Front Cover
 Back Cover

Title: Tallahassee in view: Florida's historic capital city
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000166/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tallahassee in view: Florida's historic capital city
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Rotary Club, Tallahassee, Fla. Special Projects Committee.
Publisher: s.n
Publication Date: 1968
Subject: Tallahasse (Fla)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000166
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Holding Location: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB7840
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Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Back Cover
Full Text

S.a lla assee cJL1 (Vew

,l,/tI s itstoic Capital City

1 duty i's to ptesovee what the past I4as 4ac to say lo itself
to Still 1_1 ..7sClTS (also what shall be tue jo tle future.

.odozn uskikn

Coat-ol A. ns: n
The Marqiiisi de Laiavfflet*


Frd _." See map opposite picture 33. Special
tour maps of Tallhaliaee and env,;rons
appear on last two pages of book.
:A -e .J,,. .;:.




he Capitol of 7/oirda
Tallahassee, the Capital City of Florida, is steeped in tradition, and the past has left many mementoes of the
Indians, Spanish, French and English who have in succession possessed it. Hernando De Soto spent the winter of
1539-40 with members of his expedition in the vicinity of what is now Tallahassee. With him were twelve priests,
and historians believe that the first American observance of Christmas was in the Tallahassee area.
When Tallahassee was selected as the State Capital in 1823, the Legislative Council, which had been meeting
alternately in Pensacola and Saint Augustine, met first in a pine log cabin located on the southeast part of the
Capitol Square. A granite monument marks that spot. Later, a two-story frame building served as the Capitol (about
1838). With the help of Congress in 1839 the central section of the present Capitol was begun. It was not completed
until 1845, the year Florida became a State. A cupola was added sometime about 1891, and was replaced in 1901
by the present dome. There have been six additions to the original central section since 1902.
The residents of Tallahassee in those early years were of contrasting character. They were rowdy backwoods-
men as well as representatives of many outstanding planting families from Virginia and the Carolinas. Prince Achille
Murat, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, married Catharine Willis, a great grandniece of George Washington, in
Tallahassee, and they are buried in the Episcopal Cemetery. (see pictures 9 and 30)
Tallahassee was the only Capital of a Confederate state east of the Mississippi not captured by Federal Forces.
In 1865, after Lee's surrender, the city yielded without resistance to Federal occupation. The original trenches and
breastworks built to repel the Federal army are preserved in Old Fort Park. (see picture 26)
A tour map and suggested tours of Tallahassee and vicinity may be found on the back page and inside back cover.

Supkemne CouVt fkildlig of LJloida
The present Supreme Court Building, a contrast with the original one-room court of 1911 in the basement of
the Capitol, was built in 1948 and follows the Greek and Roman tradition of architecture. Its dome closely re-
sembles that of the Pantheon in Rome. It houses the State Supreme Court, the Appellate Court for this District, and
the State Library for Florida.

SWilliam Bloxm uin
The Spanish architectural influence in Tallahassee is reflected in this one-time school building renovated in 195!
for use of the state government. For 35 years it was known as the Caroline Brevard School. After the state acquire(
it, the building was renamed for William D. Bloxham who served as governor for two terms, 1881-85 and 1897-1901

Lights o, the Florida Bar headquarters office glow in the night sky. The exterior of this building is modeled after
historic Colonial Williamsburg architectural style. The interior combines quiet dignity and simplicity with maximum
use of space and efficiency of operation. The building is open Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Ample parking is available for visitors.
"The heaurtifil lines, the architecture of this building, restore for us a connecting link with the past. It reminds
us of the stabilir; of the law, which must always be stable, but never static. It reminds us of the sanctity of the law, of
the supiemanc\ of the law. One can close his eyes and envision roaming through the rooms and halls and corridors of
this building the spirit of the Colonial lawmakers-Jefferson and Henry, George Mason, George Wythe, and his
most distinguished student, Marshall. Here one can dream of the patriots of Williamsburg and that period in our
history \when the Rule of Law as a way of life was literally being carved out of revolution itself.
"And so. this building symbolizes the past, serves the present, and it typifies the future." Excerpts from dedi-
catory address Ib Florida Supreme Court Justice Campbell Thornal, October 8, 1966.

Built about 1830 for William Williams and owned briefly
by Benjamin Chaires, the Union Bank building probably
occupied the site of two earlier banks. Their charters were
purchased by the Union Bank, which was created February -
13, 1833, by the Territorial Council and formally opened on
January 16, 1835, with John G. Gamble as president. It was
capitalized at S1,000,000 and became Territorial Florida's
major bank. The panic of 1837, Indian wars, and unsound
banking practices led to its closing in 1843. The building
has been used since as a place for the Freedman's bank after "
the Civil War, for various other businesses, and as a church.




The Columns was built by Benj m
4.Chaires, a leading figure in the Union I ir
It was completed about 1835 and was the la g(
private dwelling in the city at that time. A ol
with the Presbyterian Church, the house sc v
occasionally as a refuge against the Indians Ih
ing the Seminole War. In 1856 the house n
t bought by William Bailey, a prominent J( f
i_ ,son County planter, who with B. C. L( a
Iifounded the predecessor of the modern L -:
State Bank in the old Union Bank built
behind The Columns. The building is i(
owned by the First Baptist Church of T I
Readily available to visitors are par i
facilities and a coffee shop.

w i l7 Slave Quat es
The old Slave Quarters, though a sepr.
building, are part and parcel of The Colu
I since they undoubtedly served not only as a li i
accommodation for servants, but as the are;
E. preparing food for the "big house."



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Built of cement-washed bricks and completed in 1838, this church is the oldest public building in Tallahassee.
The slave gallery and the original pews are still features of the interior. Like The Columns, the church served as a
town refuge during the Seminole raids in 1838 and 1839. The alterations of the early 20th century broke the original
neo-classic design of the church by the addition of the quasi-Gothic windows.

Old Gty Cemetey

The present boundaries of the Old City Cemetery were established by the Florida Territorial Council in 1829.
Many pioneers and their slaves are buried here. The cemetery also contains graves of Confederate and Federal troops,
some of them fatalities from the Battles of Olustee and Natural Bridge in 1865. (See picture 38.) The Battle of
Natural Bridge marked the end of the ill-fated attempt by Union forces to seize the Capitol during the War Between
the States.
In the Episcopal Cemetery directly across Call Street and to the north you will find the graves of Prince Achille
Murat (nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte and son of the King of Naples) and his wife, Madame Catharine Murat (great
grandniece of George Washington). Governors Thomas Brown and William D. Bloxham also are buried here. Bloxham
is the only man ever elected to two full terms as Governor of Florida.


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Vc estcott -aldiqn

qloiidca (State ULhiversity
Westcott Building is the main administration building at Florida State University, a co-educational institution
with a present enrollment of approximately 17,000. Westcott was originally constructed in 1909, but has been fre-
quently remodeled to meet the needs of a student body which has more than tripled in the last two decades and is
expected to climb to 28,000 by 1975. The latest major change was made in 1954 when a new 1,800 seat auditorium
was added to the T-shaped Tudor-Gothic structure.
James D. Westcott, 1839-1887, for whom the building is named, was a State Supreme Court Justice and a graduate
of West Florida Seminary, the early forerunner of Florida State University. The major part of Mr. Westcott's estate
was left to the University. The University was authorized by the Legislature in 1851 and opened its doors in 1857.
It was first named the "Seminary West of the Suwannee." Since, its name has been "West Florida Seminary," "Florida
State College," "Florida Female College" and, from 1909 to 1947, "Florida State College for Women." The 1947
Legislature returned the school to co-educational status and designated its present name. Florida State University is
the oldest state institution of higher learning from the standpoint of continuous operation in the same location.
Florida State has 10 Colleges and Schools and nine of them offer doctoral degrees in more than 60 fields of
study. The newest academic unit is the College of Law which admitted its charter class in 1966.

Lrestdents ciome ii
The large white-columned residence for the President gracing beautifully-landscaped grounds and overlooking
Florida State University, is a striking example of the effectiveness of the moving and renovation of an old house.
The house was built about 1888 for the W. M. Mclntosh family on the site now occupied by the Supreme Court
Building. It was cut in half and moved by halves to the present site right after the end of World War II. Side wings
were added and the facade was changed by replacing a double-deck porch with the graceful columns shown here.
One wing houses a new kitchen and the other a guest room and side porch.


( k


1G Loom Y isaslei (C4li!

This marble seeks to preserve the remembrance of Hardy B. Croom, prominent planter and botanist, his wife,
Frances H. Croom, and their children: Henrietta May, 15, William Henry, 10, and Justina Rosa, 7, all of whom
perished at sea in the wreck of the steamboat "Home" off Cape Hatteras on the night of October 9, 1837. The
Croom family was en route to Tallahassee to occupy Goodwood. (see picture 25) They were from New Bern, North
Carolina, and had been vacationing in New York before boarding the ill-fated "Home." Mr. Croom owned plantations
in Leon and Gadsden counties. He had planned to use Tallahassee as a base of his farming operations. He discovered
and named the Torreya tree of northwest Florida in honor of a New York botanist friend by that name. The Croomia,
a small flowering plant native to this area is named for Croom. Loss of the whole Croom family at sea resulted in
lengthy litigation which established the rule of American law that, in a common disaster with no eye witness, the
presumption is that the male parent has greater survival powers and therefore his family will inherit.

In 1883, Governor David S. Walker organized the library which bears his name. It was housed in the present
building and has been open to the public continuously since then.

7- Q



___.-* .* +. ,-



fhe iray Oak
The stately May Oak in recent years has been the site of the Tallahassee May Festival which is the oldest
annual event of its kind in the South. More than 130 May Queens have been crowned in these ceremonies. During
this span of time, few changes have taken place in the appearance of Lewis Park. Many of the houses which surround
the park today have been there for half the history of Tallahassee or more, and over the years the oaks have simply
expanded their crowns and girths, and their branches have gathered a little more Spanish moss.

cJinott i/ouse 15
The old portion of this house was built in 1831 by Thomas Holmes Hagner, United States Minister to London,
for his bride, Katherine Gamble of Virginia. She brought from Virginia what are said to have been the first japonica
plants in Florida. They had been brought from the court of King George by General Mercer as a gift to her mother.
In 1848, an extensive addition was constructed. After a series of owners, the house came into the possession of the
late W. V. Knott, State Treasurer of Florida, in the 1920s. In 1928, the Knotts removed the one-story porch at the
front and replaced it with the two-story portico and columns. It is still owned by the Knott family.

.16 1 n 0. C ewis iCome

In 1836, B. C. Lewis came to Tallahassee from Pennsylvania. Later he established the institution which now is
the Lewis State Bank, oldest in Florida. He built this home on McCarty Street (now Park Avenue), where his
grandson, George Edward Lewis lives today. It was constructed of solid timbers held together by wooden pegs.
Later a second floor was added and many changes made. Other homes of interest in the vicinity are:

This house was built in 1836 by Arvah Hopkins, a prominent merchant and planter. In December 1849, Hopkins married Susan Branch,
youngest daughter of Florida's last Territorial Governor who had been Secretary of the Navy in President Andrew Jackson's administration
He also had been a United States Senator and twice Governor of North Carolina. The Hopkins family occupied the house until they moved
to Goodwood in 1856. During the Federal occupation of Tallahassee, it became the home of Major Weeks, carpetbagger sheriff of Leon County

-- -



Jesse H. Willis seems to have built this house about 1838. He sold it a few years later to Captain R. A. Shine, who remodeled it with
ndows and other materials taken from the demolished first State Capitol. Captain Shine sold it in 1847 to Francis H. Flagg, who had,
cording to legend, just won the exact amount of the purchase in the Louisiana lottery. In the 1880s the home came into possession of the
ickensons and in the 1890s of the Chittendens. When a descendant of the Flaggs married a Chittenden, the house came full circle back to
.e Flaggs, under the name of Chittenden.
The original structure was one story and the brick and plaster of that part are fully eighteen inches thick. Simeon D. Chittenden made
Use most notable changes after Captain Shine.

ihe Stanley Slay Talke' ClCouse17
This home was built in the early 1890s. It is typical Victorian-eclectic style and was the last home built in the
original residential plan for Tallahassee. It is now the residence of Mr. and Mrs. George I. Martin. Her parents,
the Stanley May Walkers, were its first occupants.






_Vk A -

Until 1915. the State did not furnish a home for the Governor while he was serving as Chief Executive. The
rt Governor's Mansion was occupied by Governor Napoleon B. Broward in 1907. It was a frame house in Greek
vival t\pe of architecture. The distinctive feature was its large white Corinthian columns.
The present Mansion was completed in 1957 and occupies the same location as the original one. The architecture
offers distinctively from the previous mansion. It is similar in design to Andrew Jackson's home, "The Hermitage,"
ar Nashville, Tennessee.

lh e qove 19
The house was begun by Richard Keith Call (twice Territorial Governor of Florida) about 1839 and was occupied
1843. It descended through the family to Mary Call Collins, and her husband, former Governor LeRoy Collins,
ho used it as a Governor's Mansion while the new official residence was being built across the street.
Constructed in a typical neo-classical design, The Grove was never really completed. The tops of the columns
the front door do not have their capitals but are supported by wooden blocks, and the brackets over the entrance
re to hate supported a wrought-iron balcony. Both the capitals and the wrought-iron balcony were lost in transit
a shippwrek. The interior walls are plastered brick and extend three stories from the basement to the roof.
The Call family graveyard is at the rear of the house. One of the graves is that of Call's daughter, Ellen Call
ng, who was the first white child born in Tallahassee. She was author of the book, "Florida Breezes," which is
social historN of ante-bellum Florida.

... .



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Built in 1890 by John S. Winthrop, this home is Tallahassee's last surviving Victorian house in the grand
manner. Constructed of virgin pine, the shingles still retain their original painted colors. An interesting feature
of the front of the house is the massive Richardsonian Romanesque arch which covers the second-story balcony.

The building housing the Tallahassee Garden Club represents the architecture and building techniques common
in the 1800s. It was built sometime before 1850 for Henry L. Rutgers, a banker. It is said to have been constructed
by George Proctor, a free Negro who had built the Randall house across the street. The woodwork and doors are
of solid mahogany. Other buildings of interest nearby but not pictured are:
Of a modified Georgian design, this house was built in the late 1830s by David C. Wilson, founder of Florida's oldest department store.
The building became the town house of Governor William D. Bloxham sometime after the Civil War and served as the governor's mansion
during Bloxham's two terms, 1881-85 and 1897-1901.
The Randall house was built for Thomas Randall, a Federal Judge of the Territory of Florida. It was begun about 1837 and completed
before 1840. The house is of modified Georgian design and was constructed by the George Proctor mentioned above. It followed the raised-
cottage style common to the South. The high basement was designed to keep the house cool and dry in the humid coastal areas. It once
had a windmill and the first running water and inside bathroom in this part of Florida.
The Yancey House was built in the 1840s for Simon Towle and was sold to Richard Whitaker in 1854. The house is neo-classic in design.
The clapboarding is of yellow pine and the six square columns are solid timber.

he gDowe'z cJ Louse 22
The Bowen House is one of the oldest prefabricated houses in the country. It was built in the late 1830s for
James Kirksey. The lumber, New England white pine, was framed in New York 'and shipped in standard sections
to Saint Marks, then hauled to Tallahassee on the old Saint Marks-Tallahassee railroad. The whole house is mortised
and held together by long wooden pegs. The charming addition at the south end of the house was made in the same
style several years after the original house was completed, while the back addition is of a much later date. It was
the home of Charles E. Dyke, editor of The Floridan, which was Florida's most influential newspaper of the 19th


1 -. ... I .. .......




23 ~es JAcI9ou gall iJtuse
This house was built about 1850 for Peres Brokaw of New York State. The Corinthian columns, doors, cornices,
and other appointments were shipped to Tallahassee from New England. The house has changed little since it was
built and is still in possession of the descendants of the original owner. Much of the landscaping was designed by
a notable landscape architect when the house was constructed. Some of the camellias and live oak trees were planted
here more than 100 years ago; one rare salmon pink azalea is more than 75 years old.

Chapel of Cast JIlll JBaptist nuc 24
The facade of East Hill's chapel is a reconstruction and adaptation of the front of a home built for Edward
Carrington Cabell in 1854 on the corner of Clinton, now College Avenue, and Duval Streets.
The Doric columns and pilasters, the window frame and blinds in the pediment, some of the dentils in the cornice,
and the front doors and frame in their entirety are original. The double front doors having one panel each, framed
by moulding in egg-and-dart design, with leaded glass window above, are flanked by hand-grooved Ionic pilasters which
support a cornice. The hinges and lock are brass and the knobs and escutcheons are plated with silver.
The windows have been re-designed, but the style of woodwork of the original window frames has been followed,
while the two corner blocks of a frame are preserved in the upper central window. The chapel is partially lighted
by two antique bronze chandeliers which probably were added to the house built for Mr. Cabell.




The land for this plantation was part of the Lafayette Grant and was purchased by Hardy B. Croom in 1835.
Croom began construction of the house shortly after this date. He was prevented from completing the mansion by
his untimely death at sea in 1837. (See picture 12.) The house was finally completed by Groom's brother Bryan,
about 1843. The plantation was sold to Arvah Hopkins in 1856 and occupied by the Hopkins family through the
Reconstruction period. The ceilings were elaborately frescoed by Italian artists.
There are numerous out-buildings arranged around a square in the rear of the house including a water tower
and a carriage house with a large clock. A widow's walk is interestingly conspicuous on the roof. In the late 19th
century it was owned by Mrs. Fannie Tiers, who was reputed to be one of America's wealthiest women. She remodeled
the house, replacing iron grille work with columns to support the porch and changing the cupola to the present
Mount Vernon design. The house is presently owned by Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Hood.

Old o0t Cmbakments 26

This earthwork is located on ground once part of the plantation of Captain Patrick Houston (later State Adjutant
General) who commanded the Confederate artillery at the Battle of Natural Bridge (see picture 38) and was a second
line of defense for the citizens of Tallahassee to protect the Capitol of Florida from capture.
Federal troops under General John Newton landed at Saint Marks lighthouse and advanced up the east side
of the Saint Marks River only to be decisively repulsed at Natural Bridge on March 6, 1865, by a hurriedly assembled
Confederate force. His troops included a company of cadets from the West Florida Seminary, now Florida State


This home was built in 1890 by Willie Perkins on the lot just south of the State Capitol, now occupied by part
of the capitol center. In 1912 the home was bought by Paul T. Nicholson, whose family lived there until 1946. His
widow later became Mrs. Kline and occupied the house until it was purchased by the State. 0. W. Perkins visualized
the home in another location and bought it from the State. It was originally one story, very high off the ground,
with high steps. Mr. Perkins first built a lower story and then moved the house from downtown to its present position
as a second story part of the home.
The style of architecture of this home is often called "New Orleans." Large columns, curved grill steps and a
bannister distinguish the outside features. The home was completed by the present occupants, Mr. and Mrs. T. E.
Mingledorff, Jr., who have used very early antiques to furnish it in true traditional manner.


C. .-ee Ju['l

J-Loida ^A. & ah. University
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, located on the highest of the seven hills in Tallahassee, has
been a vital part of the educational community in Leon County and the State of Florida since 1887. The hub of-
the University is located in the J.R.E. Lee Hall, a brick building in the Georgian style with Southern Colonial
influence. Lee Hall was erected in 1927 and named for J. R. E. Lee, Sr., president of the University from 1924 to 1944.
In addition to the main administrative offices, it also houses music studios and an auditorium with a seating capacity
of approximately 1,500.
Florida A. & M. University is comprised of eight schools and colleges. The School of Education offers a varied
program of graduate studies.

a lock Fowet ci Couse
This cottage resembles those of rural France. It was completed only a few years before the death, in 1919, of
its architect-owner, Calvin C. Phillips, rumored to have designed buildings for the 1890 Paris World's Fair. The
incongruous square medieval-looking tower rises on the northwestern corner and contains a clock that still is intact
and long ago sounded the quarter hours. The eccentric owner quarreled with his wife, and for a quarter of a century
they communicated only through their daughters, until they all left him, to his regret. His last work was his own
tomb in Oakland Cemetery topped by a huge minaret.

-Bellevue i ome of {incess cnilmat
Bellevue was built in 1831 by Samuel H. Duval, kinsman of Florida's first Territorial Governor, William P. Duval.
Princess Catharine Murat, wife of Napoleon's nephew, Achille Murat, crown prince of Naples, purchased the property
from her sister, Mrs. Duval, and moved to Bellevue after the Prince's death in 1847. The name was derived from a
residence in Brussels where Prince and Princess Murat had spent a very happy period of their lives. Princess Murat
was the great grandniece of George Washington. She occupied the house until her death in 1867.
Bellevue is a typical example of the many pioneer plantation houses that dotted the countryside of middle Florida
during the ante-bellum era. It was moved in 1967 from Jackson Bluff Road to grounds of the Junior Museum.

Big Bend Farm is an authentic restoration of a West Florida farm of the 1880s. The cabin and outbuildings,
of log construction, were moved from Liberty and Calhoun counties to their present location on the Museum grounds.
Open to visitors are a general store and post office, farm cabins, a sugar mill, blacksmith's shop, smoke house,
and other buildings. The farm is open to the public without charge, Tuesday through Saturday, 9:00 a.m. to 5:00
p.m., Sunday 2:00 p.m. through 5:00 p.m. It is closed on Mondays.



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32 Se'sol Bunildinq F d -. -"- --.
This narrow, picturesque Victorian building housed the firt bookstore in LANDGR.NT
Tallahassee. It sold texts to the student, ol the \\'est Florida ellilnai 0no%" -:. .
Florida State University. Directly acros, ihe stieet at 215 South Monroc. is |
located the oldest functioning bank in Flobi ida. L -

33U avetly LIantation <~a otie
Waverly (on next page) is part of the to'~nship of land granted in 1825 -_
by the United States Government to General Lafayette for his service in the
American Revolution. /
Once the center of an ante-bellum plantation, Waverly boasts a number of live oaks, the aristocrat of trees. The
Revolutionary Oak is one of the largest in the country with a circumference of 29/2 feet, a height of approximately
66 feet, and an average spread of 142 feet. Its age is computed to be almost 200 years. It is to be found 90 feet south-
east of the picturesque water tower shown on this page.




-- iM; --


-4 JLXe Oak aWLanatiori

The acreage for Live Oak Plantation was originally purchased in 1833 by John Branch, last territorial governor
of Florida, from General Lafayette. Governor Branch, according to historical accounts, selected as a place for his home
"a magnificent grove of live oaks crowning a high hill overlooking Lake Jackson." He built the first house on the site
in 1836 and moved to the plantation from North Carolina, where he had been a prominent political leader and states-
man, serving two terms as governor and as a member of the United States Senate. He first developed an interest in
Tallahassee while serving as Secretary of the Navy under President Andrew Jackson.
Governor Branch's home was burned during reconstruction days, but the grove and several other features have
remained virtually unchanged. The existing plantation home was built by Leon T. Cheek, one of the original
producers of Maxwell coffee, and later became the home of Mr. and Mrs. A. M. Middlebrooks.

Saint Clements Chapel
Saint Clement's Chapel is a good example of 'rural gothic' architecture of the 1890s existing in Florida. It was
moved from its original location in Lloyd, Florida to 815 Piedmont Drive in Leon County in 1959 to become the
chapel of the Episcopal Church of the Advent.
Thomas Betton, of Tallahassee, was responsible for both the pleasing design and construction of this 75 seat
chapel. Long leaf yellow pine was used throughout the building, which when completed cost $1,500. Constructed in
1890, it was not consecrated as a church until 1899.
After the removal from Lloyd the building was completely refurbished in its original style. All the original
furnishings are still in use, including a remarkably beautiful reed organ, the sturdy pine pews and the communion
silver. The most notable article in the chapel is the oldest Bishop's chair in Florida. This chair, acquired from
Saint John's Church in Tallahassee, dates from 1838 and is the only Bishop's chair in which all five Bishops of Florida
have sat.
The chapel is always open for prayer and reflection.

36 ciAlfed 2. Siacday gajeas &tate aYk
The Alfred B. Maclay Gardens are a masterpiece of floral architecture which blends land, water; and sky into
one of the South's finest azalea and camellia collections. After the death of her husband, Mrs. Maclay carried on the
imaginative plans and completed the dream which Mr. Maclay had envisioned. She then donated the gardens to the
State for the enjoyment of both residents and visitors to Florida.
The Maclay home is furnished with many distinctive antiques which add another exciting artistic experience to the
visitor's enjoyment. There is also available at the house a wealth of information on the horticulture and archaeological
characteristics of the Gardens. The house is open from January through March and the garden area is open to the
public from October 1 through April 1. The remainder of the park is open throughout the year.
The picnic area of this park is equipped with pavilions, fireplaces, tables, playground equipment, a swimming
area, and restroom facilities.


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Railroad Company, Incorporated in 1834. The road was single track, twenty three miles long, and originally had

.mule-drawn cars. In 1839 a steam locomotive was added and the line extended to Port Leon. With a seaport terminus

Sante-bellum period. Although track and equipment have modernized, the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad still operates

freight trains over much of the original route today.

The Tallahassee-to-Saint Marks Railroad began operations in 1837. It was initially begun by the Tallahassee
Railroad Company, Incorporated in 1834. The road was single track, twenty three miles long, and originally had
mule-drawn cars. In 1839 a steam locomotive was added and the line extended to Port Leon. With a seaport terminus
to serve a rich agricultural hinterland, the railroad did a large volume of business in transporting cotton during the
ante-bellum period. Although track and equipment have modernized, the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad still operates
freight trains over much of the original route today.


This monument marks the site of the Battle of Natural Bridge. On March 6, 1865 the Confederate Militia prevented
a joint U. S. Army and Navy task force from capturing Saint Marks.
The Army landed at the lighthouse but was prevented from getting to the rear of Saint Marks by Confederate
opposition at Newport and Natural Bridge. In the meantime, the Federal flotilla ran aground during ascent of the
river and failed to reach Saint Marks. Had the Federal forces succeeded, their next objective would have been
Tallahassee, which because of this heroic defense remained the only Confederate capital east of the Mississippi not
captured by the Union forces.
The military statistics of this battle are of interest: Number engaged-Federals 893 (of whom 500 were at Natural
Bridge), Confederates 595; Killed-Federals 21, Confederates 3. Wounded-Federals 89, Confederates 23. Missing-Federals
148, Confederates 0. The commanding officers were Brigadier General William Miller, Confederates; Commander R. W.
ShuFelt, U. S. Navy and Brigadier General John Newton, U. S. Army.
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Though today a town of less than 200 people, Newport was in the 1850s the fifth largest community in Florida.
It began in 1843 as a refuge for the survivors of Port Leon, a cottonport five miles further down the river and on
the opposite bank, when it was wiped out by a tidal wave and hurricane.
Taking the remains of their cotton export business up the river, the refugees built the new town and in a few
years had extensive warehouses, an iron foundry, a newspaper, and the first county seat of Wakulla County, carved
that same year out of Leon County to the north.
The cotton export business began to decline shortly before the Civil War due to the building of railroads in the
state, but Newport was still active enough to interest Yankee soldiers coming up the river to capture Tallahassee.
Though they were stopped at the Battle of Natural Bridge seven miles north of the town, they burned down all the
warehouses and left the community in ashes.
Newport rebuilt after the Civil War, but never recovered its former prominence. Today most of the land and
much of the rental property in Newport is owned by the Saint Joe Paper Company, which has a subsidiary there.
A small boatworks in Newport built invasion personnel landing craft during World War II. The entrance to
the Saint Marks Wildlife Refuge is located across the bridge from Newport, with the road winding through the refuge
to the Saint Marks Light built in 1836.


Saint SYalks TJational C wildlife fkefuge 40
The Saint Marks National Wildlife Refuge is the only major wintering area for Canada geese in Florida, and
on O(t ober through March they lend much color to this coastal region. Each season brings about marked changes
both species and abundance of birdlife. The photo shows a redwinged blackbird feeding in yellow lotus plants.
rhe best opportunities for observing the greatest quantity and variety of birds are afforded during the fall, winter,
nd spring. Shore birds are most common during late spring and early fall. Parts of the refuge are open to visitors
throughout the year, and they are welcome at any time during daylight hours. The refuge may be reached from
Newvpor by leaving State Road 30 and following State Road 59 about five miles to .the entrance.
The refuge was one of the earliest acquired under the Migratory Bird Conservation Act of 1929. It includes
0,00nn acres. The first land was purchased in 1931, with other units being added in 1936 and 1938. The latter, the
'anacea tract, was acquired by the Resettlement Administration and transferred to the Bureau of Biological Survey,
ow a part of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in the Department of the Interior.

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e Saint c amks Lqghthouse
The picturesque Saint Marks Lighthouse, constructed in 1831 from stones removed from Old Fort San Marcos
Apalachee, is one of the oldest lighthouses in southeastern United States. The same lens used at the time of the
civil War is still in active service in the light despite several nicks and scratches occasioned during an attempt to
ide it at the time for the invasion by Federal troops.
The light originally aided shipping to three fairly large towns on the Saint Marks River-Port Leon, the site
f which is now within the refuge, Saint Marks and Newport-and two small towns, Magnolia and Rock Haven.
these towns were the major shipping points for produce from north-central Florida and Georgia. The light is still
active use as a marker for the Saint Marks channel and guides modern tugs, with barges of oil products, and
their vessels into the mouth of the Saint Marks River.

San SIamcos e cAlpalace 42
This historic site, dating from 1528 when the Spanish explorer Panfilo de Narvaez built and launched the first ships
ade by white men in the New World, is today a symbol of the diversity of Florida's history. Native American
ndians, Spanish Franciscan Friars, the English captain William Augustus Bowles, and the American Andrew Jackson
ere all at some time linked with its exciting history. The Spanish built the fort in 1639 to protect the mission
chain and garrisons of Apalachee.
The present museum contains a fascinating collection of artifacts which reveal this romantic area's amazing history.
uch of the ruins of the old fort may be seen today as the process of excavation continues. It is located at the
influence of the Wakulla and the Saint Marks Rivers.

43 U/akulla Spvi-ns and

,4 Wildlife (anctuamy
In a day when commercialization has ruined much natural beauty, Wakulla, with its varied wildlife, its strange
sounds, and forested shores, remains a place which primeval man might well recognize. For he must have seen the
great Mastadons of the last American Ice Age plunging helplessly through broken ice into its deep waters, there to
remain until discovered by modern man. Here at the Springs, one feels the mystery of geological time measured in
millions of years.
Located in the heart of a 4,000 acre Wildlife Sanctuary, Wakulla Springs-largest in the world-is surrounded by
forests of moss-draped cypress trees, of live oak, magnolia, hickory, wild cherry and pine, forming a natural setting.
The Sanctuary is now perpetuated by the Edward Ball Wildlife Foundation and is jointly protected by the Foundation
and the National Audubon Society. It is the home of many rare birds, limtkin, anhinga snakebirdd), blue herons
and snowy egrets, white ibis, wood storks, barred owls, coots, wild turkeys, ospreys, and bald eagles. Alligators and
many species of fish also inhabit this area.
There is no entrance fee to the beautiful grounds of Wakulla Springs which are open every day of the year.
Glass bottom boat rides over the big Spring and Jungle boat tours can be enjoyed.




.-- ... .!

45 D09 Cgsland
lie de Chien, a pine clustered island with sugar white beaches washed clean by the beautiful Gulf of Mexico,
is located just off the mainland near Carrabelle, Florida. Prior to 1690 the French named a group of three small
islands the "Islands of Dogs." The island, shown above, later became known as Dog Island.
The island has excellent beaches for swimming, sunning, and shelling. Fishing is good in the surf, from the
dock, or from a boat. But the most attractive feature is "island living." Being encompassed by the sea, Ile de Chien
offers an environment of privacy and isolation away from the stresses and strains and the rigors and routines of "civili-
zation" and people.

Saint Qeoge Jsland 6

One of the newest and most beautiful bridges in Florida is the four and one-half mile ribbon of concrete which
links Saint George Island to the mainland at Eastpoint. This $3,800,000 span has a 90-foot clearance at its highest
point and beneath it the shipping channel is 25-feet deep. It is named for the late Bryant Patton. Photo courtesy of
Florida Development Commission.
Oyster culture is at its best in this area. The "S" shape design of the bridge enables the tide waters of the Gulf
of Mexico to rise and fall freely in Apalachicola Bay, where world renowned oysters are produced. Thousands of oyster
bars thrive from sediment deposited in the bay by the Apalachicola River and the Gulf tide waters.
Saint George Island parallels the shoreline between Carrabelle and Apalachicola. It is 25 miles long and from
one-half to three miles wide. It is separated at one point by the Bob Sikes Channel, which cuts through the west end
of the island and joins the coastal waterway. The entire 25-mile Gulf front beach provides excellent swimming, water
skiing, sunbathing and fishing.

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I4f of .xi -eaches

For untold centuries the Gulf of Mexico has lapped the shores of exotic tropical beaches covered with white
sand. Her tide has washed up on these beaches astonishing collections of sea life which any amateur explorer can
find at will. Colorful fishermen have drawn from these waters a livelihood and the traveler has found a beauty that
stirs the imagination and makes the romantic past live.

fallahassee's fihstoUc fioads 48

The historic road shown here, linking Saint Augustine and Pensacola, was the first highway for which Congress
ever appropriated funds.
The red soil of North Florida bears mute but eloquent testimony to the record of the traveler. For hundreds
of \ears of trudging hoofs, rolling wagon wheels, and bare feet have left trails that a traveler can follow to relive
history and tell of strange mysteries associated with the past. Under the evergreen arches of giant live oaks on the
Old Saint Augustine, the Miccosukee, the Old Bainbridge and the Meridian roads, there awaits a splendor that is
ever new.


J.egendfor City nap Oin Opposite age
I. II.
1. Capitol Building 13. Walker Library 24. Chapel of East Hill Baptist Church
2. Supreme Court Building 14. May Oak 25. Goodwood
3. Bloxham Building 15. Knott House 26. Old Fort Embankments
4. Florida Bar Building 16. Lewis House 27. Mingledorff Home
5. Union Bank 17. Stanley May Walker House 28. Florida A&M University- Lee Hall
6. The Columns 18. Governor's Mansion 29. Clock Tower House
7. Slave Quarters 19. The Grove 30. Bellevue
8. Presbyterian Church 20. Winthrop House 31. Junior Museum
9. Old City Cemetery 21. Garden Center 32. Benson Building
10. FSU Westcott Building 22. Bowen House 33. Waverly Plantation
11. FSU President's Home D PN .ougall House 34. Li\e Oak Plantation
12. Croom Disaster Shaft ^. 35. Saint Clement's Chapel

Two walking tours are outlined. One is indicated by red broken lines, and the other is shown in blue.
-..The "red tour" numbers should be followed in this order: 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17. Tour 1 1/4 miles.
-.-The "blue tour" numbers should be followed in this order: 22 (include Bloxham, Randall, and Yancey houses)
23, 21, 20, 18 and 19. Tour I 1/5 miles.

gendfo 8A52ea 'lap
36. Maclay Gardens State Park
37. Old Railroad
38. Natural Bridge Monument
39. Newport
40. Saint Marks Wildlife Refuge
41. Saint Marks Lighthouse
42. Fort San Marcos
43. Wakulla Springs Wildlife Sanctuary
44. Wakulla Springs
45. Dog Island
46. Saint George Bridge
47. Gulf Beaches
48. Old Road
gulf of Mexico

46.45. 47.

0 49 84 5200 0

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