SERIES XIV No. 2
FLORIDA A. & M. COLLEGE
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
Frntetrcl i iras iS'la: s Mail Matter Auguir '4, 1'4. ,1?.t the
Pt.rt( O)fi' TallahaI. ee, Florid;. uniler the ncr of AuluSt 24, 1!412.
Florida A. & M. College Press
SERIES X1V No.
FLORIDA A. & M. COLLEGE
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
Entered as Second Class Mail Matter August 24, 1912, atthe
Post Offiee Tallahassee, Florida, under the act of August 24, 1912.
W. H. A. HOWARD, Chair.- HOMER THOMAS
A. L. MEBANE J. V. HILYER
B. M. HAWKINS
N. B. iYOUNG, President
Objectives as a Basis for Reconstruction of the
High School Curriculum
DEAN HOMER THOMAS
Our High school program of studies is undergoing a
constant change. It is well that it is so. But in this
process of reconstruction many problems loom up that
require for their solution a great- deal of thought and
Day by day, week by week, and year by year we
have gone on teaching Alpebra and Latin and Agricul-
ture, perhaps without once asking what it is all for.
What is the function of this thing we call education.
What are we trying to find anyway? From the very
earliest times educational philosophers have .wrestled
with this problem of objectives. We search, not in vain,
pedagogical books for definitions but too often their
vague and general characteristics make them much like
"sounding brass and tinkling cymbals". For example,
Froebel says that "the object of education is the reali-
zation of a faithful, inviolate, and hence holy life".
But the program builders who are seeking to know the
proper amount of emphasis to be placed upon English
history and Ancient history in the modern curriculum
get no aid from this statement. Another author says
that "Education is the process by which the individual
man elevates himself to the species". Again little or no
information is given to determine whet' er Algebra or
Latin should berequired by all. But we get a little re-
lief when we read Bagley's dictum that "Education
may be tentatively defined as the process by means of
which the individual acquires experiences that will
function in rendering more efficient his future actions."
And Professor Briggs takes us upon a more firm found-
ation in declaring that "The purpose of a secondary ed-
ucation is to prepare boys and girls to do better the
6 Academic Bulletin
things they would do any way; and to reveal to them
higher forms of higher activity, and to make these pos-
sible for them in so far as we are able". Sears is very
helpful to the teacher when by illustration he states the
more immediate or specific, statement of the aims of
education a. follows: "The owner ofa factory not only
sets up business success as his ultimate aim, but various
asipelt- ,,t' this Iire'er pllrp,)e--the purchase of raw ma-
terial at the lowest price,- the most economical organi-
zati :'n of his plant, the simplest and the clearest method
of accounting, a knowledge of markets--present them-
selves as clear and definite problems, or aims, through
which alone the ultimate goal of business success can be
If education is to be scientific, it must have some
standard, some instruments of measurements, other-
wise we shall remain at the mercy of mere opinion,
which is influenced by the tradition of hundreds of yParF.
Objectiv es are our instruments of measurements. First
let objectives be established and then everything in the
curriculum must answer the question, "In what way
does the material accomplish the purpose?
The objectives herein are to be found in Bulletin No.
35, 1918, entitled "Cardinal Principles of Secondary Ed-
ucation." It is published by the Bureau of Education..,
Washingto-n. D. C.
Seven objectives are set fowird in this bulletin as fol-
lows: First,- Hea'th Second, Command of fundament-
al processes, Third,-- worthy home membership, Fourth, -
Vocation, 'Fifth,-- Civic Education, Sixth,- Worthy use.
uie of leisure, Seventh, --Ethical Character. I have not
the' lispipition to enter. into any detailed exposition of
these objectives. Their mere enumeration, I am sure,
is sufficient to arouse the thougthful student of educa-
tion with the validity of their claims.
Were I to venture an estimate of the relative impor-
tance, under present conditions of these seven objec-
' i : '4Academic Bulletin 7
tives, I should agree with' Prof. De Kaeb that the de-
velopment of ethical character is now and always will
be by far the most important. Indeed, considered in its
broadest application, it may be said to include several
others of the seven. And to my, mind it is the most en-
lightening commentary on the abiding imperfections in
the educational system that as yet few things are done
with this objective specifically in mind.
A Plan for Co-operation in Speech
MR. R. J. HAWKINS
, (FORMERLYASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH)
In Oral Work:
1st. Insist on clear speaking.
Students should stand erect, with head up, and
speak with sufficient clearness to be heard in all
parts of the room.
2nd. Insist on exactness. 1
Require that answers match the specific question
asked. Words that express the meaning with pre-
cision should be used.
3rd. Insist on correctness.
Be careful to secure the proper use of pronouns,
verbs, idioms, etc.
4th. Insist on full answers.
Reject piecemeal replies. Encourage the pupil to
so organize his material that he can speak two or
more minutes in elucidation of his ideas.
In Written Work:
1st. Require the uniform heading and folding,
For example: Date, Subject, Name. Crosswise
2nd. Insist on neatness in handwriting and arrange-
8 Academic Bulletin
ment of work on paper.
3rd. Require correct spelling, not only of words in your
subject, but of all common English words. Make
it unsafe for a pupil to repeat errors in spelling.
4th. Insist on clear sentence structure. As often as
practicable, sprawling or incoherent sentences
should be pointed out to the pupil.
5th. Reject all papers, reports. and note books notice-
ably deficient in the elements of good English and
good form noted above.
I AM THE TEACHER
PRESIDENT N. B. YOUNG
I-am the teacher.
I lead the children of men into the temple of knowledge
and kindle in the souls of those of the "understanding
heart" the flames of wisdom.
As priest and as prophet, as poet and as preacher
I have kept the fires burning with ever increasing bril-
liancy on the altars of Knowledge.
My school is a continuation of the home.
I do for childhood and youth what parent or guardian
can not, or dare not undertake.
In a very real sense, I am in "loco parentss.
My school-roster is the muster-roll of civilization's
"army of future defense".
I teach men the useful arts of life, and the fine art of
living-to work, to play, to love, and to worship.
My mission is to all men, yet I am of those who toil-
the workers of the world.
I no longer live in a hectic timid life, apart from the
I face the world four-squared, and am unawed by its
I am a carrier of "democracy", infecting all who sit at
Academic Bulletin 9
my-feet with zeal for the common life, and with love
for the common man.
In my presence, no man stands contemned because of
race, creed or condition.
I am indeed the "philosopher, the guide, and the
friend" of youth.
Herein is my great reward: their answering friendship.
Thanks to the Great War, I am- "abroad" as never be-
My fellow men are seeing in me an invaluable assistant
in their fight for wealth, for honor and for character.
In the spirit of the Great Teacher, I rejoice to stand a-
mong them 'as he that serveth".
I am the Teacher.
MRS. E. P. JONES
This school is the laboratory of the department of
Education, offering opportunity-for observation and
practice to those taking the teacher-training courses.
At present, the school, carrying Pix grades, is hous-
ed in a small building on the southern end of the cam-
pus. By the beginning of the second semester, it is
hoped that the Junior High School building will be
ready for occupancy. The practice work will then ex-
tend to all grades, including the Junior High School.
It is the aim of the school to give the student practice
in the art of applying the most approved methods of
teaching. In addition to the regular grade work, the chil-
dren are taught agriculture through their school garden-
ing, poultry raising, manual training, and homeeconom-
ics. The practice teachers are expected to qualify in
these various lines of endeavor.
The school is modern, sanitary and reasonably well
10 Academic Bulletin
equipped. It has a large amount of .space for play-
ground. Here the practice teacher assists in directing
the games at tht recreation hours. -
It is entirely possible that any live rural coimmunnity
might own and equip such a school as our present child-
"Ear Marks" of Good Teaching
PRESIDENT, N. B.'YOUNG
1. Prompt roll-call and dismissal.: The unprepared
teacher never gets thru on time.
2. Accurate recitation records, and regular written
3. Definite and unhurried assignments of lesson, and
that too as a rule BEFORE the recitation.
4. STUDENTS UNCOVERED (girls) and unwrapped
5. Non interference with reciting student by teacher or
by class. Each individual recitation should be a com-
plete success or failure-preferably a success,
6. The proper attitude of the student is erect posture
sitting or standing not lounging nor LEANING.
7. The CHAIR-TEACHER is generally a poor teacher.
8. The good teacher never asks a leading question, nor
prompts a student by word or by action.
9. Talking nor tieling is teaching. Teaching is inducing
the student to TALK and to TELL.
10. Where there is no learning there has been no teach-
Academic Bulletin 11
The Ideals of Scholarship
JOHN F. MATHEUS
Scholarship is essentially a matter of thought. The
whole learning process of our systems of education cen-
ter about the assimilation of thought and its application
to the problems of to-day. The scholar, as Emerson in-
dicated, almost a century ago, is Man thinking. By his
thoughts we shall know him. Whatever operates in the
mind of scholarship, whatever may be its methods and
purposes will reveal its ideals.
Scholarship has its "metier," its method, universal and
distinctive. Industry, perseverance, accuracy, skill, com-
mon to all occupations which are crowned with success,
apply to scholarship,ancient and modern. Between the
literati of the ancient and modern world there is, how-
ever, a widening divergence of the employment of these
verities in m thods of procedure. From Aristotle to
Roger Bacon, scholarship was reflective and subjective,
and hence quiescent in its theories, interpretative rather
than critical in its speculations. Since Bacon the leaven
of experimentation has worked over the knowledge of
the world. Scholarship, becoming interrogative, chal-
lenging, testing. evolved the scientific method and cul-
The purpose of the ancient search for knowledge had
philosophical rather than utilitarian ends. Men discuss-
ed ethics in Athens and in Rome with no thought of im-
proving the condition of the submerged classes, but only
as an intellectual exercise. Scholarship was pagan, with
a love of knowlegde for knowledge sake-a cold prop-
osition of logic and language.
In the Middle Ages this ancient learning, hoary and
stereotyped, became reduced to a dull foimalism.
Scholasticism was decadent, sterile, creator of an arti-
ficial oligarchy; of intellectuals, which left the masses
in densest ignorance.
12 Academic Bulletin
Then came the ae of which we are a part. Scholarship
exists no longer for its own sake, but for the purpose of
serving the sick, increasing production to prevent star-
vation, mastering the laws of psycho-analysis to correct
the mentally sick and criminals.
The intelligentsia of all ages in the main have been
the torches of civilization The university man was the
recruiter of the Russian emancipation. The scholar in
politics from Pericles and Cicero to Braga, Masaryk and
Wilson, have raised shining standards. In one way or
another, whether the method was philosophical or sci-
entific, scholarship has stood always for Truth. The
Man thinking has been and is a crusader and his Holy
Grail is Truth.
Scholarship too has produced always two antithetical
forces the radical and the skeptic. In government
scholarship has lead the van in the struggle for freedom
and at the same time championed the cause of the re-
actionary. Yet for every Salmasius and his "Def(-nsio
Regia pro Carolo I" there has been a Milton and a "Pro
Populo Anglicano Defensih,".
This is the result of t\wo opposing attitudes of mind.
In one instance in the study of the Past the search for
Truth predominates. The fallacies of the fathers breed
a disrespect for tradition. Radicalism results. On the
other hand with study the traditions of the Past become
venerated. Conservatism follows.
In religion scholarship is to-day on one wing anti-for-
mal, anti-orthodox. It has been unearthing the fallacies
of out-worn tenets that it is jealous of its atmosphere.
It must have room to fling its arms. It must not be
cramped by creeds and customs.
Modern research represents the religion of the sc.-hollr.
The ideal of service thru action epitimized in the Sci-
ence that routes disease, that triumphs over deserts and
b warren lands, that s3eks to rid the peoples of the bur-
dens of War.
Academic Bulletin 13
Still it is to be regretted that scholarship is guilty of
the charge of skepticism. That left wing descends easi-
ly from agnosticism lo negation. The mechanistic con-
seption of life, Post-Darwin Materialism is the natural
outcome. Nevertheless it is healthy sometimes to face
extremes. The iconoclasts and the bigots make possible
the "aurea mediocritas." The seeker of Truth may
narrow and become a fanatic. He becomes a specializ-
ed martinet. The ideal of scholarship seeks Truth fear-
lessly and boldly, but with a catholic generosity. The
foibles of ignorance, the conspiracies of error are with-
stood and combated, but they who are ignorant and in
error are not as ruthlessly despised. True scholarship
approaches unto that Love that will not be denied; that
Charity for the unenlightened that comes from Him
who out of great pity daily gives us mercy.
The Scholarship then that's true to the Ideal of Right
and Broad-mindedness can not be exclusive nor snob-
bish. The scholar must not dwell apart "nor lose the
common touch,'" He has peeped into infinite knowledge
and awed by its immeasurable reaches his soul becomes
great in simplicity. He is happy to mingle with the
humble and lowly. He not only raises a standard, he
is a standard. He uncovers error, uproots prejudice,
destroys superstitions, and when the cohorts of evil,
combining, rise to crucify, he will go forth to battle and
on his shield will flash that brave device of Esther Queen
"I will go unto the king and if I perish, I perish."
II '" .