*AN ANALYSIS OF SEASONAL MIGAION
IN WINlS GARWEs, FLQtI)As AS
SCHtOL, AN SIZUDW LWs.*"
thn Gradant* cami"ttae of theb
Florida Agriculteral and, Mibatnat6l Clletge
la PartiAl Fulfl llmaet
of the Raequirea t for the Degree of
Master of &sinse SIn cd"cation
AR ANALYSIS OF SEASONAL MIGRATION IN WINTER GARDEN,
FLORIDA, AS IT AFFECTS COMMUNITY LIFE, SCHOOL,
AND STUDENT LIFE.
the Graduate committee of the
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
In Partial Pufillment
of the Requirements for the Degrn of
Master of Science in Education
William Singleton Maxey
Director of the GiUt
tsACQS00 k5s 9iiS
If I W 'to tenion all w o have b hetlptul in Carryib out
this stud, veral pa wa be naE mwesa y for the mre istine of
name Te would iEi0U'e the oachers who vo&ed with e in obtatl-
latg the info mzmat che oanSweti. ires, tnho parts rwho so Cheer
fully gamn, their %tnei a cIn peraxI onfeerven and the inIm"aat. etet
sliesa for their loyal i0 ntkratin*a I a n wder Iopealal oligatiem to
the tollowig T to SPwteasar aH Glarke,, ,r chW airman, whWsO trewnhant
aritioams and igenral pervsaal aeavi n have, bo E ti n.tol io giwvir
dirt ioau to ite whole *itadya, to Praor 3 Sp earn an iro aveesor
Rilury, theai other members of c0aa atea t e loyal ,
practical dWca=onal insiah4, hosiitic ability, and taperior' Ie-la *
ede in rwse, rh, the omtilatity of the t ew would be" been less
effrotive to uDr. W* m* ai, Dirsor of eW OGradu&te School, whose
enouraginm words adi cpeorative spiri Uwas a source of irspirnatin
to me during twhe. iore of ios ot *ias tudy, to Mr. J. Kir t3 0Ds.
Carolon, n !ernon, I am gatefU for tthe personal Cntrvi.evih tery
afforded Me and ve taintre.st theyte;. tifese.. To .rsWalto n, whosi
Stinnitial t g of this atis, 1 am grattfu o ai diear wife, for
the able aeessasanc ae gave seV I am thlanktul,
TABLE OF COINTEUiS
I. THE PROBLEM .*.*e4i.i .e* **..a ..e. 1
Statement of the problem ..............,....
Importance of the study .................. 1
Definition of ternas *,*.......e....e.......e 2
Basic Assumptions ......,,..............., 2
Delimitations ,....*..*......... ...... .*** 3
Scope of the study ......................... 3
Organization of the study ..........* *......*.. 10
.II REVI* OF TIHE RELATED) LITERATURE .............. f
III. lTSAtMNT OFTH DATA e...e.e eew..s*..e. 23
IV SUMMARY, CONUSION, RECOMT*NDATIONS o.......... 42
Si0m4y e ue 01.*e e*..e*e..e***....4.4*#*i.06* 42
Conclusion *...............e#4**e........... 44
Recommendations *S*C*e*e*ee**ee. *t 48
BIBLIDGRAPHY .a0 ..e. a0... 6. .0.. ................. 4S
LISI) OF TABLES
I. The number of Migratory students enrolled in the
Charles R. Drew Junior High School whose fathers
and mothers are living, also the number of fathers
and mothers who are deceased ...................... 28
II. The number of sisters and brothers in each family
and the total number of persons in each migratory
family .............................e ......... 29
III. The number of migratory students who will or will
not leave Winter Garden, Florida at the end of
che school term ...................*......... 32
IV. The number of migratory students who will attend
school while away from Winter Garden, Florida,
also the number of students who will not attend
school while away from Winter Garden ............. 3 3
V. Shows the number of students who answered Yes
or No to the question: Will you work while
away from Winter Garden, Florida ? .......*........ 34
VI. The extent to which migratory students wished to
remain in Winter Garden, Florida ................. 35
VII. Shows the number of migratory students who like
the comnrunity of Winter Garden, Florida .......... 36
VIII. The number of students who like the Charles R. Drew
Junior High School of Winter Garden, Florida ...... 37
IX. The Race and number of migrant workers employed
by various citrus companies in and around the
community of Winter Garden, Florida ............... 38
X. The attendance of migratory students in grades one
through nine males and females who stayed out of
school daily to work in the citrus industry dur-
ing the season .ee..... ..... .......c. 39
C HAPi'kR I
RAN ANALYSIS OF SEASONAL MIGRATION IN WINiER GARDEN, FLORIDA, AS
T~ AFFECTS i'HE COUM~iULT LIFE, SCHOOL AND SfUDENf LIFE.
Statement of the problem. It was the purpose of this study
(1) to show how seasonal migration affects the coammaity of Winter
Garden, Florida; (2) to show the difference between migratory atu-
dents and resident students in regards to attendance, number of years
enrolled in school, and scholarship; (3) the attitudes of resident
students towards migratory students in school, community, and family
I ortance of the st_ The fluctuation in the school's enroll-
ment due to seasonal migration of families with children of school ages
has hampered to a great extent the progress of the school, in that the
school has had to adjust it program to an ever-changing enrollment.
As principal of the Junior High School of Winter Garden, Florida,
the citrus Uindustrial" area of the South, the author thought that a
systematic investigation of these phenomena warranted profound research,
In consequence, it is the goal of this study to give insight on what the
school and comanity problems have been in the past, and to make sugges-
tions for further planning in the future. The basic purpose of the school
is to meet the needs of its population in ever-changing society and a
study of this nature will assist both school and coreanity leaders in
presenting &he needs of their inhabitants.
Today the school is attempting to build a curriculum broad enough
to meet the needs of children in every walk of life, varied enough to
serve the best interest of each individual child, deep enough to strike
the fundamental problems of life, and practical enough to be mastered
by children without la enormous loss ot time and energy. After many
years of observations, ne investigator has found that these migrants
had a definite affect on the progress and intellectual growth of the
Definition of terms* Analysis: An investigation of a particular
study. (1) Seasonal is a periodical recurrent in which the year is
divided by the annual changes in the sun's declination. (2) Migration
is the act of moving from one place to another, collectively or in-
dividually. (3) Population mobility is a group of individuals roving
from one region to another within the state or without. (4) Migrants
are individuals who move from one locality to another. (5) A school
is a body of pupils collectively, with their teachers, in an education-
al institution. (6) A ccmamnity is a body of persons having common
interests and privileges living in the same locality and under the
gtig Asismptians. In the study the following are the Basic
Assumptions: (1) that seasonal migration affects the progress of the
school and community; (2) that seasonal migration affects the health
and a9 c status; i.e. the housing conditions of the residents of
Winter Garden, Florida; (3) that seasonal migration affects the social
life of the community; (4) that seasonal migration impedes the educa-
tional growth of the resident students; (5) that a true population
i International Press; Universal References Library; Chicago, Ill.;
1944; p. 1634.
count cannot be determined because of seasonal migration.
Delimitation of thi study. This study is limited to the Negro
population, Negro community of Winter Garden, Florida; the Negro school
of Winter Garden; the Negro students, patrons, and faculty. It is
based on observations and interviews from 1937 to 1951, and the re-
cords that are available for this study.
Scp of the su a Winter Garden, Florida, known as the rQueen
City" of West Orange County, situated fourteen miles west of Orlando,
Florida, with an elevation of one hundred and seventeen feet, is the
retail center for the communities of Ocoee, Montverde, Oakland,
Tildenville and &illarney; borders on Lake Apopka, second largest
lake in Florida, renowned for its bass fishing and is the largest
citrus shipping center in the country. There are approximately six
hundred citrus growers and farmers in the vicinity of Winter Garden.
Three thousand five hundred cars and tracks of vegetables leave
Winter Garden yearly for out-of-state markets. Fifty percent of
Orange County oiUrus comes from this area and ninety percent of all
Orange County commercial vegetables are grown in the vicinity of
Winter Garden, Florida.
Land titles of property in and around the site of the little
town of Winter Garden are clearly traceable back to about 1880. The
The titles held to this land were in the name of a Mr. Washburn. The
settlers within a radius of several miles grew a few vegetables and
oranges and brought them t tthe narrow-gauged railroad where zhey were
picked up about once a week by the little train and carried to Sanford '
Florida, for further shipment. The few faner-growers ddeided to build
a depot for loading their truck and fruit and in the spring of 1893, a
small frame building 12 x 16 was built by them on the railroad's
property, and Mr. A. B. Newton was made depot and express agent. A
picnic was held soon after the erection of the little depot and during
the lunch hour, discussions led to the name of the newly created rail-
road station. Mrs. Frank Davis, then Mrs. Wurst, suggested the name
"Winter Garden" which was unanimously accepted.
Mr. A. B. Newton, a local merchant, may be said to be Winter Ger-
den's first resident. He came to the present site in February 1892.
After a stay of three months, he returned to his native state, Missis-
sippi, coming back in October of the same year. Soon afterwards, he
opened the first store in Winter Garden, On December 28, 1892, the
Post Office was established with Mr. Newton as the first Postmaster,
M,. Newton and his sister, the late Miss Lula Newton, held the
Post Office until Harding's administration, except from October 1897 to
February 1901, when the late Mr. Adolph L. R. Raesel served.
Prior to this there was a small saw mill located where the present
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad depot stands.
The saw mill was operated by Mr. Pennington and there was no other
business in the community. During Lhis ti.e the first Negro settlers
came to Winter Garden; namely, the Walkers, and the Nichols families.
Most of the Negroes who were brought in by crew workers on turpentine
2 Winter Garden, Florida, Chamber of Coamerce.
3 J q. Kirton, Postmistress of Winter Garden, (Personal Interview).
Ibid., p. 4.
stills lived about seven miles from Winter Garden. They were not allow-
ed to live in town
Later there came to t own the Toney and Powell families who were
permitted to buy property which brought about the development of a Negro
About a half dozen families were living in the vicinity: J. L.
Dillard, J. W. Bray, W. P. Vining, E. D. Perkins, G. W. Swain.
The Tildens, Sadlers, and Connels were living in the Tildenville
section and were comparatively old settlers at the time Winter Garden
came into being.
The adversity occasioned by the freeze of 1895 was really the
starting point in the growth of the community around Winter Garden.
Until the settlers had thought the soil suitable only to citrus grow-
ing; but after the trees were frozen and other means of livelihood had
to be sought, truck farming was found to be not only a substitute but
an outstanding rival for the citrus industry. The truck farms develop-
ed rapidly and these provided work for a much larger number of people.
Irrigation and improved methods of farming brought in large amounts of
money and business. During the years when the citrus groves were grow-
ing to profitable bearing, truck farms became firmly suited.
The first newspaper was established in 1905, "The Richockett" and
since that time Winter Garden has not been without a newspaper although
it has appeared under various names; viz: "The Citizen," The Nevws,
"The Times," "Progress," "Herald,"n Journal," "The West Orange News,"
and at present, the "W inter Garden Time s.*
Carolyn Anderson, Substitute Teacher for the Winter Garden
School. (Personal Interview).
As soon as there were oranges to ship after the "Big Freeze," the
first orange packing house was built. With no vision of city planning
and city growth prevailing, t is packing house was built in the very
heart of the present business section. A fire destroyed the building
and its additions in 1922.
The town of Winter Garden was incorporated in 1903. Twenty-three
public spirited male citizens met in the Atlantic Coast Line depot,
elected Mr. A. B. Newton, Mayor and Mr. G. L. Smith, clerk. The Florida
Legislature granted the city a charter in 1913, and this charter, though
amended from time to time, was kept until the year 1939, when it was
replaced by a new one.
In 1906 the bank of Winter Garden was established. In 1917 the
First National Bank was organized, and in 1918 the first paved streets
were laid, reaching from the present Piggly-Jiggly store on the T. & G.
Railroad around to the site of the First National Bank. In 1925 we had
the only present system of sewage and brick-paved streets which were re-
paired and improved through the Works Progress Administration.
Following in rapid order until the depression of 1928 came the
erection of the Edgewater Hotel, and several other bricK buildings.
Through the Works Progress Administration the town built a city
hall and a fire station. Two disastrous fires have occurred in the
history of Winter Garden. The first occurred in the year of 1904 and
the second five years later.
The Baptist church was organized in 1893 soon after the town was
founded, along with this church there are many more; namely: Methodist,
Seven Day Adventist, Church of God, Church of God in Christ, and Pres-
byterian Church. The Negroes have all of the same except the latter
The seating capacity in all of the Negro churches is small, probably not
more than three hundred in any case. The membership of each church rep-
resents a cross section of the total populadoio
Winter Garden today is a town of approximawely four thousand people
and of that number nineteen percent are Negroes. It has splendid school
plants, several social and fraternal organizations and it is a good busi-
ness center, easily accessible by train, bus services, and truck routes.
The community is fairly typical of a number of other such areas
both in Florida and elsewhere. It is essentially a rural area and it is
composed to a marked degree of tax-paying citizens both White and Negro.
The occupational activities of the citizens are relatively diver-
sified, though citrus and vegetable growing predominate.
Whenever conversation turns to the subject of progressive Florida
small towns, Winter Garden is invariably mentioned.
Winter Garden makes no claim to having the biggest "this" or the
most famous "that" but when anyone speaks of "Balanced small towns",
Winter Garden is generally mentioned among the first.
Winter Garden has an equable climate, a choice location in prox-
aiity to lakes, springs, and sea shores. She has a modern trailer
park, a moderate tax rate, ard extensive back country admirably suited
to citrus fruits and a wide variety of other fruits, as well as for
raising staple crops, truck, livestock, and poultry.
Laxe fishing for bass occupies the attention of residents and
tourists. No finer fishing grounds are found anywhere than in Lake
United States Census of 1945 Statistical Report.
The Charles R. Drew Junior High School had its infancy at the Davis-
McKinnon Still, which was located seven miles south of Winter Garden.
Parents working for the firm requested the owner to supply them with
a building to serve as a school house for their children; this request
was granted. One teacher was given a term of three months. Salary for
the teacher was paid Ly the owners of the firm and tae parents. Later
the families moved into the present Winter Garden, Florida. With the
building of their homes they erected the Baptist church, and decided
among themselves to use it for school purposes. The men organized a
Negro School Board and asked the county for a teacher, which was granted.
For two terms they were granted three months. Afterwards, they were
given six months with one teacher.
The parents, through this School Board purchased the following
supplies for the school: brooms, heaters, wood, buckets, dippers, and
books. The county gave crayon and blackboards.
As the community began to grow, it became necessary to employ two
teachers. By this ti-ie the A. M*. church, the Freewill Baptist, and
a recreation hall had been erected and were used for school purposes.
One year the children were taught in the Baptist church and the
Freewill Baptist church. The following term in the Metnodist church
and in the hall. This was carried on for many years.
In 1919 the county was divided into school districts with the Negro
section of Winter Garden being located in the Ocoee district, requiring
all the upper grades of Winter Garden to attend school in Ocoee. This
was to become a High School for West Orange County. Prior to this tine,
there had been no students graduating from the eight grade. Those stu-
denis who were enrolled in grades one through eight walked a distance of
one mile to the Ocoee school.
Realizing the need for a longer term, the parents of the two
conaunities collected enough money for salaries for the three teachers
of Ocoee and the one teacher at Winter Garden for one month with the
county giving a month's salary and eight months of school. This re-
suited in the first graduating class of five.
During the summer of 1920 a two-story wooden building was erect-
ed in Ocoee for the school. This was the first Negro school.
The term of 1920-21 was begun in this new building which was just
framed in, with benches for seats, outdoor toilets, basins, and water
buckets, These were furnished by the district.
In November of the same year the school was forced to close be-
cause of the riot. No school was held until the following term of 1921-
22 in Winter Garden at tne churches, with two teachers, a term of six
months, and one graduate. In 1923 a lot was purchased by the county
and a Rosenwald building was erected on Center Street. The tern of
1923-24, two teachers were employed; 1924-25, the county granted three
teachers. The three-teacher staff remained until the 1937-38 term.
Today the school has grown to a student enrollment of three hundred
and fifty-two students, and of this number one hundred and twenty-five
are migratory students, eighty are transported students, a beaching
personnel of thirteen teachers with a fuull-time principal who devotes
the greater per cent of his ti ue to supervision which comprises visit-
ation, observations, And assisting Beachers in the improvement of in-
7 Carolyn Anderson,Substitute teacher for the Winter Garden School.
Organization of the stu_, .T The remainder of this study will be
organic as follows: Chapter II will give a brief resume of the citrus
workers; types of work; modes of transportation; wages; and a review of
other studies related to this study; Chapter III will breat the data
gathering instruments; in Chapter IV the writer will give te summary,
conclusion, and make recommendat ions.
RSVIW OF RELATED LITiRAURE
In order for an investigator to successfully write on a partic-
ular study, it is necessary for hia to acquaint himself with other
studies made on his problem.
This chapter will do the following things: It will give a brief
resume of the citrus workers; types of work; modes of transportation;
wages; and a review of other studies related to this study.
The transit season for the citrus products begins in October and
ends in March or April. During this same period of tire there is a
great influx of transit workers from various parts of other states.
The procedure of these migrant workers is as follows: Just before
the season gets underway, it is the husband who appears on the scene,
For a few weeks he secures a job on the farm or in the citrus in-
dustry. After working a while and making preparation for his family,
he returns to his native home and gets his family which usually con-
sists of his wife and two r more children with one or two usually of
school age. Within a week or so the wife usually starts working with
the husband, and the children enter school. This is the consistent
pattern of the seasonal migrant workers.
This type of procedure continues about two or three months until
twenty-f ire or thirty families have migrated into town.
The migratory citrus workers continue their type of work until
March or April, and at the end of the season for citrus they are con-
tinually engaged in other types of work for the sum;er. This summer
work is called the pruning of citrus trees. Due to the many groves in
thiis co ty, the is enough work to keep many men engaged at work
during the summer months.
Upon investigations and interviews it was found that five hundred
or more of these workers who had made the season working in the citrus
industry did not care to continue Lhis type of work during the summer,
but desired to change their type of work. Therefore some of then would
return to their native homes and others would secure jobs on the truck
farms for the summer.
In this total type of work it was found that ninety per cent engaged
were Negroes and ten per cent white. Of this total per cent eighty per
cent were men and twenty per cent were women.
The method of transportation was made by trucks and buses,
During the season, every morning at 7 o'clockk a truck driver
(usually white) would arrive at a designated place where the workers
would be waiting to board the truck. The number riding was about eigh-
teen or twenty to the truck.
After the truck was loaded the driver would get on his way. Sae
times traveling as far as seventy miles.
These long travels would cause quite a hardship on some of the
workers. This long travel did not exist among all of the workers, only
to soLm crews. Customarily the distances raveledd by most of the crews
were only about five or ten miles. Those workers who made short trips
to work could easily make the required hours of work which ranged from
twelve to fourteen hours daily.
Those workers who had long distances to travel were handicapped in
getting in the required hours because, in the first place, they were late
in getting to work; they had to work longer in order to put in the requir-
The advantage of uhis time was that each worker who picked fruit
received from twenty to twenty-five cents per box. Those workers who
loaded fruit received so much for each box.
Here are seven types of workers engaged in the citrus industry.
(1) foreman (2) picker (3) loader (4) truck driver (5) packer (6) grader
(7) tester, the wages of all these types of workers vary.
rhe forman is usually white. The pickers are both Negro and
white, but it iss always a majority of Negroes. Their wage ranges from
thirty-five to one hundred dollars per week. The truCK drivers are
both white and Negro. Their wage ranges from forty to eight dollars
per week. The packers are usually white women, very few, if any Negroes
work in the packing houses. This was the policy of the companies.
On Table IX, page 32, you will find the number of citrus workers,
Negro and white, employed by the citrus companies.
The workers who are engaged in the truck farming are of a different
nature, in that all workers are usually engaged in the same kind of
work; for example, picking beans; it is the speedy picker who re-
ceives more money for his work because each worker received seventy-
five cents per hamper.
Less time is spent in the bean field than in the citrus grove be-
cause of the different manner of work. From two to three days may be
spent in the bean field where as in the citrus grove as much as one
or two weeks may be spenu. The time of going to and returning from
work is practically the same each day.
Published, Bureau of the Sixteenth Census, Washington, D. C., in
an article "Mobility in the Pre-war Years," it was asserted that the
tradition of movement which began with the settling of the continent
has continued to serve the need of the United States as natural
has continued to serve the need of the United States as natural re-
sources have developed and as shifts in economic opportunity have
occurred. In 1940 nearly a fourth of the native population of the
United States lived in states other chan hose of their birth. All
of the twenty-seven million people migrated across state lines at
least once during their lives and some had moved many times.
Another study entitled, "Internal Migration 1935 to 1940," states
that "Between 1935 and 1940 there were approximately six million five
hundred thousand persons of school age or higher who moved from one
state to another."
"Nearly three nidllion of the interstate migrants moved out mere-
ly to a different state but to a different region of the country, con-
trary to the impression, school-age children accounted for a substan-
tial portion of chose who migrated from one state to another; twenty
per cent of the total were between five and seventeen years of age."
In an article published by the National Education Association Re-
search Division it was stated, "That migration into the south of about
seven hundred thousand persons during This period meant that the net
population loss for the region or the south was close to three hundred
thousand individuals in five years. Over sixty thousand of the in-
migrants to the south moved to the District of Columbia; nearly one
Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, State of> Birth of
Native Population Sixteen Census of the United States Washington D. C.,
United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Ae
gof Miarants? Internal Migration 1935-1940, washington D. C,, Supt. of
Ibid., p. 76.
hundred and twenty thousand to Florida, possibly in search of health
and warm climate."
Gist and his associates in a .agdty entitled, "Selective Factors
in Migration ard Occupation," concluded that the majority of migrating
were farmers who had moved to industrial areas and had experienced
failure in employment and were returning to their rural homes.
Oduni, states that "limited as ihese various measures of internal
migration may be, it is clear chat a high degree of mobility has been
characteristic of the population, and further more, that the southern
states in particular have produced, reared, and educated large numbers
of the future citizens of other states."
Wattenburg concluded that the period 1935-1940 was a period of
comparative normality, the pattern of which may be expected to be
duplicated with comparatively mn.or variations in the immediate future.
By 1935, the strong back-to-the-farm movement of the early 1930's had
spent itself, the shift to war plants and the post war adjustment had
1i Computed by i E.A. Research Division from United States De-
partvent of Commerce, bureau of the Census, Internal Migration 193l-
9l~, Sixteen census of j. S, 1940, Population, Washington D. G., Supt.
of Documents, Government Printing Office, 1943, pp. 73, 84-91.
Noel Pitts Gist, C. L. Pihlblad and Geogory, Selective Factors
Min ratfio and Occpation, Columbia, University of Kissouri, 1943,
Howard W. Odum, Southern Regions of the United States, Chapel
Hill, The University of North Carolina Press, 19376, p. 4I.
Wattenburg, William W., "Mobile Children Need Help", Educational
Rorua 12:336, March 1948.
Taeber asserts that "The causes of this vast internal migration are
many. For the individual, migration is usually the search for better
economic opportunity. For the native, migration is a corrective for
the regional unbalance between population increase and economic resourcesT "
The United States 76th Congress, 3rd Session, aouse, selected a
Committee to Investigate the Interstate Migration of Destitute Citizens,
Washington, D C., which staLed in an article, .The rapid develoopen&s
of the United states would have been impossible without a high degree of
mobility. Relocation of workers is necessary in any dynamic society,"
reported the Department of Labor in 1937, and in this country relo-
cation mist involve movements across state lines.*
An analysis of the years of school completed by migrants twenty-
five through thirty-four years of age and oy the general population of
the same age croup shows significant variance ajaong the regions of the
United States in both groups and a distinct difference between migrans
and population in every region.
The factor that twenty-seve:p per cent of interregional migrants had
some college training, as compamrd with thirteen per cent of the total
1940 population may be explained by several factors, as stated in an
SConrad Taeber, Miration andRural Population Adjustmentt, Rural
Sociology 5:399, December 1940.
United States 76th Congress, 3rd Session, Uouse of Selected
Committee Investigate the Interstate, Mgration of Destirtuse Citizes,
"Interestate Migration", Hearings before the Committee, part 10,
Washington D. C., Supt. of Documents, Government Printirxg Office, 1941,
"Excerpts from an unpublished report of Secretary of Labor, Francis
Perkins, p. 4086.
article by Day and Landis: (a) higher education tends to equip persons
for more specialized occupations for which there may not be work openings
in the community, state or region n which they reside; (b) persons at-
tending college are in general, of nigher economic status than chose not
attending college, and therefore are more likely to possess the mean-s to
migrate; (c) attendance at college tends to weaken ties with home commu-
nity through formation of new ties elsewhere, and through contact with
"new intellectual interests; new codes of conduct, even new standards of
In direct contrast, less occupational skill, less knowledge of opw
portunities elsewhere, and less financial ability to tends to work a-
gainst the migration of poorly educated persons, During the period be-
tween 1935-1940, the proportion of interregional migrants aged twenty-
five through thirty-four wiih less than a fifth-grade education was
less than half the proportion of the general population with less than
five years of schooling in the same age bracket."
However; in spite of forces tending to prevent migration of little
educated persons, there are substantial numbers of interregional migrants
with schooling of eight years or less or about twenty-eight per cent of
those wIo move from one region to another between 1935 and 1940. The
lack of occupational skills which preTents the migration of some persons
with little schooling may have made others more mobile because of economic
H. K. Day, and P. H. Landis, Education and Distance of Migration
o Youths Elemen;t ary School Journal", 46:2 2.-207.
P. H. Landis, Intelligence ag a elective Factor in Rural-Urban
Mjration "American Journal of Sociology", July 1938.
insecurity, wttreh pushes tn out of cemmity elsehre Social as wOll
as eoonmic, aLadjustrAtt s shake them loose from their ha com cities*
Arg o/ f rral-trbf an aio o it hiaw entucr she's litht orn th
probe attendant to rural-uran aL gra. io0 bezt-.etcc regions. Fifty-eseven
fti106 rvinpr to mLe ington, Aentuc4ky, frmn. a r:nuntain environment were
compared to fifty'"-sevw f1=tij 0s which movo t L&xongtfc from the blue-
I Among parents in tihe group from tae wmrntain a ,re, twice as iman
received lass than a fifth grade education as rm g rents in the
biaegrC s group The social aladjast.ea t $ of teo z imo nain families in
Yt5r new arbai environment follow a a patern; a oe aOM OptLar e aof r -
14f because thahead ot the family was without, occupatcit al krclls;
twice ans misy court experiences";- and tee tites as unch "inatitfu-
It was coacludm t4 hati eduocartiaonal mi&Ijus%3ta ait fosters ignorance
and perpetuates superstutiod tins initiating a& endless (Latoi of
vicious influences which affect all othor t4pes of social ladjuastUSSenta
The growth of fana'dia r 4eligous sects in certain areas hma been
interpreted an a revaitU of asoial disorgai'isation and cultural con.m
fliec, Itwhich have a&te eixa d tbe rapid mIgratioxi of poorly educated rural
whites of iAoe south to urban areas. Unrepadred oocupationmally and so-
ciall, for turban l .'i byh the stable, isolated, a personal character
of its nreal bag rnoud, inesoure ecoarmically and subject to soc Mial
diaer iinat ion, hiAs group of tedrans noy experience an ewtional
Morris G. Gldwell, the Ad t a nts of faa4.ain Fafiliis i gi
oa Yagrgosti AB., "Social ror c 's 16:391-93, Sareh 1938.
Fundamentalist religious activity ay represent an attempt to ac-
quire feeling of security, since the culrs draw their standards from
the old rural tradition.
In their studies of persons who had moved to Arizona between 1930
and 1940, Fuller and Tetreau found that advantageous changes a n occu-
pations (for example, a shift from semi-skilled to skilled labpr) were
made in much greater proportions bry people from the middle wvueterx and
western states than by in-migrants from the west south central area.
This was in part attributed to greater skill, experience, ,id
knowledge, which enabled the former to cope better witi .-,he fast-mnving
problems of faring under irrigation."
An analysis of individual states shows the differences to be even
wider than tLeose revealed by regional averages. Advance statistics by
the Office of Education for School expenditures .in 1945-46 show New
Jersey, Montana, and New York spending three tines the amount per pupil
in average daily attendance as Mississippi, Georgia, or Arkansas. ew
York's per capital income also was nearly three times that of Arkansas
or Georgia. School authorities in Philadelphia, which is located in a
state where the school expenditure in 1945-46 average 444.80 per pupil
in average daily attendance, have long been concerned with the problem
of children coming into Philadelphia classrooms from schools in states
John B. Holt, Hojliness glgZiaen: Culurl Slack and Social
4 teojrgi&a9t "American Sociological Review", 5:741-745, October 1940.
Varden Fuller and E. D. Tetreau, Volume and Characteristics of
MgLratio to rizc 1930-1939, Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin
No. 176, November 1941, Tucson, Arizona, The University of Arisona, 1941,
such as Georgia and Alabama where less than half the amount per pupil is
available for education.
In 1940 the number of these children was estimated at six or seven
Dispartles in school standards can also handicap the child whose
parents mov from a state with a well-supported school system to a
state where/ education is less adequately financed. There were approx-
imately 124000 children who moved between 1935 and 1940 from the North-
east, horth Central and West into the South, where it is clear that less
funds are available for support of schools than in regions where these
children had previously attended school.
Some migrants who work winter vegetables are in North Carolina with
their families early in April, picking strawberries; and numbers of these
have already worked for brief periods in Aouth Carolina and Georgia crops.
Many of these families are reported to start from New York and Ohio fruits
and vegetables by September in order to enter their children in Florida
An early return to Florida ~m assure the children of not more than
three or four months of schooling. Some schools in the strawberry counties
of Florida are closed during the winter harvest season, and are reopened
in the summer when the migrant children are in the bean fields of New
York. In 1940 the Broward County Board of Public Instruction ordered the
closing of the Negro Schools for the winter harvest season, so that the
Computed by N.E.A. Research Division from U. Departent of
Commerce, Bureau of the Census, A of Mirants, p. 59, 65, 75, og.* cit
Ibbd,,. p. 25, 45.o
pupils would be available for agricultural labor, A suit to keep the
schools open through the winter and early spring was unsuccessful, and
the practice of holding a short summer session instead was upheld by
the courts. There was said to have been no discrimination, although
the white schools remained open.
When the "Strawberry Schools", as such summer sessions are co nly
called, was held, the migrant children were picking crops in the North.
Instances of children working in the fields appear to be coman in
states where child labor is illegal as well as in those which have no
such law to cover agriculture, In Texas, a state with no minimum age
for children in agriculture, the children's Bureau found that among
children six through seventeen years of age worked in the fields. Only
ten per cent of these worked in less than twelve weeks of the year, and
sixty-eight per cent of the working children worked in twenty or more
A 1945 survey of the Michigan and Wisconsin potato harvest taken
during the first and second weeks of October revealed that "nearly a
third of the harvesters were children under fourteen years of age and
almost as many boys and girls fourteen to seventeen e years old
Clarence C. Walker, "Civic League vs. Board of Public Instruction
for Broward Countyt, 154 F., (2nd), 726, (C.C.A.), 5th Florida, 1946.
Amber A. Warbtrton, Helen Wood, and M. Marian Crane, Qp. Cit.,
p. 21, 25.
United States Department, Bureau of Agricultural Economics Wages
and Wage Rates of Harvesters of Special Crops in Selected Areas of 13
States, 1945, "A Statistical Sumawary", ~. Cit., p. 10.
Michigan and Wisconsin, like Taxas, have no minium age for agricul-
Both California and New York are among t"he states regulating and
limiting the employment of children both school hours and outside school
hours during school vacations. however, migrant child workers in these
states are known to contribute with some regularity to family income.
Six hundred migrant workers were interviewed by the New York State De-
partment of Labor in 1945. It was found that one-fourth of these workers
were younger than ten.
Among the pickers in Sacramento Valley of California in 1945, eleven
per cent of these workers were under fourteen years of age.
A Pennsylvania law prohibits the employment of children of other
states in Pennsylvania during the time that they are required to attend
school in their own states. Other states with specific provisions re-
lating to the schooling of migratory or transient children are Indiana,
Kentucky, Ohio, and Maine.
This survey shows that most states in the agric iltural regions do
not enforce regulations as they apply to he schooling of migrant children.
United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Standards,
Ione L, Clinton, Qg. Ci., p. 11.
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, W and W jae Rates of Seasonal Farm Workers in the Harvest
or Selected Truck Crogs, California, 1945, p. 12.
Amber A. Warburt and Marion K. Crane, i t
TREATMENT OF THE DATA
As a supplement to the review of the other related studies as
set forth in the preceding chapter, the writer has endeavored to de-
termine what affect the migratory influx has on the school and com-
mmnity life of the Negro population of Winter Garden.
In an effort to secure data regarding the affect migratory in-
fluxion has on the school and coammauity life, interviews were held
with many early settlers and other civic agencies of Winter Garden.
Because of the writer' may years of residence in Winter Garden
worthwhile observations have been made which will be reflected through-
out this study.
To ascertain child's attitude toward migration, a questionnaire
was constructed and given to each migratory child registered in the
Charles H. Drew Junior High School for the 1951-52 school term. This
is the only Negro School in Winter Garden.
Of the three hundred and fifty-two students enrolled in the Charles
H. Drew Junior High School, one hundred and twenty-five or thirty per
cent of the enrollment are migratory students. Of t hse, one hundred
and six students or eighty-four per cent of migratory students respond-
ed to the questionnaire.
Seasonal migration affects the progress of the school and the
community. When the child enters school as has been found from
previous records, he or she has been in attendance at two or more
schools already during the year. From intermittent interviews with
these migratory students, the writer found that the student having
made two or more entries into various schools, lacks the confidence
In himalf to keep up with thn elase; he fels raher tieo*uts in
making social adjustments; he is relautcat la IAtrz a rriaular elass
pturSaaEio This problem isa vry s aute for tI she onaiL fdgrs
a- well as wr wigration in which family gripy predoinater frequnt-w
ly. This onofliots wUth tha asoool yar.
Frm observations and specific intcerv s ihBI with l ntreean
officers, tht before the eantrap of thase mgrantos tdo the town
th wooial life of the oalamity iA so ohmt a rerd typ; i.e,
u~tn ntrative; the tellUahip in tho soa* it i bienvolent; tUh
business places oprate at a oraml rate; the people who frecqantly
visit the Sores and otner places of interest are of A tranquil type;
th eahurch attendance ia good; the streets are qa&u t; easpe.ial I
When the seas3 i opens and Uth aigrants warks begin to ake their
debut into the tn, wiThin a & wee or te the picture oh0s and tle
ooaJaity iife toa s* han Ihe tB tu t t lb Mt I a one c of aOcO.
rvativelS type now besoosM o of t noisy type with ~iaumrbl quarry,
several fih Uand In aome ltetannw, a eae or two fat asnrer the
ft*leaBlp dellne# ; the busIness pXces begtn to opert on a much
mere profitable btsis because of the nao s amount of ion' that is
spo" t durin thit partou lar time.
A qaestinaaire w s distributed to each of the .alstere of the
eluahwes of Anter oMak m p nastiag a report on atS ndanL e for a
period aof thrw years, 1949, 1950, and 1951. Frea the Infonutioa
obtained trom the Anmmal Repr~E s of these records of t atteQlndanoe
of ths thurehas, Cbart B reveals the inew.ase and doeweam in at-
tsrdaaoe during this period of t sa.
The chuarh attendance begins to doorerase during this season be-
cause the workers are employed on tiSunde.
It is brought out in, his study that asasonal irgraLtion affects
the health and esonmc atatus of the reeidents of inter Garden in
thit the resident actom1mdationi are inadequate consequently, tooa
majy migrant worMters have to li too live U on. room, tat bas impairing he
health. of each i di ivual* To give verification to the et atemenvs,
the writer h i personal interviews with .lad-lords, dootort, and t~h
county health nurse. During the noral season i heIalth status is
very good in the ommunaisy Very few caes of theBr coon ~wd social
diseases are prevail t-. i Xir4 hres xientiai l sta of the migrants,
the health status attain a lo ebb. The dihe rses ths ere once
present becomes more prevalmte o
The salary age of e native resident is lowered; the help is
de4 oaed in order that ;ore ntirant workers can secure jobs. the
migrant works for less than the native rxaident because he i under
contract, ,teynin the resident worker is not
The study proves that because of seasonal migration a true
population coWun. o annot be sertaixned or determined becaaue of tLhe*
duration of time thw migrant wo'orsr are in the city of Winter Garden.
S In the light of thief data, it further shows that season migrW
dtom i st c educate ional growth o the residCent studentrBe, in uhat
the irdluenc of the -iwatony family or t$e resident family in n
gad to t maatfetndants of his ehildrea lsada o a desire on th rhb
of dtah resident ipaEnit to aen cosa r his children to w k.i
There ti a wide var iation a rng he states with resPca t to legal
prison fjor mfandatory att mdiaoes oa f airatory at udeia. The rmot
common provision of state school attendance laws requires the attend-
ance of children of "resident* or "citizens", of the state in the dis-
trict where they or their parent reside. This provision allows a
variety of interpretations and its application to migratory children
depending on whether persons temporarily living and working in a oc-
munity are considered residents or non-residents for school purposes.
It appears that in most instances interpretation of "resident" is left
to the local school authorities and varies from district to district
even within Lhe same state. The community of Winter Garden has a
compulsory school attendance law which states that every child who
is six years of age met attend some public school, and continue until
he has reached the age of sixteen." There is no law requiring a
child to attend school after he or she has reached the age of sixteen.
If it is his or her desire to further their education after they have
reached the age of sixteen, it is permissible for them to do so.
The data regarding the difference between the migratory student
and the resident student with respect to attendance, number of years,
enrolled in school, and scholarship; it was found in the school records
over a period of years which reveals that the resident student surpass-
ed the migratory student in attendance, number of years in school, and
scholarship. The data further reveals that the curriculum should be
divided into brief units of study. Such units could be closely related
and yet so planned that it would not be necessary to study these in any
fixed order. These units would give migrant children the opportunity
to experience a sense of achievement and progress in their work, other-
wise it would be impossible when they mast drop out of a continuous
.:_&:,,. 2 _I_._ -. -- -- : ; --~ z._2_ : -.-- --- -2 2 -_ =2 :-7--
Florida Statutes, Ompulg Shool Lawr
*e ese*r or lynr piw g program
The writer, having a SiooI pripalm and, remidVt of Winter
Garden has had opportunities far beyond pRys people to ali ibooois
affiliated With various organiations hat p-ut him in. constaMs contact
with tt e maucity, 1Tenreftore we can assert. that tte attitudes of ai
resident atLudeia tcwarda- to reigSrtatory atudats in school., w iy,
and tfaidy life are nery oamendable.
Table reveal the smart of migra ry s.wdientp enrolled in the
Charles R. Draw Junior High School whose feathers and ctiere aW re living.
It also indicate the ar of thers a e and mthrs *ho are deca~o d*
TDA- A MJfl V-M& .AWL. 1
1MICATUS NUOMB W FAD-OW WADMOThiUs LIVING r UtGISASMD
SUniS 1 PssaU US WiNUQ uI INDamSm
106 a hsrs 98
106 oti r 99
106 Fathera 8
106 Mothers 7
The data rev d hat nin etyigaf of tUn fa iers of the one
ndre and six amlgtory students wrs living. The data also re-
vealed that nlnulryaoI of tie no wHe are living Of tahe one
hundred and six sgratory students questioned, eight indicated that
their fathers are deceased. even indicated that their mother are
Table II Ianicatesea e number of saistera ad bro-'er in each
family awd tI total nuniber of persos In each taigratory family.
FAMILY IN PAR 2'S [ IOTHbEZS
na m n .w nasn~~~n nnppOPMmw .aw~esm m
TAB U II fmsEU
F01,A2IY M, plul
- 3 i~ a
445 f OtS
36 7 2 3 1
37 9 2 1 5
38 8 2 3 2
39 9 2 3 3
40 5 2 0 2
41 9 2 3 3
42 9 2 0 6
43 8 1* 4 2
44 4 2 0 1
45 11 2 2 6
46 10 2 3 4
47 8 1* 3 3
48 8 2 1 4
49 13 2 8 2
50 6 2 2 1
51 6 2 1 2
52 9 2 3 3
53 6 2 0 3
54 4 2 1 0
55 10 I3 3 5
56 5 2 0 2
57 5 2 1 1
53 3 2 0 0
59 11 2 5 3
60 6 2 1 2
61 3 2 0 0
62 12 i* 4 6
63 14 2 4 7
64 4 2 0 1
65 8 2 2 3
66 7 2 2 2
67 6 2 1 2
b6 3 2 0 0
69 6 2 1 2
70 10 2 3 4
71 5 2 1 1
72 3 2 0 0
73 9 2 3 3
7 6 1* 3 1
75 4 2 0 1
76 5 2 1 1
77 5 2 0 2
7" 13 2 3 7
TABLE II COW INE D
FAMILY IM PARsETS SISTERS iWIB ERS
n~ui-I ~-0L-- Nowra"
106 759 197 222 234
TableII revealed that there were two hundred and twenty-two sisters;
two hundred and thirty-four brothers; can hundred and ninety-seven parents;
in a total of seven hundred and fifty-nine persons in the one hundred six
families participating in this study.
Indicates loss of one parent
An xinvestU;aioi as uaidert.aue e aster:iLne the amber
of nigratory students wo w'ill or wil A otI leave iteer G ;..rden
at the and of the school .er,.
IATL II I
It was found in this aole III 4that ei;hsy-four satudmeits
or seventynine per cent of the migratory students will, leave
Winner Garde at the end of c .oe sctxol ters. iwity~y-two or
twnty-one per cent of the i.ratory s.; tuenat4 ill not leave
Winter Garden at the ead of ,.he school term.
TI t AL
106 84 79
106 22 21
TO10A, 106 100
Table IV inxioaiesa the number of migratory studentta who
will atteAd school ^ while aw ay froma V inter Garden and also
tells us ne nmimr of oatudonts w o will not ate.4 asQchool
rwhileaway fram s Winaer 4ardena
Table iW revealed that foert-y iatuents or thirtymeight
per c f of the migrat ry students will aptt.Md acnool while
ama from Wvinter Garden. SixtysiA or ixty-~two per cnt
of the -4igratory staudats w il noL atsat encho-ol while away
from Win-aer Garden.
tiOitAL t sm UEN SER, CJKCT
106 0 38
106 66 62
TOTALV 106 100
eaan nem* uaamaawn bg -
W 0", I 0 WE iN- IN
'able V shows the nmibr of stud n ws who answered Xfr or
t to the question: Will you work while away frow, W.int~r Gtaren?
TOTAL NO. OP S2UDx'NTS wS Q3J KBIR PER '"T
106 IS 47 44
106 No 59 56
6L 106 100
Tabl.. revealed that fory-eeven s~Ut ts ~ or forty-four
per cent will wori,. while away from Winter G ardnfI fifty-nne
or fifty-ex ii cent will not wor. while away from Winter
rable VI reveals the extent to which mitgatory students
trishedc to remain in Winter Gerden, Florida.
nnUMBnnn Or SUn-S a SS n aCEa. n r
53 Very bach 50
43 Very Little 41
10 hota& a ll 9
rOTAL 106 100
able VI revealed that fifty-thr.ee or fifty per cent of
the L.gratorty sOwientts winIsed to remaiL in winter Garden
jopwi fortiy-three or fort-gyone per cent -of the students wished
tro rBain iin Wliater Garden. t liw Ut tt taen st'uden*sa or nine
per cent wished to remain Li inter Gardon None a^t
fable VII shows tkh r nrbjr of ctip&ory students who
li e he co3;unity of inGer Garden.
able VII shetows ,haw 2a niety-two or e i.ht-aseven ier Caent
of the ...igraory s.udYn' ao the r amniy of in e Gard ren
fu,~-irtee or chir'e4n per ctm; of 4he t dbeiasns do Lnot liae The
comWiJLj of inter Gaxrdmn,
UMJRkK 0. rldt U RES t3 iPJ PtK GC&WiT
92 Yes 87
14 o 13
i-t.AL 106 100
Table VIII ind icnaes he anmber of sinaudits who I-i .o MtI
Charles ii. Drew Junior dig. School of ;ain.er azden.
table VIII showll a one hundred x ad one or~ nilty-five
per cent of h stnden ts liKe .he Charles Drew Junior .igh
School olf Winter C Garden; five or Iive per cent of he sbudena
do not il~e tei Carl.s R, Drew Junior }i.gh Saool of Winter
AiT4ait ot s$jDit); aESPo&s PAR G T
101 Yes 95
5 No 5
0i AL 10L )u-
a ~ o a a a p nP-11sPill
Table 11 reveals dhe race and wrabxr of tigra^ workers
enrloyed by various citrus oeipanies in a~d. around Lhe .co'ranity
of iW nter G'arda, Florida,
NEGR t'1S% NHERO 1IsH
W1.Jit Id3.ttii 79 40
SOUTH LA&k 00GPAY 150
KILAKJU WY FUIU COMPANY 0 40
LXtws BRaakas 100
IRO-sa. .,O Rz',. 102
KINi'a GARDEN CITRUS
CPAIIY 195 155
i 5AL 345 587 37 63
C01AL Rf ACi 932
Table UI points out thua of tihe aie hundred awid thirtyrtwo
migrainws who work in around txie onaanitzy of 8iuter Gaumen of
this number tree htandred and foroy--f ive or hirSTy-seven per cent
are white and five hund red ed eiyhty-sevn or sixty-three per
Ctian aVO' r:''ToeS.
.abie d iLndicaes6~ he a rct4dance of .iA r : or' stdent: s
rTades one through nine, imalke and fenwalwes who wlayed out of
school daily to work in hu e e-iras incxasurry during The season.
&,. ";ML L.4 U3itOY FLZk &&A5 At 49rt3AL.
tober ao April aonaieu s nhe season
25 OF t 2F555 #13.A3G5
J A 'AY35 I60 8u 70
i 5 70 93,3 90
,ARG A45 70 93.3 .90
AP IL 48 73 97*3 90
Table X revealed oh of the one tkndred and twezny-five
migrawtorye students w,,o attend school; fif1y males had a iotal.
atwendanie of wu hundred ad ei.thty't hree days or saixtoen and
five-tenths per cent; seave' y-five femaales had a to.ai. of four
hundred and fituy-ahree daya or seventeen and seven-t.enths per
coat, the dasa further ahowa 'chab the daily average of .he fe-
U4ls@ Was iatch hiher tiian t h4 tales because coere m.ales stayed
ouit to work tLhan feales.a
This chapter records results obtained from the questionnaires which were
compiled according to the information received from the students.
Table I indicated that ninety-eight of the fathers of the one
hundred six migratory students were living; the data also revealed that
ninety-nine of te mothers were living. Of the one hundred six migra-
tory students questioned, eight indicated that their fathers were de-
ceased; seven indicated that their mothers were deceased., able II,
it is pointed out that there were two hundred twenty-two sisters and
two hundred thirty-four brothers, and a total of seven hundred and
fifty-nine persons in the one hundred six families participating in
this study. It was found in Table III, that eighty-four or seventy-
nine per cent of the migratory students will leave Winter Garden at
the end of the school term; twenty-two or twenty-one per cent of the
migratory students will not leave Winter Garden, Florida at the end of
the school term. Table IV, shows that forty students or thirty-seven
per cent will attend school while away from Winter Garden and sixty-
six or six5y-two per cent will not attend school while away from Winter
Garden. Table V, indicates that forty-seven students or forty-four per
cent will work while sway from Winter Garden; thirty-nine or fifty-five
per cent will not work while away from Winter Garden. As indicated by
Table VI, fifty-three or fifty per cent of the migratory students wished
to remain in winter Garden Ve ryvuch; forty-three students or forty-one
per cent of the students wished to remain in Winter Garden, Very little;
ten students or nine per cent wished to remain n Winter Garden, None at
gj., The fact is borne out by table VII, that ninety-two students or
eighty-six per cent of the migratory students liked the community of
Winter Garden; fourteen or thirteen per cent of the students do not like
the conauunity of Winter Garden. On Table VIII, we find that one hundred
hundred and one students or ninety-five per cent of the migratory
students like the Charles H. Drew Junior High School; five or five
per cent of the students do not like the Charles H, Drew Junior High
School, Table IX, points out that of the nine hundred and thirty-two
migrmats who work in and around the conun2ity of Winter Garden, of
this number three hundred and forty-five students or thirty-seven
per cent are white and five hundred arid eighty-seven or sixty.-three
per cent are Negroes. 'able X, shows chat of one hundred and twenty-
five migratory students who attend school, fifty males had a total
attendance of two hundred arin eighty-three days or sixteen m d five
tenths per cent; seventy-five females had a total attendance of four
hundred and fifty-three days or seventeen and seven tenths per, cent,
The data further shows that the daily average of the females was
much higher than the males because more males stayed out ,o work
Chart B shows the attendances at 'h.e churches of Winter Garden
for a period of three years. It further reveals that the deaoease
usually occur during the seasonal month of the year, and the in-
Screase occurs during the months when the season is not on.
(Months of the year are indicated by numerals)
Chart A hows the total enrollment of the migratory students
and the rise and fall in attendance during the seasonal months.
C HAPgA tI
The purpose of t hid study was to mSakie a nalUsis aof Qt seasonaiI
migratid n in Winter Garden, Florida, as it affete the **cAnity life,
school, and astdent t life.
The readsr till notse that tisd stuty wavs iLited to Htde Negro
otm ty of Winter aOedLi, the Negro school of Winter Gardi, the
Negro student s, patrons, faculty, and oeai rva~ions and interviews frm
1937 to 1951, and records avxiable for the Stu4y,
The data is this study olearly re*waled that amirat io or this
tradition of wmovaent began witph the t settling of the continent atd has
elat imed up to the present e ti. 'ihe data further po 4as out hat
migration has catimzd to serve the needs of thn United ,totee natural
re eae hae" developed and shifts in se o opportunity have oc-
The writer indioatB further that the aooal life of th ~ arity
is affected by seamoal migraftio. The data further reveals that the
church att d&noe is affected bF seasonal migration. It is brought out
in this data that seasonal adgration affects tihe health and eocnaaic
status of the residents in WintS r Gardnaa The study proves rohat be-
cause of seasonal a ration a True population. count cannot be ascertaib-m
ad or (detrmlnbd .
In the light of this daa, it furtAher sbeo thai aseseonal icdra-
tion iapedes edueational rarwth of the resident students.* The data also
point out, that there was a difAerance between migratory e'da4ens~ arnd
the resident students wit;A respect io atterndane, number of years en-
rolled in school, and scholarship.
the data tirthtr reveal that the oarriouiu should be divIded
into brief uanitsa of study* Its W pointed owi.t he tEinvstigator
that ts he attiWAee of then rosdaMnt wstiudentes Uards the iegratory,
students li Shool al d comaityji and fwily life werei Try t4r
U00dajsa rPCn)3, 8Ig ~t~P 3Fg ~IBIEI~~lff ~lF~l tSreT X9~~
In the concluding statements he writer would like to emphasize
that there will be small classes initiated in seasonal schools that
are likely to receive peak enrollments. During the season when the
enrollment is at its peak it serves as a hardship on the part of the
teacher to reach every student daily. Therefore many arm denied the
opportunity of getting the benefit of the instruction, whereas, if
smaller classes were formed it would give the teacher an opportunity
to reach each individual daily.
There should be ungraded class-rooms with greater emphasis on
individual instruction because he migratory student who has been out
and returns finds that he is in the same grade or class; it gives nim
a feeling of insecurity. He feels as though he is unable to keep up
with his class, therefore he loses interest, whereas, if the classes
were ungraded he would have that self-reliance and feeling of security.
The teacher would be able to assist him by giving individual instruc-
On Chart A, page 39, you will find the total enrollment of the
migratory students and the status of their enrollment. It is further
noted that the peak of the enrollment come; at the beginning of the
term, in October and lasts until November. During this time the teacher
is unable to reach all of the students daily because of the immense
group. D ring the months of December and January a drop in the en-
rollmenp is obvious. At this time the teacher is able to put over a
better job in instruction due to the decrease in the enrollment, that
is by giving more individual instruction. During the months of FebrUary,
March, and April the enrollment returns to its peak. At this time the
teacher is again put to a disadvantage, in that the students are again
denied the opportunity of individual instruction. Therefore it is con-
eluded that there should be ungraded class-rooms and zw e emphasis on
An experiment should be undertaken with emergency class-rooms in
harvest areas in order to relieve the over-crowded class-rooms in the
A mobile school Lo accompany the migratory stream in the county
would eliminate the congestion in the regular schools.
A recreational center would serve as ani asset to tie community.
During their leisure time the residents as well as the migrants could
visit the center and engage in some wholesome recreation, such as games,
reading books, periodicals, and participating in other types of amuse-
If there were special teachers and equipment to aove from school
to school this would lift the burden of the regular teacher and eliminate
too much loss of tine of the migratory students while they are in the
process of moving. During this time some type of instruction could be
carried on by tne teacher.
These teachers could be obtained on the basis of their qualification
as well as certification. If the county in which these schools are
located fail to pay the salary of the teachers, the local P. T. A. with
the assistance of other organizations in the community could support
Theree should be formed more civic organizations. ihese organizations
bring about better fellowship among the people of the community; these
organizations serve as informative agencies to enlighten the people of
the community on politics, and current issues.
After reading and account of the statements made by the chief of
the police department of Mimia, Orlando, Daytona, and Sanford, Florida,
relative to the efficient services being rendered by the Negro police-
men of thee cities, it was stated that Phe Negro officer understood his
people better than the white officer; the Negro officer could get a
better response from lis people without an enormous amount of brute
force; the Negro officer could enter a Negro home to make an arrest
with less fear to the household Mhan the white officer; the Negro officer
could do more to curb juvenile delinquency in the community by coming
into imudiate contact with the y: ung men and women. In view of these
statements, I would conclude chat a aegro policeman be appointed to
take charge of Lhe entire community of Winter Garden, which I believe
would be an asset to same.
RE C OMMEND AT ION S
In the light of this study and the information gained there from,
the writer would like to make the following relcommedations:
i. That smaller classes be initiated in seasonal schools
that are likely to receive peak enrollments
2. That there be ungraded class-rooms width greater
emphasis on individual instruct ion
3. That there should be an experimentation with
emergency class-rooms in harvest areas
4. That there should be a Oobile school to accompany
the migratory stream
5. That there should be special teachers and equipment
to move from school to school as the need develops
6. That a recreational center be built for the entire
Negro coanmnity of winter Garden which will include
the migrants during their sojurn here
7. That there be a formation of more civic organizations
in Winter Garden
8. That Negro policemen be appointed to take charge of
the Negro conaunity.
The writer, in this study has fully realized that the problem of
dovetailing courses in various areas has not yet been solved and the
problem of seasonal migration is still a problem to be solved; but
in all of these educational experiments, the beginnings are important.
Unless a substantial portion of these measures is effectuated and
special schooling facilities are expanded, the million one hundred
and twenty-five migratory children of school age and their younger
brothers and sisters will grow up to be citizens who lack even basic
Both the individual states and the nation, as a whole have
obligations which should be met before further harm is done.
BIBL IOGR AP HY
Agriculture, United States Department, A Statistical Sn ry, 1945.
Caldwell, Morris C., The Adjustments of Mountain Families In An Urban
Environment, Social Forces, March 1953, 16:391-93.
Census, United States Department of Commerce, of Mirans,
Internal Mgration, Washington D. C., 19A, .
Chamber of Comnerce, Winter Garden, Florida, Statistical Sua
Clinton, lone L., Children in Migratory Agricultural Families,
Washington, D. C. Superintendent of Documents, Government
Printing Office, 1946.
Commerce, United States Department, Bureau of the Census, State of
Birth of Native Population Sixteenth Census of the United STtes,
Washington, D. C., 1946.
Congress, United States 76th Congress 3rd Session, Interstate
Migration, "Excerpts from an unpublished report of the Sec-
retary of Labor, Francis Perkins, Washington, D. C., 1941,
Day, K. H. and Landis, P. H., Education and Distance of Migration of
Touth "Elementary School Journal, 4: 20~ 207-
Fuller, Varden and Tetreau, E. D., Volume and Characteristics of
Magation to Arizona, 1930-39, University of Arizona, 1941,
Gist, Noel Pitts, C. L. Pihblad, and Georgory, C. L., Selective
Factors in Migration and Occupation, Columbia; University of
Missouri, 3,1943, 155 pp.
8 IB L IOG R A P !HY
Holt, John B., "Holibess Religion: Cultural 8laca and Social
Reorg aniatioan, tAeelan 4Saoloioo al e 5: 741-745,
Landis, P. H., "Intelligence as a SelecsAve Patore in tiural-Urban
MIgrationm*, ericn o fe Sociology. July 1938.
National 9aucation Aasociation, IRefarch Department, Internal
Migration 1935-1940, Populationl, Washington, D. C. Super-
iate dnt of Docwaents, eGorsrnnt Printing Office, 1943,
73, 8*491 pp.
OdmE, Howard ., touthem i ions of the UIdGed 3s ten. Chapel
Hill; The U ive rsi y a -orf h aroTaii Press, b6, 461 pp.
T aeber, Conrad, "Migration and Rural Population Adjustant",
B SE s io~~a December 194A, 5: 399.
Walker, Clarence C., 'tivi ei va. B rd of iPublic 8 -Lruction
E tLErar!d au 547 4 ., (G C 73V 5, ,laXrida,
Wattenburg, W ilal i Qt, WobUg Children eadg Help, Educational
Forum, 12: 366, March 1938.
Warburrto, Amber A. and Crane, Mrin m, Tn e Work and Welfare of
ChJldren 05A Agricultural Laborers in o 'rexas,
United States Departa at f Labor, Wash ington, ,C., 1943.
Mrs. J, S~ Kirton, PosisOtress of Winter Garden
Mrs. Carolyn Anderson, stabstitu;e teacher for the
Charles R. :Jrow Junior High School.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
- - -- -- -- - - - - - - m I -w -- -- -- --- - - I M A
19 5 0
f . -
-- ----~---L-- ~-C -- ---L-~-. -~-----~ --Y--------uYr Uyu~~ll-~u~~-L--- I-- --Y-- -Y --__-_ .--L-Y------- -- -~-^L-- -------1C-r__C~--_1~LL-.- I~-YI---Y ---II~
CAM 13 ~COWNthUM
Er ii A3J
I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
-L1~_~~r-~--- IIILYL _-yly~y_-YY~_WII Y_.~WI~-C yL~YL--y-L-YLCY--I~Y-L~Y---^-(
'-'-'-----~~' r--- -~-------- -u'-~---l--"rr-'Y ~~--I--1I ~IIVI*I_Y-)- LL~-YYLUL--Y--~-r -I-L---L----I~- YIII-LIY Y_ -YLPIC~I -II
(Time in months)
Chart A shows the total enrollment of the migratory stuc ents and
the rise and fall in attendance during the seasonal months. It further
points out that they are at the peak of enrollment during ohe month of
October or one hundred and twenty-five in attendance; during the month
of November there was a drop of 40 students or thirty-two per cent; dur-
ing the month of December there was a drop of sixty-five students or
fifty-two per cent. The month of January there was a drop of eight-five
students or sixty-eight per centq the month of February 100 students or
80 per cent; the month of March there was a rise of one hundred students
OCT'. NOV. DEC. JANl. FEB. MAR. APR.
~_______ ____ ____ _~____ _______ ___LI__ _1 ~I ____~-I NO_~I C
QUEST I 0 N N A I R E
Your aid and assistance will be greatly appreciated in helping
to make this study. Please read carefully the questions and check
"Yes" or "No" to questions: one, three, four, five, seven, and eight
according to the one that applies to your case, In question number
two, please sta~e the number of sisters, brothers, and The number
in family. In question number six, please check those items which
you feel are applicable to your particular case.
1. Mother living (Yes) (No)
Father living (Yes) (No)
2. Number of sisters
Number of brothers
Number in family
3. Will you leave Winter Garden, Florida at the end of
the school term? (Yes) (No)
4. Will you go to school while you are away from Winter
Garden, Florida? (Yes) (No)
5. Will you work while you are away from Winter Garden,
Florida? (Yes) (No)
_--~ ---.-----I- ---------LC ----CC--~-~T--~--- ~--I I- -----1~-~- 1111~-~- ~1
-1'~-'I c-lC -I------y-r~rcYc1C- ~ll~-~~.~ltl-lll~-----L- -~t -..I-.
QUEST IONNAIRE COUNT INUED
6. Would you like to remain in Winter Garden, Florida all
of the time rather than just for a season? Very Much,
SVery Little, N.one at All.
7. Do you like the community of VWinter Garden, Florida?
8. Do you like the school of Xinter Garden, Florida?
S- (Yes) (No)
QUEST1DNS TO ST UDENTS
1. What is your name?
2. Where do you live?
3. Are you mother and father living or dead?
4. How many sisters and brothers do you have?
5. How many are in your family?
6. Are you leaving Winter Garden at the end of the school term?
7. Will you go to school while you are away?
8. Are you going to worK while you are away?
9. Would you like to remain in Winter Garden all of the time
or just for seasons only?
10. Do you like the community of Winter Garden?
11. Do you like the school of Winter Garden?
*1 What was the average attendance of your Sunday
School during the year 1949, 1950, and 1951 T
2. How many people attended your morning services t
3. What was the attendance of your A*C.E. League T
4. How many people attended your B.Y.P.U. T
$. How many people attended your evening services ?
I ras n the roes aft gathering sar a ifwwommtioa
reghdimmg mm elaebattendance -o winter oGamrd for
Uts pCt tnr yeas*, 1949, 1950, at 1956.
I 44 eppmrlatie it wry smh it ys would
plnas fill out Uhs anolosed gia sla n atd
stprkr bn to aI at your ealInt eenesetwe
I thaInk ysu wry au sh fr t an fs'.r,
Ibary trsly yoW%*
-r* wo blCi-