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Florida Agricultural and Mechanical
VOLUME XXI, NUMBER 1
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical
Charles U. Smith, Editor
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College of Humanities and Social Sciences
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College of Education
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Copyright 1977 by Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Table of Contents (order of papers)
An Examination of the Background
and Origin of the Phelps-Stokes Edu-
cational Commission to Africa,
1921-1922 ................................... Frances J. Stafford
Singlet Molecular Oxygen In Biological
Systems ................................. Christopher O. Ikediobi
and Cheong L. Lam
Omission of the Conditional and
Conditional Perfect Tenses in the
Study of Modern Descriptive English
Grammar .................................. Melvin O. Eubanks
The Multicultural Approach to Design-
ing an Effective Program of Professional
Laboratory Experiences for Prospective
Secondary School Teachers ................. Anne Richardson Gayles
Anomy Revisited ...............................Karen J. Chason
An Examination of the Background and Origin
of the Phelps-Stokes Educational Commission
to Africa, 1921-1922
Frances J. Stafford
Associate Professor of History
Florida A&M University
A review of the literature on educational and political development
in Africa indicates that seldom does an author on the subject not make
mention of the Phelps-Stokes Educational Commission Report, Educa-
tion in Africa, published in 1922. To find it variously described as ". .. the
most important initial factor in bringing about... an educational Renais-
sance in Africa";' "... the book of the century.. .;"2 and ". .. an important
landmark in the development of education in Africa,"3 challenges one to
seek beyond passing references and glowing tributes for insights into the
motivations and purpose of the Commission and its sponsors, for with the
benefit of historical prospective, it is clear today that the early 20th century
was a time of paternalism in its approach to the problems of black men
and that undoubtedly, the Phelps-Stokes Commission was a product of
When in 1919, the joint proposal by the American Baptist Foreign
Missionary Society and the North American Foreign Missionary Con-
IT. Walter Wallbank, "The Educational Renaissance in British Tropical Africa," Jour-
nal of Negro Education III (January 1939): 110.
2Kenneth James King, Pan-Africanism and Education: A Study of Race Philanthropy
and Education in the Southern States of America and East Africa (Oxford: Clarendon Press,
1971), p. 98.
3H. F. Makulu, Education, Development and Nation-Building in Independent Africa,
A Study of the New Trends and Recent Philosophy of Education (London: SCM Press Ltd.,
1971), p. 22.
4Richard Heyman, "The Initial Years of the Jeanes School in Kenya, 1924-1931," in
Essays in the History of African Education, ed: Vincent M. Battle and Charles H. Lyons
(New York: Teachers College Press, 1971), p. 105.
2 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
ference that a commission be appointed to make a study of education in
Africa, was accepted by other international boards, a watershed in the long
history of Protestant missionary education in Africa was reached. This
decision indicated the extent of a concern over and disillusion with the
wholesale transfer of the educational conventions of Europe and America
to the peoples of Africa.5 It also indicated a serious questioning of the
whole pattern of missionary operations that had been adhered to by the
Protestants through the greater part of the 19th century. Believing that the
cause of Christianity could be best served by early conversions, the mis-
sionaries placed strong emphasis upon the training of young Africans by
giving to them a limited, western, literary education that would help make
them into instructed and proven congregations. Hence, in Africa at the
turn of the century, there operated "comity agreements" between the nu-
merous branches of Protestant denominations engaged in mission work
and education, whereby, to avoid competition, a mission located within a
given area, was recognized as exercising a paramountcy of interest and
control over activities conducted and tribes living within it. In time, a
denomination might operate numerous mission stations and preaching
posts to which were attached elementary and primary schools, dispensaries
or a central hospital, and occasionally, training centers.6 The policy of the
colonial administrations was to allow the missions to carry out their edu-
cational work with practically no supervision or regular financial support.7
Often, the result of such an arrangement was that certain tribes within a
designated area enjoyed educational advantages and social services over
others in a different area where the mission's resources might be limited.
In the eyes of the natives, Christianity came to be equated with a more
attractive way of living which, in turn, was predicated upon western knowl-
edge or education. Thus, while the original missionary motivation of edu-
cation was evangelistic-the presentation of the word of God to the people
as the key to salvation by teaching them to read the Bible-the desire and
demand for education by the Africans placed an increasingly heavy burden
upon the missions.8
If and when economic development of the area occurred, a variety of
entrepreneurs and administrators moved in with additional requirements
for local workers who were able to read, write, and keep accounts.9 Now
the African hunger for education became insatiable. Learning was seen as
the escape route from the old tribal discipline and manual labor. Education
symbolized power and the authority and privilege enjoyed by the white
5Thomas Jesse Jones, Education in Africa. A Study of West, South, and Equatorial
Africa by the African Education Commission under the Auspices of the Phelps-Stokes Fund
and Foreign Mission Societies of North America and Europe (New York: Phelps-Stokes
Fund, 1922), pp. xii, 16.
6Makulu, Education. Development and Nation-Building, pp. 7-9.
7Jones, Education in Africa, p. 90.
"Makulu, Education, Development and Nation-Building, pp. 10-12.
'Leonard J. Lewis, Education and Political Independence in Africa (Edinburgh: Thomas
Nelson and Sons Ltd., 1962), p. 85.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 3
models. The pressure on missions to provide education was greater every
year as it became accepted fact that formal schooling was a much broader
process than the teaching of the Scriptures and the rudiments of the three
R's. Other subjects such as geography, history, literature and more sophis-
ticated mathematical skills were necessary for development and advance-
The early years of the 20th century found the colonial governments
continuing to encourage the missions to provide education but at the same
time, becoming involved themselves in the education of the African when
faced with demands for official responsibility in the construction of more
facilities and the enforcement of standards and policies. In British West
Africa where educational progress, (if exemplified by a major increase in
the establishment of schools, including some for secondary education),
could be noted, controversy between the missionaries, the government,
and the European settlers over the objectives of native education raged
with little attention to what the African himself wanted. The missionaries
still viewed training for church membership and service as the major edu-
cational objective while colonial officials supported the purpose of turning
out Africans who would be useful in the administration of the territory and
the community. The European settlers, however, fearful of competition for
jobs and demands for equality, maintained that education should not go
beyond encouragement of the Africans to be good servants.10
Ironically, pressures on the missions to provide education were ac-
companied by rumblings of dissatisfaction with their programs and pro-
cedures. Critics declared that the missions' interdenominational competition
had an adverse effect upon the Africans; that they confused the people by
destroying their traditional beliefs while not offering them morally sound
replacements or substitutes; that the denominations were guilty of rushing
into remote areas simply to gain converts after which they established
"third class" schools that were without adequate resources or trained
teachers. Finally, some of the religious sects were accused of being sub-
versively critical of the government-"even within the hearing of the na-
tives."" The charge that the mission schools provided only a literary educa-
tion and taught no practical skills was voiced as the reason why the educated
African considered himself too good to work as a farmer and aspired to
white collar occupations. This was also the explanation as to why it was
that ". after Africans have been to school, they are not so amenable."'2
Even as the missionaries defended themselves vigorously with the
counter-argument that it was because of insufficient government financial
support and uncoordinated standards of supervision and inspection that
"third class" schools operated, they feared that the true intent behind the
I'Makulu, Education, Development and Nation-Building, pp. 13-18.
Franklin Parker, African Development and Education in Southern Rhodesia (Colum-
bus: Ohio State University Press, 1960), pp. 78-79.
12J. W. C. Dougall, "The Case For and Against Mission Schools," Journal ofthe Royal
African Society XXXVIII (January, 1939): 91.
4 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
campaign of criticism was a government take-over of teacher training, and
eventually, all African education from them." As of 1918-1919, missionary
education seemed in disarray after three quarters of a century or more of
struggle to provide undifferentiated western education to a backward
people. It was at this point of frustration that the American proposal for an
investigative study came to the attention of the British missionary boards.
Quickly they realized the advantages that would derive from cooperating
with and profiting from a project based upon American experience and
sponsored and directed by the organization and individual who were con-
sidered shining luminaries in Negro education.14
In the United States, the names, Phelps-Stokes Fund and Thomas
Jesse Jones, were synonymous with southern Negro education. Established
in 1911 in accordance with the instructions in the will of Miss Caroline
Phelps Stokes that the income from one million dollars be administered by
trustees ". for the education of Negroes, both in Africa and the United
States,""5 the Phelps Stokes Fund devoted its attention to matters of Negro
education within the United States, prior to 1919. From the beginning, it
sought and utilized the advice and opinions of Booker T. Washington who
occupied the position of being the recognized consultant on the channeling
of philanthropic aid and interpreter of what was educationally feasible in
the South as far as the Negro was concerned. On the recommendation of
Washington, the Phelps-Stokes Fund in 1913 underwrote a survey of all
Negro schools in the South which was to be done in collaboration with the
Federal Bureau of Education and directed by Thomas Jesse Jones, the
Bureau's "specialist in the education of racial groups," and a staunch be-
liever in the reigning Hampton-Tuskegee philosophy of special Negro
The result of Jones' next three years of school visitations and compi-
lation of evidence was an impressive two-volume report in 1917, entitled,
Negro Education: A Study of the Private and Higher Schools for Colored
People in the United States.'6 Although destined to be yet another un-
popular issue in the controversy waged between Booker T. Washington,
Robert R. Moton, and W. E. B. DuBois over the proper course of Negro
education in this country, the report established Thomas Jesse Jones'
reputation in the white sector as "an authority on Negro education."17
"Parker, African Development and Education, pp. 21, 43.
'4King, Pan-Africanism and Education, pp. 21, 43.
"Edwin W. Smith, Aggrey of Africa, A Study in Black and White, (Freeport, New York:
Books of Libraries Press, 1971), p. 143.
t"King, Pan-Africanism and Education, pp. 30-33.
"As early as 1906, Washington and DuBois represented rival schools of thought on
Negro education: the industrial and the literary; and on Negro political involvement: non-
participation and activism. Robert R. Moton succeeded to the presidency of Tuskegee In-
stitute following Washington's death in 1915, thereby inheriting the founder's imperative
and philosophy. W. E. B. DuBois, "Negro Education," Crisis XV (February 1918): 177;
"Thomas Jesse Jones," Crisis XXII (October 1921): 254; Wallbank, "Educational Renais-
sance." p. 110.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 5
His recommendations were a reaffirmation of the basic Hampton-Tuskegee
philosophy that education for the Negro should be of practical value and
strictly governed by the conditions of Negro life in the South. Rather than
in competition with whites in political and professional roles, the Negro's
education should find its inspiration and fulfillment in the rural communi-
ties and in agricultural and industrial training. Although the report was
couched in such sociological and educational phraseology as "primacy of
rural needs"; "... curricular reform... along industrial and domestic lines";
". community consciousness;" and "adaption of educational activities,"
it clearly revealed that Jones had successfully evolved a program for indus-
trial and agricultural education based upon standards adapted to special
Negro needs. This was the type program that met the approval of Northern
philanthropists and Southern whites in the United States.18
Needless to say, the examples, par excellence, of the implementation
of the recommendations in Negro Education were Hampton and Tuskegee
and Thomas Jesse Jones enjoyed a long and influential association with
both schools. Although the former was the parent institution, it was Tuske-
gee that was more widely publicized in Europe and Africa during the first
decade of the 20th century. Since Booker T. Washington's initial visit to
Great Britain in 1899 and the arrival of three Tuskegee graduates and one
faculty member in Togo, in 1900, to train Africans in cotton culture and
experimentation in cotton breeding,19 Tuskegeeism had come to be inter-
preted as all things to all of those who were concerned with different ap-
proaches to the education of the black man in Africa. To the missionary
forces it meant an educational formula with which to fight the urbanization
of the natives; a school life that brought compensation for a primitive
home; and the kind of practical instruction that was suited to the natives'
needs. To colonial administration, Tuskegeeism's design could prevent the
political growth of Africans while increasing their value to the economy.
Visits to Tuskegee between 1902 and 1914 by foreign government educa-
tionists and dignitaries strengthened the conviction in official circles that
instead of an oversupply of "clerks, mission boys and black Englishmen,"
what was needed in Africa was a supply of workers, planters, plantation
hands, miners, and seamen. The solution lay in the acceptance of a re-
directed approach to native education that would be a compromise between
the "trade training" proposals of the mid-19th century that envisioned the
creation of a strong middle class of African entrepreneurs, and the more
conservative view that an industrial education should be designed to make
the Africans an "improved peasantry" through practical training. Many of
these British administrators, along with missionary leaders, also met and
established contacts with Thomas Jesse Jones during this period and to
'"King, Pan-Africanism and Education, pp. 34-43.
1"Louis R. Harlan, "Booker T. Washington and the White Man's Burden," American
Historical Review LXXI (January, 1966): 442-443.
6 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
them, he expressed his interest in applying his principles and ideas on
Negro education in this country to foreign fields.20
The advent of World War I placed in abeyance prospects for educa-
tional reforms in Africa. When over, one of the results of the conflict's
impact was an upsurge of interest and a willingness by the colonial govern-
ments to share more of the responsibility for education.21 Africa's war
experience demonstrated the future inevitablility of the interrelationship
between education, economic development, and political development. It
could be a stimulus to economic profits by introducing more efficient
industrial and agricultural techniques to transform the natives into more
productive workmen who, in turn, would have a greater desire for more
goods for which they would work harder. Education had a vital connection
with industry, trade, and markets.22 A second reason for increased concern
stemmed from the inauguration of the Mandate System in Africa. Under
the supervision of the League of Nations, the control and administration of
Germany's former African possessions were turned over to certain of the
European colonial powers to be administered under the principles of "inter-
national control, trusteeship and the open door."23 It followed that from
1926 and on, greater world attention would be focused on native problems
in Africa and this new interest would compel the governments to review
and improve their educational policies.24 As stated by a British official:
... because Great Britain is committed to a colonial philosophy
based on Trusteeship, it is her obvious responsibility to utilize
all those agencies, of which education is perhaps chief, which
contribute towards raising the African in the scale of civilization.25
A third factor that accounts for the new attitude of the governments, espe-
cially Britain, was the need for counteraction against the radicalism and
demands for self-determination that the political unrest of the war years
bred in many young, mission-educated Africans. Memories of the John
Chilembwe activities in Nyasaland in 1915 were still fresh in the minds of
the Europeans and although no proven connection between that native
uprising and the Seventh Day Adventist missionaries seemed to exist, a
new hostility prevailed towards permitting native education to remain
under missionary control.26 It was politic, therefore, to take the position
2"King, Pan-Africanism and Education, pp. 43-53.
21L. Gray Cowan, James O'Connell, and David G. Scanlon, eds., Education and Nation-
Building in Africa (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1965), p. 5.
2"Frederick D. Lugard, The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa (London: Frank
Cass and Co., 1965; reprint of 1922 edition), pp. 606-618.
23Raymond Leslie Buell, International Relations (New York: Macmillan, 1925), p. 329.
2Cowan. et al, Education and Nation-Building in Africa, p. 5.
'Wallbank, "Educational Renaissance," p. 106.
2'George Shepperson and Thomas Price, Independent African, John Chilembweandthe
Origin. Setting, and Significance of the Nyasaland Native Rising of 1915 (Edinburgh: The
University Press. 1958), pp. 323-355, 363.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 7
African education constitutes an important Imperial
responsibility because it wields a fateful influence upon the
political consciousness of the native. It is true that Great Britain
is committed to a policy of progressively increasing the partici-
pation of the natives in governmental policy, but it is realized
that the pace must not be too fast. ... In Africa it is one of the
roles of education to retard the creation of a vociferous, yet
numerically insignificant, intelligentsia divorced from the great
mass of their own inarticulate people, yet demanding impossi-
ble political concessions.27
Thus in November, 1919, when trustees of the Phelps-Stokes Fund
adopted the proposal that "a survey of educational conditions and oppor-
tunities among the Negroes of Africa, with a special view of finding the type
or types of education best adopted to meet the needs of the Natives be
undertaken .",28 they consolidated and implemented motivations that
stemmed from the ambition of the Fund's Educational Director to extend
to Africa his concept of an education adapted to the needs of a particular
people; the hope of the missionary organizations for relevant educational
reforms that would strengthen their control; and the desire of the colonial
governments to take over and provide more practical education that would
be to the economic benefit of both colony and metropole and contribute
little to any incipient political consciousness of the subject peoples.
With Thomas Jesse Jones as chairman, the Phelps-Stokes Educa-
tional Commission included both men and women-European, American,
and African.29 It traveled in West Africa between August, 1920 and August,
1921. Its mandate was to ascertain the educational work being done in the
territories toured; to investigate the educational needs of the people from
the standpoint of religious, social, and health conditions; to cooperate in
devising plans designed to meet the needs of the African; and to publish the
full results of the investigation. In 1922, the report, entitled, Education in
Africa, appeared in print. It contained such recommendations as:
1) Education in Africa should take into account the child's environ-
ment and the role that he is to play in society.
2) Education should be adapted to conditions of African life with
greater emphasis upon appreciation for rural life.
3) Education should have a moral and religious basis.
27Lugard, The Dual Mandate, p. 426.
28Jones, Education in Africa, p. xiii.
29The African member of the Commission was James Emman K. Aggrey of the Fanti
Tribe, Gold Coast West Africa. He was educated in mission schools and later in the United
States. Aggrey's friendship with Jones began in 1904 and it was one of mutual admiration.
Jones' decision to include Aggrey on the Commission was based upon Aggrey's African
origin, his ability as an observer, his broad training in sociology and education, and his "con-
structive" attitude towards racial relations. Smith, Aggrey of Africa, pp. 6, 148.
8 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
4) Greater utilization of tribal languages in education was essential.
5) Agriculture, health instruction, and physical education should
have greater emphasis, followed by crafts and home economics.
6) Education should introduce new technological developments.
7) There should be closer cooperation between government and
missions in clarifying objectives and educational planning.
8) The ultimate educational aims to be attained should be the training
of the masses of the people and the education of native leadership.30
The Phelps-Stokes Commission Report would lead to the rethinking
of educational policy and the beginning of "modern education" in Africa
for the decades of the 1920's and 1930's. The British Colonial Office created
an Advisory Committee on Education to respond to the challenge. From
this body came two subsequent memoranda on education in British Tropi-
cal Africa that served as the basis for major educational reforms in 1925
and the decision to have a similar investigation conducted by the Phelps-
Stokes Commission in East Africa, the following year.31
For the next fifteen years, "popular education" was stressed in Africa
as efforts were made to introduce into the curricula studies that related to
the natural environment and the needs of the African child's own commu-
nity. Stories, folklore, tribal and traditional dances and handicrafts were
focal points of emphasis. While such seemed innovative and progressive,
and while education became increasingly the direct responsibility of gov-
ernment as it rendered greater financial support, what neither the Phelps-
Stokes Commission had foreseen nor the colonial administrations antici-
pated, was to take place.32 The interaction of educational change with
economic development encouraged political development. The "native
leadership" that the Commission Report spoke of figuratively in 1922,
would become a part of the practical reality of the independence movement
of the 1960's. "Adapted" education could not immunize the African from
politics and nationalism.
If Thomas Jesse Jones and the members of the Commission were to
return to Africa today, although confounded and astounded by a social
and political transformation that they could not have imagined in the pa-
ternalistic and racist milieu of the 1920's, they might take comfort and
pleasure from the knowledge that since 1962, as the new independent gov-
ernments structured national systems of education, the demand for relevant
source material prompted the issuance of an abridgment by the London
Institute of Education of the Phelps-Stokes Report on Education in Africa.33
"0Jones, Education in Africa, pp. 11-43 passim, 90-92.
1 Makulu, Education, Development and Nation-Building, p. 22; Cowan et al, Education
and Nation-Building in Africa, pp. 7-8, 45-52.
"Makulu, Education, Development and Nation Building, pp. 20-21.
3"William W. Brickman, "Tendencies in African Education," The Educational Forum
XXVII (May 1963): 400.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 9
Buell, Raymond Leslie. International Relations, New York: Macmillan, 1925.
Cowan, L. Gray; O'Connell, James; and Scanlon, David G., Eds., Education and Nation-
Building in Africa. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1965.
Heyman, Richard. "The Initial Years of the Jeanes School in Kenya, 1924-1931." In Essays
in the History of Africa Education, pp. 105-119. Edited by Vincent M. Battle and
Charles H. Lyons. New York: Teachers College Press, 1970.
Jones, Thomas Jesse. Education in Africa: A Study of West, South, and Equatorial Africa by
the African Education Commission, under the Auspices of the Phelps-Stokes Fund and
Foreign Mission Societies of North America and Europe. New York: Phelps-Stokes
King, Kenneth James, Pan Africanism and Education: A Study of Race, Philanthropy, and
Education in the Southern States of America, and East Africa. Oxford: Clarendon
Lewis, Leonard John. Education and Political Independence in Africa. Edinburgh: Thomas
Nelson and Sons, Ltd. 1962.
Lugard, Frederick J. D. The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa. London: Frank Cass
and Company, 1965; reprint of 1922 edition.
Makulu, H. F. Education, Development and Nation-building in Independent Africa: A
Study of the New Trends and Recent Philosophy of Education. London: SCM Press,
Parker, Franklin. African Development and Education in Southern Rhodesia. Columbus:
Ohio State University Press, 1960.
Shepperson, George and Price, Thomas. Independent African. John Chilembwe and the
Origin, Setting, and Significance of the Nyasaland Native Rising of 1915. Edinburgh:
The University Press, 1958.
Smith, Edwin W. Aggrey of Africa: A Study in Black and White, Freeport: Books for Libra-
ries Press, 1971.
Brickman, William W. "Tendencies in African Education," The Educational Forum XXVII
(May 1968): 39-416.
DuBois, W. E. B. "Negro Education," Crisis XV (February 1918): 175-177.
---. "Thomas Jesse Jones", Crisis XXII (October 1921): 254.
Dougall, J. W. C. "The Case For and Against Mission Schools". Journalofthe Royal African
Society XXXVIII (January, 1939): 91-108.
Harlan, Louis R. "Booker T. Washington and the White Man's Burden." American Histori-
cal Review LXXI (January, 1966): 441-467.
Wallbank, T. Walter. "The Educational Renaissance in British Tropical Africa." Journal of
Negro Education III (January, 1939): 105-122.
Singlet Molecular Oxygen in Biological Systems
Christopher O. Ikediobi
Assistant Professor of Chemistry
Cheong L. Lam
Senior Chemistry Student
Florida A&M University
Our interest in singlet molecular oxygen came about as a result of our
continuing investigation of the mechanism of action of lipoxygenase, a
dioxygenase enzyme, whose primary and secondary reactions have held
out promise of industrial applications (1-3). Lipoxygenase catalyzes the
oxidation of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids with cis, cis, 1, 4-penta-
diene structure, to the corresponding optically active secondary hydro-
peroxides whose subsequent disproportionation may yield singlet mole-
cular oxygen (4-5). We have recently attributed the lipoxygenase-
mediated oxidative destruction of a wide variety of structurally- unre-
lated substances, to the ability of this enzyme system to generate singlet
oxygen whose unusual reactivity ensures rapid oxidative degradation of
these "pseudosubstrates" (1). The idea of singlet oxygen participating in
biochemical reactions is a novel phenomenon with far-reaching implica-
tions in biology. In this paper we present a brief discussion of the nature of
singlet oxygen and the biochemical effects of its reactions.
Electronic Structure of Singlet Oxygen
The nature of singlet oxygen might be better understood if the elec-
tronic configuration of normal (also referred to as triplet, ground state)
oxygen is first considered. Figure 1 is the molecular orbital energy diagram
for oxygen. This figure shows the atomic orbitals of two oxygen atoms
combining to form the molecular orbitals of aground state oxygen mole-
cule. The o2p orbital in oxygen is usually considered to be at a lower energy
level than the II2p orbitals. The molecular orbital energy diagram is in
RESEARCH BULLETIN 11
agreement with the known experimental fact that the oxygen molecule
has two unpaired electrons located in the antibonding molecular orbitals,
II*2px and n*2p, as shown in Figure 1. This has proved to be difficult to
explain on the basis of valence electronic structures but with the molecular
orbital theory it is quite straightforward. The fact that oxygen has two
unpaired electrons (.0 O.) accounts for its biradical nature and ability to
undergo reactions generally characteristic of molecules with unpaired
spins. Usually the ground state of most molecules is a singlet (net electron
spin of zero) while the excited state is a triplet (net electron spin of one).
Oxygen behaves differently, exhibiting triplet and singlet features in its
ground and singlet excited states, respectively.
If energy is imparted to the oxygen molecule either by its mode of
formation or by appropriate excitation, the electronic configuration may
change to form a new singlet state. Two singlet excited states which have
been experimentally identified are 'A02 and '1O2. Their electronic struc-
tures differ from that of normal or triplet oxygen ('3O2) in the distribution
and orientation of the two electrons in the highest occupied molecular
orbitals. This is shown in Figure 2. It can be seen that in the lower energy
'A state, the two unpaired electrons are now paired, occupy the same
orbital and therefore have antiparallel spins (Pauli exclusion principle). In
the higher energy 'X state, the two electrons are still unpaired and occupy
separate orbitals but are oriented in an antiparallel fashion (10 Ot). The
first excited singlet, 'AO2, is less stable than the ground state oxygen by
about 22.5 kcal/mole (emission at 1270nm). When more energy is imparted
to the oxygen molecule, the state which corresponds to a level 37.5 kcal/
mole (emission at 762nm) above the ground state may be observed. There
is experimental evidence for possible interaction between molecules of 'A02
or those of 'IO2 and 'A02 to form two more transient excited states with
energies corresponding to 633 nm and 480 nm respectively. (6). The stoi-
chiometry of these interactions and the energies of the resulting excited
states relative to those of 'AO2, l'02, and 3'O2 are summarized in Figure 3.
The first excited singlet, 'AO2, is the most stable and studied of these
excited states of oxygen. Therefore unless otherwise specified, future refer-
ences to singlet oxygen should be interpreted to mean 'A02. Table I is a
summary of some of the chemical and physical methods used to generate
Reactions of Singlet Oxygen
Singlet molecular oxygen is sufficiently reactive to oxidize a variety of
suitable organic acceptors. Particularly susceptible are the olefines and
1, 3-dienoid compounds which are oxidized to the corresponding hydro-
peroxides and endoperoxides respectively. Other types of organic com-
pounds attacked by singlet molecular oxygen include enamines, poly-
nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and such heterocycles as pyrroles, oxa-
zoles, imidazoles and thiophenes. Table 2 illustrates some typical oxidations
12 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
with singlet oxygen. Oxidation of heterocyclic compounds and enamines
is of vital concern since these are related to many biological substances.
For example, in vitro studies have shown that chemically produced singlet
oxygen can attack purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleosides, nucleotides
and polynucleotides (14 16) all of which are components of nucleic acids.
Similar studies made with several amino acids indicate that histidine,
tryptophan, methionine, cysteine and cystine might be oxidatively altered
by singlet oxygen (16). It is difficult to assess the importance of these re-
actions in vivo due to the short lifetime (10-6 10-s) of singlet oxygen in
solution and the low concentrations at which it may be produced. If these
reactions, however, do occur to a significant extent in vivo, they could cer-
tainly contribute to such phenomena as genetic damage and enzyme in-
Possible Metabolic Sources of Singlet Oxygen
A discussion of singlet oxygen would be incomplete without mention
of a related, equally reactive superoxide radical anion (02) which is a poten-
tial source of singlet oxygen (17) and whose production in animal cells is
supported by increasing experimental evidence (18 22). Superoxide
radical anion is a partial reduction product probably formed as a transient
intermediate on the active sites of enzymes during mitochondrial electron
transport to oxygen as well as during various hydroxylation and oxygena-
tion reactions. One metabolic source of singlet oxygen for which there is
sufficient experimental evidence is the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid by
the complex flavoprotein, xanthine oxidase, during the catabolism of
Xanthine + H20 + 02 > Uric Acid + 02
The superoxide radical subsequently undergoes conversion to hydrogen
peroxide by the action of superoxide dismutase enzyme
202 + 2H' H202 + 02 (or 'A02)
It is perhaps feasible to think in terms of a spontaneous in vivo con-
version of 02 to 'AO2 in a one-electron transfer reaction, particularly in
view of the fact that this reaction has been demonstrated in vitro (17).
White blood cells also appear to produce significant amounts of 02
during phagocytosis (22). Other presumably viable sources of singlet
oxygen that could be important in vivo, include the reaction between 02
and hydroxyl radical (.OH) (23), the spontaneous decomposition of sec-
ondary aliphatic and aryl peroxides (24), and reduction of 02 by enzyme
cofactors such as flavin derivatives, nicotine amide derivatives and qui-
nones (25). Hydroxyl and aliphatic peroxy radicals can be produced in
animal cells; the former through the action of ionizing radiation on cellular
water and the latter following lipid peroxidation particularly in Vitamin E-
RESEARCH BULLETIN 13
deficient animals. Free radicals produced in vivo are frequently cited as
probable contributors to the aging process (26,27).
Medical Aspects of Singlet Oxygen
Slightly over two hundred years after its discovery by Joseph Priestly,
oxygen still remains a subject of intensive investigation for two major
reasons: a continuing search for a satisfying explanation for photodynamic
action and recent indications that singlet oxygen could be a participant in
biochemical reactions of medical significance. Singlet oxygen may be in-
volved in erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), one of several blood
diseases characterized by acute photosensitivity of the diseased individual
(28-30). EPP is a genetically inherited disorder in which the concentration
of free protoporphyrin in the red blood cells is unusually high. Blood from
EPP patients has been shown to be easily susceptible to photohemolysis, a
process which is accompanied by photoperoxidation of erythrocyte mem-
brane lipids (31). Recently Lamola, Yamane and Trozzolo (32) demon-
strated the involvement of singlet oxygen in this membrane destruction
process. While the search for a much more effective therapy continues,
EPP patients are, with varying degrees of success, being treated by oral or
systemic administration of /-carotene. The 3-carotene is thought to ame-
liorate the photosensitivity by acting as an in vivo quencher of singlet
oxygen and probably by functioning as a light shield too. (33-34). a-Toco-
pherol (Vitamin E), an effective singlet 02 sink, has also been shown to
protect erythorocytes in vivo from the photosensitivity characteristic of
In new born infants (especially premature ones) with neonatal juan-
dice, survival may depend on the ability of the body to make singlet oxygen
when subjected to proper light therapy. Neonatal juandice is an enzyme-
deficiency disease marked by an excess accumulation of bilirubin (27,36), a
degradation product of hemoglobin. The missing enzyme catalyzes the
conversion of lipid-soluble bilirubin to water-soluble bilirubin glucuro-
nide, the form in which bilirubin is normally excreted. One promising
treatment involves subjecting the patient to light of the same wavelength as
the absorption maximum of bilirubin. The singlet oxygen produced in a
consequent in vivo photochemical reaction in which bilirubin is the sensi-
tizer, is thought to destroy the accumulating bilirubin (15).
Erythrocyte hemolysis associated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydro-
genase deficiency in man is thought to involve singlet 02. This belief is
based on results of recent research. The first piece of evidence is the demon-
stration that catalase and superoxide dismutase, both oxidation protecting
enzyme systems, can protect red blood cells from hemolysis. (37-38). The
second, comes from spectroscopic studies which indicate that the 02 bound
to hemoglobin (Hb) during hemolysis of vitamin E-deficient erythrocytes
by Hb-bound 02, resembles singlet rather than ground state 02 (39-40).
While other oxidant species (O, .OH and H202) may be involved too in
14 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
this hemolytic destruction of erythrocytes, the role of singlet 02 is novel
and certainly deserves more investigation.
Several theories linking singlet oxygen with polynuclear aromatic
hydrocarbon-induced carcinogenesis exist (30,41-42). The most accept-
able of these, is one which proposes the specific binding of the polynuclear
aromatic hydrocarbon to a site or molecule in the cell and undergoes some
form of excitation producing singlet oxygen (17). The singlet oxygen
generated is believed to cause the intracellular damage which eventually
leads to tumor initiation. Other observations indirectly linking singlet
oxygen to cancer include: (a) the ability of a-tocopherol, a singlet oxygen
scavenger, to protect cells from dimethylbenzanthracene induced carcino-
genicity (43), (b) the efficiency with which malignant cells can take up and
bind to singlet oxygen sensitizers particularly hematoporphyrin (44) and
(c) a direct link between skin cancer and photosensitization. Although
these ideas are at best tentative, they must be taken into consideration in
evaluating the unresolved question of cancer etiology.
There is evidence to indicate that the familiar scavenging process of
phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (white blood cells)-an
important line of defense for mammalian organisms against invading
microbes, involves the generation of singlet 02 and super oxide radical
anion both of which function as the microbicidal agents (45). Krinsky (46)
proved the participation of singlet oxygen in phagocytosis by demonstrat-
ing that with mutant strains of Sarcina lutea devoid of carotenoid pig-
ments, phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes was much
more efficient than with the carotenoid-containing wild type. Since caro-
tenes are efficient singlet 02 quenchers, he argues that the quenching effect
of these pigments explains the observed difference in phagocytosis in the
presence or absence of carotenoid pigments.
Singlet 02 may be involved in rheumatoid athritis which is marked by
accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the synovial fluid of
joints (47). Singlet 02 is thought to act by oxidative depolymerization of
hyaluronic acid, a vital component of the joint lubricant deemed essential
for proper maintainance of the viscosity of the synovial fluid. McCord
(47) argues that it is O0 which is the depolymerizing agent, on the basis of
experiments utilizing xanthine-xanthine oxidase system, an established
source of O0, as his O0 generator during studies of synovial fluid stability.
Pedersen and Aust (48) have shown that the 02 produced by the xanthine
oxidase system can decompose to singlet 02. It is therefore more likely,
they argue, that singlet 02 is directly involved in this disease. Of course as in
phagocytosis, it is possible that both oxidant species (0O and singlet 02) are
participants in the depolymerization reaction.
Singlet 02 production in animal cells has already been noted. Vitamin
E and other antioxidants protect the body from the deleterious effects of
singlet 02. However, if not trapped by a biological antioxidant, singlet 02
can lead to lipid peroxidation to form hydroperoxides which are good free
radical progenitors, Free radicals, on the other hand, have been linked with
RESEARCH BULLETIN 15
the aging process (26-27). They appear to encourage aging by participating
in reactions which initiate the formation of the age pigment, lipofuscin, an
insoluble, fluorescent, lipid-containing granule known to accumulate in
the brain, muscle and heart of aged persons (16). Accumulation of lipo-
fuscin has been associated with memory and learning dysfunction, fea-
tures characteristic of aged individuals.
Singlet Oi in Enzyme Catalysis
Despite the prevailing thinking that an activated form of 02 is in-
volved in the action of some dioxygenases-enzymes that incorporate
molecular oxygen into their substrates-no direct detection of singlet 02
has been shown for any of these enzyme systems. Although the metabolic
hydroxylation of aromatic hydrocarbons by the nonspecific liver micro-
somal enzyme systems has been shown to involve O0, the hydroxylating
ability does not appear to reside in singlet 02 (49). Recently, however, three
enzyme systems have been reported to produce singlet 02 during their
catalytic reactions. These are the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system (50),
the linoleate-lipoxygenase system (1,2,51,52,) and the NADPH-independent
adrenodoxin reductase system (53). Two of these, xanthine oxidase and the
adrenodoxin reductase systems produce O0 as the primary oxidant species
which subsequently dismutates to singlet 02. Using such singlet oxygen
sinks as tetraphenylcyclopentadienone and 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran,
we have demonstrated many times singlet oxygen-like oxidations when
lipoxygenase acts on its substrate (54). The singlet oxygen appears to result
from the chemical decomposition of the peroxide product of the enzyme
reaction according to the following mechanism:
2 C--O- OH
H / --- C=0 + 'AO2 4 -C--
We think that the singlet oxygen produced accounts for the ability of
lipoxygenase to oxidatively bleach carotenoid pigments, a reaction cur-
rently used in the baking industry to bleach wheat dough during the mak-
ing of white bread. Improved dough properties are also achieved perhaps
due to thiol oxidation in wheat gluten by the peroxide formed by lipoxy-
Anbar (55) has also reported a one-time detection of singlet oxygen
during catalase or peroxidase-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen
peroxide, but he has not been able to reproduce his own findings nor have
16 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
they been confirmed by other workers. In the last few years several more
enzyme systems have been shown to generate 02, a potential source of
singlet oxygen. It is likely that these enzymes may also produce singlet
oxygen which in a typical aqueous environment in which most enzyme
reactions are run, possesses an exceedingly short lifetime to be detected by
presently available tools.
Singlet oxygen in the Environment
Recently scientists have expressed concern over the possible environ-
mentally harmful effects of the chlorofluorocarbons, Freon 11 and 12
(CFCL3 and CCI2F2 respectively), on the earth's protective ozone blanket.
Perhaps not equally publicized in the popular literature are the harmful
consequences of increasing formation of singlet oxygen in polluted at-
mosphere. It has been shown, for example, that olefines and aromatics of
automobile exhaust may act as sensitizers via photochemical excitation to
convert triplet oxygen to singlet oxygen (56). Atmospheric pollutants such
as sulfoxides, phosphines, tertiary amines, alcohols, ethers and phosphines
generally associated with industrial millieu, can react with ozone to form
singlet oxygen (56,57). The singlet oxygen formed can exert its destructive
effects by participating in a series of reactions which contribute to the
further depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer (58) thus permitting
increasing doses of harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun to reach
various forms of life on earth. This is predicted to lead to additional cases
of skin cancer and severe climatic changes.
Singlet oxygen, which not too long ago was an academic curiosity
and of interest only to the physical scientists, has today captured the in-
terest of biological scientists who are now beginning to study it intensively
from many practical viewpoints. Its involvement in vital life-related pro-
cesses is certain to keep this renewed interest alive and productive for many
many years to come. The participation of singlet 02, a chemically and
metabolically more active form of 02, in biochemical reactions may event-
ually not prove to be any more remarkable than that of such well known
metabolic intermediates as "active carbondioxide", "active formate,
"active acetate" and "active phosphate".
I. Ikediobi, C. 0. and Snyder, H. E., J. Agr. Food Chem. (in press)
2. Ikediobi, C. O. Proc. IV International Symposium on Carotenoids Berne, Switzerland
3. Wiseman, A. In Handbook of Enzyme Biotechnology (Wiseman, A.ed.) Ellis Harwood
Publishing Co. (1975), p. 123.
4. Oliveira, O. M. M. F., Sanioto, D. L., and Cilento, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.,
58. 391 (1974).
RESEARCH BULLETIN 17
5. Howard. J. A. and Ingold. K. U.. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 90, 1056 (1968).
6. Clayton. R. K. "Light and Living Matter: The Biological Part" McGraw-Hill Book
Company. New York, 1971. Vol. 2, p. 208.
7. Wayne. R. P.. Advan-Photochem., 7, 400 (1971).
8. Corey. E. J.. Taylor, W. C.. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 86, 3881 (1964).
9. Pitts, J. N.. Khan, A. U.. Smith, E. B.. and Wayne
10. Murray. R. W.. and Kaplan, M. L.. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 91, 5358 (1969).
11. McKeown, E., and Waters. W. A., J. Chem. Soc. (B). 1040 (1966).
12. Akiba, K. and Simamura, O. Chem. and Ind., p. 705 (1965).
13. Bielski, B. H. J., and Saito, E.. J. Phys. Chem., 75, 2263 (1971).
19. Orme-Johnson. W. H., and Beinert, H.. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 36,905(1969).
20. Nilsson, R., Pick, F. M., and Bray. R. C., Biochem. Biophys. Acta 192, 145 (1969).
21. Harbour, J. R.. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 64, 803 (1975).
22. Allen, R. C., Yivich, S. J., Orth, R. W., and Steele, R. H., Biochem, Biophys. Res. Commun.,
46. 849 (1972).
23. Zimmerman, R., Flohe, L., Weser, U., and Hartmann, H. J., FEBS Lett., 29, 117(1973).
24. Howard. J. A., and Ingold, K. U., J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 90, 1056 (1968).
25. Bors, W., Saran, M., Lengfelder, E., Spottl. R., and Michel, C., Current Topics in Rad.
Res., 9, 247 (1974).
26. Pryor. W. A., Chem. and Eng. News, June 7, 1971, p. 34.
27. Pryor, W. A., Sci. Amer., 223, 70 (August, 1970).
28. Anonymous, Chem. Eng. New. August 19, 1974, p. 24.
29. Macalpine, I., and Hunter, R., Scientific American, 221, 38 (1969).
30. Blum, H. F., "Photodynamic Action and Diseases Caused by Light", Reinhold Publish-
ing Co., New York, 1941.
31. Goldstein, B. D., and Harbor, L. C., J. Clin. Invest., 51, 892 (1972).
32. Lamola. A. A., Yamane, T., and Trozzolo, A. M., Science, 179, 1131 (1973).
33. Johnson, J. A., and Fusaro, R. M., Nature, 243, 177 (1973).
34. McDonagh, A. F., Nature, 241, 151 (1973).
35. Bland, J., Madden, P., and Hervert, E. J., Physiol. Chem. and Physics, 7, 69 (1975).
36. Benkovic, S. J., J. Chem. Educ. 52, 15 (1975).
37. Fee, J. A., and Teitelbaum, H. D., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 49, 150 (1972).
38. Paniker. N. V., and Lyer. G. Y. N., Indian, J. Biochem. Biophys., 9, 176 (1972).
39. Lubin, B., Fromm, M. and Oski, F., Pediatr. Res., 6, 371 (1972).
40. Maugh, T., Science, 187, 154 (1975).
41. Spikes, J. D., Photophysiology, 3, 33 (1968).
42. Gallo, U., and Santamaria, L., (Editors) "Research Progress in Organic, Biological and
Medicinal Chemistry," Vol. III. American Elsevier, New York, 1972.
43. Harman, D., Clin. Res., 17, 125 (1968).
44. Diamond, I., McDonagh, A. F., Wilson, C. B., Granelli, S. G., Nielson, S., and Jaenicke,
R., Lancet, 1972, 1175 (1972).
45. Maugh, T. H., Science, 182, 44 (1973).
46. Krinsky, N. 1., Science, 185, 363 (1974).
47. McCord, J. M., Science, 185, 529 (1974).
48. Pedersen, T. C., and Aust, S. D., Biochem. Bioph-s. Res. Commun., 52, 1071 (1973).
49. Sternson, L. A., and Wiley, R. A., Chem. Biol. Interactions, 5, 317 (1972).
50. McCord, J. M., and Fridovich, 1., J. Biol. Chem., 243, 5753 (1968).
51. Oliveira, F. M. M., Sanioto, D. L., and Cilento, G., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
58, 391 (1974).
52. Chan, H. W.-S, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 93, 2357 (1971).
53. Baldwin, J. E., Swallow, J. C., and Chan, H. W.-S. Chem. Commun., 1971, 1407 (1971).
54. Ikediobi, C. 0. and Lam, C. L., Unpublished Results.
55. Anbar, M., J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 88, 5924 (1966).
56. Kaplan, M. L., Chem. Technol., October, 1971, p. 621.
57. Murray, R. W., Lumma, W. C., and Lin, J. W-P., J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 92, 3205 (1970).
58. Kummler, R. H., Bartner, M. H., and Baurer, T., Environ. Sci. Technol., 3, 248 (1967).
59. Gleason, W. S., Broadbent, A. D., Whittle E., and Pitts, J. N., J. Amer. Chem. Soc.,
92, 2068 (1970).
60. Foote, C. S., and Wexler, S., J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 86, 3879 (1964).
61. Matsura, Y., Yoshimura, N., Nishinaga, A., and Suito, ., Tetrahedron Lett., 1669 (1969).
18 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
2P 2Py 2P Y
/ **\ N
2 P. 2P 21- P, V X I 2P 2P 2P
O 0, 0
Figure 1 Electronic configuration of triplet or normal oxygen, I2O2. The circles are used to
designate orbitals while the arrows and their directions signify electrons and their
spin orientations respectively.
designat oritl whil th rosadterdrcins inf lcrnnhi
RESEARCH BULLETIN 19
(37 @ SINGLET 02,'Z
22- 0 SINGLET 0,,1
-) GROUND STATE 0,,2
Figure 2 Electron distribution in the highest occupied orbitals of the ground, first excited,
and second excited states of molecular oxygen. The notations X and A designate
different electronic wave functions. The superscripts 1 and 3 denote singlet and
triplet states respectively.
20 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
X- 480 nm O ~ 02--O
X- 633 nm 2X h 02-->0!
X = 762 nm I 02
z X=1270nm I
w A 02
-3 02 (GROUND STATE)
Figure 3 The relative energies of the various excited states of oxygen shown in terms of their
wavelengths of emission. (Not drawn to scale).
RESEARCH BULLETIN 21
TABLE 1: Methods for Generating Singlet 02
1. Photosensitization (7)
'S (sensitizer) + hv -'S*
'S* + '02 '02 + 'S
2. Excitation by microwave or radiofrequency energy (8)
302 + hv '02
3. Atmospheric generation (9)
1. Decomposition of triphenylphosphite-ozone adduct at very low
(C6Hs0 P + 03-- (C6H50sP O (C6H50O P=O + '02
2. Hydrogen peroxide-sodium hypochlorite or bromine reaction (11)
---O-H + O-Cl '02 + -OH + Cl
--O-H + Br-Br > '0 + HBr + Br
3. Hydrogen peroxide-organic peracids reaction (12)
R C O H- R O" + '02 + OH
4. Chemical dismutation of superoxide radical anion (13)
0 + 2H+ > '02 + H202
22 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
TABLE 2. Selected Oxidations With a 02
SUBSTRATE PRODUCT REFERENCE
CH CH CH3 CH,
CH3 CH3 CH OH CH
C6H5 C6H C6 H5 H5
6 Hs  CsH5 C 00
O Y 3 Lh 6Q
0 0 0
HN R HN HNHN
0 NN HO N HO N
C61 5 -5~\
N N C H 5 CHH C 6- 1 6 1
Omission of the Conditional and Conditional
Perfect Tenses in the Study of
Modern Descriptive English Grammar
Melvin 0. Eubanks*
Professor of Foreign Languages
Florida A&M University
A void exists in descriptive English grammar. The lacuna referred
to is that which concerns two elusive tenses that are almost completely
ignored in English grammar texts and appear, as if by magic, when English
grammarians team up with their foreign counterparts to produce grammar
books for students of foreign languages. The tenses in question are the
Conditional and the Conditional Perfect. They are carefully excluded
from the lists of simple tenses in English, which are limited (in nearly all
instances) to: Present, Past, Future, Present Perfect, Past Perfect, and
Future Perfect.' Admittedly, not every English grammar text was ex-
amined; however, a representative number of widely accepted texts were
studied. The consensus is that no consideration is given to nor provision
made for the two orphaned tenses. No attempt is made to suggest tenses
in which the following examples would fit: He said he would do it. They
would not leave. He said that he would have done it. They would not have
left. These are valid expressions taken from standard English, and the verbs
employed (Would Do, Would Leave, Would Have Done, Would Have
Left) deserve being classified along with the traditionally accepted tenses
of the Indicative Mode.
*Acknowledgements are due and gratefully tendered to Professor Bernice A. Reeves
(Area of Languages and Literature, Florida A&M University) for her valuable assistance and
for having made her library available for perusal.
'Thomas W. Harvey, A Practical Grammar of the English Language, revised ed. (New
York: American Book Co., 1896), p. 99.
R. W. Pence and D. W. Emery, Grammar of Present-Day English (New York: The
Macmillan Co., 1963), pp. 296, 297.
John M. Kierzek and Walter Gibson, The Macmillan Handbook of English, 5th ed.
(New York: The Macmillan Co., 1960), p. 260.
Henry Shaw, A Complete Course in Freshman English, 7th ed. (New York: Harper and
Row Publishers, 1973), pp. 73, 99.
24 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
There has been a decline in interest in the learning of foreign languages
in the past five or six years. This unfortunate development is given no posi-
tive reenforcement by adding confusion to two of the most critical areas of
foreign language study: tenses and conjugation of verbs; the mere mention
of these evoke fear in the average student. Why, then, should we toy with
our students of English and foreign languages by including the Conditional
and the Conditional Perfect in texts designed for English speaking students
of foreign languages and omitting them from texts designed for students of
English. What is the student to think when he sees these tenses so clearly
represented in his French, Spanish, and German texts and can find no
reference to anything comparable in reputable English tests?2 It is not as if
the Conditional and the Conditional Perfect were fabrications conjured up
by grammarians in an attempt to match segments of a bastard mode that
existed only in languages other than English. In the foreign language tests
there are no qualifications (implied or expressed) for their inclusion. On
the other hand, there is usually no explanation for their omission in the
English? What is the student to think when he sees these tenses so clearly
following a precedent that was established many years ago? Do they not
expect students of foreign languages to consult English grammar texts
and students of English grammar to study foreign languages?
Varying degrees of credit should be given to the few descriptive gram-
marians who dare to admit to the logic of adding two additional verb forms
to the sequence of tenses in English. Margaret Bryant states that it is rea-
sonable for the past and future tenses to have a past and future of their own;
however, she excludes them from her list because she says that they do not
fit the scheme of English grammar.3 Among the grammarians whose works
were examined, Homer House and Susan Harmon come closest to estab-
lishing a precedent for the eight part scheme for simple tenses in English.
According to them:
The past-future tense, sometimes called the secondary future
tense, is employed to represent an action as having occurred
in the past as opposed to the present. In other words, the past
future denotes future time to some past time expressed or im-
plied. Should and would as the past tense forms of shall and will
are the auxiliaries employed in the past-future tense.4
2Laurel Turk and Aurelio M. Espinosa, Foundation Course in Spanish, 3rd ed. (Massa-
chusetts: D. C. Heath and Co., 1974), pp. 421-423.
William S. Hendrix and Walter Meiden, Beginning French, 4th ed. (New York: Houghton
Mifflin Co., 1970), pp. 427, 429.
Erich Hofacker and Richard Jente, Complete College German (New York: D. C. Heath
and Co., 1939), pp. 312, 329-335.
Oliver W. Heatwole, A Comparative Practical Grammar of French, Spanish, and Italian
(New York: Waverly Press, Inc., 1949), pp. 154, 155.
3Margaret M. Bryant, A Functional English Grammar (Boston: D. C. Heath and Co.,
1945), pp. 76,77.
4Homer C. House and Susan E. Harman, Descriptive English Grammar, 2nd ed. (New
York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1955), pp. 125, 126.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 25
It would seem expedient to mention at this point that it is not the pur-
pose of this study to insist that the tenses omitted from the traditional verb
scheme bear the precise tags of Conditional and Conditional Perfect. They
may well be called Potential and Potential Perfect, Past-Future and Past-
Future Perfect, Second Future and Second Future-Perfect, or any other
suitable name. What is important is to recognize their existence and to
include them in the simple verb sequences of our English descriptive gram-
mars. House and Harmon cite the following as examples of the Past-
(1) I did say that I should return by August 1.
(2) He said that he would retire next month.
(3) She was afraid that he would fail to pass the oral examination.
(4) I said that I should enjoy living in Paris.5
In regard to the Past-Future Perfect tense, House and Harmon say:
Should and would as past tense forms of shall and will in the past-
future perfect denote that an action is future to some past time speci-
fied or implied for the termination of the action. In this use, should
and would are pure future auxiliaries (i.e., form-words), not notional
verbs, as they are when they denote obligation, compulsion, volition,
The following are examples of the Past-Future Perfect tense offered by
House and Harmon:
(1) They would have asked me if they had wanted my advice.
(2) He said that he would not have been surprised at anything you
(3) 1 should have gone to that party if the invitation had arrived earlier.
(4) I believe you would have enjoyed the program.7
There may be other grammarians who agree with House and Harmon
(far too few). It is hoped that they, along with others, will re-examine this
controversial segment given so little concern in the modern descriptive
Perhaps Will, Would, Shall, and Should are a bit different from other
auxiliary verbs in that they serve numerous functions: Would that he had
my valor. (subjunctive) I will you all of my possessions. (synonym for
bequeath) You should tell the truth. (modal auxiliary of obligation) We
would take frequent walks. (past action that is repeated) They said that
they would go. (indirect discourse) There are, of course, other functions;
however, they also function as effectively as Have and Do as auxiliary
verbs to form the Future (They will write.), Future Perfect (They will have
61bid., p. 128.
26 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
written.), Conditional (They would write.), and Conditional Perfect (They
would have written.). To be sure they deserve more than the few references
made to them by Hulon Willis, who reluctantly admits that there is a Future
and a Future Perfect tense.8
Apparently little has been done toward plugging the existing gap in
the sequence of tenses because few native Americans peruse grammar
books, and the bulk of grammarians are content to leave things as they are.
This article would probably never have been written had a student of for-
eign languages not been shocked by the fact that in a modern reputable
descriptive grammar text there was no mention of the Conditional and
Conditional Perfect tenses (which he had been accustomed to finding in
grammar texts for students of French, Spanish, and German). Very little,
if anything, can be done about the books already published, but it is hoped
that this article will be instrumental in focusing the attention of the gram-
marians (who publish in the future) on the fact that just as surely as the
Present tense has a corresponding Past tense, the Future and Future Per-
fect tenses do also.
Bryant, Margaret M. A Functional English Grammar. Boston: D. C. Heath
and Co., 1945.
Harvey, Thomas W. A Practical Grammar of the English Language. New
York: American Book Co., revised ed., 1896.
Heatwole, Oliver W. A Comparative Practical Grammar of French,
Spanish and Italian. New York: Waverly Press, Inc., 1949.
Hendrix, William S. and Meiden, Walter. Beginning French. 4th ed. (New
York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1970.
Hofacker, Erich and Jente, Richard. Complete College German. New
York: D. C. Heath and Co., 1939.
House, Homer C. and Harman, Susan E. Descriptive English Grammar.
2nd ed. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1955.
Kierzek, John M. The Macmillan Handbook of English. 5th ed. New York:
The Macmillan Co., 1960.
Pence, R. W. and Emery, D. W. Grammar of Present-Day English. New
York: The Macmillan Co., 1963.
Shaw, Henry. A Complete Course in Freshman English. 7th ed. New York:
Harper and Row Publishers, 1973.
Turk, Laurel and Espinosa, Aurelio M. Foundation Course in Spanish.
3rd ed. Massachusetts: D. C. Heath and Co., 1974.
Willis, Hulon. Modern Descriptive English Grammar. San Francisco:
Chandler Publishing Co., 1972.
8Hulon Willis, Modern Descriptive English Grammar (San Francisco: Chandler Pub-
lishing Co.. 1972), p. 168.
The Multicultural Approach to Designing an
Effective Program of Professional Laboratory
Experiences for Prospective
Secondary School Teachers*
Anne Richardson Gayles
Professor and Area Chairman
Florida A&M University
"Professional laboratory experiences are all those contacts with
children, youth and adults in school and community that make a
direct contribution to the understanding of basic concepts and principles
as well as individuals and their guidance in the teaching-learning pro-
Professional laboratory experiences are essentially learning activities
in which the prospective teacher is able to observe teachers and pupils
at work; perceive teaching acts or events with understanding; and he is
able to become directly involved in carrying out the process of teaching.
Professional laboratory experiences also refer to all deliberately
planned educational experiences for prospective teachers that are de-
signed to provide a wide range of opportunities for direct contacts with
children, youth and adults in school and community activities. These
direct contacts should enable the prospective teachers to:
1. become directly involved with processes of teaching;
2. relate theory to practice.
Professional laboratory experiences are playing an increasingly
important role in the pre-service education of teachers. The major con-
cerns of a program employing the experiences are to increase the prospec-
tive teacher's knowledge about the science and art of teaching and to
*Prepared for presentation at the Annual Southern Regional Meeting of the Association
for Teacher Educators at Orlando, Florida, November 1975.
'Flowers, John G., et al. School and Community Laboratory Experiences in Teacher
Education. Oneonta, New York: American Association of Teachers Colleges (1948), p. 7.
28 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
develop his ability in the practice of teaching. Hence, the central purpose
of professional laboratory experiences is a clinical study of teaching.
Through this planned and continuously active program of highly individ-
ualized, meaningful, practical and professional experiences, the prospec-
tive teacher will gradually assume responsibility for teaching.
The major aim of professional laboratory experiences is, as the name
implies, to involve prospective teachers in a series of curricular activities
in which they will have opportunities to perform as many tasks of teach-
ing as possible-tasks that they will be expected to perform when they
are employed in a full-time teaching position. For the performance of
these tasks to be of maximum value to the beginning teacher, they should
be performed under the capable direction and supervision of a master
teacher in an on- or off-campus laboratory setting with proper and ade-
quate physical, cultural and human resources. These realistic professional
experiences provide relevance and challenge in teacher education, as they
bring about the fusion of educational theory and practice.
Professional laboratory experiences are designed to integrate educa-
ti6nal theory and practice into a closer functional relationship, and to
promote the development of professional skill through systematic and
continuous practice under the direction of qualified public school and
college personnel. Therefore, it is within a program of professional labo-
ratory experiences that theoretical understandings and techniques for
teaching and learning are developed.
Professional laboratory experiences represent the core of a program
for the preparation of teachers. These experiences are designed to demon-
strate educational theory in practice and aid the prospective teacher to
develop practical skill from the theory learned. A program of professional
laboratory experiences represents a directed learning experience during
which the prospective teacher becomes increasingly responsible for guid-
ing and directing a group of learners. Pertinent laboratory experiences
in professional education are absolutely necessary. The prospective teacher
must have realistic and functional experience with observing and carrying
out the processes of teaching.
Among American educators today, there is a growing consciousness
that revolutionary action needs to be taken to make teacher education
experiences meaningful for prospective American teachers. An attempt is
made here to discuss one of the fundamental aspects of a teacher educa-
tion program which needs reexamining and restructuring in order to
make the pre-service education of teachers more realistic and meaningful.
A program of professional laboratory experiences represents that funda-
mental aspect of a teacher education program which I shall focus upon
in this presentation. I am proposing a restructuring of the pre-service
professional laboratory program so as to make professional laboratory
experiences meaningful for prospective teachers who will be teaching
students whose racial, social, religious and cultural backgrounds differ
from those of so-called mainstream students. We need teachers who are
RESEARCH BULLETIN 29
able to cope with multicultural student populations and who have the
skills, knowledge and attitudes needed for interacting with multicultural
classes. In other words, I am proposing the utilization of the multicultural
approach to designing an effective program of professional laboratory
experiences. The emphasis is upon the importance of a professional labo-
ratory program which is inherently multicultural. Inasmuch as the public
school setting is an immense living laboratory for interaction among
diverse peoples, it ought to be possible to design a pre-service teacher
education program that mirrors this plurality-in a way that will sensitize
present and future teachers to the needs and the opportunities created by
cultural pluralism in the classroom.
The new emphasis throughout the world on developing understand-
ing among people of diverse cultures has resulted in the need for educa-
tional institutions of higher learning to reexamine their curriculum and
course offerings to meet this challenge. It is apparent that our greatest
domestic failure is our inability to assimilate the non-white minorities into
the mainstream of our society. Thus, the University, particularly the teacher
education program, has a social, moral and academic responsibility to
train teachers for diverse ethnic groups (Blacks, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans,
Cubans, American Indians). Prospective teachers must become aware of
the fact that the American society is characterized by cultural pluralism
and ethnicity; and that an emerging role of the school is to fulfill the
growing demand for equality of opportunity and acceptance of all cultural
groups. Schools have not only been strongly urged to facilitate equality,
desegregation and participation, but have been required to serve as instru-
ments for their realization. Yet polarization of diverse cultural groups
within communities has intensified and our schools, in many instances,
have become centers of confrontation. This volatile state of affairs
under-covers the need for a restructuring of the core of a teacher
program-professional laboratory experiences-so as to equip prospec-
tive teachers with the proper knowledge and attitudes pertaining to:
1. the cultural heritage of non-white minorities;
2. the lifestyle of minorities and the relationship of that lifestyle to
learning and adjusting into the large society;
3. human relation skills which are needed to cope with animosity
that often exists among majority and minority groups;
4. compensatory education for the culturally deprived.
It is the responsibility of the school to help the prospective teacher
to develop an understanding and respect for the culture of other diverse
groups. A planned program of multicultural professional laboratory
experiences will enable the school to fulfill such a complex and demand-
A functional multicultural professional laboratory program provides
an ideal opportunity for directing prospective teachers toward the devel-
opment of self-analysis and self-improvement as teachers and as students,
30 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
thereby promoting discovery of their strengths as teachers and revealing
how to capitalize upon them in the process of learning how to function
and adjust in a culturally diverse society. Needed interpersonal skills,
which may have been neglected in early professional training, are often
developed. These skills will enable the prospective teacher to improve
teacher-pupil relationships, teacher-teacher relationships, teacher-admin-
istration relationships, and finally, teacher-community relationships in
the multi-ethnic schools and pluralistic society of today.
Multicultural professional laboratory experiences will help prospec-
tive teachers to acquire those knowledge, teaching skills and attitudes
which will help them to teach effectively in a society of many different
cultures; acquaint prospective teachers with the great diversity of life-
styles which our multicultural heritage embraces; and they will help the
prospective teachers to develop those competencies needed by teachers
who teach in a Multicultural Education Program. Wynn2 sees the follow-
ing identified competencies needed for effectively teaching specified
culturally different youth.
1. Demonstrating effective techniques and methods to build and
enhance the self-concept of learners.
2. Conceptualizing the dimensions in which the learner may be
expected to grow and learn under diverse home and community
3. Recognizing the importance of overcoming cultural and racial
4. Understanding the interdependence needed among the various
cultures for the enrichment of learning how to live, grow and
learn in a pluralistic society.
5. Understanding the history of minority groups in the United States
and, in particular, of the civil rights movement.
6. Demonstrating knowledge about the psychology and impact of
7. Planning viable and relevant means for combating prejudice and
negative reactions as reflected in parent and student behavior.
8. Understanding that all people are human-with individual
feelings, aspirations and attitudes no matter what cultural orien-
tation they represent.
9. Recognizing the importance of being prepared to encounter
prejudice and hostility as reflected in parental and community
10. Assuming responsibility for examing own motives-and what
disciplines they apply to.
2Hunter, William A. Multicultural Education Through Competency-Based Teacher
Education. Washington, D. C.: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education
(1974), pp. 103-105.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 31
11. Supporting self-initiated motives of all people and not con-
demning or prejudging their motives.
12. Assisting all young people to understand and confront feelings
of ethnic groups other than their own.
13. Staying with and working through difficult confrontations.
14. Showing interest in understanding the point of view of all cul-
15. Demonstrating directness and openness in expressing feelings.
16. Identifying and exploring solutions to problems arising in cul-
17. Recognizing and creating positive ways to cope with racial atti-
tudes of young people as shown in their behavior.
18. Creating a climate of mutual trust and constructive interpersonal
and intergroup relationships.
19. Building intercultural cohesiveness and dispelling myths about
the intellectual inferiority or superiority of ethnic groups.
20. Demonstrating research skills relating to cultural pluralism.
21. Recognizing the importance of stressing the insights of soci-
ology, psychology, cultural anthropology, and other relevant
fields in facilitating learning outcomes in a pluralistic setting.
22. Demonstrating methods and techniques to offer young people
options which allow for alternative styles of learning.
23. Recognizing that within the realm of potential of every human
being there is a level of awareness and achievement which can
make life rewarding, and that most young people want desper-
ately to find that level.
24. Assuming the responsibility of helping to devise programs which
reach out to students and engage them in a process which is
both interesting and fair and will, thus, lead to a level of aware-
ness and achievement which gives them a positive perception
of themselves and their relationship to others.
25. Developing viable strategies to confront young people with
moral, ethnical and spiritual conflicts of their culture and moti-
vate them to devise a system of values which is both personal
26. Demonstrating that the color of an individual is not nearly as
important as his or her competence.
27. Developing objectives and activities to enhance the self-confidence
young Black learners use in guarding against the trappings of
28. Planning to include learners in full participation in the decision-
making process relative to instructional activities.
29. Selecting materials that will not derogate or ignore the identified
culturally different group.
30. Building and promoting viable channels for meaningful com-
32 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
munication among students, colleagues and parents to lessen
31. Recognizing the value of various evaluative instruments and
their uses with multicultural education.
Basic assumptions underlying a multicultural approach to designing
a program of professional laboratory experiences are:
1. The ultimate aims of education are to:
a. develop the unique potentialities of the person;
b. transmit, perpetuate and improve the cultural heritage;
c. assist all persons in acquiring those skills, knowledge and
attitudes needed for effective participation and adjustment
in the American society.
2. America is a culturally diverse society.
3. Cultural pluralism is a basic reality in the American classroom.
4. The educative process should be designed, at all levels, to pro-
mote the cultural enrichment of all children, youth and adults
through programs rooted to the preservation and extension of
cultural diversity as a fact of life in American society.
5. Multicultural education in the elementary and secondary schools
is essential if students are to be assisted in developing skills,
attitudes, values and operational concepts which will enable
them to function effectively in a society of diverse cultural groups.
6. Multicultural teacher education programs are needed in order to
involve prospective teachers in curricular experiences which will
help them to function effectively with pupils in a culturally
7. A program of multicultural professional laboratory experiences
should be an integral part of the multicultural teacher education
programs. A program of direct professional experiences, in
which prospective teachers will have many meaningful and
functional contacts with students and teachers in a culturally
pluralistic laboratory setting accurately representing the diverse
society of America, is basic to producing competent teachers.
8. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should focus
upon curricular experiences which:
a. reflect the culturally diverse nature of American society;
b. promote cultural pluralism;
c. support the qualitative expansion of existing ethnic cultures;
d. encourage the incorporation of all subcultures into the main-
stream of American culture;
e. promote alternative and emerging lifestyles;
f. provide leadership for the development of individual commit-
ment to a social system where individual worth and dignity
are fundamental tenets.
Characteristics of multicultural professional laboratory experiences
RESEARCH BULLETIN 33
1. Prospective teacher is able to demonstrate his ability to promote
desirable learning or exhibit behaviors known to promote it in
clinical settings with multicultural populations.
2. Prospective teacher is held accountable for attaining a given
level of competency in performing the essential tasks of teaching
required in a variety of multicultural settings.
3. Instruction is individualized and personalized.
4. The learning experience of the prospective teacher is guided by
5. The prospective teacher is permitted to progress at his own rate,
with many alternatives and options in multicultural settings.
6. The prospective teacher is involved in a field-centered program
of multicultural professional laboratory experiences.
7. The prospective teacher is involved in a broad-based decision-
8. The materials and experiences provided to the prospective
teacher focus upon multicultural skills, concepts and knowledge
which can be learned in a specific instructional setting.
9. Protocol materials focusing upon cultural pluralism are used to
help the prospective teacher recognize and understand concepts
in multicultural teaching and learning.
10. Training materials focusing upon humanism in education are
utilized to enable the prospective teacher to reproduce or put
into action a sequence of activities or procedures implied by
multicultural educational concepts.
11. Multicultural professional laboratory program is a performance-
based approach to preparing teachers for the real world.
12. Particular attention is given to the unique needs of students
from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
13. Faculty, as a whole, reflects rich and varied backgrounds ap-
propriate to the activities offered.
14. The competence of the faculty is reflected in their instruction
through the demonstration of positive attitudes toward the cul-
tural diversity which characterizes American society.
15. Emphasis is upon programs to prepare teachers to work with
children belonging to specific cultural groups.
16. Availability of resources and facilities necessary to prepare
prospective teachers who will be responsive to the particular
needs of multicultural students.
Action pointers for designing a multicultural professional laboratory
1. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should be an
integral part of a teacher education program: general, profes-
sional and special.
2. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should occur
continuously throughout the entire teacher education.
34 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
3. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should be
directly related to the goals and educational theory of a teacher
4. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should be
planned in a graduated, logical and sequential manner, accord-
ing to the sequence of educational content within the teacher
5. The nature of the multicultural professional laboratory experi-
ences should be determined by the specific needs and interests
of the representatives of the diverse cultures and ethnic back-
grounds, and the cooperating laboratory student personnel; the
specific professional goals sought, and the equipment and re-
sources of the college and laboratory situation.
6. The length of multicultural laboratory experiences should be
determined by the specific needs of the students and the unique
characteristics of the laboratory situation.
7. Multicultural laboratory experiences should be cooperatively
planned by all participants: college personnel, students, and
cooperating laboratory personnel.
8. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should include
a wide range and variety of direct contacts with all kinds of
learners in different situations.
9. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should be
supervised by both the college personnel and cooperating per-
sonnel; they should be carefully supervised with appropriate
guidance and assistance.
10. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should pro-
vide for intellectualization, whereby prospective teachers will be
involved in laboratory situations that will help them to act con-
sistently with the principles of learning and teaching that they
have been taught; and will help them to generalize from ex-
II. Multicultural laboratory experiences should provide for the
evaluation of the student's growth by all personnel in the pro-
12. A multicultural professional laboratory program should be
organized and administered according to democratic educational
principles, which would give rise to a program with the follow-
b. Equality of opportunity
c. Participation by all persons involved in the program
d. Faith in prospective teachers and cooperating personnel
e. Respect for personality and human worth
f. Skills of cooperation
g. Opportunities for prospective teachers to acquire the skills,
RESEARCH BULLETIN 35
attitudes and information which will aid in the development
of self-control and the free individual.
h. Recognition of the special values and needs of various cul-
i. Opportunities for prospective students to gain understanding
and appreciation of the culturally diverse nature of Ameri-
Concepts and strategies for implementing a multicultural profes-
sional laboratory program:
1. Cross-cultural experiences are needed for pre-service teacher
2. Prospective teachers of all races and socio-economic back-
grounds can learn to work with children from cultures different
from their own. Training programs must give highest priority
to this endeavor.
3. Humor is preferred as a vehicle for communication during the
early stages of a teacher's multicultural training.
4. Multicultural laboratory experiences must help the prospective
teacher understand that the teaching process is always a cross-
5. Multicultural laboratory experiences must help the prospective
teacher understand the many cultures within the United States
of America. Teachers must intimately understand the cultures
of their students.
6. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should help
the prospective teacher function effectively with pupils in a
culturally diverse society.
7. Professional laboratory programs should recruit groups of pro-
spective teachers with broad cultural perspectives. Cross-cultural
peer feedback is needed. Group discussions are quite helpful
when participants are from different backgrounds.
8. The clinical settings for the professional laboratory program
should contain a multicultural population which represents all
socio-economic levels within as many diverse cultural groups as
9. The Professional Laboratory Program should contain a multi-
cultural professional staff in public schools and training insti-
tutions. A true multicultural perspective begins with multicul-
turalism among those who are responsible for planning, execut-
ing and evaluating programs.
10. The multicultural perspective is required in all phases of pro-
gram development. Judgments regarding site selection, master
selection, student-teacher performance with pupils, professional
library resources, require a variety of cultural viewpoints.
11. The professional laboratory program should have professional
personnel who have demonstrated their own ability in fostering
The following footnote should appear on p.35 of Volume XXI,
Number 1, May 1977 Research Bulletin of Florida Agricultural and
Concepts and strategies for implementing a multicul-
tural professional laboratory program3
Hunter, William A. Multicultural Education Through Competency
Based Teacher Education. Washington, D.C.: American Association of
Colleges for Teacher Education (1974), pp. 44-54.
36 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
growth in pupils from different cultures from their own. Hope
for a new teacher comes from those who have had real and suc-
cessful cross-cultural experiences in facilitation of learning.
12. Professional laboratory programs should draw upon the success-
ful cross-cultural teaching experiences of some teachers of all
races and socio-economic backgrounds.
13. The professional laboratory program must provide for a wide
variety of cross-cultural experiences in diverse communities
which are made up of various ethnic groups.
14. The professional laboratory program should provide each pro-
spective teacher with multicultural contact over time. Guided
cross-cultural experiences should extend throughout the four
years of college. Some courses in general education and the area
of specialization may be used to serve as vehicles for cross-
15. The prospective teacher must have successful experiences with
multicultural children. They must see that they can teach chil-
dren from other cultures successfully. All training programs for
teachers should provide a variety of experiences wherein the
student teacher may demonstrate his ability to teach successfully
in a multicultural context.
16. Teachers-in-training must be able to observe in classrooms
where they can see minority children being taught successfully.
Student teachers must be placed in schools where teachers are
equal to the task of teaching minority children.
17. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should help
the prospective teacher understand that the habits, values,
mores, folkways, customs, attitudes, philosophy, aspirations,
likes, dislikes, ideals, self-concepts and motivations of a teacher
are critical inputs in a teaching-learning process. These and
other aspects of a teacher's total personality bear heavily upon
the nature of the classroom interaction and produce positive
or negative effects upon pupil growth.
18. Multicultural professional laboratory programs should help the
prospective teacher to examine his own behavior in a multicul-
tural setting rather than merely dealing with multicultural ideas
in the abstract. Professional laboratory experiences must pro-
vide curricular experiences in which the prospective teacher's
own behavior in cross-cultural settings is the subject of examina-
tion and experimentation. If teachers are to work successfully
with students from cultures different from their own, training
programs must provide for more than intellectualization about
19. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should help
the prospective teacher to understand that the public school
RESEARCH BULLETIN 37
classroom is a potent matrix, and that his involvement in its
activities are crucial to the behavior of students.
20. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should help
the prospective teacher to understand and recognize when stu-
dents respond as victims of oppressive conditions, as opposed
to responses to perceived pathology.
21. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should help
the prospective teacher understand that all minds are equally
complex. Experience with students from different cultures is
essential for developing a real respect for, and understanding
of the real potential of all students.
22. Instructional materials, equipment, facilities and teaching tools
such as textbooks, courses of study, tests, films and curriculum
guides should be modified to focus upon and reflect the charac-
teristics, needs, problems and developmental tasks of multicul-
23. It is true that instructional resources and teaching tools are
culture bound and tend to focus upon the mainstream of Ameri-
24. Cultural differences are ignored, thereby causing the poor, racial
and ethnic minorities to feel isolated and mistreated.
25. The prospective teacher should be involved in clinical experi-
ences which will help him develop a predisposition toward doubt
and caution in the utilization of professional tools; and aid him
in acquiring the motivations, drive, skills and knowledge needed
for modifying or creating instructional equipment resources, and
professional tools which can be adapted to quality multicultural
teaching and learning.
26. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should use
the community as a laboratory.
27. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should pro-
vide opportunities for the prospective teacher to apply rational
thinking to real-life problems of living in a culturally diverse
28. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should equip
the prospective teachers with those skills that are conducive to
building and enhancing the self-concept of multicultural chil-
29. Human relations training should be incorporated into multicul-
tural professional laboratory experiences.
30. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should pro-
vide for involvement guidance and intellectualization.
31. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should utilize
instructional resources that will adequately reflect multicultural
38 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
32. A rich field for multicultural professional laboratory experiences
is provided by regular campus activities.
33. Multicultural professional laboratory programs should include
continual and varied field experiences which will focus upon
increased multicultural awareness; and increased intercultural
34. Multicultural professional laboratory experiences should be
challenging and satisfying.
Effective teaching is the goal of teacher education. A program of
multicultural professional laboratory experiences is the major avenue
through which prospective teachers may acquire these knowledge, skills
and attitudes which increase teaching effectiveness in today's pluralistic
society. In this program they interact with and observe multi-ethnic
groups of teachers and students function in the educative process of a
culturally diverse society; observe and put educational theory into prac-
tice; develop instructional skill and a functional understanding of princi-
ples of education upon which practice should be based; and they acquire
the fundamental skills needed for effective interaction, communication
and personal and social adjustment in a humanistic society of many
unique cultural groups.
The implementation of a functional multicultural professional labo-
ratory program is the most challenging and demanding obligation in
teacher education. The imperative in teacher education is to help the pro-
spective teacher to acquire the skills, competencies, and understandings
they need to function as effective teachers of multicultural children.
Karen J. Chason
Assistant Professor of Sociology
Florida A&M University
The purpose of this paper is to examine a set of assertions made by
McClosky and Schaar (1965) concerning characteristics related to the
phenomenon, anomy. In their work McClosky and Schaar revised Durk-
heim's traditional model which defines anomy essentially as feelings of
normlessness arising from social conditions and resulting in certain be-
haviors. In their assessment of the causes of anomy they give considerable
weight to psychological (rather than sociological) variables. In their study
the authors maintained that feelings of anomy result when socialization
(norm learning) is blocked. Such blockage, McClosky and Schaar main-
tain, can be due to psychological phenomena including emotional and
cognitive factors as well as the beliefs of the individual.
From their research (1965) McClosky and Schaar drew the following
conclusions: (1) deficient cognitive capacity is related to high scores on
anomy; (2) persons predisposed to maladjustive emotional states tend
toward strong anomic feelings; (3) persons who hold rejective attitudes
toward people are likely to score high on anomy.
The results of an assessment of several types of social-psychological
attitudes of persons in four strata provided an opportunity to re-test these
three previously listed conclusions from the McClosky and Schaar re-
Data were collected by a stratified random sampling technique
from four groups: (1) persons residing in Leon county, Florida (general
40 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
population); (2) service-oriented professionals; (3) psychiatric patients;
and (4) prisoners.
The first group, general population, was designed to be representa-
tive of persons residing in this county. One hundred seventy-five names
were selected at random from the city directory. Data were collected
through a mailed questionnaire. A low response rate was anticipated;
the total response rate for this sample was 45% (N=73) when eliminating
nondeliverable questionnaires. In examining the data it appeared that
respondents from this group had a higher level of education than is typi-
cal of the population from which the sample was taken.
The second sample in the same geographic location was taken from
the following subgroups of service-oriented professionals: teachers, minis-
ters, nurses, school counselors, psychologists, and social workers. The
names of subjects were randomly selected from their respective profes-
sional associations' listings of local membership. One hundred names
were selected from a total pool of 500-half of whom were public school
teachers. This group received questionnaires by mail as did the group
representing the general population. Response rate for this group was
A third group involved in this research were 65 inmates who were
randomly selected from 220 inmates at Union Corrections Institution
at Raiford, Florida, who had achieved a ninth grade reading level (as
indicated on a general achievement test given prior to their admission at
UCI). The total population of this institution was 1,846. Data were col-
lected by a group administration of the questionnaire inside the prison.
Two points were stressed to these inmates: (1) Do not write your name
on the questionnaire; (2) Since you can't be identified, your responses
can not help or harm you. The response rate for this group exceeded 90%.
A fourth group included in this study were psychiatric patients from
the Florida State Hospital. Questionnaires were completed by fifty-four
persons in the FSH educational program who volunteered to participate
in this study and who had mastered the reading level required to com-
plete the questionnaire.
The questionnaire used in this study included several attitude scales
aside from the anomy scale of McClosky and Schaar: a self esteem scale
(Rosenberg, 1965); a faith in people scale (Rosenberg, 1957); and a social
responsibility scale (Berkowitz and Lutterman, 1968).
The following nine items comprise the McClosky and Schaar Anomy
Scale. Responses are forced choice, agree-disagree.
With everything so uncertain these days, it almost seems as though
anything could happen.
What is lacking in the world today is the old kind of friendship that
lasted for a lifetime.
RESEARCH BULLETIN 41
With everything in such a state of disorder, it's hard for a person to
know where he stands from one day to the next.
Everything changes so quickly these days that I often have trouble
deciding which are the right rules to follow.
I often feel that many things our parents stood for are just going to
ruin before our very eyes.
The trouble with the world today is that most people really don't
believe in anything.
I often feel awkward and out of place.
People were better off in the old days when everyone knew just how
he was expected to act.
It seems to me that other people find it easier to decide what is right
than I do.
As a method of re-examining the McClosky and Schaar assertion
that deficient cognitive capacity is related to high scores on anomy, anomy
scores were examined by education (a variable also used by McClosky
and Schaar to operationally define cognitive capacity). When all groups
were combined a general trend is apparent; as level of education increased,
anomy declined. This finding supports the results of the McClosky and
McClosky and Schaar also found that persons with maladjustive
emotional states tend toward strong anomic feeling. In their research,
however, 'maladjustive emotional states' were operationally defined as
scores on other attitude scales measuring inflexibility, anxiety, aggression,
and poor ego strength. In this research psychiatric patients were used to
meet the criteria of persons with maladjustive emotional states. As Table
2 shows, persons with such characteristics did not score significantly dif-
ferent from the general population on anomy. In this study the data failed
to support this critical assertion of McClosky and Schaar, when a dif-
ferent, but conceptually related operational definition was applied.
The analysis of variance test was also used to check for significant
differences in anomy scores by group (sample), sex, race, education, and
age. However, anomy scores differed significantly (alpha .05) only on
the variable, education.
In their previous study McClosky and Schaar stated that persons
who hold rejective attitudes toward others are likely to score high on
anomy. The authors indicate that anomy may be an outgrowth of "a
negativistic, despairing outlook both on one's own life and on the com-
munity in which one lives," (Robinson and Shaver, 1969, p. 169). Also,
the authors indicated strong positive associations (r=.50 or better) with
42 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
MEAN SCORES ON ANOMY BY EDUCATION
ACROSS ALL GROUPS: GENERAL POPULATION,
SERVICE-ORIENTED PROFESSIONALS, PSYCHIATRIC
PATIENTS, AND PRISONERS
Completed N Mean Standard Deviation
Below 7 8 6.8 1.8
7 13 6.3 1.8
8 6 5.7 2.7
9 12 5.8 2.0
10 14 5.5 2.3
11 10 7.0 1.7
12 38 4.5 2.3
1 13 4.2 2.6
2 23 3.8 1.9
3 7 2.0 .8
4 29 2.9 1.6
5 12 2.5 1.6
6 11 2.4 1.6
7 3 2.0 1.0
8 4 3.5 1.7
Beyond 8 1 1.0
related scales including alienation, pessimism, and bewilderment (Robin-
son and Shaver, 1969).
As a way of investigating this issue a check was made on the degree
of association between anomy scores and Rosenberg's Faith In People
Scale (alternately called misanthrope scale). This five-item scale involving
forced choice of two responses is designed to measure "one's degree of
confidence in the trustworthiness, honesty, goodness, generosity and
brotherliness of people in general" (Robinson and Shaver, 1969, p. 526).
The data show when all groups are combined that anomy had a moderate
negative association with faith in people (r=-.43). Also, anomy had a mod-
erate negative association with faith in people in the general population
(r=-.51) and in the service-oriented professional samples (r=-.58). Con-
sidering the apparent conceptual relationship between misanthrope and
anomy, it seems that the moderate association between these two atti-
RESEARCH BULLETIN 43
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE WITH NO INTERACTIONS
ON McCLOSKY AND SCHAAR'S ANOMY SCALE
Degrees of Sums of Mean F Power
Source Freedom Squares Square Ratio Estimates
Group 3 4.29 1.43 .36 .76
Occupation 6 23.41 3.90 .99 .63
Sex 1 2.23 2.23 .57 .89
Race 1 12.32 12.32 3.13 .89
Education 2 44.60 22.30 5.66* .82
Age 4 11.73 2.93 .74 .71
Error 144 567.46 3.94
TOTAL 161 932.87
*alpha = .05
tudes lends support to McClosky and Schaar's view that high anomy per-
sons are likely to hold rejective attitudes toward others.
Additionally, the data from this research supplement the McClosky
and Schaar research since, when all groups were combined, anomy and
self esteem had a moderate negative association (r=-.44). Berkowitz and
Lutterman's Social Responsibility Scale designed to assess a person's
orientation toward helping others also has a modest negative association
with the McClosky and Schaar scale when all groups are combined (r=-.44).
Both of these findings support the hypothesis that specific anomic feelings
may have psychological as well as sociological precursors.
One aspect of this research involved testing the McClosky and Schaar
assertion that deficient cognitive functioning (as defined by level of educa-
tion) is positively associated with anomy by a replication with a different
sample. Using a sample composed of four strata, the data supported the
original research on this issue. Support was found for the assertion that
persons holding rejective attitudes toward others would be high in anomic
feeling. Anomy scores correlated negatively with Rosenberg's Faith in
People Scale, Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale, and Berkowitz and Lutter-
44 FLORIDA A&M UNIVERSITY
PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS FOR ALL
FOUR GROUPS BETWEEN THE SULLIMAN SCALE OF
SOCIAL INTEREST, ROSENBERG'S SELF ESTEEM SCALE,
BERKOWITZ AND LUTTERMAN'S SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
SCALE, McCLOSKY AND SCHAAR'S ANOMY SCALE, AND
ROSENBERG'S FAITH IN PEOPLE SCALE
Social Self Respon- Faith in
Interest Esteem sibility Anomy People
Social Interest 1.00 .43 .58 -.46 .30
Self Esteem .43 1.00 .48 -.44 .11
Responsibility .58 .48 1.00 -.42 .19
Anomy -.46 -.44 -.42 1.00 .43
Faith in People .30 .11 .19 -.43 1.00
man's Social Responsibility Scale. Each of these findings support the orig-
inal hypothesis of McClosky and Schaar that psychological variables in
addition to social conditions can contribute to anomy.
However, this research failed to support the assertion that malad-
justive emotional states would constitute a psychological variable strongly
related to anomy. In this study psychiatric patients from the state hospital
did not score higher on anomy than members of the general population.
Consequently, support for the conclusions drawn by McClosky and
Schaar (1965) is mixed.
Berkowitz, L. and Lutterman, K.
1968 "The Traditionally Socially Responsible Personality." Public Opinion Quarterly,
McClosky, H. and Scharr. J. H.
1965 "Psychological Dimensions of Anomy." American Sociological Review. 30:
Robinson. J. P. and Shaver. P. R.
1973 Measures of Social Psychological Attitudes. Ann Harbor, Michigan: Institute
for Social Research, University of Michigan.
1956 "Misanthropy & Political Ideology." American Sociological Review. 21: 690-
1965 Society and the Adolescent Self Image. Princeton. New Jersey: Princeton Uni-