SERIES V APRIL 1913 NUMBER II
Agricultural and Mechanical
Animal Husbandry Teaching
farmers' Mid Winter Institute
Admitted February 13, 1909 as second-class matter under the Act of Congress of August 24, 1912
FLORIDA A. AND M. COLLEGE PRESS
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Front View of Agricultural Building.
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Front view of Agricultural Building.
BOARD OF EDITORS
F. H. Cardozo, Cbairnan,iN; B. Young, F. C.' Johnson,--J. C.(
INSTRUCTING STAFF OPTHE DEPARTMENT OF
N. B. Young, President.
F. H Cardozo, Director, Profespor,of Agric1lt>re.
L. E. Craves, Assistant Proflessorof Agriculture.
W. H. Crutcher, Instructor of. Farm Crop.
,D. A. Starks,, Inatructor in Animal Husbandry..
F. C. Re,bjqnsp, Copumyjrnpemnpl4ator.
THE RAISING OF LIVESTOCK
It has been the policy of the College here, particu-
larly during the last six years, to raise all of its live
stock needed in the various divisions of the Agricul-
tural Department, as near as practicable.
This plan has been carried out rather successfully
by the Division of Animal Husbandry, consisting of the
instructor in charge, and his student boys. All work
of every character involved, haada1educational value,
and in fact, this partic-lar point is stressed at. every
An idea of the work accomplished during eight
months is had from the following course of study:
PeACTICAL ANIMA. i:-USBANDRY
An elementary theory and )prat ice class i's held
five days per week,. 10:40 a......tt12;20 p. m. through-
out the year, for assigned.-Granmmar School boyjs.
These practice and theori'y classes c'oMe (oi altel nte
days and are designed to give y ounlg 'i'en a clear.con-
ception of the proper care of individual animals and
of herdsAof cattle,: horses, mules, hogs; study of breeds,
selection of stock,. management, the raising of horse and
i.unuie colts, calves and pigs, pedigrees, care of the stal-
lion, bulls and boars, care of milch cows, brood sows
and mares, methods of feeding, balanced rations, bed-
ding, feeding corn silage, watering, pasturing, shel-
tering, common diseases, injurious animal insects and
ailments, use of disinfectants and necessary medicines,
how to milk, use of,:sanitary milk pails, recording yields
of milk from each cow, increasing the yield of milk, ne-
cessity for use of scales in weighing milk at barn, use
of white suits, care of tools, harness, vehicles and lots,
and storage manures; cleanliness and repairs; fencing,
barn and shed construction; killing and marketing of
meats; presenting notebooks with written compositions
on above topics, etc.
The Rear of the Agricultural Building, and an Exhibit of Mules-and Horses-raised on College Farm.
This is the one-year course of study given to the
boys of this division, and every educator having any ex-
perience or observation in the best. State Agricultural
Colleges of the country will recognize the educational
value of work done by the young men in the Animal
Husbandry Division of the College.
There is very little the student can do, or talk about
or ask questions on, but what most of the applied scien-
ces are called on for help. This would of course apply
to those boys who manifested the greatest interest.
The Department of Agriculture also permits a few
young men to do compensative work in the division of
Animal Husbandry during their own time, and they
necessarily learn a large number of useful things in the
handling of livestock.
Academic credit is given to those young men pur-
suing the regular course of study as outlined above.
TEACHING BY PICTURES
To assist in the proper presentation of this subject,
the Department of Agriculture owns and operates fre-
quently its stereopticon lantern and opaque projector,
installed in the Agricultural Building.
A set of twenty-two slides in Animal Husbandry is
used, and will be added to from time to time. The
opaque projector will show any kind of scenes or pic-
tures from books, bulletins or magazines.
In addition to the above, there are charts and pic-
tures galore hanging on lecture and classroom walls of
the Agricultural Building for study and use of students
RAISING MULES IN FLORIDA
(Synopsis of a talk given by Mr. Starks at the Farnners'
Mid-Winter Institute, January 7th to 11th, 1913).
Farmers should raise more mules.. They can be
grown and kept at less expense than horses.
Plan to use steel beam plows on the land, instead
of the small wooden Boy Dixie plow, alid raise a good
mule of your own to pull it.
Raise More Than One
You can do so, by using skill and patience. There
is no need for farmers to pay from $200 to $300 for a
single mule at a sale stable, when if they start in time,
they can grow their own livestock for all purposes. The
principal secret is the providing of good pastures all
the year, and the saving of plenty of hay for winter
feeding. A little corn and bran are good.
REPORT OF FARMERS' INSTITUTE
The Institute was better attended than it has ever
been since its start four years ago. The succeeding pro-
gram was carried out in full, and fund hopes are now
entertained for a better Institute next year.
The farmers brought wives and older children
with them this time, and interested themselves in the
daily program provided.
The prize contests on Wednesday and Thursday
were exceedingly interesting and will have the tendency
to draw the farmers in greater numbers each year. See
It is planned to get up additional prize contests
specially for farmers' wives for 1914, along the line of
needle work, cookery, preserving, canning, etc.
The young men students were allowed to try their
skill in the plowing. contest, all using only the modern
steel beam plows. They were also permitted to enter
the horse judging contest, in each case receiving
money prizes. The interest manifested by the whole
student body was very gratifying, as was shown through
large attendance, close attention, co-operation in de-
tails, college yells for the victors, etc.
The young women of the Senior A class were given
the privilege of decorating the horses taking the first
and second prizes, and they did it in style, using vari-
colored bunting, bells, ribbons, crepe paper, etc., to the
delight of the crowd.
The young women of the Senior B class decorated
the horses taking the third prize, also the young mule
colts on exhibit, both raised on our College farm, and
using wreaths of Spanish moss, strips of cheese cloth, etc.
Their work was well done, and it all has to do with
getting up vital interest in this particular phase of
Agricultural Education. The decorated horses and mule
colts promenaded over the lawn for five minutes, led
by the girls. All this strengthens Animal Husbandry
Souvenirs consisting of printed ribbons, with the
words, "Farmers' Institute, F. A. M.C.,January, 1913"
were given to all farmers and visitors present. Thus
ended a strenuous week.
TUESDAY, JANUARY 7TH
Singing.------ ...- .. ..-...-.. ..-- -
Prayer --- ..--- --__:--- --- -- ------ ---------
Opening Remarks --------..-------President Young
Agricultural Possibilities in the State of Florida-__Hon.
[W. A. McRae, State Commissioner of Agriculture
Sugar Cane Production in Leon County-__Mr. Duncan,
WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 8TH
Soil Management-__Mr. P. H. Rolfs,Director State Ex-
Crop Rotation-Illustrated ------Mr. Crutcher, College
Prize Plowing Contest (on College Farm), Students
THURSDAY, JANUARY 9TH
Dairy Cattle-Stereopticon. .__ Mr. Cardozo, College
Farm Records -__-___...--------Mr. Jamerson, Farmer
FRIDAY, JANUARY 10TH
Commercial Fertilizers -----------Mr. Graves, College
A Report of Demonstration Work Among Colored
[Farmers-_Mr. Robinson, County Agent
SATURDAY, JANUARY 12TH
Mule Raising in Florida-Illustrated__ Mr. Starks, Col-
( 1. Farmers
Prize Stock Judging Contest(on Campus, (. Farmers
ANNOUNCEMENT OF PRIZES
I Plowing Contest Wednesday, January 8th.
Based on the following points: (a) the straightest fur-
row, 25%; (b) conformation of furrow, 25%; (c) treat-
mentof team, 25%; (d) uniformity of depth, 25%.
1st., one Chattanooga number 62 steel beam plow.
2nd., one horse bridle. Both given by the Yaeger, Beth-
el Hardware Co.
1st, one dollar and fifty cents cash. 2nd, one dol-
lar cash. (Given by Instructors of Agricultural Depart-
II Livestock Judging Contest Saturday Jan. 14.
1st, for the best judging of horses, one steel
beam plow; (Given by Williams&Kwilecki Hardware Co)
2nd, for the next best judging of horses, one leather
horse collar (Given by Mr. J. C. Byars' Hardware Store)
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.: ;... STUIDENTS' PRIZES .,
1st; one dollar, cash; 2nd, fifty cents, cashl; -3rd,
t waty--fitve cents, cash. 3:" -- "
Prize given ;o.rthe,. est mule colt, from 1 to 3 years
raised by a eclorel farmer. $2 .50 (Given by Mr. J. W.
Prize for the best mule colt, one year old and not
over two years, raised by a colored farmer, $5.00.
(Given by Mr. Miles Johnson, Jr.)
Prize for best Jersey calf, raised by a colored
farmer, $2.50. (Given by Mr. Miles Johnson, Jr.
3rd, Corn contest, Saturday, January 11th.
Prize for best uniform bushel of ear seed corn, $1.00
(Given by Mr. W. E. Gray.)
F. H. CARDOZO.
INFORMATION SHEET FOR STATE TEACHERS
Teachers desiring to obtain valuable literature that
will help them in their daily work, and who are really
interested in acquiring further knowledge of the prac-
tical sciences relating to Agriculture, Horticulture, En-
tomology(insects), Botany, General Biology, Birds,
Chemistry, Domestic Science, Hygiene, Forestry, Soils,
Geography, Physics, Physiology, Poultry Husbandry,
Agricultural Economics, Irrigation, Roads, Farm Me-
chanics, Dairying, Bees, Farm Engineering, Animal Pro-
duction, Veterinary Medicine, School Extension Work,
etc., Agricultural Education, etc., will do well to send
a postal addressed to the Secretary of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C., asking for "Division of Publications
Circulars, No. 19."
When you have received this circular, thoroughly
examine it for the subject heading in which you may be
specially interested, and then send another postal ask-
ing for particular bulletin you desire, which will be sent
*i- In ordering publications, be careful to state not
only the number of the document, but the kind of pub-
lication (Farmers' Bulletin, Circular-Year Book, Re-
print, etc.,) also the name of the issuing bureau
when indicated in the list, and the title of the publica-
For further information. address.
Department of Agriculture.
Florida A. and M. College,