Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Review of the literature
 An analysis of the procedures and...
 Summary, conclusion and recomm...

Title: Investigation of the Procedures and Policies Related to the Principal's Report of Negro Exceptional Children in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000048/00001
 Material Information
Title: Investigation of the Procedures and Policies Related to the Principal's Report of Negro Exceptional Children in Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Williams, Erma Ballard
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1955
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000048
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0914

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Review of the literature
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    An analysis of the procedures and policies of the principal's report for the educational provisions in Florida
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Summary, conclusion and recommendations
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
Full Text




A Thesis

Presented to

the Foacult of tho (raduato Schoe

Florida Agricultural and Nohanioal Universit

of the Rquirmnts for the Degree

Master of ienoe


arm klluar Villita

Atugut, is

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Approved by:

C. a. .JCuLo>&L--




I. INTRODUCTION ........ ..... ..... .................... ..... 1

The Problem and Definitions of Terms Used ............. 2

The Problem ................... .................... 3

Statement of the Problem ................. ......... 3

Importance of the Study ................ ......... h

Definitions of Terms Used ............................

Unusual Children ................................... $

The Average Child ............................ 7

The Slow-learning Child ........................... 8

Organization of Remainder of the Thesis .......a....... 9

Delimitations ......................................... 10

The Purpose 1...........*.... ..................... 11

II. REVIE OF THE LITERAT RE ............................... 12

Literature on detection and Measurement of the

Slow-learner ............. ....... ......... ....... 12

Characteristics of the Slow Learner ................ 13

Essential Skills .................................. 14

Essential Abilities ............................... 17

It Can Be Done ..................................... 17



FLORIa *............... ....................... ......... 20

Techniques *.......*....... ........................ 21



9.' .








Results 24.............. ........................ 2


Summary ....... .................................... 32

Conclusions ...... ... .. ......................... 33

Recommendations .................................... 34




I. Special Education Units far Negroes in 21 Florida

Counties for Five Years .*...... ................... 29

II. Reports from Florida Cripple Children's Conferences

on Progress Made in the Special Education

Program ......*......*.... ..... ........................ 30

III. Services Rendered to Exceptional Negro

Children from 1950 to 1955 .......................... 31



Enlightened public opinion and action with respect to the exceptional

child, the cause of his exceptionality, his care, education, social develop-

ment and social acceptance, have always followed the evolution of

scientific thought and knowledge devoted to the problem. Although the

objective of promoting their best welfare remains the same, the past

four years have brought many changes in Florida's procedures and policies

with children. It was for this reason that the consultant, Mr. Bob Gates,

of the Education for Exceptional Children, Tallahassee, Florida suggested

that a research study be made of the *Procedures and Policies Related to

the Principal's Report of Negro Children in Florida," for educational

I seryvies be revealed in literature and to indicate the growth and development

in public schools of Florida of such children between the years of 1950 to


With the approval of Dr. W. S. Maize, Dean of the Graduate School,

Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, Florida; the Writer's

chairman, Dr. E. H. Wallace, Director of Elementary Education; the committee,

Mrs. L. A. Sewell and Mrs. M. Williams, Special Education of Exceptional

Children; Mr. R. C. Lipsoomb, the coordinator for exceptional children,

Escambia County, Pensacola, Florida, and Dr. William J. Woodham, Jr.,

Superintendent of Public Schools, Pensacola, Florida aided in securing

information for the preparation of this problem. It is believed that

offered an opportunity to those who are closest to the exceptional child

and most concerned with his welfare, to pool all their resources,

experience, and study, into a reservior of information which may be used

by the State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida, the Florida

| 4 045


A and M University, and the Writer for reference in its consideration of

the exceptional child.

The Problem and Definition of Terms Used

In a discussion of the development of services for the education of the

exceptional child, first a definition of special education should be given.

Special education is any education which involves techniques and patterns

.of teaching which are different from those necessary to instruct the normal

child. It is an education which has distinguishing characteristics and

one which is out of the ordinary. Such education is necessary because

children handicapped in mind or body cannot acquire the knowledge

necessary for their mental development in school facilities patterned for

the education of the non-handicapped child. Children needing special

education are handicapped more often in mind than in body. The child with

body handicapped by paralysis, disease or malformation and a normal mind

Sis not in need of special education if the disability does not prevent

attendance in classes with normal children. However, the child with a

handicapped mind and a normal body cannot be taught in classrooms with

Children who have normal minds and is in need of special education. Special

education involves more often the slow learner than the mentally retarded,

and the child with the hearing, visual or speech defect. Shands reported


The percentage of these groups of children who are
handicapped in body is very small. This is a fact which
many people do not realize.1

A. R. Shands, "Developing Services in Special Education," (Paper read at
ithe Session on Special Education at the Meeting of the Florida Educational
sociatiQn, Tampa, Florida, March 18, 1955).

Often curriculum and methods in education seem to be directed toward

the masses of children, i.e., those called average. However, not overlook

the fact that average is a composite picture of the extreme. It is with

these extremes that his study is concerned, those children classify as

unusual because they tend to be different in some way from those considered


All children called unusual and those called average, are basically

similar. It is the deviation from the pattern that makes a child unusual.

A child may differ physically or mentally from the average, Physical

differences include those involving vision, hearing, speech, and body

disturbances. Mental differences range from the subnormal and feeble-

minded situation to the slow-learning, the rapid learning, and the mentally

gifted. It is with the mental and educational development of the slow-

learning and the mentally-gifted that this study is interested. Nelson,

in attempting to define exceptional children states:

All these are called "exceptional children" the term being
used to refer to those who deviate from what suppose to be
average in physical, mental, emotional, or social characteristics
to such an extent that they require special educational services
in order to develop to their maximum capacity.

K The Problem

S Statement of the Problem. It was the purpose of this study (1) to

indicate the growth and development of special education services for

exceptional children; (2) to show the development and growth of special

I educational services as reported by principals for Negro exceptional

2NelsonrB. Henry, "BasigFact~ and Principles Underlying Special
Educations, Forty-Ninth Yesrbook of the National Society for the Studc of
Education, Part II, 1950, p 3-1.---- -



children in the public schools of the nineteen counties in Florida; and

(3) to make recommendations of improving the role of the private agencies

reporting these children in need of special education services.

Importance of the Stucy. Through many years a difference of opinion

has existed regarding the problem of exceptional children and educational

services. School reports need to keep their services before the public.

Probably this has best been done through narrative and illustrative reports,

but where it is possible, these services should be measured statistically.

Whereas, the county unit is the logical basis for local supervision or

consultative service for the education of exceptional children as it is

for other phases of education. The appointment of supervisors of special

education has been encouraged by the state. On the basis of available

findings, every child is exceptional, since every child's individual

abilities and disabilities differ from those of every other child.

Perhaps more important than the increase in number of handicapped

persons served was the development of a wider range of services. By

State and Federal laws enacted during 19h3, the Rehabilitation Division

was enabled to provide through cooperation with doctors and hospitals,

medical and surgical treatment required by individuals in order to become

employable. All of these services, which have a directvocational objective,

are done only for the purpose of enabling persons to become self-supporting.

Until recently, exceptional children have been largely ignored in

public school programs. Yet, exceptional children wear the same work

clothes as other public school children in Florida. School laws amended

in 19h7 permit expanded educational facilities and services to educate

children with deviations of a physical, mental, or emotional nature.

-These provisions are financed in the same manner as any instruction unit by
state allotments for capital outlay and instruction. The "exceptional child"

is now recognized in Florida as a public school responsibility who cannot
be prepared to take his place in society without special educational attention.
Children who suffer from handicaps concerning impaired vision or
hearing, speech irregularities, motional difficulties, slow learning
ability, physical conditions such as cerebral palsy and heart ailment
are provided with a changed or adapted educational program. Where necessary,
special materials and classrooms are provided to meet individual needs
and equalized educational opportunities. The limitations of these have
been pointed out by English; more than 3,000 exceptional children were
%given special instruction under this program in 1947.

There are an estimated 8,000 children in the State of Florida who
are exceptional. Approximately 6,700 of these children are educationable;
e remainder, 1,500 can be institutionalized, and placed under custodial
hare. In this study an attempt was a de to 'employ techniques of which the
abovee criticism cannot be made.

finitions of Terms Used
Unusual Children. The expression "unusual children" includes both
e retarded and the gifted. This means those children who deviate from
e average to such an extent as to require special treatment or training
order to make the most of their possibilities. As far as possible,
e exceptional children should be allowed to have the same opportunities

3Colin English, "State Superintendents Report," Suiperintendent of Public
truction State of Florida, Tallahassee: July 1, 1946-June 30, 19- h8


as aqn other children. The exeptional differ from the normal in degree,

depending pon the amount of the deviation.

Modern education has developed a standard for measuring a person's

intelligence. This fos a basis of determining whether a child is slow-

learning or mentally gifted. This is usually expressed as an intelligence

quotient, more commonly know asn I. Q.

However, educators and psychologists ar not in total agree as to

what omprites intelligence. Binet defines intelligence ast

ihe ability to take and maintain a definite direction,
such as adaptability to a new situation, and ability to
criticise one's owa acts.
oodworthsays that

Intelligence is the ability to use facts and
activities already acquired by ready adaptability to
novel situations, by curiosity, interest in, nd desire
to knew about things. Also, by persistence, or the
i trait of sticking to what is began.
Baker claims that

iIntelligence is adaptability to life situations,
Snot only in school learning, but also in practical
adjustments to neighborhood and social customs.

thorndike claims that

Sfhe field of practical application has three areas
of intelligence () Abstraet intelligence, or ability
to derstand Md amagr- idas and sbelb su as
Uords, embers, asiemttif priaedjle, and tC like.
(2) Nechanical intelligeaee, or the ability to leaxn,
understand, and mai e things and -eehanisas. (3) Social
intelligence, or the ability to deal with people and
to act wisely in huaa relatins.

I __ tht Ii Qatee, 9Tb. ^wrIIvi of BR.^ (Mew Tork: 1953) p. 78,
citing Binet, A Survr el lis eHearing, and theirr Factors.

So.bert 8.. ood.orth, aE (New York: H.olt OCmpay, 193) pp. 92-95

rIeepti M. Sa Childre (e e. the

.L Thorndikes he Bmraut of
Unoation, Bulletin No. 1"07, p. 63)

? ,



Because of the variations t l einitio of intelligmneo the writer
ut avoid the faallaey do beliUi that all mental preseoses can be
ammurised into an I. uiewei rb, useful he fiads suh eaurmeaets to be

4* slass) iing various qap hraeA ote eher taetors to be considered.

SAgE e m! In arer d to neet .o te dividual nees of a child,
eoolete understading of the child is n a awry. ths muns a )knoledge
of his physical ooeditions, eetional adjustaeta, seeal eeds, and mental
ability. It blades an aequaintanee with his spoil -iterest and
difficulties as wall as his attitude teird himself, fallow pppil, parents
and teachers.
In order to understand these inual children he amut first consider
the s-ealld average child to determine how the unusual differ froe the
normal or average. the l esses rather than the difference, should be

emhasised so that all a? Y- a part of the groq. All ahildre,
regardless of their I. Q., .rave reoognitie, praise and security. Kirk
innd Johnaon in att ting to eaure a e ilda real

Those pupils ho are e si ied to be the aerage
group probably omprie 50% to 60 of all the pupils.
Included in this gr e are these hose I. Q. 's range from
90 to 10, with the latest grup having I. Q.' of about

itane meh a large part of the seheol population falls into the
Savage roup, it is no w r that the ewrriol is directed toward it
Slewevt, the other group with its m un sab-divisi.ms needs just as msh

* 8
S8nuel A. irzk and Orrille Jehasea, Sdat the Retarded Child
(ew- lorka Ho@u tonJl flin Capay, 1951) p. 3


attention. Education has a definite responsibility toward the large group

of average children. A curriculum especially adapted to its needs should

be part of the school program. In some cases, high school will be the

top level of its educational attainment. Some may go beyond this, but

should be possible for all to complete the high school work.

Good citizenship should be instilled in the average child to the

best of his capacities. On the one hand he should be made to feel that

he is not inferior to those who are superior. However, he should not

be expected to attain beyond his capacity. The curriculum at any level

should not put a strain on the child because of too much unsuitable material

or too many subjects.

The Slow-learning Child. Ordinarily, between 20% and 25% of the

school population falls into the group whom is considered slow-learning.

This does not include the small percentage who are mental problems and

should be enrolled in special classes.

Slow-learning pupils usually have I.Q.'s of 70 to 90.
These figures are elastic. Some pupils whose I.Q.'s would
indicate that they belong to this group are considered
average because of good habits and diligent application to
work. Slow-learning pupils are at the same time of
entrance to school, often already twelve months or more
retarded. This figure increases as the child advances
from grade to grade due to his rate of growth being less
than that of the average child. By the time the slow-
learning child reaches the sixth-grade he may be two
years mentally retarded and three years at the high school
level. In each months of time, these children gain five
months in mental age, which indicates a growth of 83% of the growth
of normal children, these figures are based on objective data
of Louttit.9

9C. M. Louttit, "Diagnostic Methods: Psychometrics," Clinical Psycholog. ,
(New York: Harper & Brothers, 19h7) pp. 98-99.

In order that slow-learning pupils may achieve the maximum learning,

drill and repetition are necessary. This group learns through simple

mental processes. Each step should be clearly explained, understood, and

Mastered before proceeding to the next stage. The interest and attention

Sspans are short, so the work should be varied and interesting.

Slow-learning pupils learn from the concrete. They do not grasp

|> the abstract. Therefore, their work should be specific and progress

toward the general. Review is essential. It should be combined with

the new work so that there is a constant repetition. Slow-learning

pupils are not capable of evaluating their own work. They often do

not know whether they are right or wrong.

G Organization or Remainder of the Thesis

It has been said many times that everyone concerned with the

rehabilitation of the handicapped child belongs to a team that the part

Sthe principal plays in classroom education is only one part of total team

activity. It should again be pointed out that the principal's responsibilities

i to her faculty cannot be limited to the classroom. She must consult with

Sthe school doctor, 'the nurse, the therapist, and the social worker; and

Sfor her older children she must confer with:'eA vocational counselor.

She must know something about programs of vocational training following

academic education and, above all, she must frequently consult with the

parents of her handicapped children. For the work of the teacher to be

most effective, she must be aware of what has been done for the child

Before coming to her classroom, she must know what medical care is

being given when the child is with her and she must have some idea of what

is to be done f6r the child after leaving her class. The writer, definitely

wish to say again that no program of education for the handicapped child

has the best chances to succeed unless there is a very close association

between the principal, teacher, and the plre tts, who, together, exert the

greatest influence on the mental development and character formation of

the child.

Now consider what some of the roles of the principal, private or

voluntary agency may be in the developing of better services for children

in need of special education. History shows that governmental action

on problems of social welfare nearly always follows efforts and

accomplishments of principals and private agencies. Private agencies

and principals invariably have presented needs and pointed the way in the

way in the development of our state and federal Crippled Children's

Services in special education. One of the first and foremost roles of

the principal is the pointing up and the publicizing of needs to the

public. Far the last six years the pointing up of all needs for handicapped

children has been one of the major activities of the Nemours Foundation.10

The problem of this research was to study the status of special

Education for-exceptional Negro children in 19 counties of Florida and

the provisions that have been made for future development of such

Programs in counties throughout the state.

lDelimitations. Three things were to be found out here

1. The counties in Florida that have special educational service
| to meet the needs of exceptional Negro children.

| Florida's Sunshine Story, (The Florida Children's Commission, Tallahassee,
p7oridar The Nemours Foundations, 1954).




2. The development and progress of the services given from 1950 to

3. The procedures and policies used by principals in the various
counties for reporting the children to be investigated for
special services.

As a result of the investigation the investigator was able to propose

recommendations for improving the methods and techniques of agencies and

principals in reporting children for special educational services.

The Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assist administrators,

teachers and personnel who work with exceptional children in the State

of Florida.

The writer feels that there was a great need for an investigation

in the Negro public schools of Florida to see if equal facilities are provided

for Negro children and if children who attend special classes appear to be

better adjusted to the program in schools *from observation made by their




The modern teacher is interested in good adjustment for every child

in his group. He recognizes that there are many kinds of slow-learners.

But the point is he keeps uppermost in his mind the need to take every

child where he is, to understand him, and to teach him so that every

day in school holds a maximum of success for him. Only then can every

day be a happy one.

Literature on Detection and Measurement of the Slow-learner. The

slow child in the regular classroom usually differs from the normal child

purely in his ability to learn and retain abstract material from books.

Often, he has special talents and gifts which help to compensate for his

lower general ability. Like all children, he seeks praise, rejoices at

success, enjoys competition, and becomes discouraged and unhappy through

constant failure. He reacts successfully to the same motivation as normal

children. There will be dignity in every learning experience for every

child if the teacher carefully adjusts the assignments to needs and


Such adjustments take understanding on the part of each teacher of

the characteristics and needs of the slow learner. To view some of

these characteristics, we see how a teacher modifies instruction at all

levels of learning to teach the slow child the necessary skills and to

able him to use them successfully. Baker11 gives the following dis-

aussion on the characteristics:

11Harry J. Baker, Characteristic Differences in Bright and Dull Pupils,
;(Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Publishing 53mpany, 1927) 3 p. 118.



I. Characteristics of the slow learner

A slow learner is characterized by:

1. His short attention and concentration span. The good
teacher schedules man short, well-motivated periods for
learning. For the older child, broken supervised
study periods are provided.

2. His slow reaction time. The teacher introduces only
one new point at a time, and he tests it directly by simple
fact questions.

3. His limited ability to evaluate materials for relevancy.
The teacher uses only materials with an appropriate vocabulary
and a limited number of abstractions. He makes his
references explicit and selects simple reference and source

4. His limited powers of self-direction. By making many
suggestions and planning with them, even to the minutest
details, the teacher guides the pupil.

5. His limited ability to work with abstractions and to
generalize. He needs many concrete experiences and
practical firsthand illustrations. All reading
materials must be examined in the light of simplicity
of vocabulary and sentence structure, as well as the number
of abstractions in the materials.

6. His slowness to form associations between words and
ideas. The teacher scans all material to be taught for
new words and concepts. He concentrates on developing
comprehension at the child's level.

7. His failure to recognize familiar elements in new
situations. What seems too obvious to mention is often
overlooked by the child. The teacher explains every-
thing simply and repeats the same thing in different

8. His habit of learning very slowly and forgetting very
quickly. This means he needs many more highly motivated
practice periods and frequent reviews over as longer
period of time.

9. His very local point of view. The teacher- connects
all major learning with the world about them. He
emphasizes social living and civic responsibilities.
The limited mental initiative usually makes the slow
learner remain in the area in which he is brought up.


/ 0. His inability to set up and realize standards of workmanship.
The teacher guides and checks learning very carefully. Errors
are spotted, and attention is drawn to them, for the student
has little power to find his own errors.

11. His lack of originality or creativeness. The teacher plays
to his strengths and talents. By allowing him to copy from
pictures or models, he hopes to develop the esthetic, spiritual,
and artistic side of the child.

12. His inability to analyze, do problem-solving, or critical
thinking, or reach decisions. His good judgment depends on
the number of experiences packed into his education while
in school. He needs training in application of techniques.
It is futile to present techniques which are beyond the level
of comprehension of each individual.

13. His lack of power to use the higher mental processes. This
indicates the need for a different program than the one supplied
in the curriculums in grades seven through twelve today.
A slow-learning youngster can beeducated successfully at every
grade level, but it is extremely important that the content
of the materials and the teaching procedures be adjusted to
his everyday needs.
Learning according to Sherman, will result if the teacher adjusts

the program at any grade level to these characteristics, and if he knows

what.skills are important to teach each child. Skill is evident only

when the material has been so well-taught that it is integrated in -the

thinking of the child, as evidenced by an automatic correct response.

Featherstone13 presents these accounts of essential skills.

Essential skills. What are the basic skills that the slow-learning

child should be taught? (1) to recognize meanings of words quickly.

This differs with the needs of the child and his capacity to handle

12Mandel Sherman, Intelligence and Its Deviations, (New York: Ronald
Press Company, 1915) p. 286.

13W. B. Featherstone Teaching the Slow Learner, (New York: Teachers,
Columbia University, 1941 p. 100.


reading. The slow child requires a vocabulary of high-frequency words

which he will need all his life. Emphasis should not be placed on

learning all of the wcrds presented in basal readers; all of them are

not needed. A child may leave school with very little ability in reading

books, but if he has a community recognition vocabulary, added to the

basal vocabulary mentioned above, he can operate well in society.. His

reading needs will be few. He should be able to read street and bus signs,

recognize the names of the important buildings in his community and know

words. (2) To analyze words at his own level. It is as necessary for

the slow child, as for anyone, to be able to analyze newwrds. He must

associate sound and symbol and have a phonetic approach to new words if

he is to have independence in oral and silent reading. This skill also

underlies correct spelling, which is one of the skills he should have.

Of course, his word-analysis work will be developed around a simpler

vocabulary. (3) To spell correctly the word needed to do successful

writing. Research shows us that spelling and writing needs of slow learner

are very simple. Too often, time and effort are spent in learning of

columns of words which do not transfer to writing needs. While the slow

child may memorize a difficult spelling list successfully for a day

or even a week, he will forget the words quickly, because they have no

use for him. At the same time, a study of his writing will show many

simple mispelling due to lack of continued drill on these words.

Spelling is only valuable as a transfer to writing. Everyone must do

some writing in adult life. Therefore, emphasis should again be placed

on a basal spelling list for the younger child. This list should

constantly be reviewed and supplemented by words of social, civic, and



occupational significance, known to be needed by everyone as the adult

level. (4) To handle number concepts accurately. Quantitative

concepts are the most difficult for the slow-learning child. But

since more number skill is needed in. adult life than skill in any other

subject, so teaching of number concepts should be extremely practical

and of the problem-solving variety. The teacher should make certain

that many well-motivated repetitions are given for every quantitative

concept taught in order to assure accurate mastery from the beginning.

It is not how many processes the child can exposed to, but how well he

can use those simple processes he needs. A child may be decidedly

confused in number concepts when he arrives in the classroom of a

particular teacher. If he is to be helped, the teacher must recognize

the heed of diagnostic tests which will measure the kinds of errors

the pupil is making, These tests help the teacher to measure the rate

Se..work,,.aeceuray ef-worky level of difficulty of the most difficult

R.:- mple. th sehild ocan-work successfully, the area of skills has covered,

and his method of work. (5) To use study skills and maintain good work

Shabite .. aA-th. 0la .Pl-earnanng--chlid learn to work independently if he

i"- i ve *adequabriz+n *.a work: habits and study skills. His

:.Beeds will..be-.e.ratd ao.e4ea=ta than. those -of the superior

t1e 6ld4weetpA ri(heyro tfk Ma^ssk'uteu tionp- he-will flounder

SaM dbao e ~m oafise. this oe. Qtn:- results-in his withdrawal from school.

Bigelcow points out that the essential abilities should be considered.

ar 1 W. Bigelow, Helping Teachers Understand Children, (Washington,
D. C.r American Council on Education, 1915) p. 68. ---


Essential abilities. What are the basic abilities that the slow-

learning child should be taught.

1. Ability to follow oral and written directions.

2. Ability to answer questions accurately.

3. Ability to locate specific information from reading.

4. Ability to remember details at a later date.

5. Ability to organize ideas in sequences.

6. Ability to select key words or pick out the major points.

7. Ability to skim material rapidly to find answers to questions.

8. Ability to summarize a personal experience or material read.

9. Ability to get the central thought.

10. Ability to report from notes taken while reading or listening.

These abilities can be developed only if the teacher from the first

has adjusted the material to the vocabulary level and the social-interest

level of the group. No child willhave success with material which does

not interest him.

It can be done. To repeat, the slow child react to the same experiences

as his quicker friends. He approximates the other children in physical

and social development. His interests are the same. He must have

reading material with content and illustrations which are dignified and

pleasing to him.

Teaching the slow learner can be a great source of satisfaction. He

will represent a sizable part of our democratic society in the years to

come. Let's educate him to be the kind of citizen he should be through

a good educational program. Let's help him to be well-adjusted and self-


sufficient, using his suffrage to help everyone in these United States.

Sullivan, has done valuable work in detection and measurement of the

exceptional child and in revealing the social attitudes of different


The only difference between a rut and a grave is their

The Metropolitan Study Council warned that since group intelligence

tests do not always tell all they should be verified by individual type

tests administered by a trainedpsychologists or psychometrist.

There are "pseudo defective" children who give the appearance of

being slow; achievement is retarded, test findings may be inaccurate,

and drive may be lacking. That is, the lack of an inner urge to succeed

results in the under-achiever who may have normal or superior capacity.

The Metropolitan Study Council and other authorities16 gave these

as methods to be used by the teacher to follow before attempting to classify

a pupil as a slow learner:

1. Examine the age-grade progress record of the school and cumulative
record of the pupil and locate those pupils who are below grade
by one and one-half years, and at the same time retarded in
progress by more than a year or a year and a half.

2. Administer at least two group intelligence tests or alternate
forms of one test to all pupils if possible, but at least to
all those believed to be slow learners.

3. Administer individual intelligence tests to all pupils if
possible, but especially to those who continually fall below
normal in the group tests by specialists.

4. Administer several educational tests for the prupose of
surveying educational achievement.

15Helen Blair Sullivan, (Dr. Sullivan is professor of education and director
of the educational clinic of Boston University) National Educational Association
Journal, Volume h0, Number 2, pp. 11-116.

16Fredric Burcaw, The Slow Learner in the Average Classroom, (New York:
Metropolitan Study Council, 1954) pp. 1-3.


5. Make thorough studies of physical achievement.

All of these procedures should be carried out with an attitude of

mind which assumes no pupil is natively a slow learner, until all other

causes of functional slowness, such as, physical handicaps, defective

sight or hearing, unwholesome home and environmental conditions or meager

experiences have been diagnosed by qualified specialists, and if possible,






It was found in this study that a good school program in special

education is one means of meeting some of the needs ok exceptional

children. However, in the past, relatively few exceptional children have

been able to attend special classes and schools in the State of Florida.

The Escambia County School Board makes available to the schools,

the services of a full-time nurse, and two psychologists. It also

supplies the services of a physician when the need arises.

Since authorities have recommended that specialists be consulted

before maknlf final decisions on many exceptional children, it proposed;

a teacher in the Public Schools of Florida, after careful observation

and study may refer an exceptional child's history to the principal.

(That is, in cases where physical defects seems to contributing

factors of retardation). The school principal should then asaeme the

responsibility with the cooperation of the classroom teacher for notifying

parents and the school nurse directly of the existence of physical defects

and behavior symptoms, not already followed by the teacher. They should

take such steps as may be necessary to obtain treatment for these pupils.

When the services of a physician have been obtained, an examination

should be given that will include a careful checking of immunizations,

and a careful health history, particularly against whooping cough, diptheria,

and small-pox. It should also include a minimum examination of the yes

and lids, the ears, canals and drums, the teeth and gums, the lymph nodes


and thyriod glands, the heart, the scalp and skin, the bones and joints,

postures, the feed, the nervous system, and speech. The nurse and the

physician should secure help in determine screening procedures in the

school system by consulting a pediatrician and other specialists that deal

with the children. Vision and hearing tests should be given to determine

sensory perceptions.

The child would then be studied by a psychologist who is qualified

to administer psychological tests. The tests administered should consist

of individual and group intelligence tests, performance and social maturity

scales, and achievement tests. The psychologist should bring his findings

together for a conference with the principal, supervisor, teacher and

other personnel before a final summary report and recommendations are made.

This summary report should furnish the teacher of the exceptional

child with much information on the child's problems and potentialities

in the physical, mental, educational, and social areas. It should also

provide the basis for the beginning of the educational program.

Techniques. In the city school systems of Florida the grades are

divided into the slow and fast sections, having kept together just

long enough to find the quick pupils and the ones who"are slow. In

the Very beginning in doing this you eliminate the complication of an

audience which is not a well-wisher for the pupil who in speed is not

a well-wisher. After all, the reason for the division must be

incidental not letting either the fast or the slow groups suspect why.

To avoid an acute division about four groups could be beneficially

formed perhaps to work around those many tables informally.


Now comes very hard and careful work and planning by the teacher for

| the things presented to the slow pupil* By the stories, things which

Happened of benefit to persons of importance the children knew because

they did a certain phase of school work and so on. In otherwords every

new project must be presented to these pupils through.rose colored

glass to give them a motor turning desire to acquire the machinery and

mechanism to accomplish reading, spelling, arithmetic because successful

people know how to figure rapidly, art because there are girls and boys

who do not even become painters who use art in drafting architecture,

fashion lay-out, medical sketching, and many practical professions related

to art. Likewise with reading--it is used on the radio, it gleams

important thoughts of other people which cannot be obtained any other

way than by knowing what the picture of the printed means when translated

into people and objects. Grammar becomes desirable in that beautiful

speech is used in many professions which earn a good living, the

writing profession, drama and other related subjects.

Learning msut be in terms of children's readiness of ite But

the children in any given classroom are at many different stages of

readiness. Therefore, specific learning must be different for different

children. The failure to recognize this fact in practice has led to school

"failuresT*, to inefficiency, to waste of time, and to damaging the children

whom it is our responsibility to help to an individual and socially

satisfying growth. It is thirty years since Leonard Ayres wrote "Laggards

Leonard P. Ayres, Laggards in Our Schools, (New Yorkt Russell Sage
Foundation, 1909) p. 236.

in Oaur Schools" and brou ht vigorously to the attention of the school

world the number of children who failed. Not lonr. afterward Frederic

Burk went further. He showed that it was not the children who failed :ut

the schools.
Eurk's plan for breaking the lock step is emphasized in the Florida

schools as 'iven by Otto: (1) rite text material simple, concertly,

and very clearly as if it were to be used as correspondence lessons for

children. These "Self-Instruction Bullet iens," prepared by Burk's

facultyi, were thbebe innin_ of the modern "word bookss" and a potent

influence in the great improvement of texts books ever since. (2)

Differentiate a si~mments, providing extra practice for the slow learners

who need extra practice. (3) Provide for self-correction of their work

by the pupils. (1!) Stimulate maximum effort by each child through short

periods cf intensive work. (5) Let each child's work be individual--

each child working on a unit for which he is ready and passing on to the

next unit when one unit is comrilete, regardless of the progress ao

other children. (6) When a child is ready for the next -rade's work

in any subject, without necessarily changing rooms, let him proceed to

the next rrade's work in June, let him -o in September from whore he left

off. (7) Supplement individual work with creative and socialized

activities--such as art, music, dramatics, and especially "Socratic

Discussions" in which children exchange thinking on topics the factual

part of which they already know.

18Henry J. Otto, Elemertary School Cii-o i ~ 'a-- ion and Administration,
(New York: Apoleton-Century-Crofts, Incorporated, 1937T pp. 22-2)..

Th1-':o are tim e and a point in the development of a teachers work

with the slower child if the child seems still to be confused and

bewildered, appears not to react to directions from the teacher hen it

is necessary to consult the school physician and find out whether

the pupil's ears are defective and the child cannot hear, thereby

appearing disobedient or if the child cannot see properly it appears

that it is the child's mind instead of his eyes. The teacher gets

a Doosoned atmosphere and attitude toward the pupil who apparently is

disobeying when in actuality it is because the child has not heard

one word and knows nothing of what Ithe teacher means for him to do.

Most of These cases can be remedied y medical treatment or the use of

equipment rec rnmmended.

Results. "You can kill me if you want to, but don't make me

go ,o that school'" sobbed 9 years old Mary as she threw himself on the

schoolhouse steps. Her distraught father had reached the end of his

rope. Cajoling, admonishing, pleading and ordering the child to go to

school had failed. Her mother and he did e- o: ihing they could to

encoura e her to like school, her teacher, her playrates. But all they

had encountered in the girl was resistance. Fortunately an under-

stancding principal came to her rescue. :-,r- was referred to a

psychiatrist. Her case was properly dia-gnosed and treatment administered.

:Lr-- ecame a happy girl in school, interested in learning and putting

her thoughts into action.

:Voni;i:3 of research and treatment brought to light Mary's problem.

While not feeble-minded she was mentally slow. Trying to keep up with

her ae group had proved too much faP her. She conuld-n't adjust herself

to her class. Her to combr.at the situation was rebellion. A plan

rwas ]devised where !by she could Iwork at her own level and at her own

speed. Her grores; was remarkable.

In a similar situation was another little girl, 9 --., old, called

Dotty. She be:-can to hare nihtmaresr when she had ,:een in school a year.

The- increased as she mrow older. In adc.ition she -reter ded to have all

kinds of ailments to keep from opinf; to schcl. Like Hary's parents

her mothc and father tried o-- have her attend school. So Dotty

went to school and then ran away as so:n as hsn er da,'-i-- and mother left

her. I.hen the irate parents discovered she h-ad ben playing hookey, Ditty

was punished and finally ran away from hone. For one whole night she

was ,o(ne. Police nicked her ue as she roamed the streets. Dotty'

behavior was so f.r out of her r rents hands that help -as sou -ht.

Under care of a psychiatric: st and with sessions of the parents and T:he

social worker detailed in the schedu_Le, Dotty emerged a normal child.

Her trouble .was monocular vision, that is, she saw with only one eye,

although vision ,was normal with tihe other. Dotty was further hamonered

because she saw with he- left eye, but was ri';ht-handed. This creat-ed

problems, and she revolted. The clinic provided corrective eye

exercises for her visual pro lerm and soon her ri ht eye was trained

to see as we1l as '-he left.

The clinic- which provided corrective treatment for Dotty and :"--

handles approximately 700 cases each .-,*. Many persons who know of

19 Cri ed C dren's Coisson) 1
-Triennial Report, (Florida Crippled Children's Comr'ission) 1990-1993.

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the case -was analyzed t-at they had mare life so dif icult for their boy

1 by exoectinr: too much from him thati t .-- nearly turned hnir. to juvenile

delinqc ent.

A Ca-e Study of a Retarded Child and Results. Jimmy was a nervous

iunha-opy lit'-le boy. He was plagued wih severe headaches and nau.sea.

His fin-ernails 'itten to te quick, seemed1 to i ica'e an emotional

disturbance rather thn any .---ical ill. For this reason, the

family phIyTsici.an eco-i-enoded that his n aent consult the doctors at the

..:i.al uicdace Cliric. At this .ed Feather ao;cnc- of the Riclhmond
Co rrityr Chest testing showed that J:'. : was an i.ntelliient,

imaina tiv4e and highly7. sensit ive child. c u.t throughil interviews with boLth

parents and son it was learned tht ,the mother and father unknowingly

had demanded excel ence from -heir only chl d. Thus an intelligent

boy was trade to feel i-uilty over his ever failure and, the harder he

tried, the more often he failed.

Thr'-u h the patie-t, expert guidance of 1the :- riall Guidance

Clinic, Jimmy was able to re-airn his self-confi cdnce. i.s parents were

also heelped to understand the reason for their son's frustration and


T',-7, Jir-yr is once ar'ain a normal child---free from the paralyzing

fear of failure and inferiority. A child's life, one of our most

valua~ le community assets, was salvag7ed.

2Case History VReor-rts of the Children's memorial Guidance Clinic.
A Community Chest Project of Ric.hmoncl, Vir inia, 191.

TA.-T'F3S 3 :. ,. E '.' T'i SPECIAL EDSCA 'IN

I.7 '. STATE c Bi'.IDA I: T PAST E I.. .TAiS

It wras -fo-d ;y this stucd- t-hat here in the State of Florida

interest in the special ecducaticn services for Ne";ro exceptional

c.ildr-en '-s Ircvesed. 'c n apnrecia':le de ree.

The Pollow i-. ; tables show the special education services and

units under ",.e Florida State Pr"ogrp: front, -ears (19 0i'-!095), uhich

includes al. counties with units reg:istcred with th1e State Departiment

o0 Educa-'-ion.

The purpose of Table I is tc show, the numlbere of cou.ntes in Florida

recei'-in:i scrv'ices in special e1uc,-liion.

The purpose of Thble II is tc show the pro:,ress and development of

special education services .or e:cepticnl.I children.

The purpose of Table III is to s>ow 'the types of services rendered

to ie:ro exccptioni.l children as reported by principals.

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S ., Ct ',I.'L.USI. '3 AND REC(' Er'. "CKS

St'r -'. It has been found during the process of this study that,

as a person, the exceptional child i:; like the rest of human beings.

There is an infinitely impor-ant role the principals play and golden

tl-.reads which he or she weea-.es into the final education of the

exceptional nupil and eventual equipment he has to earn a living and

be able to reot adult life in solving the -oroblems which are presentted.

What we know as exceptional children are not necessarily a:-l less mind

of a fine quality -lan the pupil who grasps li!e lig-htenirn; material

presented, his development is only slo,:er. Two hcvy responsibilities

lie with the teacher, the first that she never lets the child who

has to work hard for what he retains ;:aet the feeling that the teacher

considers him inferior to other children who assimilate material at a

faster rate. The other S7-ve responsibility is to put in check

aggressive pupil s who assume the cruel and determinate role of parading

themselves and preening with a strut like peacocks before those pupils

with the project of putting over the impression upon the slow pupil

and everyone else that -I-'-- are pinnacling their statue in height

which is to be deducted in the eyes and opinions of everyone else from

the statue of the slower pupil.

The Florida Schools' Board make available to schools the services

of nurses and psychologists. Authorities have recommended that

principals use these specialists to increase the progress and develop-

ment of the .: jro Exceptional Children.

These delayed-progress iminds blossom and fill places of importance

in society, in -the -o crn:e"nt of their community, State anrd nationn. It

is in the principals' hand to furnish a stimuli and inside flame and

desire in these npuils to bring then to an intense interest 'rTh!icn will

fuel them into motivation andc acquisition.

Conclusions. All the authorities agree that if a program for

the e xceptio.nal children is to ;le fuiLctiot'.l and successful, it must

be based en'+he needs of each cexceptionral child.

1. Each child should 'e given the opportunity to develop
to the maxiimu of his ability ---social. ly, morally,
mentally, physically, and emotionally.

2. Teaching the exceptional child can be a soT rce of
satisfaction rith the use of proper methods and techniques.

3. The slow learner reacts to similar e:,xperincces as his
quicker friends. He approximates :the other children in
-,"--1 cal and social develon cment.

h. The exceptional child must have subject matter material
with content illustrations 7,,which are di-.nified and pleasing
to him.

To be justifiably, proud of .rhat Florida has done in improving its

special edu.cPtion services in the last six years, and especially

proud of the progress shich has been made in s-ecial education for the

Negro exceptional child, thanks to the keen interest of the directors

of- he Department of Public Instruction and tc Mr. do: ert Gates, the

Director of the Special ECdcation.

Recor, menda ions for organizing the special -education services

of the various :rade levels are outlined in this section. It is

by no means the intention of this study to set up a pattern for

adoption in schools. On the contrary, the plan and description of

activities presented here are offered as an illustration of methods

and as a guide to selection. TJhile much of the experience in schools

of one county may be utilized in the schools of other counties, the

educational program in detail is effective only when it is planned for

the immediate local community. Special education, including the

gradation of special services, methods employed, and materials use,

should include and be consistent with the local program of curriculum

organization and :he general educational policies of the school.

The desired learning experiences in special education for each

grade level should include emphasis on different phases of child growth

at each particular level. Special educa':ion will be more interesting

and effective for both teacher and pupil when they select from these

roles for each level.

Recorm!enda Lions. It is recommended that:

1. The principal sponsor and operate pilot projects inreeded
activities for the handicapped, such as special education.
For example, the Delaware Cripn-led Children's Society
started in 19!9 'he first school for handicapped children
in Delaware. At that time the State DeDartment of Public
Instruction was doing very little for the child in need
of special education. Three years later the legislature
appro-riated sufficient funds for a str-a' school and the
state took over the Delaware Society's school project.
There is a great deal to be done in the education and
training of the hard of hearing, the visually handicap ed
and the children wi th speech defects. Establishment of
pilot projects in th -e fields is a real and important
need in many communities.

2. The principal should encourar:e teacher training programs
and research activities. Sufficient personnel to carry
on adequate oro grams of special education is always
lacking. The principal should recomniend both long and
short term courses in special education for teachers.
In teacher education for the teachers of exceptional
children, other is a great need for research, leading
to better and more effective techniques for the education
of handicapped children. Enough undoubtedly is not known
about the psychological and physical testing of certain
types of handicaps in order to find out what types of
education they are best suited for. There is need for
research into the techniques of screening and classifying

many types of handica.-pedc children. Some research pays
great dividends, but it mray -c costly. However, here
is a -reat deal of cosly research bcin; done uwith little
or no returns. Princinals should support the uncertainties
of research and hep to prove or disprove the worth of
likey pro ects, ot;her-ise prores: will be -_- slow and
might not even be mad.c. If only one of many sound research
projects, other'wse progress will be very clow and mriht
not even be made. If only one of many sound research
projects supported by a principal turns out to ie worthwhile,
the expenditure of the mfuns of this principal wilT be

3. The principal ocrks with the a rents of -t' bandicapoed and
e Paront-To-cher '.As ociati-nis. The ;si nci -l should take
10e lead in proi:rams o piront e uc:,ion. It should sponsor
cl.as sss for rrrents of :andi.car ,-,od children so tat, t:he-y
nay nore clearly underhand teir 'tiis and resp onsi ilities
in '-,e educ-tion a nd. traii': f thoir ch ldren. To e principal,
parLicularly, should worc with the rent "roups who has
chil-drn with cripplin cold.itic s, such as cerebral nals- and
ncntacl rtarrt'tio:. The n-rcnt ocf those children hae
at ti.. es beo0c describCd as "erl.otionaly charged" probably
du-e to :rustration over the -ears i" ;ryic- and hopin t-o a -e
sonethin- dcne for their chiTdrlen. The principal should
develop wi-th tose special parent r:roup, rational and
realistic plains of opera-t.ion. One of the 'reat needs
ri :ht now s to ha-e a more careful screening of -1the
cerebraJl nalsy child for education and treatment. Those
of you inc spec-a euca.. ion w ho are teachinr- handicapped
children must not further handicap then by 'avi rn unmduc'able
chi ] (ren who belong in either classes for trainable children
or domicilary institute ons.

1_. The principal consolidate end maintain good public opinion
concerning what can be -InnA for hand.c:;cn*'e- 'hicdren.
Int.i.c7i-ent publicit- ,nrd lsrtisfactory public reJ,!tions are
abSsolutelJy, essential for all pr'c:rans of h-ndicap-,ed. A
principal can he of valuable service in this field. Frank-
-in-teretation to the precs concernin-: the handicnned ,nd his
prob ems is a;-1 ':s needed. The pnmlic mind can roer;eer and
be more t la stinl- impressed 'ye stories of specific qchl.ldren.
These should be pre-areod nd l given to t.h e T)ress by the
principal. At 1953 confere-ce the '.:rI-'us Founda-tion
spoensorerl wi'b. thi Children's Coraission in St. Petersb- -r ,
there were representatives of neTTspaors. Special attention
wags ;iven to interpret the -iscussions of he niect-!ir': to this
,'roup. It is believed r:TIch -ood was dlone. T'"is ti'-e of
pro :ran should e'e e:spnnded and increased, for onl. in this wav
wil] th 4e puIblic become more unler ,stanin of the problem of
special] e-ducat'ion.

5. The principal plans conferences and nectings to interpret the
handicap cpeJd child 's needs to the teacher and parents. The
time ,'rorbably -wi l never come .hen every child who is
rhndica;ed and ie n need of special edu ca in Til. be recoivi1ng
his instruction fro full tire teacl ers of snecisa e.-uca-,ion.
The bukiiJ o -the instruction of handicapped chi-ldren will al.:--
be done by the classroom teacher. The situation may be
comriared to the practice of medicine in which appro::im-ately
f80 of the practice is carried on by -e fr1nily phy'sicin of
special education. Hence, it is vc -,i jportant t~t ery
classroom teacher have an onligihtcned, vion-in'int, and a sound
concept of wihat can and cshound Ie accomplished in teaching
handicap, 'edr childr-n in order to be able to render to her
-puils the besrt posei le educa.'-ion.al services. In imectin-s
such as this, the subject of special education can only be
briefly and very superficial]' l d-iscussed. A principal wTill
do well to enco ra: 'e persons to attend meetings and con-
ferences in different re-ions of the state deal in- v-ith the

6. Tl porinc.iprl .urvev and evalua,:,e special education services
for tl e purpose of seein::g -hat cur-icula are well-pl.anned
and th-at standards are maintained. A State Departrient of
Publ ic Instruction can be ve-ry -uch aided by -he principal re-
view.sinr services arnd rali recommendations. This sype of
survey, or stud~ can never be done by thie o:overnrment
agency itself as impartially as by an outside source. In
such a survey one of the points to be determined is how
effectively anmd how earJl the handicanped child i n the
special class or school is beinr transferred to the normal
class. The success of all special education should be
measured by -,the percent :e of children each year who are
graduated from special classes or become self supporting or pr
supporting. Special scho Is for handicapped children are
needed in lar-e communities and special classes in smaller
communities, bu- the number one objective of all of such
schools and classes should be to educate and train their
handicapped children as rapidly as possible to be placed
in classes with normal children or to aim at independent
livin<: as an adult. The principal can assist in the
formulations of realistic criteria to determine when a
handicapped child is ready for this transfer or if special
class program is feasible for the child. There must be a
rationalization between the needs of the child far education
in a special class and education in a special class and
education in a normal school.

7. The principal works with legislative comnr.ttees in the determination
of financial needs for special education services. The principal
should represent an unbiased and completely unprejudiced
liason between the County School Boards, State Department cf
Public Instruction, and Finance Committee of the State Le'islatire.
This work of a principal, if properly planned for, can be
extremely effective in the development of better services. There
is always the feeling on the part of the legislators and their
finance committees that principals ask for more funds than
they need or even expect to obtain. In this day and time,
with rising costs and increasing taxes, it is very important
to have a fair appraisal of realistic financial needs so that
the programs of special education will not suffer. This
appraisal can be given by an interested group which has
the confidence of the legislators and the legislature will
soon know that what is being presented is a true and uninflated
picture of actual needs.

Your writer has given you seven recormmendations of importance that

the principal can employ in developing better services for handicapped

children all of which are applicable to special education. These have

not been given in order of importance for Florida. There are many

others she has not mentioned, but it is believed that any principal or

group of principals with a program involving one or more of these

recommendations be soon richly rewarded with evidences of better care

for the exceptional child.


Ayres, Leonard P., La-: ards in Our Schools, ,ex York: Iussell Sage
Foundation, 1.909.

iaker, Harry J., Characteristic Differences in Bright and Dull Pupils,
2loomington, Illinois: Public Scihol Publishing Company, 1927.

Baker, Harry J., Introcduction to Exceptional Children, ',' York: The
"-'r.Y. p.- Comnany, 19 3.

-askin, Jacqruelin tle, "Special methods for Retarded Children,"
The Instructor, 64-67, (Sep-,ter-er) 195h.

Baskin, Jacquclin inThite, "Self-Expression ando School Subjects,"
The Instructor, 62-60, (January) 193.

3etts, EBrpett A.,' Foundati.ons cf Res ding Instruction, New York:
American 'ook Company, 19TT.

iigelow, Karl W., Helping Teachers Understaind Children, Washington, D. C.:
American Council on Education, M196.

Burcaw, Fredric, The Slow Learner in the Average Classroom, :.:r York:
Metropolitan School Study Council, 1954.

Childrents memorial Guidance Clinic, "Case History
Reports," Comnmunity Chest Project, Richmond, Vir -inia, 191.

En-lish, Colin, "State Superintendents Report"' Superintendent of
Pu.)lic Instruction, S:,ate of Florida, (July) 19T6
(June 30, 191,8).

F atl-erstone, T. B., Teaching the Slow Learner, New York: Teachers
College, Columbia TUnive."'sity, 19)]1.

Henry, el.son B., "Basic Facts and riinciples Unde--lvin- Special
Edica+,ion," Fortyr-Ninth Year Book of the National Societ- for
the Stud cf Educalion, Part I, i .1.-'.

Kirk, Samuel A., .nd Johnson, Orville, Educatinr, the Retarded Child,
.T:; York: Houhton-1if'lin Company, 1951.

Kirk, Sa-muel A., Teachinsg Readinr, to Slow Learning Children, Bos-;on:
Hourhton Mifflin Comprany, 3.91- l.

Lout it, C. ., Clini:cal Psychology, r-.' York: Harper and Brothers,

Otto, THenry J., Elementary School Orgianization and Administration,

Rivlin, Harr-:- 1., .:.- c:i' Adolescents in the Secondary Schools,
TNej. York: Apleton-Centlur --Crofts, Inc., 19 -

Shands, A. R., "Developin: Services in Spec.ial Educ-?-ation," Tampa,
Florida: loricda Eiuc-tional Association, 1-95 (nimeo r5phed).

Sullivan, Helen Blair, National Educational Journal, Bc; ton
University, Volume ', ': er 2, pp. 1-3.-11..

Shernmn, ilandel, Intel.liv'enco and Its Deviabions, :: York: Ronald
Press Company, 195W .

The Florida Children's CorIiission, "Florida's
Sunshine Story," The Nenours Founda ion, 19i.

Thorndike, E. S., "The Eliminaticn of Pupils from School," bureau
of Education, B.lletin io. IT 1909.

_, riennial Iteport, "FloIida Crippled Children's
Commissionn" 19,0-1 93.

Woodworth, :Ro'ert S., Psychology, :Tr York: H. Holt Company, 1931.


Record Sheet

For the School Principal

The purpose of this record sheet is to obtain information of the

procedures related to the Principal's report for Jie ro Exceptional

Chiildren in Florida. Please submit your compliance as it will be

greatly appreciated.

I. General Information

A. Plea.:e indicate the number of classes in yoor county for each
of the following:
(E.:ceptnional. Children) ------------------------ uber

1. SloI,-learner
2. Sight-savinE
3. Partial-hearing__
L. Orthonedic
5. Spoeoch-correction
6. Combined areas

B. HIow lonr has thc program be-n in operation for each of the

Number f years -----------------------------Years

1. Slot-learner
2. Si.:ht-sav n_ _
3. Partial-hearing
?. Orthopedic
5. Speech-correction
6. Cormined areas

II. Refe rrals

A. Please answer the question below by checking :';" or "IC0:

1. Do you have a trained psycholo,:ist eOployed by the
public school of instruction who ex -'ines cases?

Yes No
B. TPo is responsible for reporting the cases for adrisscion?
(Please check one).

1. Nurse ( )
2. County Health Doctor ( )

3. Principal ( )
Parents ( )
5. T c achr3( s
6. Ot. ors ( ,,ease state) ( )

C. Please in .icate in snace -.-roveided: "bo makes final dis-
position of ca3;es?"

III. -'.cat-ion or Trai-ninr. of Tiac:-ers

A. Tnstructicna] areas

Please wTrite in spa.c provided,, the '.ario' t 7es of
certificates co t eld eic,- -,eaeclers in --o.ir cout-',- for sneciFl

B. Are teachers required- to have a fo'- yearr colle e trainio?:.
ccase cecp "l'-S or r )

C. Kinds of de,:rees 'oicld? (Please naI"ie in space provided below) :

D. Ad.-itiona. t"r< ni-n nee-: (Please snecif o-n ,lines bel;w):

PI. Snecialization

of specializa'-ion cr trainer^ a res? (Pl.ease lisi in space
below) .



V. Follow-UJp

A. Please give number of pupils sent back to regualr classes for
the following years:

Years Number of Pupils








B. Please give number of pupils who are self-supporting:

I'Imber of pupils ( )

7 'i-)" o rpi i-* A- p :T -T -r'c.

District I

Office: 2350 Lakeview Avenue, St. Petersburg
Clinics: Each Tuesday, 10:00 A.I.
Each Thursday, 10:00 A..1
Combinred hospital. and convalescent care Akerican Le ion Hospital
for Cripnoled Cl-ildren

District TT

Office: At H-ope Haven Hos ital, Atl-nitic Boiolev.rd Jacclsonri.e
Clinics: Each Vonday, 10:0( A.M. (7.'hite patients)
Each second, Thursasy, :1,:0 A-. at BreIuster HTospital,
1610 Jefferson Strct (Colored patients)
Corb'inLed hospital and convalrcsce;t care Hone Haven 'Hosnitl
and 3Brewster Hospital

District I IT

Of "ice: 1101 ?'est "'-c': Street, Pcnsacola
Clinics: Each i : :day, 12:00 ioon
Hosnital care Sacred Heart Hospital and Baptist -emorial Hospital
Convalescent Care A':erican Lesion Auxil.iary- Crippled Children's

District IV

Office: 6125 S. U. 31st St rct, Miia.i
Clinics : Each 'Tedcesday, 1: P.,.
Combined hospital and convalescent care Variety Children's Hospital

District V

Office: 218 Aierican. nildin:, Orlando
Clinics: Each llonday, 12:00 .oNon
Each 1edneiday, 10:00 A.i
Hospital c.re Orang:e IemoriKL Hospital, Orl.ando
Convalescent Care Har-r-Aina Crippled Children' s Home, JUiatill)a whitet)
Eccleston Convalescent Home, Orlando (colored)

District VI

Office: 319 East Gainos Street, Talahassee
Clinics: Each iTednesday, 8:30 A.I;.
Combined hospital and convalescent care Tallahassee re...':'ial Hospital (White)
Florida A and I- Hospital (colored)

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