' eval-
uations of three speeches delivered in one semester.
3. Will factors, such as selected and class content subjects,
increase or decrease writing skills as measured by essays written by
students in two experimental groups?

Survey of Related Literature
How to improve writing has been a continual focus of writing
courses. Grendal and Quandahl (1977), Lattin (1976), and Holzman
(1980) indicated that students enrolled in writing classes improve in
their writing skills. Evans, Pratt, Blake, Simmons, and Evans (1982)
reported positive results of a writing course at FAMU in which both
traditional and modular styles of teaching writing were utilized. There-
fore, writing courses tend to improve the writing of the students who
take the courses. However, can speech classes improve writing skills?
What does the research indicate?
Pooley (1966) presented a view of communicative skills wherein
both speech and English courses are complementary, closely associated
disciplines, each with its contributions to make to the general educa-
tion of students. To go one step further, Wheater (1966) explained an
integrated program of team teaching in a course in speaking and writ-
ing at Hanover College. In the program, both speech and writing were
taught interchangeably, with some students taking writing during the
first part of the term and others taking writing during the second part,
all alternating from one to the other. Wheater reported that the course
was so successful that other departments at Hanover were contemplat-
ing integrating additional related courses.
As implied from the limited research available, speech classes may
be used to improve the writing as well as the speaking skills of students
enrolled in them.

An investigation involving the use of speech classes to improve
writing was completed. The pretest-treatment-posttest design, with


two experimental groups, involved four speech classes at Florida A&M
University during the Spring Semester 1983.
Population and Sample
The subjects in the study were students registered in two classes of
Public Speaking and two of Foundation of Speech. In random selection,
two experimental classes, one of Public Speaking and one of Foundation
of Speech, wrote essays based on general subjects and the other two
wrote essays based on the class content taught during that period. Only
students who completed three speeches and five essays were used in
the investigation. A total of 27 students in the general subject group
completed all experimental items and 26 in the course-content group
completed all experimental items, both totaling 53 students.
The teacher of the four speech classes was also the investigator.
Evaluation Instrumentation
Essay ratings. The students wrote five essays, one at the beginning
pretestt) and one at the end (posttest) of the semester, and three in
between, two weeks apart. All essays were rated holistically from 4 to 0,
with the best rating being a 4 and the worst a 0. Three persons, two
speech teachers and one English-speech teacher, rated each of the five
The essay tests followed the traditional format for the first and last
essays. The students were then divided into two groups for the three
middle essays. Randomly selected, one group wrote essays based on a
selected topic from among three subjects, and the other group wrote
essays based on the content taught in class. (A copy of each of the essay
tests is found in the Appendix.)
Speech ratings. The students presented three speeches in class. All
speeches were rated on a 5-point scale, with 5 being the best rating and
0 the worst. The three speeches were rated on content and delivery by
the classroom teacher and the students in the class. (A copy of the
speech evaluation sheet is found in the Appendix.)
1. Each student in the four speech classes wrote an essay, selected
from the same three topics, during the first two weeks of class.
2. Students in the selected speech classes were then divided into
two experimental groups. One group wrote three essays, one every two
weeks based on any of three given subjects, and the other group based
on content presented in class.
3. Each student in the selected speech classes wrote a final essay
based on any of three given subjects.
4. Students in the experiment were given their rated essays a day
or two before they wrote their next essays.
5. Students in the experimental groups presented three or more
speeches, the first three of which were evaluated immediately after
presentation by the classroom teacher and students.


Analysis of the Data
Description of the Experimental Group
All of the students in the experimental classes filled out a short
questionnaire on which they supplied information such as their age,
home address, academic classification, academic major, nationality,
race, freshman English courses completed, and previous speech
courses taken. According to the responses of the students, their
mean age was 20 years old, most were Floridians, more were juniors
than any other academic classification, more had majors in the Col-
lege of Arts and Sciences than any other school or college, at least 92
percent were black Americans, more than half had completed the
freshman English courses, and most had not taken a speech course
in college.
Essay Tests
The students were divided into two groups. One group wrote
essays based on the traditional essay format (called the traditional
group) and the other group wrote essays based on course content
(called the course content group). A total of 53 students (27 in the
traditional essay group and 26 in the course content group) partici-
pated in the study.
To establish interrater reliability, ten of the essays were ran-
domly selected to be evaluated first by the three essay raters, the
investigator, and two other teachers, one a speech teacher and the
other a speech and English teacher. On the ten essays, the investiga-
tor and the speech and English teacher agreed on the ratings of
eight essays, and the speech teacher and the investigator agreed on
the ratings of seven essays. A perusal of Table I indicates that the
average ratings of each of the raters did not vary from each other by
as great as 1.
Descriptive Statistics
Essay Tests. The mean ratings of the 53 students and the two
subgroups as evaluated by all three raters are presented in Table 1.
The average ratings for the 53 students varied little from one essay
test to the next with means of 1.61, 1.76, 2.06, 2.06, and 2.13. Like-
wise, the average ratings of the 27 students in the traditional essay
group varied little from one essay to another, with means of 1.57,
1.75, 2.12, 2.01, and 2.09. The mean rating for the third essay (2.12)
was greater than any other mean rating for the subgroup. The aver-
age ratings of the 26 students in the course content group varied
little from one essay test to the next, with means of 1.66, 1.77, 2.00,
2.11, and 2.17.
Speeches. In Table 2, mean ratings of the three sets of speeches
of the 53 students and of the two experimental groups as evaluated
by the teacher and the students are presented. The mean ratings for


the 53 students varied only by tenths with means of 3.68, 3.66, and
3.66. In all instances, the teacher's ratings were less than those of
the students. The same pattern appeared for the two subgroups,
whereby the traditional group had mean ratings of 3.83, 3.76, and
3.76, and the course content group mean ratings of 3.53, 3.55, and
3.55. Lower means were computed for the traditional group on the
second and third speeches.

Mean Ratings by All Three Raters of the Five Essays
of the 53 Students and of the Two Subgroups


Pretest Investigator 1.57 1.56 1.58
1st Teacher 1.75 1.67 1.82
2nd Teacher 1.53 1.49 1.58
Mean of Three 1.61 1.57 1.66

Second Investigator 1.74 1.67 1.81
1st Teacher 2.00 2.02 1.98
2nd Teacher 1.53 1.56 1.5
Mean of Three 1.76 1.75 1.77

Third Investigator 2.17 2.26 2.08
1st Teacher 2.31 2.35 2.27
2nd Teacher 1.7 1.74 1.66
Mean of Three 2.06 2.12 2.00

Fourth Investigator 2.09 1.97 2.23
1st Teacher 2.16 2.11 2.21
2nd Teacher 1.93 1.97 1.89
Mean of Three 2.06 2.01 2.11

Posttest Investigator 2.19 2.15 2.23
1st Teacher 2.31 2.24 2.38
2nd Teacher 1.89 1.89 1.89
Mean of Three 2.13 2.09 2.17


Mean Ratings of the Three Speeches of All 53 Students
and of the Two Subgroups As Related by the Teacher
and by the Students

First Teacher 3.46 3.62 3.3
Students 3.91 4.04 3.78
Mean of Both 3.68 3.83 3.53

Second Teacher 3.34 3.4 3.27
Students 3.97 4.12 3.83
Mean of Both 3.66 3.76 3.55

Third Teacher 3.4 3.52 3.27
Students 3.92 4.00 3.84
Mean of Both 3.66 3.76 3.55

Test of Significance
Essay Tests. Table 3 presents the means, standard deviations,
and t values for the pretest and posttest essays of the 53 students.
The t value of 7.88, computed with the pretest essay mean rating
of 1.61 and the posttest essay mean rating of 2.13, is significant at or
greater than .001 level of confidence. The posttest essay mean was
greater than the pretest essay mean. Therefore, the students in-
creased significantly in their writing from pretest to posttest.

The Means, Standard Deviations and t Values for the Pretest
and Posttest Essays of the 53 Students in the Study


Pretest Essay 1,61 .489 -7.88*
Posttest Essay 2.13 .358
*Significant at or greater than .001 level of confidence.

The means, standard deviations, and t values for the pretest
and posttest essays of the two groups of students are presented in
Table 4. The t value of 5.63, computed with the pretest essay mean
rating of 1.57 (SD = .528) and the posttest essay mean rating of 2.09
(SD = .341) for the traditional group, is significant at or greater
than .001 level of confidence. Similarly, the t value of -5.41, com-
puted with the pretest essay mean rating of 1.66 (SD = .451) and


the posttest essay mean rating of 2.17 (SD = .377) for the course
content group, is significant at or greater than .001 level of confi-
dence. The t value for the traditional group was slightly greater than
that for the course content group. Hence, both groups of students
increased significantly in their writing from the pretest to the post-
test essay.

The Means, Standard Deviations and t Values for the Pretest
and Posttest Essays of the Two Subgroups


Traditional 27 1.57 .528 2.09 .341 -5.63*
Course Content 26 1.66 .451 2.17 .377 5.41*
*Significant at or greater than .001 level of confidence.

Speeches. The means, standard deviations, and t values for the
first and third speeches of the 53 students are presented in Table 5.
The t value of .28, computed with the mean rating of 3.69 (SD =
.483) of the first speech and the mean rating of 3.68 (SD = .555) for
the third speech, is not significant at the .05 level of confidence.
Therefore, the students did not improve significantly in their

The Means, Standard Deviations and t Values for the First
and Third Speeches of the 53 Students in the Study


First 3.69 .483 .28*
Third 3.68 .555
*Not significant at the .05 level of confidence.

In Table 6, the means, standard deviations, and t values of the
ratings on the first and third speeches of the traditional and course
content groups are shown. The t value of .58, computed with the
mean rating of 3.83 (SD = .509) on the first speech and 2.76 (SD =
.62) on the third speech for the traditional group, is not significant at
the .05 level of confidence. Likewise, the t value of -.21, computed
with the mean rating of 3.53 (SD = .471) on the first speech and 3.55
(SD = .47) on the third speech for the course content group, is not
significant at the .05 level of confidence. Therefore, the students in
each of the two groups did not differ significantly in their speeches
from the first speech to the third speech.


The Means, Standard Deviations and t Values of the Ratings
of the Two Subgroups for the First and Third Speeches

OF 1st OF 3rd

Traditional 27 3.83 .509 3.76 .62 .58*
Content 26 3.53 .471 3.55 .47 -.21*
*Not significant at the .05 level of confidence.

The students in the two experimental groups were, in the main,
20 years old, juniors in arts and sciences, from Florida, who had
completed their freshman English classes, but who had not taken a
speech class in college. These students were somewhat different
from the usual population at FAMU wherein the majority of the
students are freshman and sophomores and have a mean age of 19
years old. Hence, the students in the study would be considered
more mature than the average college student.
Test of Significance
The analysis of the data provided support for the hypothesis:
writing can be improved in selected speech classes, since the stu-
dents as a group improved significantly in their writing ability in
one semester. Furthermore, the data gave credence to the rationale
for the communicative section of the Gordon Rule: that students who
write myriads of writing often, and who have their writing evaluated
periodically do improve their writing in college courses. Further-
more, the experiment was conducted at a propitious time since most
of the students in the study had completed their freshman English
courses. The students, though, still need additional assistance to
improve their rating to 3, a more acceptable level for all the stan-
dardized writing tests they will need to pass in college.
Both groups of students, those writing essays using the tradi-
tional essay format and those using course content subjects,
improved significantly in their writing ability in one semester. The
course content group wrote slightly better essays. Logically speak-
ing, these students were more familiar with the topics and, there-
fore, would be expected to write more complete essays based on the
class work.


Surprisingly, while the students improved significantly in their
essay ratings, they did not improve in their ratings from their first to
their third speech. Several explanations may account for these
results. First, the students presented three types of speeches, each
of which was more difficult than the speech before it; consequently,
the students utilized greater skill to present the successive speech
types, although their ratings did not reflect the improvement. Sec-
ondly, as the students learned more about speech making, their
criteria for each successive speech type became higher, and perhaps
they gave higher ratings to those speeches that were obviously bet-
ter. Thirdly, the students' grades on the unit tests pertaining to the
speech types tended to improve with each successive type, which
may indicate that insight in speech making not demonstrated in the
corresponding speeches might have been gained. The important
point is that the expectations for the speeches were increasingly
higher and the standards more advanced for each speech type, while
these expectations and standards remained the same for the essays
throughout the semester.
Another observation of the speech evaluations must be made. In
most instances, the teacher rated the speeches lower than the stu-
dents rated them. Perhaps the teacher's standards were higher than
those of the students.

Selected speech classes were used to determine whether they
may be used to improve the writing and speaking of the students in
them. The results were as follows:
1. The students in the entire group improved significantly in
their writing ability from pretest to posttest essays.
2. The students in the entire group did not improve signifi-
cantly in their speech making ability from the first speech to the
third speech.
3. The students in each of the subgroups improved significantly
in their essay writing from pretest to posttest.
4. The students in each of the subgroups did not improve signif-
icantly in their speech making ability from their first to their third
The explanations given for the lack of improvement in the
speech ratings of the students were that the expectations for the
speeches were increasingly higher and the standards more advanced
for each speech type.
Since students in classes other than English can improve in
their essay writing ability, the students at the University can be
expected to raise their essay writing skills when'large quantities of
writing are done in English and other courses, as the Gordon Rule


Follow up studies should consider the types of speeches com-
pared. Also, pre-training in evaluating speeches and essays should
be conducted to encourage common standards among the evaluators.


Evans, A., L. Pratt, J. Blake, L.S. Simmons and V. Evans. An evaluation of the modu-
lar style of teaching college freshman English. An Unpublished Research Project,
Florida A&M University, 1982.
Grindal, G.S. and E. Quandahl. Freshman English: A rhetoric for teachers. College
English, 1977, 39, 442-448.
Holzman, M. Theory, research, and pedagogy. College English, 1980, 42, 343-349.
Lattin, V.E. A program for basic writing. College English, 1976, 40, 312-316.
Pooley, R.C. Oral communication in the English curriculum. The Speech Teacher,
1966, 15, 26-29.
The testy topic. Tallahassee Democrat, January 16, 1983, 1A, 8A.
Wheater, S.B. Team teaching in a course in speaking and writing. The Speech Teacher,
1966, 15, 242-247.


Name of Student Class / Time Date

Age Social Security Number

Address / Telephone Number (Campus)


Please select the most correct of the choices provided.
1. What is your academic classification?
a. Freshman c. Junior e. Other (specify)
b. Sophomore d. Senior
2. What is your major?
a. English
b. Speech
c. A discipline in College of Technology
d. A discipline in College of Education
e. A discipline in College of Arts and Sciences
f. Nursing
g. Pharmacy
h. A discipline in School of Allied Health
i. A discipline in School of Journalism
j. A discipline in School of Architecture
k. A discipline in School of Business and Industry
1. Other
3. What is your nationality?
a. American (Mainland) e. Asian
b. American (Territory) f. African
c. Bahamian g. Other (Specify)
d. Virgin Islander


4. What is your race?
a. African American (Black)
b. Caucasian
c. Other (Specify)

5. Have you ever had a speech course in college before this course?
a. Yes b. No

6. Have you completed both sections of English? (ENC 1101, 1102)
a. Yes b. No

7. Are you currently taking any of the basic English courses?
a. Yes b. No

8. Are you taking any other English course?
a. Yes b. No

Topics and Directions for the Essay Research


1 2 3
Politics Environment United Nations
Mass Transportation Economics Education / Issues
Books for Reading Education after High School Recreation

4 5 6
Government Money Management Marriage / Family
Literature College Life Information
Finance Mass Media Health Care

7 8 9
College Career Money Matters Government
Communication Educational Opportunity Transportation
Leisure Time Printed Information Printed Materials

1. Write your name, social security number, date, and class time at the top of your
essay sheets.
2. Select one of the above topics. Limit the topic for a four or more paragraph essay.
Do not write on a topic on which you have already written during this project.
3. You have 45 minutes in which to complete the essay on the selected topic.
4. Write a thesis sentence, and make an outline for your essay. Allow 10 minutes to
collect and organize your ideas. Allow about 30 minutes to write your essay and 5
minutes to proofread your work and make necessary corrections. The essay will be
used in a research project.
5. When you have worked 45 minutes, stop the writing and give your essay to the
laboratory director or assistant.

Topics and Directions for the Essay Research

Select a topic from the unit discussed in class.

1. Write your name, social security number, date, and class time at the top of your
essay sheets.
2. Limit the topic above for a four or more paragraph essay. Do not write on a topics
on which you have already written during this project.
3. You have 45 minutes in which to complete the essay on the selected topic.


4. Write a thesis sentence, and make an outline for your essay. Allow about 10 min-
utes to collect and organize your ideas. Allow 30 minutes to write your essay and 5
minutes to proofread your work and make necessary corrections. The essay will be
used in a research project.
5. When you have worked 45 minutes, stop the writing and give your essay to the
laboratory director or assistant.

Topics and Directions for the Essay

1. My Most Unforgettable Moment
2. Technological Advancements and the Advancement of Humanity
3. The Most Pressing Problems in the World Today.

1. Write your name, social security number, date, course name, and class period on all
your papers.
2. Choose one of the topics above, and limit it for a four to five paragraph essay.
3. Write a thesis sentence, and make an outline for your essay.
4. You will have 45 minutes in which to complete a four-to-five paragraph essay on
one of the topics stated. Allow about 10 minutes to collect and organize your ideas.
Allow 30 minutes to write your essay and 5 minutes to proofread your work and
make necessary corrections. The essay is a part of the course requirements.

Speech Evaluation

Speech Type: A ,B ,C ,D ,E ,F ,G

H ,I ,J ,K ,L ,M ,N ,O ,Other

1. Choice of Ibpic (Interesting / Novel / Appropriate)

2. Introduction (Attention / Need / Purpose / Plan)

3. Content and Evidences Sur'Lici.nt. / Refers. /Accurate)

4. Organization (District / Top. / Time / Seq. / Other)

5. Eye Contact, Stance, Gestures, Expression

6. Vocal Volume, Pitch, Emphasis, Rate

7. Pronunciation, Grammar, and Diction

8. Absence of Distractions N,,nrfl,-rn ie, Tics)

9. Consideration of Audience

10. Conclusion (Distinct / Appropriate / Summary)

11. Outline (Narrat. / Intro. / Concl. / 3 Major Pts. / 6 Minor Pts. / 3 Refers.)


Score of 5 is best, and 0 is worst.

Evaluator's Name

Date ____SS#_

Speaker's Name

Title of Speech

5 4 3 2 1 0

5 4 3 2 1 0

5 4 3 2 1 0

5 4 3 2 1 0

5 4 3 2 1 0

5 4 3 2 1 0

5 4 3 2 1 0

5 4 3 2 1 0

5 4 3 2 1 0

5 4 3 2 1 0

5 4 3 2 1 0


Finding the Maximum of a Linear Function
in E2 (or En)

Wendell L. Motter
Associate Professor
College of Arts & Sciences
Florida A&M University

This article should be of interest to anyone teaching elementary
linear-programming theory. In many pre-calculus or finite mathe-
matics textbooks, the following theorem is stated (usually without
If R is a bounded, convex, polygonal region in the plane E2 and
f(x,y) = ax + by is a linear function, then the maximum value of
f over R will occur at some vertex of R.
In this paper, we will prove that the region need not be convex,
provided it is bounded and polygonal (Theorem A and Diagram I).
Also, we will show how to extend this result to Euclidean n-space E"
(Theorem B). Because the proofs of both theorems will be derived in
a natural way from geometric considerations, they provide a simple
and direct approach to delineating the role of convexity.
We start with the following well known result.
LEMMA 1. If poPi is the line segment joining the two points po
= (xo,yo) and p, = (x1,y,) in the plane E2 and f(x,y) = ax + by is a
linear function, then either
f(po) >- f(x,y) or f(p,) > f(x,y)
for every point (x,y) on poPi.
Proof An outline is presented for completeness. We may assume
that f(po) f(Pl). Any point (x,y) on poPi has the property that
x=txo + (1- t)x1 and y= tyo + (1 t)y


for some real number t, where 0 < t < 1; thus,
f(x,y) = atxo + a(1 t)x1 + btyo + b(1 t)y3.
Since t 5 0 and (1 t) -- 0, it can be shown that
f(x,y) < tf(po) + (1 t)f(po) = f(Po).
Note, Lemma 1 established that the maximum value of a linear
function over a line segment must occur at one of the endpoints.
Lemma 1 also proves that if the function has the same value at each
endpoint, then at every point of the line segment, it will have this
same value. When the word maximum is replaced by minimum, a
similar lemma can be obtained.
THEOREM A. If R is a bounded and polygonal region in the
plane E2 with the union of the line segments AoA1, AA2, .,
An-1A, AnAo forming the boundary of R, then the maximum value of
the linear function defined by f(x,y) = ax + by, over R occurs at some
vertex A,, i.e., there exists a vertex Aj, so that f(Aj) > f(x,y) for all
(x,y) in R.
Diagram I shows R with n = 5.

Diagram I


Iso-value Lines

r s) ax + by = f(A4)

ax + by = f(r,s)

ax + by = f(A3)


Proof After ranking the values fAo),f(A1), .. ,f(An) and per-
haps relabeling the vertices, we may assume that f(Ao) 5 f(Aj) for 1
< j < n. Consider any point (r,s) in the region. Now if f(r,s) = v, then
the line f(x,y) = ax + by = v (an iso-value line of f(x,y)) will inter-
sect a boundary line segment of R at a point (r,s), since the region is
bounded. Hence, there are vertices, Ai and A,, such that the line
segment joining these two points contains (r,s). By using Lemma 1,
we have either

f(Ai) f(FR,) or f(Aj) > f(,s).
Since f(Ao) _> f(A,) and f(Ao) > f(A,), it follows that
f(Ao) f(r,s) = f(r,s).
Essentially, Theorem A states that the region must be some
kind of polygon, but not necessarily convex. If we use the idea of
"convex combinations", we can generalize the result of Lemma 1 to
higher dimensions. The concept is defined as follows (see [2] for a
fuller discussion).

DEFINITION 1. A point x in En (Euclidean n-space) is a convex
combination of the points x,x2, ,Xk in E" if there exists scalars
a,a2, .... ,ak with
a,> 0, i= 1,2,...,k and a + a2 +.. + ak= 1
so that
x = alx a + a2x2 +' + akak.
LEMMA 2. If x e En is a convex combination of points x,x2, .. ,kk
in En and f:Enl--E1 is a linear function of the form
fix) = cx = cxi + cX22 + + cAn
with c,c2, .. C andx,X2, ,X the vector components of c and R
respectively, then f(x) < f(xo), where
f(xo) = max{f(xi): i = 1,2, ,k}.
Proof. By definition, x = alxx + a2x2 + + akXk, for some
collection of scalars al,a2, .. ,a, with each ai s 0 and a, + a2 +
+ ak = 1. We have
f(x) = alf(xl) + af(x2) +'' + akf(ak),
since f is a linear function. Thus,
f(x) < af(xo) + a2fx0) + + akf(xo),
since f(xo) f(xi) and ai > 0, for i = 1,2, ... ,k. Hence,
f(x) < (a, + a2 + + ak)f(xo) = f(xo).


Theorem A can be generalized to En as follows.
THEOREM B. If H is a closed and bounded subset of En so that
every point within the boundary of H is a convex combination of a
subcollection of the vertices A,,A2,A3, ,Ak, then the maximum
value of the linear function f(x) = ex over H occurs at a vertex Aa,
f(Am,) = max {fAi): i = 1,2, ,k}.
Here, we assume the set of vertices has been reduced, so that none of
the vertices is a convex combination of the others.
Diagram II illustrates Theorem B for E3.

Diagram II


Proof Let h E H. The set {x E En: f(x) = f(h)}, an unbounded
hyperplane, intersects the boundary of H in at least one point h since
H is a closed and bounded subset ofEn. Thus, h = alAhl + a2Ah2 +
' + aAhm for some subcollection of vertices Ahl,Ah2, ,Ahm

where a, + a2 + + am = 1 and ai > 0, for i = 1,2,.. ,m. By
Lemma 2, f(h) = fh) f(Aho) with f(Aho) defined by
f(Aho) = max{f(Ahi): i = 1,2, ,m}.
Therefore, f(h) < f(Aho) -< f(An) and we thus establish Theorem B.
Notice that Theorem B only requires that the boundary of B be
piecewise convex. Diagram II for E3 illustrates this fact.


Theorem B is more general than the standard result of linear
programming theory which is obtained for a convex polyhedron K in
En since it does not assume that the set H is convex.
The standard result of linear programming analysis is based
upon the concept that every point in K is a convex combination of the
vertices (extreme points) of K. This approach (see for example, [1]
and [3]) defines a convex polytope in En to be the intersection of a
finite number of closed half spaces of the form

{x:ax c} or {x:ax c}
and demonstrates that a convex polyhedron K (a non-empty
bounded, convex polytope) represents the smallest convex set con-
taining its extreme points, which means it is the closed convex hull
of its extreme points. By the use of reasoning similar to that in
Lemma 2, one can then prove that the linear objective function f(x)
= ex will attain its maximum over a convex polyhedron K at one or
more of its extreme points.
Usually, the system of linear constraints, which must be satis-
fied for a typical problem in linear programming applications,
results in a feasible region which will be a convex polyhedron. The
results of this article can be applied to similar problems for more
general sets in En.


1. S. Gass, Linear Programming, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975.
2. M. Hall, Combinatorial Theory, Blaisdell, Waltham, 1967.
3. D. Luenberger, Introduction to Linear and NonLinear Programming, Addison-
Wesley, Reading, 1973.

Merit Pay Issue in Florida

Anne Richardson Gayles
College of Education
Florida A&M University

During the spring of 1983 the Florida Legislature enacted a massive
program of education reform laws directed at upgrading teaching
and improving the quality of learning in the public schools. A plan to
create a statewide merit-pay plan for public school teachers was one
of the major components of the reform laws. The plan's primary
purposes focused upon a monetary reward for outstanding teachers;
the elimination of poor teachers from the profession; the facilitation
of the recruitment of capable young people into the profession; and
the providing of incentives for retaining good teachers in the
In the summer of 1983 the Legislature created a special panel to
recommend a functional merit-pay plan to reward the state's best
teachers. The eighteen (18) member panel was named the Florida
Quality Instruction Incentives Council. After much discussion the
council came up with four merit-pay plans which they presented at a
public hearing on January 16, 1984, in Tallahassee, Florida. The
four competing proposals were:
1. A career ladder plan that would give "senior" and "master"
teachers an extra $3,000 to $5,000. Teachers would be evaluated on
tests and personal performance.
2. A school performance plan that would give merit pay to all
teachers in schools where testing shows students have exceeded pre-
viously set goals.
3. An individual performance plan that would reward only
those teachers whose students make gains in their performance
tests. (Teachers also would be rated on their own performance.)


4. An individual incentive plan that would award merit pay to
teachers in schools with high numbers of educationally disadvan-
taged students or in other priority areas. (It could also involve teach-
ers in subjects with teacher shortages.)
The discussion of the four merit-pay proposals resulted in a
heated debate and a dramatic failure in terms of making a decision
as to a definite plan to be used for evaluating and rewarding the
teachers of Florida. Since the Council did not come up with a plan,
Governor Graham and the cabinet immediately devised a merit-pay
plan, so that a merit-pay program could be implemented in the fall of
1984. The plan called for the following criteria in determining which
teacher would receive merit-pay: master's degree; a good evaluation
from a team of experts; passage of a subject area test; and a good
attendance record. The plan which was approved by the Governor
and the Cabinet on February 22, 1984 received much criticism from
education specialists, the members of the Florida Legislature and
the public school teachers of the State of Florida. The major criti-
cisms voiced were concerned with evaluative techniques used in
appraising the teacher's performance; the lack of available tests for
all subject areas; requiring the master's degree for merit-pay candi-
dates; and the failure to link the awarding of the merit money with
student achievement. The criticisms led to a revising of the merit-
pay plan. The modified plan set forth outstanding attendance rec-
ords, superior evaluations and extra schooling as major criteria for
determining the meritorious teacher. The reward in the form of
money could go as high as three thousand dollars ($3,000) for a
teacher. This plan which was implemented for the 1984-85 .school
year established the first statewide merit-pay program.
The Governor and the Cabinet realize that the plan will need
continuous modifications as a result of further research, study and
experimentation in the area of merit-pay for teachers. They are
encouraging school districts to develop programs of incentives for
teachers, and to participate in developing a better statewide merit-
pay program for teachers. In view of this challenge to the educators
of Florida the writer decided to make an action-research study to
determine how the teachers of Florida really felt about merit-pay

Statement of Problem
The central concern of this study was focused upon soliciting the
opinions and reactions of a representative number of Florida's public
school teachers on the major aspects of the merit-pay issue.

Purpose of the Study
The ultimate purpose of the study was to provide data which
may serve as a basis for the improvement of the statewide merit


program currently in use; and to provide data which may serve as
guidelines for counties and districts wishing to set up effective merit-
pay programs.

Source of Data
Opinions and reactions were received from six hundred and
forty-one Florida public school teachers.

A questionnaire was constructed with the following open-ended
1. What are characteristics a teacher should possess to be con-
sidered for merit-pay?
2. What are the advantages of merit-pay plans?
3. What are the disadvantages of merit-pay plans?
4. What should be the criteria for determining merit-pay?
5. Who should be the evaluators in a merit-pay program?
The questionnaire was distributed to one thousand (1000) Flor-
ida teachers. Six hundred and forty-one (641) persons responded.
The different responses were identified, summarized and organized
into categories according to the questions on the questionnaire
which was distributed to respondents.
Responses cited ten or more times were recorded for the study.
The responses under each category were listed in terms of the fre-
quency rate.

Significant Findings.
Two things immediately stand out in the data gained from ana-
lyzing and summarizing the responses the teachers submitted in the
questionnaire. The first is that the teachers are in favor of institut-
ing a merit-pay program. The second is that the teachers apparently
have voiced objections to a merit-pay program because of its weak-
nesses in the area of identifying the superior teacher. They believe
that the criteria used for rewarding good teaching must be clearly
stated, capable of being objectively measured, and supported by
teachers and administrators.
Table 1 shows the characteristics that the respondents thought
a teacher should possess to be considered for merit-pay. The rate of
frequency for each characteristic has also been listed.


Characteristics Which a Teacher Should Possess
to be Considered for Merit-Pay

Characteristics Frequency

Thorough knowledge of subject-matter 641
Effective communicative skills 641
Effective human relationship skills 641
Skilled in the methodology of teaching 641
Mental discipline 28
Emotional self-control 600
Broad learning with specialized areas of mastery 482
Respect for knowledge 502
Respect for high standards of performance 600
Open-mindedness 605
Creativity 601
A belief in progress 422
Qualities which promote flexibility and adaptability to change 590
High level of enthusiasm and dedication for teaching 602
High moral character and ethical values 422
Humane and democratic leadership qualities 309
A sense of responsibility and dependability 604
A wholesome attitude 72
Credibility 198

The characteristics cited in Table 1 cover a variety of general
areas. The common qualities of successful teachers seem to be
"Thorough knowledge of subject matter", "Skilled in the meth-
odology of teaching", "Effective human relationships", and "Effective
communicative skills". These common qualities break down into
numerous characteristics of effective teaching as there are many
ways to be human and interesting; and there are many and varied
approaches to mastering and showing knowledge and creating ways
to help others discover for themselves the freedom that knowledge
can provide.


Table 2 shows the advantages of merit-pay plans which the
respondents cited, and the rate of frequency for each advantage

Advantages of Merit-Pay Plans

Advantages Frequency

Produce increased teacher effectiveness as teachers become
seriously concerned with the quality of their teaching; and
consequently they become enthusiastic, interesting and vital
in their teaching. 641
Provide for increased salary funds for superior teachers 641
Provide public recognition for the competent teachers 625
Facilitate the process of recruiting good teachers 641
Facilitate the process of retaining good teachers 641
Motivate talented young people to choose teaching as a
profession 641
Promote professional development and improvement as
teachers are stimulated to continue to read, study, and
learn in their own fields and related areas 600
Create positive professional competition 205
Provide incentive for poorer teachers to become better ones 42
Provide reward for teachers who have applied themselves
to their craft with extraordinary result 639
Provide for a fair way of recognizing the de facto
differences in the pedagogical value of different
teachers 219
Create an effective system of accountability in the
teaching profession 609
Provide consistency with other professions 185
Provide for financial arrangements in which good
teachers will not have to become administrators to
receive top salaries 641

The information in Table 2 clearly reveals that, on the whole,
merit-pay is important to the general improvement of teaching. The


advantages cited seem to focus upon teaching excellence which is
one of many critical components of quality instruction.
If we are serious about increasing teaching effectiveness in our
schools, we must attract and retain good teachers. The respondents
in this study seem to be of the opinion that the instituting of merit-
pay programs will help to retain and recruit superior teachers.
Table 3 shows the disadvantages of merit-pay plans which the
participants of the study cited. The rate of frequency for each disad-
vantage has also been listed.

Disadvantages of Merit-Pay Plans

Disadvantages Frequency

Create, if not properly executed, difficulties in
establishing valid and reliable criteria for determining
who is a master teacher 641
Produce, if not properly executed, unfair evaluations that
may lead to low teacher morale and reduced efforts
directed towards professional improvement 540
Produce, if not properly executed, undesirable excessive
competition among teachers that may lead to teacher
frustration, envy, and poor human relationships among
teachers 433
Stimulate cross merchandising of the self for
pecuniary purposes 37
Create dangers related to "politicizing" or
"personalizing" the evaluation process 242
Operate upon the questionable assumption that there is
a simple correlation between better teaching and
higher pay 26
Create, in some situations, openings for pay
discrimination by administrators in charge, resulting
in biasness based on subjectivity and favoritism of
evaluators 503
Provide for situations which may cause a decline in the
number of teachers in the profession 489
Produce circumstances which might, at first, encourage
reckless experimentation with teaching techniques in
attempts to apply techniques that were successful in
one classroom 59


The information in Table 3 indicates that the major objection
the respondents have to the establishment of merit-pay programs is
in the area of evaluation. The evaluative technique employed, the
fairness, the honesty and the objectivity involved on the part of the
evaluators determine the complete success or the complete failure of
a merit-pay program.
Table 4 shows the criteria which the participants cited as being
essential in determining merit-pay. The rate of frequency for each
criterion has also been listed.

Desired Criteria to Determine Merit-Pay

Desired Criteria Frequency

Superior annual evaluation 641
One year of successful teaching experience 503
Certification in the subject taught 641
Outstanding attendance records 488
Efforts directed towards professional growth (continue
to read, study and learn in his/her field or related areas) 641
Involvement in, and quality of performances in non-
teaching assignments (extracurricular, administrative
and other community related activities) 602
Active participation in professional organizations in
subject area and in the teaching profession in general 589
Use of grammatically correct English 461
Possession of an extensive functional vocabulary 392
Mastery of content 641
Skilled in the methodology of teaching 641
Possession of leadership qualities which show a
concern and responsibility for the welfare of others
and for the social consequences of one's acts 611
Personality qualities which promote good human
relationships 641
Honesty Tactfulness Humanism Responsiveness
Fairness Sensitivity Intellectuality Friendliness
Patience Sense of Humor Self-confidence Kindness


Desired Criteria to Determine Merit-Pay

Desired Criteria Frequency

Objectivity in regards to recognizing and admitting
personal shortcomings and errors
Democratic Professional Attitudes 580
Respect for the individual
Belief in equality of opportunity
Faith in people
Fair play
Willingness to help the poorer students as well as the
good ones
Willingness to determine all the facts and arrive at
intelligent decisions cooperatively

The information in Table 4 indicates that the respondents
believe that teachers should be evaluated in terms of a variety of
professional qualities; and that in developing criteria and pro-
cedures to be used in merit-pay programs, special efforts should be
made to avoid abuses that would grant rewards for reasons other
than excellent teacher performance.

Desired Evaluators of Merit-Pay Plans

Desired Evaluators Frequency

Administrators (Principals/Assistant Principals,
Curriculum Coordinators, Subject Matter Specialists) 641
Teachers (Recognized Master Teachers) 641
Students 228
Professional evaluators from the Universities 285
Educational personnel from the State Department of
Education 506
Expert job evaluators from industry 38
Representatives from Teachers' Union 582
Parents. 204


Table 5 shows the desired evaluators for merit-pay plans which
the participants of the study identified, and the rate of frequency for
each type of evaluator listed.
The information in Table 5 indicates that merit-pay plans
should involve a variety of evaluators and that those evaluators
should represent all segments of the educative process and signifi-
cant others in society.
It was interesting to note that only 38 respondents out of 641
cited, "Expert job evaluators from industry", and that the frequency
rate for "Professional evaluators from the universities", and "Par-
ents", "Students" was very low as compared to the other evaluative
personnel cited. Of particular interest was the high frequency rate
cited for "Representatives from Teachers' Union".

The teachers participating in the study view the establishment
of a merit-pay program in Florida as a forward-looking movement in
education in terms of upgrading teaching effectiveness. They dra-
matically indicated that an innovative program of this kind is past
due and much needed; that it is desperately needed to attract tal-
ented people to the profession; motivate, retain and reward the capa-
ble teachers; improve the teaching performance of the less effective
teachers; and to eliminate the incompetent teachers.
Responses from the teachers indicated that they approve of the
master teacher system, a variation of the merit-pay format, which
provides a structure whereby effective teachers can continue to
advance professionally and financially while remaining in the
The information received from the teachers revealed that they
are of the opinion that the high failure rate of merit-pay programs
can be traced to the lack of a well-defined procedure for identifying
the ablest teachers. If the evaluative process used to determine the
meritorious teacher involves fairness, honesty, objectivity and
teacher involvement in the design of its administration, teachers
will approve wholeheartedly programs to reward outstanding teach-
ing performance.

On the basis of the study the following recommendations are
1. Merit-pay plans should be implemented to reward outstand-
ing teachers.
2. Merit-pay plans devised should be implemented in a manner
so that they do not exhibit questionable criteria for judging teachers'
effectiveness; will not be subject to personalized whims of admin-


istrators, political considerations and favoritism; and so that they
will focus upon student achievement/improved teaching.
3. Merit-pay plans should be carefully planned and imple-
4. Merit-pay plans should call for the use of competent
5. Merit-pay plans should offer a variety of incentives.
6. Merit-pay plans should be implemented after all teachers'
salaries have been substantially raised.
7. Merit-pay plans should include aspects of the master-teacher
system wherein teachers are not only paid for good work but they
are expected to serve as peer counselors for less experienced teach-
ers; participate in structured inservice education activities; perform
leadership roles in curriculum development activities; and they are
expected to carry out administrative instructional support activities.
8. Merit-pay plans should be structured according to the career
ladder format wherein, on the basis of job performance, several lev-
els of advancement for teachers are established with each level asso-
ciated with a pay increase as well as increased professional
responsibility and prestige.

What Should a Humanities Student Know?
An Analysis of the Standardized Tests

Julian E. Compton
Associate Professor
College of Arts & Sciences
Florida A&M University

It is assumed that a college student should possess a certain
amount of basic information about the cultures of the world. In an
effort to fulfill this, in the last two decades, humanities courses have
proliferated at the college level. A previous article indicated their
popularity in colleges, universities, junior colleges and art schools
both black and white. Another article indicated the subject matter
which is presented in current humanities texts. (Compton 1978,
An amazing unanimity of opinion was observed in subject mat-
ter especially when the divergent nature of the surveyed institutions
was considered. It was found that the preferred course is a two
semester historical one, which begins with Classical Greek culture
and continues through the Modern Age. The course is multi-disci-
plinary and emphasizes Western Culture but includes some Non-
Western material.
A further test of the expectations of such a generalized course
can be gathered from analyzing recent standardized tests. If the
tests do not indicate what is being taught they at least indicate what
one testing service believes should be taught.
For purposes of this analysis samples of the College-Level
Examination Program were analyzed. Since the College Board does
not release copies of this exam, samples were chosen from two com-
mercial volumes designed for exam preparation. Sample A was
Jeffrey Spielberger, CLEP, ARCO, First Edition, Third Printing,
1983. Sample B was William C. Dostor, ed. CLEP, Barrons Educa-
tional Series, 1984.


The General Examination for Humanities is divided in half
between Fine Arts and Literature. This analysis surveyed every
question related to the Fine Arts, which included painting, sculp-
ture, architecture, music, film, dance, etc. Literature was omitted as
being beyond the interest of this analysis. The final sample consisted
of 225 questions in Sample A and 255 in Sample B.
The data was analyzed to determine these features of current
study: 1) the method of approach generally used 2) cultural ages and
3) areas represented 4) the most emphasized culture, the twentieth
century, and 5) the total picture of cultural study, showing the
emphasis given to each area of each cultural age. The results follow:
The method of approach to cultural studies is implied in the
data gathered. When asking a question, do the tests require knowl-
edge of particular works from particular historical ages or general
information unrelated to a historical approach? The historical is
greatly favored.

Sample A B Total
No % No % No %
information 206 92 182 71 388 81
information 19 8 73 29 92 19

This indicates that the tests expect the student to come to them
with a previously learned body of information which is related to
particular historical ages. The student cannot expect to be presented
with isolated material which he can analyze on the spot and which is
unrelated to previous information.
What cultural ages should the humanities student be expected
to know? Although an international and global awareness is an
admirable goal, the attention of the tests is focused heavily on the
West-from the time of the Greeks to the present. However, recent
trends have given more attention to primitive and Egyptian

Cultural Ages
Sample A B Total
No % No % No % Rank
Primitive 1 0 5 2 6 1
Egyptian 2 1 3 1 5 1


CHART 2 (continued)
Cultural Ages
Greek 0 0 8 3 8 2
Roman 0 0 0 0 0 0
Judeo-Christian 0 0 0 0 0 0
Early Medieval 0 0 9 3 9 2
Gothic 7 3 6 2 13 3
Renaissance 10 4 15 6 25 5 4
Baroque 13 6 23 9 36 7 3
Enlightenment 3 1 6 2 9 2
Nineteenth Century 32 14 41 16 73 15 2
Twentieth Century 138 61 63 25 201 42 1
(General information) (19 8 73 29 92 19)

This break-down of the data by cultural ages or periods suggests
trends which have developed in the last few years. A similar study
from ten years ago would have given less attention to primitive and
Egyptian cultures. But ten years ago the cultures would have been
more balanced in emphasis. Now there is an overwhelming empha-
sis on only four cultures from the Renaissance to the present. And if
the General Information data is excluded then the emphasis on these
four cultures is even more obvious.

Four Major Cultural Ages
Sample A B Total Rank
No % No % No %
Renaissance 10 5 15 8 25 6 4
Baroque 13 6 23 13 36 9 3
Nineteenth Century 32 15 41 23 73 19 2
Twentieth Century 138 67 63 34 201 52 1
(All other cultural
ages) 13 6 40 22 53 14
Total 206 100 182 100 388 100
The data suggests that when a question about humanities is
asked on a standardized test, eighty-six per cent of the time the
question will be about one of these four cultures. Only fourteen per
cent of the questions are about cultures beyond the West or about
Western cultures previous to the Renaissance. It is doubtful that any
historical course is structured to represent this proportion.
Of major importance is the overwhelming stress put upon twen-
tieth century information. More than fifty per cent of all questions in
the combined sample focus on the contemporary age. This focus of
attention will be further analyzed later in the paper.


The areas of culture which the humanities student has been
expected to know traditionally included the Visual Arts and Music,
supplemented by some literature and philosophy. The current data
suggests a continuation in that direction.

Cultural Areas, Renaissance through Twentieth Century
Sample A B Total
No % No % No %
193 100 142 100 335 100 Rank
Music-Classical 31 16 58 41 89 26 2
Painting 54 28 45 32 99 30 1
Architecture 13 7 10 7 23 7 5
Sculpture 17 9 6 4 23 7 5
Dance 13 7 6 4 19 6 7
(jazz & rock) 28 14 6 4 34 10 4
Crafts 3 1 1 1 4 1
Film, photography 32 16 6 4 38 11 3
Others 2 1 4 3 6 2
Total 193 100 142 100 335 100

In the ages prior to the twentieth century photography and
popular music were not accepted as cultural art forms on the same
level as the more established cultural areas. Many humanities
courses and programs still work within that traditional framework.
However the current tests suggest that the traditional framework
has now been supplemented by attention to contemporary film, pho-
tography and popular music-jazz and rock. Notable also is the new
attention given to an old art form-the dance.
Of particular interest to the serious student or educator is the
survival of two traditional areas-painting and classical music, in
the attention of the tests. Both have achieved major development of
form in the last 500 years and continue to redefine themselves in the
modern time. They are two continuing vibrant areas of modern
culture, each with a strong historical base. Their historical-modern
continuum can serve as a model for the development of recent art
forms such as popular music and the film.
The student of culture is expected to know his own age. All tests
reflect this. The question is not whether the twentieth century will
be emphasized but what will be the proportion of that influence. In
Chart 3 analysis by historical ages showed that more than fifty per
cent of the questions focused on the twentieth century. A more
detailed analysis of that emphasis is needed.


Twentieth Century
Sample A B Total
No % No % No %
138 67 63 35 201 52 Rank
Architecture 9 4 3 2 12 3 7
Sculpture 11 5 3 2 14 4 5
Painting 31 15 22 12 53 14 1
Film 25 12 4 2 29 7 3
Dance 10 5 6 3 16 4 6
Crafts 2 1 0 0 2 1 10
Music-classical 15 7 17 9 32 8 2
Music-popular 22 11 2 1 24 6 4
Music-jazz 6 3 4 2 10 3 8
Photography 7 3 2 1 9 2 9
All other ages 68 33 119 65 168 48
Total 206 100 182 100 388 100

It should be observed that although both samples emphasize the
twentieth century, they differ on the proportion. One sample gives
sixty-seven per cent of its attention to the twentieth century, the
other sample thirty-three per cent.
A close analysis of the two samples suggests blind spots or
biases in each of the samples. This is particularly noticeable in sam-
ple B's attention to the twentieth century. Although the B sample
puts the twentieth century first in importance, only two of its
areas-painting and classical music receive more than three per
cent of the attention. The emphasis on classical musical fits into an
overall pattern of musical over-emphasis which will be shown in the
next analysis chart.
Sample A gives more attention to several aspects of Modern
Culture. It recalls traditional areas of sculpture and dance to a place
of importance. By making painting, film, popular music and classi-
cal music its four areas of greatest emphasis, it seems to supplement
the weaknesses in the B Sample. Sample A's stress on film and
popular music serves as a corrective to tradition-bound testing for-
mulas. And Sample A's awareness of both traditional and more mod-
ern art forms gives a balanced view of Modern Culture not achieved
in Sample B. Conversely Sample A's weakness seems to be in the
minimal attention it gives to some non-twentieth century cultures.
Having determined the approach, ages and areas of cultural
study which appear in the tests it remains to be found what receives
the greatest emphasis. To get a better perspective on which areas
and ages receive more attention, a ranking of the favored areas in
the two samples is given for comparison. Included with the histor-


ical entries is the general information which is integral to Sample
B's approach.

Areas of Greatest Emphasis
Sample A Sample B
Rank Example % Rank Example %
1 Painting-20th C. 14 1 Music-general 18
2 Film-20th C. 11 2 Music-19th C. 9
3 Music, popular- 3 Painting-20th C. 8.6
20th C. 10
4 Music, classical- 4 Music, classical- 7
20th C. 7 20th C.
5 Painting-19th C. 6 5 Music, baroque 6
6 tie Sculpture-20th C. 5 6 Painting-19th C. 5
6 Music--19thC. 5
8 Dance-20th C. 4
9 Architecture 4

Included in the chart are all areas which were present in four
per cent or more of each sample. The items reflect the uniqueness of
approach in each sample's data. Both the agreement and disagree-
ment in two different approaches can be sensed in comparing these
few emphasized items.
Of the areas of emphasis there are four items-Nineteenth and
Twentieth Century Music and Painting-which appear in both Sam-
ples. Since there are thirty-nine areas in the total data base, an
agreement on four of them within their top seven items indicates
fairly strong agreement.
There are also disagreements. General Music, Sample B's
number one entry, does not appear on A's list. Neither does Baroque
Music. Sample B obviously overemphasizes music.
Sample A has five emphasized items which are unique to its
list-film, popular music, sculpture, dance and architecture-all
from the twentieth century. Sample A is more balanced on cultural
areas, but somewhat overemphasizes the modern age.
Both samples indicate some overemphasis. Sample B is more
obvious since four of its top six items are in one area, music. The B
sample elevates to most important emphasis General Information on
Music, an item which does not even appear on the Sample A list.
Sample A is more balanced as to areas, with seven different areas


represented. It does not elevate one of its own unique items to its
first emphasis. Film (eleven per cent) and Popular Music (ten per
cent) receive emphasis beyond Sample B, but not to the level of
eighteen per cent which Sample B gave to its number one item.
Sample B gives forty per cent of its total data to music alone.
A more balanced approach is achieved when the two samples
are combined.

Cultural Areas of Emphasis, Samples Combined
Rank Item %
1 Painting-20th C. 11
2 Music-19th C. 7
3 Music, classical-20th C. 7
4 Film-20th C. 6
5 Painting-19th C. 6
6 Music, popular-20th C. 5
Total 42
These are the items which the data suggests are most impor-
tant and should be given greatest emphasis.
Beyond the strong emphasis on the six major items of the nine-
teenth and the twentieth century are many other areas-thirty-
eight others in fact, which complete the data of what a humanities
student should know. On these there is a surprising unanimity of
opinion of what should be known. A study of the Appendix will
indicate the unusual agreement. Of the forty-four total items on the
chart there is a consensus of opinion on 32, a slight inconsistency on
eight and a wide inconsistency on only four. Surprisingly two of the
four areas of wide inconsistency are in Popular Music and Film.
Since the trend seems to be to include these as significant new areas
of cultural study, the continual revision of cultural opinion now
begins to accept them and near unanimity of opinion will continue.
The test data shows that there is fairly clear agreement as to
what the educated student should know. It also indicates that cul-
tural opinion is very much alive and open to constant revision. The
student of culture should be grounded in the past but very much
open to the present. The test data mirrors that traditional-modern


Standardized Test Data

C-Consensus, SL-Slight San
Inconsistency, WI-Wide Inconsistency No

Consensus 225

Primitive C 1
Egyptian C 2
Greek SL 0
Roman C 0
Judeo-Christian C 0
Early Medieval SL 0
Gothic C 7

Renaissance C 10

General C 2
Music C 0
Painting C 4
Sculpture C 4

Baroque C 13

Music SL 5
Painting C 5
Architecture C 2
Sculpture C 1

Enlightenment C 3

Nineteenth Century C 32

Music C 11
Painting C 14
Sculpture C 1
Crafts C 1
Dance C 3
Architecture C 2

Twentieth Century SL 138

Architecture SL 9
Sculpture SL 11
Painting C 31
Film WI 25
Dance C 10
Crafts C 2
Music-classical C 15
Music-popular WI 22
Music-jazz C 6
Photography C 7

nple A Sample B

% No

100 255

0 5
1 3
0 8
0 3
0 0
0 9
3 6

4 15

1 4
0 2
2 7
2 2

6 23

2 16
2 3
1 4
0 0

1 6

14 41

5 23
6 13
0 1
0 1
1 0
1 3

61 63

4 3
5 3
14 22
11 4
4 6
1 0
7 17
10 2
3 4
3 2

% No

100 480

2 6
1 5
3 8
1 3
0 0
3 9
2 13

6 25

2 6
1 2
3 11
1 6

9 36

6 21
1 8
1 6
0 1

2 9

16 73

9 34
5 27
0 2
0 2
0 3
1 5

25 201

1 12
1 14
9 53
2 29
2 16
0 2
7 32
1 24
2 10
1 9







Standardized Test Data

C-Consensus, SL-Slight Sample A Sample B Total
Inconsistency, WI-Wide Inconsistency No % No % No %
Consensus 225 100 255 100 480 100
General Information WI 19 8 73 29 92 19
Music WI 6 3 46 18 52 11
Sculpture C 4 2 4 2 8 2
Architecture C 3 1 6 3 9 2
Painting SL 5 2 7 3 12 2
Dance C 1 0 1 0 2 0
Film C 0 0 1 0 1 0
General SL 0 0 8 4 8 2


Compton, Julian E. (1978). "A Survey of Humanities Programs in Selected Colleges,
Universities and Junior Colleges." Florida A&M University Research Bulletin
(1980). "The Humanities Core Curriculum: An Analysis of the Current
Texts." Florida A&M University Research Bulletin 24:82-87.
Doster, William C. (1984). (ed.) CLEP. Barrons Educational Series.
Speilberger, Jeffery. (1983) CLEP. ARCO, First Edition, Third Printing.

In Africa: Zambia and Its People

Doris M. Laird
Assistant Professor
College of Arts and Sciences
Florida A&M University

The country of Zambia in Africa has continued to thrive since it
gained its dependence from Great Britain in October, 1964. First
organized under the rule of the British South Africa Company in the
late 19th century, Zambia as Northern Rhodesia was ruled by the
Colonial Office of Great Britain beginning in 1924 and had been, for
roughly a decade from 1953 to 1963, a part of the Federation of the
Rhodesias and Nyasaland.1 The struggle of Northern Rhodesia's
African majority against participation in the Federation turned into
a movement for full independence. While remaining a member of the
Commonwealth, Zambia assumed a republican form of government
under the presidency of Kenneth Kaunda, the leader of the struggle
for independence in the late 1950's and early 1960's.2
Of the roughly 4,000,000 inhabitants of the country in 1968,
virtually all, even those in the most remote areas, were aware of the
existence of Zambia as a state. The degree of involvement in the
national economy, political life, and social structure varied, however,
from that of the urban copper mines to that of the few remaining
pockets of people barely touched by modern development.3
Today the people of Zambia are learning and expanding in many
social and economic fields of development. Socially, they are still a
collection of many tribes, many languages and several religions but
they have made great progress in many areas of their lives. The
following information about their life-styles and beliefs was fur-
nished the author by the Zambian government in Lusaka. It gives a
picture of an African country and its people; how they live, work and


The bulk of Zambia's four million people are Africans who
belong to more than 70 Bantu-speaking tribes. Despite their origi-
nal common ancestry these groups differ in varying degrees from
one another in both language and culture. Substantial similarities
do, however, exist among them. Only one tribe, the Bemba, is large
enough to comprise more than 10 percent of the population, and
some of the tribes in Zambia are extremely small.4
The Europeans, and later, the Asians who make up a small part
of the Zambian population, began to arrive in the late 19th century
and began to establish control over a number of the African tribes.
Before Zambian independence in 1964 the European group was
politically and economically dominant as well as socially quite sepa-
rate from the African majority. The Asians, originating on the In-
dian continent and largely Hindus, lacked substantial political
power in Zambia and remained socially apart from both Africans
and Europeans, but played a fairly important role as small shop-
After 1964 political control lay with the Africans, but the Euro-
peans have continued to play a significant economic role and still, in
a great many instances, economically better off than most Africans.

The term "tribe" is generally used to define an ethnic group with
a consciousness of its own identity, usually known by a distinct self-
given name and a commonality of territory, custom, language, his-
tory and sociopolitical organization.6 Many Zambian groups called
"tribes" are able to meet only some of these criteria.
One of the largest tribal groups in Zambia is the Ila-Tonga-
Lenje group of peoples, referred to collectively as the Bantu Botatwe
(three peoples). They are distinguishable from the majority of Zam-
bian tribes by their language and their lack of chieftainships.7

Many African languages and dialects are spoken in Zambia, but
English remains the basic language of government and commerce,
especially in the major cities of Lusaka, the capital; Kitwe; and
Ndola. Spoken by all Europeans and men of Indian descent, English
has the most widespread usage among educated people of various
ethnic groups. There is a strong desire on the part of Indians and
Africans to speak it and knowledge of English is considered some-
thing of a status symbol among Africans. Often it is the only lan-
guage in which Africans who speak different vernaculars are able to
communicate. English, therefore, serves the useful purpose of
providing the closest approximation of a common language for the
people of Zambia.
There are seven other official languages: Bemba, Tonga, Nyanja
(together spoken by roughly two-thirds of the African population);


Lunda, Luvale, Lozi, (Luyana), and Kaonda.8 The Bemba-speaking
tribes comprise the largest single cluster of peoples speaking varia-
tions of the same language. Their language is the most common one
spoken in the copper-mining region of the Copperbelt and is known
in that vicinity as "Town Bemba". Bemba is spoken and understood
throughout all of the Northern and much of the Central Province of
Zambia, and is one of the seven official African languages.
A language which is often used by Indians and Europeans to
communicate with non-English speaking Africans is what is com-
monly called "Kitchen Kaffir". Kitchen Kaffir has none of the basic
phonetic characteristics of either the Bantu or Indo-European lan-
guages and must be learned as a separate language by Africans,
Asians and Europeans.9
The most important aspect of Kitchen Kaffir is not linguistic but
sociological. The language arose in South Africa for use in trade,
household service, and for the supervision of native gang labor. Both
in its structure and limited vocabulary it reflects its origin as a
language of the master-servant relationship. It lacks terms of
politeness and consideration and is confined to terms of command
and obedience. Africans consider it an insulting language, and En-
glish-speaking Africans refuse to use it with a European or Asian.
The absence of a truly common language among the diverse
people of Zambia is seen in the variety of languages in which they
have to communicate with other groups. Because there is not one
dominant African language in Zambia, it seems likely that English
will eventually become the national language.
The adult Asian population in Zambia is made up almost
entirely of recent immigrants who entered the country during the
period between the end of World War II and the beginning of the
The Asian population consists of approximately 10,000 people of
Indian origin whose economic importance in the country is far
greater than their number.10 They play the role of middlemen-
traders, a class that is quite commonly found in developing
The country of Zambia has a larger proportion of Hindus than
other African countries who have Asian populations. Many of
Zambia's Hindus entered her borders from Southern Rhodesia (now
Zimbabwe) and have close ties with the early settlers there. The
Moslem population in Zambia came from Malawi and are generally
more rural, conservative, and less educated than the Hindus.
People of mixed racial origins are called "Coloureds" in Zambia.
More than half of the Coloured population lives in Ndola and Lusaka
while the remaining half of the population is widely scattered.11


Coloured groups have not been extensively investigated and
there is little if any literature on their situation in Zambian society.
They have generally been rejected physically, psychologically, and
socially by both Europeans and Asians, and have a predominantly
Eurafrican heritage in a variety of combinations.
The European population of Zambia has never constituted more
than a small proportion of the total population, but its influence on
the country as a whole has been considerable. From the end of the
19th century until the year of Zambian independence (1964), the
Europeans largely controlled all social and political power and,
along with the Asians, the economic organization of the country as
At the beginning of the 20th century the European population
was small and primarily made up of young adult males. In the period
following World War II the population increased slowly, and there
was a rapid expansion of all Europeans, especially women and
children. The European population has now stabilized at about
70,000 and appears to be slowly declining.13
The majority of Europeans who live in Zambia consist of
temporary immigrants who came to Zambia in search of good jobs
and a higher standard of living than many of them could have
obtained elsewhere. In the beginning they did not regard the
country as a place to reside permanently. Less than one-fifth of the
European population are Zambian-born and these are mainly
Nearly one-half of the European immigrants in Zambia came
from South Africa and about one-fourth are British born. Not all of
the European population has English as their native language since
Afrikaaneer-speaking people from South Africa predominate. The
remainder of the Europeans in Zambia are of diverse origin; Greeks,
Italians, Lithuanian, Jews, Lebanese and Syrian Christians, Ameri-
cans and others. All whites regardless of place of birth are consid-
ered Europeans.
The European community of Zambia is divided into a number of
groups-missionaries, managers, workers, and farmers-who asso-
ciate and identify with most other Europeans of similar social class
and occupation. The missionaries form a distinct group though
divided along sectarian lines. The majority of the small number of
Europeans who live a considerable distance from the railroad line is
composed of missionaries.
The managerial group, which includes high level executives,
businessmen and professionals, have their roots in upper-middle
class England. Their interests traditionally center on Britain where
they take vacations, retire, and send their children to school. British
society and culture dominate their lives.


Most of the European working class are employed in the mines
and the majority of them are of lower-middle class background,
particularly those from South Africa, whether of British or
Afrikaaner descent. The working class European has particularly
benefitted from residence in Zambia since their standard of living
and wages are higher than they could obtain elsewhere for similar
work. They have attractive houses of a modern bungalow type which
are often provided by the mining companies, and most families have
at least one, and sometimes two, African servants.14 The luxury of
servants is one they probably could not afford in other parts of the
world. Recreational centers with tennis courts, swimming pools, and
other facilities are provided for European workers by unions and
mining companies.
The European agricultural community of farmers has always
been small and primarily involved in the growing of tobacco and
other cash crops. European farmers have never occupied large
sections of the countryside in Zambia as they have in other parts of
Africa. They have been limited by the poor agricultural quality of
much of the land in Zambia and have had difficulties in transporting
goods to markets since Zambia has no shipping ports.
Rural settlements of Europeans have been primarily confined to
the areas close to and along the railroad routes. The farmers form a
separate community which is divided along lines of wealth and
contains a small group of prosperous men who have played a major
role in the social and political life of Zambian territory since the
colonial period.
The Europeans of Zambia have tended to live in a closed world
separated in both their social contacts and residence from other
ethnic groups in the country. The mining companies with their
provisions of elaborate recreational centers and special housing for
Europeans have helped to contribute to this separatism which has
long remained a serious problem between native black Africans and
the white European community.
Interethnic Attitudes
The first European settlers of Zambia brought preconceived
notions about Africans and Asians into the country with them from
settlements in other parts of Africa.15
An integral part of European attitudes has been the belief that
they were bringing civilization to a hopelessly backward and
impoverished area, and that the power and privileges Europeans
enjoyed in all spheres of life were a small price to pay for their
contributions. The Europeans imposed a system of social relations
that was grossly unequal in its treatment of, and effect on, the
different ethnic groups in Zambia, but from its inception, the system
was never expected to be equal. Despite the fact that most Euro-


peans accepted the idea of eventual African self-rule, this was
expected to take several centuries--a comfortable distance away.
Not only a class, but. a caste structure was developed, in which
rates of pay, opportunities for advancement in education and
employment, living conditions, and status and influence were all
preconditioned by a person's race. The structure was pyramidal,
with the small group of Europeans at the top, arranged according to
their social class, then Indians and coloured in the middle. Africans
were on the bottom. Their small educated elite was separated from
the vast undifferentiated mass of unskilled and uneducated. The
class structure thus fit within the caste system, an unskilled
European received greater economic and social rewards than a
skilled African by sole virtue of his birth. The European population
was given a virtual monopoly on economic power, full political
control, and the benefits accruing from high status and prestige-
the ability to place all other ethnic groups in subservient positions,
and insurance that European interests would always be paramount
over those of others.
The Family
Each of the country's ethnic and tribal groups has its own
traditional practices with respect to marital relationships, the
status of women, the composition of the family and household, and
other matters affecting larger kinship groups.
In a number of African groups the family, consisting of a man,
his wife, and their unmarried children, is firmly embedded in a
larger family which includes one or more of their married children
and their spouses, as well as their grandchildren.
The polygynous family, a man, two or more wives, and their
children, was the traditional idea. However, it has become quite rare
in urban areas, and less frequent in rural ones.
The rights, obligations and often, the emotional ties that exist
between an adult and his brothers and sisters, his parents, and
members of his lineage, are usually stronger and more durable than
those between a man and his wife.16
Educated Africans and younger Asians have departed most
frequently from the traditional norms of kinship and marriage, and
both groups tend to emphasize family relationships patterned along
Western lines with free choice of mates and monogamous marriages.
The status of women in most Zambian tribes is considerably
higher than it is in many other countries of Africa. However, women
are not considered the social equals of men and tend to be poorly
educated and less knowledgeable about community affairs.17
Today a majority of Africans in the mining towns are married
and live with their wives. This is in contrast to the early mining days
when men went off to work, leaving their villages and their wives
behind them, often for many years.


Living Conditions and Housing
Roughly 80 percent of the people live in rural areas under
conditions less developed than those of the urban centers. They raise
their own food, usually construct their own houses, and only
occasionally acquire luxury items. Living conditions in rural regions
generally compare favorably with those of other central and east
African countries.18
The population of the urban centers is composed of Africans
engaged in government, business, and the professions, and of a
working class ranging from well-paid copper miners to the partially
employed and the unemployed. Most Europeans and Asians are also
urban dwellers.
Conditions of life in the city vary considerably with income and
social status. Despite this variation, urban ways of life present a
marked contrast with those in rural regions. National independence
and moves toward modernization have brought a change in the
attitudes and expectations of many Zambians. Growing dissatisfac-
tion with rural life is especially prevalent among young persons who
continue to leave the countryside and migrate in large numbers to
the cities and towns in search of economic opportunity, education,
and a higher standard of living. This migration has created prob-
lems of overcrowded housing, unemployment, juvenile delinquency,
and a continuing rise in the crime rate.

Since independence, the highest priority has been given to the
improvement of national living standards. Moreover, substantial
efforts have been made to develop the rural regions to achieve an
equitable balance between life in the country and in the city.
The government has concentrated on extensive health and
social welfare programs to supplement similar efforts in the field of
education.19 Low-cost housing, provision of portable water supplies,
improved medical services, and public health education have all
received continuing government attention and funds. In addition to
these programs, much emphasis has been placed on the value of
cooperative community effort in the quest for improved standards of
living. Self-help projects have received financial and technical sup-
port from the government and have proven popular with Zambians
who are anxious to achieve a better way of life.
Most of the population derive a living from farming, cattle-
raising, and fishing.20 With an average of four acres to cultivate, the
villager normally produces sufficient food for his family. Any sea-
sonal surplus provides a modest amount of money with which the
farmer pays his children's school fees, buys clothing and kitchen
utensils, and perhaps obtains some furniture, a bicycle or a radio.
The clothing needs of most rural Africans remain relatively modest,
although Western clothing has become increasingly popular.


Living conditions for the small percentage of people in the
urban centers vary considerably with their economic and social
status. Most of the major towns have portable water systems, sewage
disposal facilities, and electricity. The availability of consumer goods
and services compares favorably with other African cities, but some
of these amenities are often too expensive for many residents.
To many younger Zambians, the city represents the only source
of affluence and of a better way of life. Hopeful of finding lucrative
employment and starting a new life for themselves, migrants flock to
the urban centers along the railroad line and on the Copperbelt.
Most are unskilled and have no more than a primary education.
Only a few succeed in finding jobs that provide an adequate living.
Except for those with relatives or friends in the cities, the migrants
usually do not have a place to live when they arrive and are literally
left in the streets. In the absence of ties with their rural commu-
nities, the migrants become totally dependent on government wel-
fare agencies for support. To these people living quarters often mean
shantytowns where the inhabitants are crowded into compounds.
Even some who find employment continue to live in the shantytowns
because other housing is either unavailable or too expensive.
Apart from the problems the migrants present to the cities, the
government is concerned with the fact that a large number of men
who leave their villages are those who have acquired some educa-
tion. Their absence deprives rural communities of future leaders
necessary for their development. Moreover, wives and children are
often left behind and become a financial burden to their remaining
To stabilize the population of rural villages, the government has
attempted to raise rural living standards. Financial aid for construc-
tion of homes is available to rural Zambians, and cash income is
given them for the development of improved agriculture. The aim of
these programs is to foster greater interest in rural life and the
Zambian government hopes for a time when numbers of university
graduates will seek self-employment in the area of agriculture
rather than employment in the cities, or in the civil service.
Adequate housing for all segments of the population is presently
a problem in Zambia. The quality and size of houses varies from
rural huts made of wattle and mud, covered with a thatched roof, to
large brick homes with tiled roofs and indoor plumbing, owned by
affluent Europeans and Africans in the towns.22 Some rural
Africans live in more elaborate houses but most are crowded and
have poor sanitary conditions. Livestock are often kept in or close to
the huts.
Urban housing for the ordinary African ranges from shanties to
increasingly adequate accommodations in the mining towns. There
are housing projects in urban centers but they have not been able to


keep up with the rapid migration of people to the towns, and
homeless families must often wait for long periods before any
housing is available.

The diet of the average Zambian consists largely of carbohy-
drates, primarily maize (corn), millet and cassava.23 The standard
Zambian diet includes little protein and even in areas where cattle is
raised, beef is seldom eaten by the local people. Many people eat a
great deal of fish unless it is in some way taboo for them.
For many generations it has been customary in Zambia for the
male head of the rural family to receive the most desirable part of
each meal and as a result, the children get the less nutritious

For all but a few Zambians some belief in the supernatural or
extraordinary powers is basic to an understanding of the world. The
substance of belief and practice varies considerably from tribe to
tribe partly because traditional beliefs varied, and partly because of
Christian missionary activity and education on their way of life.
Christianity has the strongest hold on Zambians who have
received some education, primarily because the missions were the
only sources of education for Africans during much of the colonial
period and later.
The Zambian Constitution guarantees freedom of worship and
prohibits any discrimination on the basis of creed. Many major
government figures are Christians and Kenneth Kaunda, the Presi-
dent of the country, is the son of one of the first African ministers in
Northern Rhodesia, David Kaunda.24 A great deal of Kenneth
Kaunda's philosophical outlook has been conditioned by aspects of
his Christian religious teaching.
Most churches and religions participate comfortably in Zam-
bian life, but two groups have come into conflict with the Zambian
government because the government considered their attitudes to be
in conflict with the ideas of the State. One of these groups was the
Lumpa group, led by Alice Lenshina, and the other is the Watch-
tower Bible and Tract Society (Jehovah's Witnesses).
In 1964 relations between the Lumpa group and the govern-
ment reached the point where Lenshina was imprisoned and most of
her followers were exiled.25

Traditional African Religious Views
In the traditional view still held by many if not most Zambians,
the relationship between man and spirit is played out in this world,
and has consequences in this world-not in the hereafter. If the
spirits are pleased it means worldly success; if they are not angry, it


means that one may go about his daily business; if they are
displeased, members of one's family may fall ill or a current business
enterprise may fail. Therefore, set rituals are performed routinely to
honor spirits and obtain their good favor.
Although the details of religious belief, ceremonies and organi-
zation vary from tribe to tribe, their general characteristics are
similar. The tribal universe is peopled by a host of superhuman
entities conceived as spirits who control the universe and must be
propitiated either individually or collectively.26 The tribal universe
is also pervaded by a power which men may use to gain their own
The ultimate source of this pervasive power and of the power of
the spirits is a high god, usually thought to be the creator, and
sometimes the master of rain, thunder and lightning. He is benign
and remote, takes no direct interest in the affairs of men, and is
seldom worshipped or approached directly. None of the tribes appear
to conceive of him as a Judge. Nevertheless it is onto this belief in a
high god that missionaries have grafted the Christian concept of
In contrast to the remoteness of the high god, other spirits are
immediate and play a direct role in the lives of the living. They are
frequently considered intermediaries between the high god and the
living. They may take the form of ancestral spirits, as those of
departed men and women, or nature spirits, those associated with
natural elements in the universe. Ancestral spirits are more potent
the more recently dead they are,28 and among the Lozi and Bemba,
the spirits of departed royalty or chiefs are more powerful than other
ancestral spirits.
Christianity was introduced into what is now Zambia in the late
19th century when several missionaries inspired by David
Livingstone (who died in 1873) decided to carry on his work north of
the Zambezi River.29 The earliest missionary efforts were among the
Lozi and Bemba tribes and were concentrated on converting impor-
tant chiefs or their sons in order to gain influence in the social and
political life of the tribal community. Even so, Christianity was slow
to gain a genuine foothold among Africans, mostly because the
missionaries insisted on complete renunciation of those traditional
beliefs and practices that conflicted with their rigid views, and an
adherance to Victorian morality. Most often under attack were ideas
of polygamy, bridewealth (pre-marital gifts to the bride's father), and
practices associated with belief in magic and witchcraft.30 The
widely scattered and sparse population also worked against an
effective missionary effort by isolating the mission stations from one
another and limiting the missionaries' influence to an area immedi-
ately surrounding each station.


Not until the early part of the 20th century did Christianity
have any serious impact on the religious beliefs of the Africans. The
crucial factor was probably the missionaries' control and influence
upon the majority of African educational facilities.
The degree to which Christian theology has been accepted by
most Zambian Christians is difficult to determine. The Christian
concept of a personal God who passes judgment on moral transgres-
sions after death is alien to traditional African beliefs. Although all
tribes have a notion of a high god whose name has often been used as
the word for the Christian God, the tribal god is remote and takes no
interest in life on earth. He is generally considered amoral and
moral transgressions are punished in tribal belief by the various
spirits who punish people in the present life, and not after death.
Evidence indicates that the role of ancestral spirits continues to play
a part in the beliefs of many professed African Christians. Certainly
belief in witchcraft and magic continues strong among many African
More than a dozen denominations had established missionary
stations in Zambia before the 1930s. Most of the denominations
concentrated their missions in a limited geographic area and did not
compete with one another for converts. Such a pattern of denomina-
tional affiliation established in the 1930s was still evident in the late
1960s,32 but it has been modified by migrations resulting from
urbanization on the Copperbelt and elsewhere, and by the union of
various denominations into independent churches.
According to figures available in the World Christian Handbook
and Annuario Pontifico, approximately one-fourth to one-third of the
population of Zambia was at least nominally Christian in 1967.33
This figure includes both baptized full members of the church, and
those who consider themselves Christians and participate regularly
in the church but have not met the requirements for full mem-
bership. More than three-fifths of the Christians were Roman
Catholics, one-fifth were Protestants, and the remainder included
members of African independent or separatist churches, and an
undetermined number of Jehovah's Witnesses.34
Independent African Christian churches, usually headed by a
self-styled prophet with some Christian background, have come into
existence and disappeared since the early years of the 20th century.
The phenomenon became most significant after World War II
because it was related to the African cause for social and political
freedom, and these newly created churches took on an anti-Euro-
pean attitude.
It must be remembered that to many Africans, Christian
mission churches were an instrument of European domination
which, they believed, like other European political and economic
institutions, held the Africans down. At times congregations broke


away from the mission church not because they differed on matters
of theology with them, but because they could gain no voice in the
administration and control of their church.
Although the number of Christians in Zambia seems to be
steadily growing, the Christian Church continues to face several
problems in its role as a social institution. Because of the worldly
role of traditional African religions, Africans find it difficult to
separate the sacred from the secular role of their church. They look
to their church for an ethic that is practical and utilitarian and judge
the church in terms of its effectiveness as a social institution. The
church and its leaders must be wholly involved in the daily life of its
members. It is on this ground that orthodox Christianity has proved
disappointing to Zambians. Because of their mission history and
continued affiliation with overseas organizations, most Christian
denominations have shied away from involvement in social and
political matters that might be controversial. As a result, they have
been accused of not practicing what they preach, particularly on the
important matters of social justice and race relations.
The people of Zambia still have many problems to overcome in
the area of religion as well as in the field of cultural unity. They have
made great progress since gaining independence in 1964 and it is
expected that they will continue to do so in the foreseeable future.


1Richard Hall. Zambia. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc., 1965, p. 13.
2Ibid., p. 33.
3Area Handbook for Zambia. Second Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1974, p. 71.
4Ibid., p. 71.
5Ibid., p. xx.
6Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary (Springfield, Mass.: G. & C. Merriam Co.,
1969), p. 945.
7Gann, Lewis H. A History of Northern Rhodesia: Early Days to 1953. London:
Chatto and Windus, 1964., p. 40.
SIbid., p. 44
10Area Handbook for Zambia., p. 75.
llIbid., p. 59.
12Ibid., p. 78.
14Ibid., p. 103.
15Lacy, Creighton. "Christian Humanism in Zambia," Christian Century, LXXXIX,
February 16, 1972, p. 193.
160hadike, Patrick O. "Aspects of Domesticity and Family Relationship: A Survey
Study of the Family-Household in Zambia," Journal of Asian and African Studies,
VI. No. 3, July, 1971, p. 107.
1sArea Handbook for Zambia., 148.
19Ibid., p. 167.
20obid., p. 283.


21Ibid., p. 148.
22Ibid., p. 153.
24Munger, Edwin. President Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia: An Extraordinary Human
Being Facing Extraordinary Problems. (American Universities Field Staff Reports,
Central and Southern Africa Series, XIV, No. 2, 1970).
25Roberts, Andrew D. "The Lumpa Church of Alice Lenshina." In Robert Rotberg and
Ali A. Mazrui (eds.) Protest and Power in Black Africa. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1970, pp. 513-568.
26Area Handbook for Zambia., p. 185.
271bid., p. 187.
29Hall, Richard., p. 190.
3oOhadike, Patrick, p. 108.
31Area Handbook for Zambia., p. 193.
S2Ibid., p. 191.
33Ibid., p. 195.
34Ibid., p. 191, and xxxvii.


Area Handbook for Zambia. Second Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1974.
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