• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Half Title
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 List of Illustrations
 List of Tables
 Early period: Civil War to...
 Later period: 1915-1935
 Present status: 1936
 Recommendations for negro...
 Bibliography






Title: Public Secondary Education for Negroes in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000045/00001
 Material Information
Title: Public Secondary Education for Negroes in Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Carlton, Mary Regina
Publisher: Catholic University of America
Publication Date: 1940
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000045
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0918
notis - ABV5538

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
    Half Title
        Half title
    Table of Contents
        Table of contents
    Preface
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
    List of Illustrations
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
    Early period: Civil War to 1916
        Page 1
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Later period: 1915-1935
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Present status: 1936
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Recommendations for negro education
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Bibliography
        Page 109
        Page 111
        Page 111
        Page 112
Full Text

-q ___ _


kALIC SICMDARTr EUOMIUM FOR MISoOiS





by


r.-


Silflr ary Rtin t Cs. S t, 8. J B* of iSe In Marn.


A DLoratsion ta btteo to the Feealt t thO tGacte Shool of
Hurts =ad sBteBOes of the EatUlis Utivety otf JMrio& in ifirial
PuL bsent of the Requir e i fo.r the air of uMate of Arf















WagMne, 19
washagtcn. D. C,


-I U-. -











This delrbtAtion was condkoted unmdr the direction of
irme + A* Ir r as Mtjor Protessor mad
tSBigatur op ajr Porrofeasor)

aus approved by lTrk P. OQ anMd as reader.
signaturee of Reasds*


-1-----










OQcT ar8


PRSFACS a a a m a a a e q # e # g.e 1

LIST OF ILLUSTR AIO *NS I * * a it

LIT OF TABIM .... . .e .. e m a T

IUROIRDTJLn a a a a a a a a a a I


CHAPTER I

EARLix 2rR1iO CIVIL WAR T 1916

Batiat undbr rlwmive aplees. QOona tutiac of
1848, ReaotMsren oc fPorido tfrm 1W88 to U1T.*
Gontsfttion of i BM* Del .a use of Sparate
8ehpolS fbr two RmH* .. * * 7


CHAi'TS II

LATit PSElaODt 11uL*5M

1eeanl pttoa Le o in u y M atooa. 8ltte-twid
O suorry meatiaun. '2Ith:-= Ashools. ZIapI
Birth of Jnltor hjs ahool so, Aeret4tati of
lgeo Sbhool.s. 4 a . JO



PRESM StTAhSs "a6



Boy. hro Publie Sohools Tormas xgre Private
82015O gUfto Publi- Schools TerssU Klit. lubU
ahoole, ** ... b7


HARt &R IT

RBCDoaNDMTI)8U FOR SWao BWISCAIS IU 8


UlNAT .* . . a .S. ... 96


~iblbUo.rp a a a a s *a s a g a a s S


109


-1


I









nMACB


It to the probe of this dinsetrttion to ftl* the history ofat tie dnlp
at of -eonidary eammion for ngorone in the tate epartheet ofat BamUat of
Floria. the preamptin is thAt the uu4 tIU reVw l 0raAw possibilities

yet to be rallied la this titd4* The iLaftigStics purpose to Wt tfrth the

pfnrmt stfaus of sesatnal opportmaitit. eJayed by Aer*es eurd for by

priLate seblm i In 2trids ad to esaruE the teumpporbed sabools with the
a -gwlzpsfl rto hoole.


the ple is to seu l. a b of ttal d Y iArlal thleh WiU ll 4 itself
to sta4 and .anlyr s the am d a of tthe ev ldm fttream in

tho featlitie provide by Florida for the dlM4rM of thU tw rases, bleak a

hlit.* The qnpe4e purpoVs of the wrk is to asere bamse for intoetiLn
dirnetias of dosireble growth in the feld of pUbl e seoadary martian for

Iegroom in the State of Florida.


Thoma Jesne Jnme bha tracd th ed oatiun4l aonditions atL dmelopue.t of

the mngro raise ln go L A__ati_, l"1I tl+a e. So md 39 of the Oeparbeat of

the Iaterlor, Blaru of adowatincm it *Lh me fl a a enm-Mr of negro *a-

abtia ia flrida in both pdlie and prinvat utbwls for the year 1916. a

geog Oft ?i*Ue Sthool ias tiq In lrIfda by ThmMs 3. Coobroa preiebts
4dae to 1921, but theft t n eftMrt An its premoation to mparate faets
relative to white and agro hboaols. The statiltii of fdlnation of the lcre

!Mo Departmet of the Interior Bulltlta o. 1U for 192iB do** ot paktiB nlau
iso the data ftr sy me attes the A Itionl turvy ctmMlcsi at the state

oi .trl a for 1989 abwtes tentby-ne p 4es to wnr edt tiao In eotrsat

to 368 for the fits aihools The National Srrvy for eooniry aaxnstln
s ammtioane lorid4 a onl y i toa tablet


Ip r








The pf.mt fbuf is onuLwrnd oespeia.ly with onditloms of nego 4enea-
t ion in Florid& xt
oe hundred yea r. eor *oneure trials it ps4nds upao th biuL l reports of

Sthe uporLatemndats of palia lnstruaotio in rForida, pulgla hd lew anted by

the L gilawure of the state of POrlda, mad data fpra qusp6tml atres to bea st

to the prinlpOas of the e1ondary vftools for bgrooe in this State.


To oeartLn and in isore W u luat. PorlidstL e aohlwvmo in ptblle
oeondary nda tiEo for Regrow., the writer pins to trade growth rrm the perio4

of sre potwtetality of e*hetia fbr the sla to the birth of nual protw ia

ftr neago ed*boica tn h oem with the 4o0 ofa thgs C Wtpare, uea the project

took parlen af r ioweert o li0 e the birth of a new.bomr hld It s our par*

poe to ft the lg Mnrtatt perio of imtanqy hirtaf tho aeoantruotioa

year a uetion of Olfe a death for teh nMro uoiwaol. awe Shal twb t b
S eodtn a dl realisotoMn I 1887 of the dual yste of soparae schools flr twh

*tw rase in feriLdas. Th investigation will tha tin itus attatim to Vgwth

aTnsequat upO the pralpt in o.f oqulory wtatloan Ise and th a tnnM
of the full stature of anreodited negrn ondary obhools,


The ltit for the inntlgattia has botn omt at 1936 beoaa that yoar asr

ooouerame of nwnral siLtficant happeUlngs that My weU nman the b.L1inah g of

a -ne *am for negro edtaOtian Chief aw thon ernts areo the clootion of a

Mn state syVeritendsnt or publlo instruotim, the tato proviisc a of Sw

tebooks for high schools, the appoain it by the goave nor of a o ,tte to

inmstigate the shool laws, and an inroase of seohol fmda aonruin frra the

tax on the Pari-mrtal Pool Sputam of Lhe ranng itaeorests in the Stntoe Fur-

thetmre 1936 iarks the litiwl publioation of the finding.e of th Codtte for

Cooperative Stwl of Geconday School Staem4rds, which raults ny me the /

migration of no- abwta rds for nmorodtation of schools.


1 ----






ill
uhe prpuryticn oa tmes diserbation ha bee a pleusam tas & to Me

assistant rimdlt by% -aq pers n to ~tm th ewritr ow e a det ogra itmae

nr, OrAe A*. Ermr of toe s t shel staf of the sous Ireiak or the

Catholio n~verity of lAmerias e~sne the lu a ai 4de d te writer t her

mgmmetiam ns a nma eam in the wrk, The pro- nmarP ofr the r 4Oal
of L9a8 at the 8oethe Brmah of the OQhbolie an.wqij, am mbatio te
deserne thW cs for its help in rimctaing the iLmnstigatiame. r 0. *

winal the Stat Aet for Iegroe n at Tmllhuama, Uriida has bea aft

garoe~s in pletfi his Ulibry at the dlpoa of the wrier. Thanks ur alW o
hbe to the presideMs of the ae etI shoolis ad to the priumipeaL or te aro

hih aebae ftv giving oft tIhr tim o the marim g ot a pestioaire thich
ha boa helptuh ia eoleting this inuestilcman.


I I






Ov

21T Of IImaTNATIOWS


FIpare 1.

Figue 3.

FIgure a.

Ptgar. 6.


0om0nto whwre Ifroue abee4 SO Peeota of wU Toa
POpUlatAtsn s * o o o a a a a .

Iltats iXTtionu for Atlt10 Clfet featn t u a

iA 1editea d eoar igha Ut Co4m in Floridth B1 .a . a a* 0

Acereditel ND&M VAiE Shaools Ln PUiM4am .f93 s a o i a 9 0 a a Do


------.






V

UST OF ?ABL&A


.TASLM I. C nUnARISOW UF TAX AND Rf-TA SCHOultS 1 JACKStflVILS . 78

tablI a1. sAeAPEnl URi FO.f WUITS AND LGUO WRAUe 7a32, 1946-f6 6 0 *













I

I









OBAPTbR I
ARLT PERIOD CIOTIL WAR TU 196b

Bu-Ztida sT prvtnt* iuteme. alituntiia ot IS ma.
R e sm street PwrM tromw to 1878. consituttum at
1486. DTal Iwftl at p spernte ibIoois for IM tsu.

Prior to th citil war soabint hd~ bee i'nilatmc tnomrds free ste
of .aadetitn for dit orahildm.4 After the wr hwsasr, leL 1e the tewam
nrw to cea f roIIm aO Lus, the tktL lanseram fd, ad tn, l easu wer, to b*

wpport4d the ple mwa& et s popular. th1w uo itua aeal GOonmenloft 1 U
took ao steps toumrd eoakatias ad Ulittle wu othertw* On- finds in thU

prme**4tng of the 8dofatioal Agemolati, of the Stat of tbrlde as ry as
188T the a1osldng aritleal eoamnt.

1*4.es 4olgfyig with very little effit the preesodi of lasds
doated to the State by the Unit&& Bates for oEhool purpose
rts.w has neer buem @MythV for tho edoeM oa of hrr wlte
hlldra. Wot on doala at time bhm eve boen levied
her olti-ea fbt the prion lm f of *~stiK a e~ pt tae mail
tan lAvied qup th Ole Ifd people for the the elation of
uir colored siilidrea.
fitaeSloal relts I P flw*. &ade tion, the grOEb.te iteroet in the state
ms w realize it, mw La those ear4 dys eaommttLd to the Registrr of t at

La.ds, at *Abordinat trust, a atter atof wodoa y iagortuwl This put
rforida bWhA every other Stat in the Utaa la the matter of *oatintg ts
ehtldren.


O wanre em to the reams by pasmig maet estabimbing the Freemones

Rawon in the war paprut on Sarah 3, R8e. This bureau took mere of the

*orporm and wrted ftr the ertablithamt of ahool. for the fir4 slaves Nevwer
thelaes, after their rale all M edtd to lorirn to qua their freoadc and this
required temahors.


Mkr aO, 1,067. p, --- o-"-- ......... .. ...
Eqs IV, l +7 P.I


PE t








Teoherm wmre forthbooing& during the short period intorrain betwoa

the alome of the wr mad the ftoatlO o r thte re stat QOatttutio, ourbtsa

Northern rigious assooiationsa espieoilly the Afrioe Civil ttia Sooletty,

the ama E~jsiolary Booeity of the strianla thtodint pisoopal Gurseh, d th

Nlw Trar branch of the Amorsn Freoa w a Iunimn oo~drsila bosE to *establid

sools throughout florid L Bidtop Verot brouEt Ottholie Sisters ftram fraoe

to help in the aw charity of ednotioan of Negroes. In reoar to thee .ahools

established by vmarias bo4ie Staprintadmt Dams rolatoe that's

N ulers of t~h ladlos ih Lmam4 the daties of tosahers
ere pereous o f wolth and high ometa position at hcm
coming at a time wh the freed ahildri Var~ ost uAdanly
at the threshold of a no lif1e utaead to the raonsibilUties
and iparant of theo ties tha thrust sup thm, they wre
mweloam with great Jo, and labored with Slaeor Chriitli
dertian, # dt harap and privations. The teacher1 haw
changed, but most of the shoow r ae still tnttaIed. *

Privto seal wus active in tho arger wsttlBainta but there was no lftied

etfrt flmg thw wahoole until the l of Jeuary 186, provided for the appoint-

mrtt of a spefrinteadent by th. gno or of Florida for tho purpose of org~f .sin

and direoing the eolofa d s mhools This swhow that t the tim the colored

ahools erg re living special ears. Rfnernd o Is. oL on amtioned In his

Rprat of the aprintata44 of Co n Sahool for fre*tpe, 165, that the

schools ao ovrywhare a kid roaeption and hoerty rousaeo. The T om*r of

school inareaned to uixy-fi i In M year. Aboat halr of the tehors in the

eoolored sools were whitt aQ were *ems of the most respeted thite ladies

annd go t 1amt o the state.* ~ Th wit the mointat of a mpovftarnnnt at

with the vluntaor teaohors one find the school syastA of Florida wrolvi. It

ia hard to a isice tho qyta. itrrted as it wms fra the order of the preosst.

The boginain& stunts were adults, thqY kErw the lnNu c.o thoy maderstood work

aed loved religlian thy roooleid e4atinc as as groat boon td were not nmr

concerned about theo eqalpsa and buldines amud for school. Fr the iLwtur


23* B* DaLa. ap R rt of the fuperintondart of utUi Instruottion
1869y, p. b






9
it of the qstm a W oad prophew the vlotie tutd that wer to fllow.


Butlldg a t em arly traW4 the ttiULl nm for betteamt of do ntia
bfr both rwas Iu fIorla4 wva a amwti In tallafhaue for the ntanl4frtion a

e* atiuaal praObl the fiMrt moila being hold Ma On 30, I31 A tamaUti-
tim was ratto providing for offoers and their ati.es, haorary Mmbetrs, nmal
toing a at the capital ftm4a mad beataes p fllehsr no po rastuafly
dwlpn late *re Zam iamtml Aneoiatia of the state of Fld4f*k4


Standing oitt wern ppoiate4 to look uathr

Matha Ls at atal csleniOe
02LuLastsl trotbok
Moral mlemo and bele-lettre
kolornt people
omtiw a ffairs
Arethitelunr, ftmituroe a4 diuflptai
Supply of tasaorm mAd as t nabOols
th the e*dmao tantc l itrest of flor4 wrMe unr war. born er Walker ua
ppo~nb4d Shntitr of the OQmittee fr colored P rpl*, ls e arued to fnd
esxt hat hKd bee don for the.r to enr that gestia he s ltte pFrt ot
threpofrteat o th su peitad t of public instruction

The quperianttent for the Coam s ihols for ruom for
this Sae reports something u ar 3,0o tdre dear
a~ly LnutrmttUoethe Ewiht lehols wa-met with tho
D whgos e wtL to se- = 30o0 hil, the *b wth
taboli Mlar at laat r 2000. a OIunM tl e wth tiis,
a hba bet oL o000 o nd O,000 indr privt lt iaftetia
In thb etty atf tlUMa ae, altom, we hal narly luOQ
aM:r instrstioM oi truth, it Is ouftAlt, to oae
at tbhe rl ttus of tkir wem of i eroytntats it is
maleral trogbaat the tatte. I ham lutar.4 the
tr.**w, in earry awry wto in Florlda, as wll ta
My plane in the Osfetry I uas at with the mft
wordial welame ad4 theU mIt bart adr e nt from lt*
ad srwad. thor. is but one eoni s*etimnt, Uwhth is
that the colored puoplo of war lad tould obe Caate4* 6
In anwr to the qu stioan aoe rning tha present work h. ftrttr patod

the me sourtfl


S. PFroudtisz of tihe Eudoattaal Moaiation of th ttet of flpidu
__ 10. 1ee, p. a






10
I -asool han ben a prtf"ot eem; L tlh tenmters
NR at itt Mr"nrlle and larys d athmht they
hba aver reoivr amytiag more the thQ et ~m e-
pport they Thav permwVer mau r the fl
utrJiStn sIiretsm es. *** r The amre m t
with mour -meol operatit 1I tmsaeru from tih
Uzia Coma mea in the aerth, two r quel6t4 ad
pnrseperla arylUg ot this noble orkE.. It is doa
to the Buren to OW that thbr bn pid tYhe aLUar of
the porlrta atth 0t Uw elr*~ g8ools ad hi 6;Ir
poartatio frar the a eide erini ng
seigttaet La talhikga school hbouw mad ftrnilhtla aose*
(sign"m ) n* 8b aWne OUpte, Ovaon ta og%
for Pr~fe.a, State of Poroid *

In mplylng to theo Fnetlo of what mare was maseea 1W aentre Ia wry mfl

the IlUtamg on e hears todiq

The ahit no"d 1is t to bc beake =4 temabroo
Uhs i qosLit~os of the pe ple, both htLo a blak,
are Juat suh as w mA14 hLOe thie the on m fe. Soe
of the rat reqeeted lte l tes ad tl in tAh
Stat. haf take poaiLtins in tho. ahols end, bLdos.
tJhm proal et a Lf o amAmee, t l that thq have rather
gawed tbe Lost stal poSLtioa by -o 4ia..* ,
(Sined) D. a. Walker, Ohalm.
The prv*sra t of the assist the W ppoted thr*e paroawn in eaw

somlty to asiaB ad report upWm all ppliuste for situations as teachar.

loth taahers md smumi ties wre aed to bresm the *o retry of the AsMio-a

tian, ths was aorgaise what ag*t be &a&JI. a ftrn plomet buram, mtne
tlh wham pusswd the atio bam n-ttl.e o ltr of the AUamBltlae.


A selal plea wus nt at this ti, to the tauiAtor i nd s epwer

editor of larida in behalf of the EstkLtcmal AMeofiation. aBeraan at its

high setiouanal prisiples ad th ale aneae it had on the Legslature, thi

plea to insemrted bheras
Witinar. and adLtores ll catidaa
rour positiao give yoiu halaot umliiteod inrtlurnb in
molding d direeking pblie opinioal d withAout you
aid sO ptlia oark@, howrur groLt its it ortanme, oan be

4* Prtooeeing atof thE fteatisaa A iawoiation of thi State of ?ari4"a
lab D.O INTO 4 .10


6 Ikbi4d, p* 1


4- I---~.~.






U
asewoplishad....blJEtg. m as 4 that the e*se of tnru
religam aE thi property of the :rous are t pzarable
trm the eae of *e tes a 4oo 4l appeal to you
iL b)alf of this seau, bis~ueb you to arues -amo the
people amb e lweral ad otOalltl itntenspt ia the
gaC ral diffsida of kuMe dge, qm will bring to bow aB
this matter the vdilo power of the tutae O imrAnr

Thbe fpalJ to the mWint rs, CJaholio wa noa.0tholle, and to the press mst

haw had a strocc tafluons, for the l gislaturo of 38 tB omu a w o GoBsL*
tutiKn ad inserted Artiole lx tsah has r iAnd the bassl of the publite hol
qitem in frlr4a,


The shool syWton did not volvu of its oa powar into its prosat eff~i
tmony. Tharatre it it no sTrprisa Lo lo-'n that the tate upWerijubtm ot wer
the loader.a repanlble for the amns attansat on Florida* s ahools of both




bs work of State orintnft4et Thurswta ohase livU s ater hin R1fla
bu44 the *sc tltonl qrsfbas in th older itat ~ hbm fmalist ed In MS, the
bill on *aatlc-mlo iLh he maitted to Ghe lsislature. The bill tt~h had bee
passed after tweay 6 O' ensotderation ws a mdal of st pllerty ad writO
bto be oted by ersry ~aeeaing sporinta~t with but few aditflatim o
hose's wrk brings is to the real Lnaugurtion of a pUblia dCsool qste la
rlorL4a so w loean fm ea oarly witera

to be Just amd Ipeftll hiMorlaf t Mwt bo a mitte
that n effe*flt l tia stton flatimn the establis0et
of a mti ram Wste of public school mportb4 ly txsCtise,
Wu serd ~util thw Wotmeut of the Wchool lr o14
by t at s rttsnsewt Ihurstan obae, y the Lfislastw
of 1809, t U h is graetically 14 statutory prolanm a
the state at the pfrset tin*
re GhaMs had cfmre r Ohio, but Ws ftr aoerior In shata to thoe
Wartha m a wer o as "asU ort* d rtaer." At the m he bS

6O* bid* p 10
T7 willi0 I9+ shata, Biulal aort of the suprt.ana.t of .bm
stute i 1B89, p. 69






18

offto there re there n p eo aildreLa to ery white *hild 1n ahool, and tAhi

eanitlom paerite" tfor eit years, r&lmU 4 that public atO autt fvler

wiermetl Omatiom ad his efforts oned the legi~Jatur to a*o4 that 14i

iu the ftilow~g eontioa or ArtLole X or the new st~L Castlitutuion
actian 1. It is tho parm ct duty of the State to mke
pridla for the e*atil of .ll the
htldam zw rostiL n wiltha its bor4ars, without dlstinctia
or prefersi.e

CBoifle 2. The leglslatur dhll provide a alfo qstm
of maen nsdhooil am a iTerm~ty, *ad lU
pride for the liberal malaBtesa of to sme. latrwQ~ ai
St thme shal be frese


ICo e at ot ma tot d directly, but thb are n lu od in the prti-
leg* girntedt to uite* Sildra. It lI a to Iltheb e see Neos*.

b aems uMuastis rimed of public e 4aatioa trm the first, ftr it was 4ll

gain m4 At Uqb or rthea* t iats aN to sq, too, tht the oipostle on the
part of the tiet populatlmw mr direbetd nre against the portes. no the

1fsa r a the North were eu1ea, then aciest the SystaM of odaeSatiaft ite

The wr o6astlitutin ad the sehooi Lr I n ad the mal tant wurroundin the

.etubliUr tk of the ashool a te and fermishd a dattMlod ple for the future.


fl2wla g the ari aperitflamts tnhro t the turbulent day of As*oma
strliMa one finds a powing rnallttiati of the tbb that the Stats owe then

for the dAevloweuat of the -shamlis a>no tft aing the frawnrbl. induatral

and poittial OeantlOens thePe pieanor were guided by the priansile that it It

not only a6d iarcrma but good pedpaigy to wot with a ppl* rather tham
for thea


Rewrnmd Oharlos msesherj a Protestant Clergyam, finished the turm of

$Sperinteadaet Choase. e, to was a 'import rn ended o State lti tre-
ity incai4n o0 th Wet nnarida aid the gst Fl arlcidA aMiarie urged thea Li4


. oa..teto.a of th na..t. o rraq, 184., Artiel. a


-- -------






3II
of tree textbook, oad ade4 for a oeaiuw of school children. No in the preumet

meada itf thew d of a balf-otry his re.mfoma-tiOme have booot roalittn*


JonathaMn Q Gibbs mAooeod him as ririntendent of public instruatia.
Otbb'* tnf, Is of qaeoia si pifloumo ai our invtgatUicn for he mus a Negrt
a nristiw of Pmnslyrni a i gruute of Dartath Collaeo, alass of l8ba, 4. a

sitima of Flot& s sine 180, Beo ws e6n*edoat to be honest, oltur*e4 and

parlor to waso of the other "wort se e has the honor of being the =ay eo-
9
onwt -m is the list of stparintenWat.* In UT18, a his tu-r a i w as
eated proving that all elamntrs y sohoole should bo grapu- afto being

divitdd into prfiary intr. dixtwfe, tnd grmr lvmels, end that tho bruahe
etagt be monfl.d to spelling, readiac, writing#, atth a tio, genorapy, I

history. be am i the first y7ar of him torn the em*BblsIuamt of sityrsMwea
Iaoolma. iie s A4 death -n Aurat IT, 18T4, ~ a 4l I8 i B. Lian to am it

hie pWlae util lM h 1, 1878 tMrs Mca sreswd the noad of arjL Oa fr Uth
mr*LtartuWtf tht4iSlnVL M4d ftond fault witih he MWthoCL the %AMA ror

m nanag tearhere proparatory to their iqipointnunt to mShools.


Rvsfretd illl a rt-Uin Mikse, another *lmportI took offtlno Marsh 1, *18 b
ft hd trasstorroa his dmiodle, 6oeslauuly soiwrnulta in polities, and na

rnOlTing roegittiLS as a Euthodjist itnisator dae bo took otfee &M the ZLst

Ipbli6an t Itsw qporBInt4Tdaoct his aouqpai hw asertood tht it m the Oemleit
should win, the froo oolorod *hC s o wle n d Loto eout but this did ot hbp t a


la the Minrble. oqmpailp IherolA Avrarmd aeks neUd the atamet bearing
on th o t Bthe oolore~ schools a at"erat a v th@ gaveonorslip* Tih la I187

urs End the rnipg of the brpetbaoerm.' The sw Vverprn r appoatod Willia
.. .. .-. .
Oeor es, Gtt, 0a9tory of aaaton 2C JFrida, 1899W, p. 10
120 Williaa .- Shore, Bloilal iteoort o ihj autaer.n;oa:ant ok tublia
Mai Utgon 18e8, p. 16








?*. fatsley, a nativo o' Indisna who took office in JanuLry, 1877. an State

supervntla u t of tibli Instruotioan In this a)pointant it wunms that the

earlier advroie ~ou ning the education ojr muerintendants was tonuidhred, for

th ew upaWerinta~de.t was a graduate of Yulo and of Brvarr. Ln his terA one

find tho tirst relUable 4 oceplete vtatistioe for the school yVsta. Not ao

SWnty officer tailed to eand in riorts, Sohool tors at the tim n re only

fin amoath ien length ring hims eaellnt amlinistrmtion Mer. Baialey adr ted

a poll tax for all voters as a preroedsito for traea. The poll tax wa

later inzagurato4 an4 rm~imed in fore mftil the olootion of 19357. s prouted

i~proa ts In poliselo, for insrtui e, that only temaohrs should be ellgibl to
the office of county spriintM tb that thee mbould be Staft un mormity or

bxtbekci, nd4 that there *bould be ma bqute program at ansu tr&lain


roarable LUsser K. Faoa-t graE te of TOle a a lwyer, e m a aiarge
nate ft a4vooated In~~itute for hiltt an negro teaoherst These InuttaSut

ere a series of le aures and diueusuians baring on to&sher training anWi thv

fornd the aeuelet -htah hav. )Wlope4 Into our mode t Twae~a r* Collee Ma

Monml Shools. e H wanted to see a reform oIhol d a school for the d4t end

blind, ad he uotually mnsooded in ptinC his pla tar th det and blian

eabhol before the Legislature* loth schools wro later established ad will be

iwsouased in tho chapter anm rosent Status. Their erotPon s a tribute to
Stpsiarntendt Foffter's foresiht and Inturoet.


Jomrble Albart J, Ruemll, a Virginten, and a gradlua; of anders= Seta-
ary had wrved as ooaouny perintandoet of *ral County before his oppointmnt to
th State offiaee Be served as a link betw n tho adtanlstratlw of the Rtpub-

lisao s ad of the lDemrntas for he ws later eleotae as wperintAndat ton the

Okmorats om Sa 1a888. 0 was better ited to th wr mad saeoeeded bottr

than his pro4aeosars. BeinG a Oafedeor&to ewtvren himsU he was ablo to win

the antfid4noe of his neighbors. Hia mberdship in ay lodges widrmed his








mheu lantm am d Annbld him to arousw the peop4) to t Lp.orta~oe of the

publo school bi*s ort o listed sohtely in betting n1bsidew alltin pro

Jiadias nad lifting the pdtlio tad to .yprnoiateo aedation to tho point of

boing ahwbee ly willing to mnos t testima.


During his tormn dbts had bee paid, anid soevty peroat ao all ehildra

wre enrolled in ahool. Th proportica of white t hilden had boem grduslly
inaOrei and that of Regroes deOraoin. Thils was n nted for by te flat

that mWy groa Moegros er withdrawing frm aohool and th~t a humaeoerws

were brou h to FieLds by the advertising of the B~rem of l~iga tiaon ind of

Sthe seton Lend Sale. Then imam rs Ud not haro th prejudice of FlP rlna

for the public shobols. In this ar of prosperity is FLori a, terL~u nrndtat

Russll bahe his Insftitute for negro tomahora in ast Florida with a first

session In Dwral ouotry. In I88S the Pawbolt FPtd bad contributed 41,00, the
State Legislature had C'Ie tfho mBw s ninut, 4 thoad twnwo t o ad. provide a be-

gimAt for State Institutes. Thy wr be bIld thirst in individusl ounaties, thea
boomn statoe-w-ld. In this s yohtr the auorintomdent orCrnios two nora w

eahooae for lieroom, the opatint siessalon of i'ich were huld at Ga lnaoille

and I llshasa~ e sad last" two months. Ar. Shefs.a twaght thu legro IonAl in

Ooinoav1l1e uedro ho begma his oareur of toamhin t totmhurs how to toa9hb


Although thWi ountly drwvoipeont of $.taL wA sdatian in Florida hjas ateoedent
beariage O~ the d9mlopmOnt of aduolaion ftr NeCroes, no fCr the records ofr nro

.datfion show little dtal. T h is Is erxlain by th superlintoknt note
histh follows
thb ~t with rugrrd to negro edtoation ame prttiularly1
Pe Lb and defoeCtiv going to the serupuloisu pains tkJca
by the early skjistrticons to avoid mkiLzng n ~ isitinaoio
*tUhVer as to rais, a wll, porhnps, as to prsnuWt the
too serio1ly inaolind from xamining too oareiafly into
the r oa" condition of progpse of this raoo efdnationally, 1


11. Wllies r SBh~tt, 1. cit,. p, BS





-I__ I-


I X1

JAkeonvills, hnower, eeMod to hav bee one of the leading onmern s for eda-

stion of tho MNego at that time, for it to tat*4 in a history of the tims that

as early as 186W there wre three ngro sohoolm with SEj pupils under the care
12
of tOur tea~u shee. It Ms about that tine, too, that Uw l1n4 donated for the

8ltntoa Colored High school was acepted in Juelckanville.


It is further grAftityin to loern ~ rma hiastorlot troatibe the follow

fowf 6emarnning th Otutiln of Uthe school at about thoe d oln the A*oo-

atrOetion period

In 1876 whnm the Reptblieoa were drive frc poor,
fG7 pt*lio schools wore established nith 28,444 m pil.i
black and ite, a filled, the pen4dibure for that year
being $168,846...S asttaially X1 or the mey esmpanded bor
public inatruatioan va. olleeted frr Southorn &titiL ,
iht as Consorvatirvs wre allowed littl.olio in directing
the school tstMa hLoh tohy u.joret*

ThE natal ehadols are not mmtnioned in the above report, but thqy are eigpi-

floean at this tine because thoy eostitnted the ona provisias of the rank of

publle oeondary eduoation for Nerovue in PXorid before 188b.


Thibs T see the era of Reaonwtrwwtion reoeding ad leaving In its pleoe a

origanimd adhol wast.aa The schools wer graded, th teachnln bo was fdIer-

CoinC iMprqiownt thrwo orPml schools for both rtees, a4 the supertantow~dts

warea Mo MboIly livu w the interested of the school


Aftor the uaoesees of tho Reoonltruatim Prtoed there rms still oe point

of uanerta inty for the eooan schools. those hao were in publio affair teared

that the etfOrts oa both the Protlstant a~n CEthoo shartb orgntnlsatiof

tlght settle a the people of Firidaa s ohool sst4e of mired ra oe Like those

ystas'e in other lsates. This organisation of schools aoom04 dting both

rhite and olored pupils was tried for a tfim prtioularly in Orance Park

12. T. Pnrerlak Davis, Kisbogy at anknastflle Florian. and Vicinity.
Ja37 2 l end Rp. 1truot i
15* W. W, Davis. Civil Var and Rooonstruertlan in FMria, 191?,, ppo W84-u


__





1 -~------ -


whore a Wp private ahool ws fit iad out so Iwll for iQegroes tizt iw fourtooa

ahlidra o the white profe sors atttdied it because the ad antas there w re

superior to those in the State* p .aaAn school s


The tate onstitution of Florida pinme in Mm 886, and ratified in

1868, beean offotive on Jaiary 1, 1887, with the follownn guaz ia ocanrnina

separate orgdniati'm of shooolso

The Legislature hall provide a uim~om qystam of public
oshools, and hall provide for** *aintwmaoe of the oars
hi at d 4oolored Ohildr saill not b taw)'t in the
school, but Lmprtial provi ioaf shl be ado fC r both

This settled the quwatlon of iwld school. snd inaugurated the d&al iVsten

that has wrrkod o wall n to the present tile


lTh i nonstitt tilon Ireated a State Board of Edunatlon to o rriso the

Governor, Sertary of State, State Treasurer, Attorney eroral, vat the Strte

Saperintandent of Publie Instrutiaon It speoiifed defiiLtely the eouroo

of mowy to be set aeide for a pemnamnt sohol fund. it likAse provided

for

a. Mlaction of tt. at n d County suprintindmts
b. Cou ay edetuioa ta= of frm throe to five Millm
oa Ditarit aaea&ian tax of throe cmal,
do State .2tastion tax of one aill
Two Ntomal ehoJolm--a tfor *o ra
rl Abolition of trustee ysts
g. irovsieon for division of ociatiom into sohool-distriatu
he Restriction in use of Ombool LC nS to ashool purpoosoi
i* daFsal to grant school funds or seeta'ri purpose

Sinoo that tIe theo mperinten4nton or tih State hav, bei eletoed for a tom

of fotr yfear., desitoe the may theorsic thrAt have beamn admnaed saInst the

priatioee




10. Canuttutlma of the State of Flaridfa, 108, ArtialJ X)1




___________ i ________________________________





a.

asrtitutea for Noegroo ouo to rEin with th mEnnlu ethboolu in rolatlc to aes
andury iTrk. Almaba County hold a oneamuth instituto for *egrooen t its nsC
ampmia. Laku Qtr OW d Uitlda. Tho PNabo umd was teWorsrily withdraw in
28856 bat la 192 tho Stee s r stored to the b ait of it a th the tera tbt
agro beshWM reinv a just portion of tWhe alstwae. Aooorditg4,Xf four
inhfstittas for egro tmahoers wre heal ins elatka, WLntlaello, Qntley, ad
Marianna. In other p~lan the colored teohars wr eamourmed o attad tnh
Institute* for -ait teaohare They ooerVied a part or the building musigned to
thm aLd were privile od with haitin the +ma led4ars eoaUot their ssidons.
Thee institute wre aintained for wrel year, we r toung tho listl ture
of 1689 refed to grcab undas for this work


Kelp se im n mather wW, f~r ~*egoe IL tiue as org aiad in ALabm
for the trainlmy of BoSer BLooker T, :aUIIngb$ h4d nae m ipreaima thrtqa
rut Ae DIatry is urging that thg kegro be trained to meaw oftiat4. bt

prmtoetd thwt the egro dould retia it the Saouth are hei sma a that ho
told hnve the r lt to beo eVlyj4 intstNd ofr tatil ie d i t~ the wrk oi
tbe wuitham E6btu Was giTvn to tportet labor. torthw people seomded
Washington'a *fort u, and 1tum oe beesau a outstanding instLtWtian for the

traintg of epoan, =n4 thwruby a help to Frlrida, for a later LiUsllPbaSe
wrbod man o for trailing epen es and timuty teachers took savmt.g of the
offl ty attting the Alabam admol. A


Theo Ooaiti ttda had pmrovidd tor 4a Mte Eone for legroom. It mwa
loeatd tu tllahum a a rw frm it. establismas in 1887 ma tUL 4&lreet
ot Protein or Y ** S. TL@ke It mw hmo d in a modw one-story building W th


14* Charles R. Wes lr, "Toll th~m We Are t.inD," Tho r ero Lstor urt4
VOls 1, mo. 6, p t 2 -- -


I ______________________________ 1 --





- -I -- _________ --~- ______
18
Tho Qontittbic was ratified in 1986 through thu eaffrts of r. sibhts
as the following sftrot Will haro

The aetrn ea of these provisions a the orgMeaio Lg
of the 8fte, there insurg ftta mnd inenren ingy
.esanbd phagol rovsm s (idioh begn to be eoUlleted Sn
L887-,e.nd wil eattisum) had re to do with lhe after
ueoess and growth oft hool lfnterests in iForl t the
biors at my one ladivjl&dl sinc that date*4

These Atn4h frim tamaton wre further wiqonte by sifts ftra the slator Fad
whiu h was amvalable ror the stan ta egroE BiGh 8ahool ia Jawckwnvllo as early

as 1887, when $1,0 wa give to fbtter industrial arts in the school*


T"heo Sitr Fn4 resu C ld tfr thp gift or John F. Later of Cotme tient f r
the uplifting of the lately emespated populatia of the southura States s 4
their postorltym* It omistal of flOp0,000 donated to the Flad in 1884, m lon

*rese of $s3.bOO ft the dissolution of the Poebod Fmd in 1914, amd 4~U,OUU

Otharfo dse tat an9t4ing a total of 1.7T0,U00 ftural shools are to benefit

espOally iadr the gift. The tad i hlps to py tealherse series in one
mngra ahol in eash ouM1 Wtiah sahool is mmsequnl y o:lld the Goamt tIr
I tng School. The urriutulm is plemad for troaiing teaahersn thereby seuuriLc to
each oomt' a am of $360 to IW0 far the lary of the teeahr-training tewah~b

owSttiss, moreopr, help to egive toward equlppihg industrial dpasrbntstu
is eity shool*. 14


In ftianln noep shoolu Ufrl4a has bonm partiularly torti~at in gualimg
th atttion of phlttbathroplsts. SIae 1860 ftda for the t provaot of

tenb wrs Mw boon eew vd fr the Pefbo4D uoational Find Thie was ma
eoafribut*4 by eorge Peabot, a Ma euluetts aWrobant, in died In 18 67 LOt iae
$600,000X as a fad to help agmro station in the south an states. These

13. Eifllim Weatse, SattL BRort aof the 5pyuritntenit of Vablis
lastruation, 1896, p. 44
S14a lh J a eo Janes, nsr Ne ~o _Mnan. D atin, 1i16. MNo. Vol. 1.
burm of Seiuati L 1917* p* 1








empituty ftr 1W stuente ad a s fairly well equipped toh rem for use in

Ooaber of that year. Thfre ws wmh a damd for tounhars tlht the studanta

woe Wloy~ad before grazationa he school hd the ac n ortitsatim an that ot

Ithe ite eabool though with slUeg y differut ourriftulia. The shiet daftioaiy

ws rom ftor boar6hra, hmoe Profteaar Iakier urged the building of two

&rmitorie to l4limt the lak of aImiIemIndlti ftr ardre.


Blasi this wa the L dzin. G hool for INegroo in the Bttj it emI to be the

bnetftary of the lrrill tllU in the UnitAd state Statte at Lar e *ih gas

awny for erteniltral mehooles Along wit the state AgrisiLturdl CallA e fbr

tidte student it Vas to romine $:-5,*iOO nmualy in portfpUtiyr. This s1aool

htt been kn as the +Btatoe onoar Oglleoe r Golore t Sbwdatse iutt it so

fortm ate as to reaeiv the m14 of te Morrlll Aat thereafter it wa caled the

norida Stot. lonl ad Indkdtittl school Althoueg the monst aormeOad ool

for ygroesa in the Satle, its studies as linr d by godhraw warn matorl4 raked

at fn dary value* He a es

Noiwer the souroas of tW awre lil ted almot
emlusivly to rwris or opl ttUk of the oum
c~.ool Ajeta ad to tw_ prfet ionalm training of
teeabra for uch b$Je.t. 17

The aobool w.a labor m iv to a subufa site overlook ln tUh eity in the

ohmac it asuired a fter equipped with aeeeaeary IIplMiat ad a laboratory,

mad was thus fitted for iandatrial trininge. The state 3uper1 tuatdt proposed

to a*eept t he status of tawhors tln graizates or the marl schools, but the


16* Mlar A* Ladis, Lfti Relatig to Vq tional Edottion and AgioultuMre
Bgtgioan we.a 1938, p. 3

*aOA Nrrll Atet (1890) in P* sa Statute at Large ix, 417T

MelK Amen maB (WO7) in Ut. #. statute at Itare, XXxIV, 1 1

1T. Thomsw gi OhraI, Ettonry otf ralie Sahool Snatigomin i lorifda
Oultia Has. 1I, 1921, p. 168


*1


__ __ ____







plme w afm wrahWb reguardd. Howwvr, he elt that the egro talherl wre

getting a1 tq v could et et for thry are giv epqul aftntoaes with th

tite. temh. r in stemr mehooli a4d i the Lnuitute.m


In this krll ad IndAstrial Shool ase Afind a people riec with a earep

bomr of d~s a .ttiao. Twre e wombtles wro pnr Mxrted in the wiFt U s

I of the shool. The Itudnts r ppo by the wah-ta and amodle md thiir
history rosAd lia sa r mse. Son there mas add4A to the school a aodel school

imr the diratina o a graaskat trom TpeiMti. MiLohi.* BeB os of the

litation in p*e m ul ber of to'sare tih elassiea stedise had to bo givw
in the maosdag and the Lndustria vmk in the ftearano p one o flook until

five. The girls took turns In d1oi there u mdry, amt the tAolitie woeee so

Ulited4 This ahooil was soL to ake a sMonpisuous dmaep In the u l WOWstat"
of uits staudabs mad through the a change in tall the parts of the 1ate.


At this tim, the *lose of the naptath .antwry, there was eattainly w
-omalr sIhool tor Iegroos in florida a the State auplntad^ma Mittt in

1396 tiatp

As yut, beomnd the maral Higb ahool In Jackstile...
there is hardly ather that has a repar pres rLbed
High school urriuTwlu or that has its patronage
limited to those galifel for the regplAr mcdary
oura. of stu#

Ihi1 this reftw n priJariy on e White shbools, it wutontloieaLy ml ad
th*e ngro schools, for f ~s 1U8 awrd the witee ahoal gDlw h ains the

asmhadaay a the ne gr o schools are always to be eonmoldeai in a nree on-

adit:b than the hAite OAhools e m though bright spoti ma apepar





eUl Willi=a Ue bSeat, Bi4elt aMlport of the Sfturinton~dt of Publie
IgtrtrtioIn 1896, p* S6





1

Snmoial rw res alwmve touh tho ohools, so it is m a rprise to fin

Sotbeak li edd ation nftor the terous of aoeedmwr 16", mnd febrwuy, LBD5.

The people had bam dpendent on the ora n grovrs abws t oaplotelr, so wh
these wf dostraoy the doale popult was luvoled in poovrty Until the

rlorida grore had not renlisd that rops other then oranges eould ba raisd

in the etate* Mr Flaglar, the dlllionalre do had doeVlop d u the t Cos t tof

flori~, ga anotd, oameda mao at tho peoopls' mm teos, and oar rlo their

orop. free on his railroa ina order to put the people on their foot* the sahoal

wer oMandute for hort ten, and as parents mnted ail tormu o begin about

the a m date, there mu a ahartage of toaeehrs, lr cho best tenahure soaft

to aoaept uork in enro penanent positions.


As feary adne in the Florida sehaool sems to be a matter of yublio ro-

tlment ebodi d into a lfw, it was soon d:eoed that t yeei ingtrustian be giliT

ll shildran in the first six gra4es of a~~ol. fonly fron the Indian lar 91Lts.

was to be a sed us a lan ftd ad ad aid w to bo C.v the rural grated school

and high *aolsi having a daily attan4annc of fifty or mre This resulted In thi

divisim of t$56 OOO amw the tmo classes of shools. The provision dAs not

specify that theo wom was exclusively for 1ite o shoal, so the prenm tlim i

ht t he negro bobcls were likewise to be ba fioiLrlem. This ste maCrk a

Sgret adnamaeat in school f ie ing and it was re"Ly a step toward Mhool ste-
dardisatioa In L904-105 the appropriation fers the DSata reached 1b,000 taor

the lamentary mud high uohools, but the distributic w8a changed fr the basis

of the akber of wobDol youth to the bsias of a verage atto4daoe


At this tie the Legsilature abolihedi all of the State ahools of higher

learaLn with the asemptiao or the Colored lorml School at Tallhassee. Howefr,


19. law of Florid,. 1906, Chptor b382








Sit nmin was chragd to the Florida A eri ultIura andi Mehilo ColloCo for

* eGCrous and it waB inoar'ritaed in tho Stato abhools of hiropr loGarnitn in thb
hands of the Board of Control in tho yoer IBObd0 GOinevillo boosw the site of

th Unlavrsity of florida, 8ta4 Augustine mws ohosm for the IDea tad Stind

School, and aho Statc Colloco for 17oaa -sB loov' to4 at Tallahaase.o



At first sight it Ir.y ean strange to tho ruoawr tb fiund. mtion of the

litvorsitV of Florida for it doen not receive colored st'u4antee Howersr minoe

1 19, thera hna boon a 1nivorsity Corre socdance Ovision opn to negro hih

soho:;1 gtudmts asn outlinod in 3W amnounnf nnts sant to prospo$oti stuva dants

For the bwenfit of tonohors who have not o-plotod a Four
yoar high school course, fr those in rural ae. r itios who
aro not no:'r a high soool, Hnd for i4tao of nature years
tro my prefer to acquire this wrk in their home, the
Corropond miro Stu4r Durio others tho greuter art of the
work aooronly iTvan in ma credited High Sahoole th. sourmsea
not cIvon t oro4it Lro eaio ones aind tho vora. onal
subjets, h sdih OanMot bu givti n a momt of te laboratory
and field wrk rpAuireod

*igi sohol oredits esarnd throu t h Corre&pondnce Stucb
ureu wdill be asoopted for adission to tio Univeoraty of
lrorldaF Mnd the Florida Stato college for Woron without
further ezxmi atioae. t tilo follow that the oroedts may
bo eoaptod by tho high oho:-l in thich tho student has
doJn part of hien arkc If a atitfactory arrnr gmn t oa be
mad with 1-io prinopW;l of school tfro rtickh the
tudmnt wishes 1o grndiite.

ohile the above sellootions do not directly extud those privtllcvs to the negro

ramew the tbllolng merpft frmQ a letter frm lt.re B* he A*aaB or the Correw

ptdno Divitaon loaFve no doubts

Tour soeond inqiry is in regard t offnrtni high .ahool
au sollego srk: to NegroPes I ma plaesso to earW so this
has been the policy of the Division idnoe its es~tblishreant
in 191 9. Bosldos fferi.ng tha courses the smao as white
st*da s, we aro glad to advise t he in regard L work toward
their d.toees anoording to the Florida jrgrioultoral und
Ieohanioal Collogo eatalog, and to a lessor extant aaor4ing
to t-u -atulogs friat Bothim--Cookman a nd other negro Inuti-
Wtutns of the StaEa* Liktwisf twheSvr a aegro studaat



A). Florida KRi4 Sahool Coursus rqy Corroajnnja cMatClo,, ev 2








fljaihn a o rse tho eredt is snoat toh the R ttv at the
A an MX. Oolo (Unleos he wishes it eat eluahrer.)

Aewording4 it in pmoslble for negro student to take fur year ofr A ig o

tear ysea of sbet laios five years of history four of latin two of apmia,

tw of ftrwe to at eof meajia bl Jst, ad etw or agrpoultur tor credit.

Neaur ieal drN tg aroMthi etural drding, typlAg a"n revier courses i phyWslso

biology phyta sl ad health ob4atina wreTB w alble aus io -ordit eoarsea. The

fteo vary frim e dollar or Iwe4reit eaourse to e ea dollars for otharse

These aofrtriag bring a high school edwation withIn the rmah o every Negro

in the "tat".


The seoono ry shools made other advmae AM the Geneorl St uatiLon Board

the orpor tto that han4elos te Reoktfo lr 4udatio"al Fnd beZ d florid ty

pvovdins the mlary tor a high uohool inVfetor hbo w als to be professor of

eoendary ednuation at tho Unierrslt of Florida. Hts ta.e at first was wost

used for the ditto hoole, but his Pipointmat helped aousMe u arrest i an

high ehools. Th~et oo the pdfbiLatia oa a high ahool oouren of study i the

Floida Leglslaturm purshd .o g~a le or ward th i iIs OLW4l bll4itn up tMh

otllans of the Maego hi t schools, beouese at this tie there were no standard

megro OMLols, oaly a rtw that twr claiming to offttr seoadry S*jeet. This

ws true to VAd am xtat that tho Wrm BohooIl nrovea t ABoolations trie

to aboll a the so.alled mero high eshools h a thy worked to hba ilndutrial

training tmauht in the grades fro five to eight. Pallint na thit th turned

their attention to libraries with the etitla of placing one library it wry

a lbool. Theor mu ga gneral makmning o the pop. to the needs of public

edattioa sa the anhool a seem us a se ter of gravity or Oamm ty U lte. th

UsrsEhilp of the iqarovoeet Masoiation was increased to 0,000 They beea

adv4oeatla one high ohool in ooh mounmt, erpuwy sol eeaati to, and oa inC

sat to the esanetetion aliowlag a higher tax for e aatic%*


________ J.


__I~_'I-




I
I



E&aiontTln 'ma Jurthorod by .ho .oco1-0tat1or; oaf !.h Joano1 fi td fr msk,;yliYg

par'. of *ho sdL.x; for tc infty tnahora ewho io v.ork in *;h, colored Aohnols aftallar

I to that of nparrviors. YAith -to aoopcratiroa ofr tho fl' the ooum=t hires- those

womar to sttflnt-a Inturoet ond action in rudaMring buildings# la tjthctiNln mohooL

i toran, wrkin" r) bulItt4nC roJooatu i'provig. Wkitor aon taillt oonditiLns., and

instituting librarloes The flund mtfse n s.ft of Aa i amtnna 1. Jarn.:, a ..!;kor

mi an of PildlaelphMa tho first CPav- moWy Cfr rral Bsclhoola and t4 JIM ro ,iO

to Pookor T. Washinthxmn o help in his vork. L taor oho oontributod ..:t0o..x t.w

t ho Gevr..ril "duattRn Board of' Hoa York at rhu instehee ofa 4tr. ooro Jubofyl.

SFnrilly sei cntrurtod thu rrmalndir of hr f-nrt'mi nmoating to to,':,:. U- the U

i &atrol of five borthorn man, frive Soutaern r, an:si t;i uc m va the naero race

Sto be usd fr negro schools. Thea work ootirnuoe to prosper in plite of two

drLftsleak-lrnc or fun m on thi part ot" Ixoa oounttive l orior to Add to lie

JoAn. allo'zmrt and iAok of Intor,.r t on .h i ptw rt of county of i Coid to no-'

that their qngro ohbxil are resolvinrg tho help they naae



That the nogro swhor a wvr th Ia in nLmood 1e evidmoedl by tho fte ot. van il

the Din1ir l Report of 1X3J. Of 53,5,1: Negrooe enrolled in mh.>al twre wo

24,b00 in &lo chart 'Td f'irs-t jnrok olwei. Htf of r ho nnegro enrofllnt ranked

below the second graJo, Tqhilo L~ .,O81b astudntL nore rtnkjd abovo Uho fifth

gra4. Tho report bring out likoir e that in negro edools on nowount of

poor and oroaded oOnditlons It tm noooseary to tike t-o years to vOwPiolo the

f. irt gr;- ad" this maAio thirtiE grades theo rule in naoro nhools. Only in

i.salbie C .itt.- wtas tharo a foar-yre r anamlo h:Ih s.tored norh:.o1, and only toa

other Sohools tlhroutGut the sts e'. iore e1via., -.rk sbovi-. *n tit ohth ra3d in th

toteB of 247 sohls liat'od for -iate and ooorae. In th report of tho Leon

Oounty swaperal.oandt t for 191u thore m-aa oxpoesd tho bo4,io for -, colored hflh

M ThMmaC & r J JoiaeS0 goL. C it9 p. 1S
'22_. Alliaj a illioay b nial :i i ort of w Sturinta.dont of rUbl
I Inatruftic clj1o, p1$ P.






SG
stool for NXeges in T allahuieu o ilt orgmdniation and aRbai~ifl rtion epilar to

that of the white sahoolas The m e onty mupnrintenan t d~oord the toot that

tho Amir J hih ehoolB had not ban ho14Pinsc adh4r in a .ool JBe writoss

the students nearly graw waiter oft to work at lw~ats tng

that so male worthl es lsosars, cablorv., and ori jLmL
of their, thnby lwtving the faMein interute of our
ouOrty to lanniduh amd doalie thrnmcfh 1c of laborQers

This i truly a au pleture, but It bna us woe sig i mnt thn it ti reetale4

Uhat Lam Coumta hL a sepCe population outcu orikg the -.'Ltv population.


The high bshool inapetor gave his first report in EQlo, thore buing in it
no action of negro high mhooles. Or mor d4iret help 'ma the mpointbmfa of

two *e tary rura inootors, for tr their or baafitud Jth hi b auools by

*trgtWhain the preparatoa of inomiMng tidants.


La prvdIaIW tfsahorm and in dealing with the prtlie Wr. sheats na very

ftIk pietro of the sitUAtioc regarding eous and insisted that the after t

ry to help thmn was by t e "ltot ala pwa.** Ho askOd the LEiulataro to pwa
a. IM ftbid4Lng tA e ~U ple Mt Of itte teWch r in olor* d scholar, ad V Io

vrears, eea t in moral itstructim ad in the institute. Thia nas onut"S by

Sleatr l itlatun r h it der wo4

It shall be Mlnwtul In this tate for f ite taehora to to tefah
in negro aahoolup aid for anro toshers to teash La hitt
ahools. Jpy pareo or praoi vifolatinc twh pnrovionm of
this sowtio shll be puisbed bUy fime mJt fedmxlirg WX or
ty iirilnmmst in tbhe owg Jailm not ewoedins six muths

This polirD ems based oa the fot UtJIt i eea prido ca the par t of Stah wre is

oppose to br ving a d4ftart rrao as tooshorse


The lw still raLins in fare as, far us the Stats auhooli r o r esoend,


a23 Ibd, p. 100

Z&. las of fts' 1914 "hapter 640






aT
but a tett *ease wn brought to oortb in St. Auguatina the yor 1follofriag th

peasogo or the nw regulLatuox. The Bigtors or St. JdoeAh, a catlolle sistoriao4

ad om frai FTrtne isudiatoly maftr the oCil war far thae sxprees rpomme of

tnesinjg colored ohilnan in the Teiariate of St. Augustine aioah tmlu4tadl ot

of Florida. Thb we r aoantimnag that wtrk to the law prohibitUng whlte
teabcorn from teahin in oolored school wa patad, as w sho m is InUs

Loath to bands their teaching they omtU ed in its seeroie with the approal

at s ai elaIema W Mbostt Iterand Mishat l ,4 Curlw.y, D. tho BiUhOp of $-

Anurtuet an4 at proant Chaeoollrr of h Ceatholio university of Lria ond

Arfhbldiho of tiha Arttooaeo at BeaLtmlre and 4aisbagbta.


As a ro mlt of ditrust of the Catholie COarob wrlna tfn th empalgn of

y"ay Gatta for apwarnor. a warrant mwa issued for the arrest o the throe

Sisters of' t. Joseph teaaing in their colored school in St. Au~usgtLan Th

h~ihflf refused to ooaAidr the warruat, but i1t was servd through hie depdty in

Mwy, 1914, This nao~ sitated th eloasig ot f t hwt Autgustine school thile

trial nfs lted, mo the i8stars slosod all of their colored sabooU tamporarly.

The Baptite, lU wise onearnmd otr thy aer using thits teachosr, mnt a res
prsanattive to tho trf a As the outazae nolvd on a qaemttoa at Imr ad not

af tat Ino jy was required


Jutde 01ibb of the Cireouit ourt gave toh decision that the lmn did not

appiy as it ms umn tiLtutional for otherwise vhite people could not toah
their so ats what the rwt she to her pertfor by taue The schools reopsne

for a fr daUys iL the latter part of Nay in ordor to ohm that they Ibd the ridib

to do we In the mmatime tue mawaipore as far awy as Surop oearried the nte

that Sisters had be arrested in FPlrida for teaching colored ahild4ra


zIb. Arfhiles of the $.it.r 'a stf Jot do


-i L- ___








Itro Iol to 191 all hool police for both hit and w*Ero sahoola Imy
be *aberd aroma the lUf of Mr sheets. For y years aty suprinte

of AlahUkn Gowty before his thirteen years as tat. perBtaede1ntt he had
pnovd himself to be stern, fir progrssiv, yt sam and egpeially so in
tIling with thl n.fo schools. H had mwritd to be oaled thO edus~ati
mator of foridaL ft after eigt yars at private Isbor he reset Woa aa th
sgte he hbd fet rs He blie.v that tio has a.smy prove tb iseUt
tetvoarte for a state. BaH other b* mt that wm r w the natural te ahrsn
and uas rute thy W e the own that aL tahin g prtwe P sio HiL viLCe ao
*saation emo #sd phiod losophie primiples for ha.nEs oat to *W. "41

n~a aa miesto to be tpLemn wA tree ia stat of etl l ati, I It sne*t
anh newr bha and newwr will be. mresah a erusatd mgunib IporaMet establish

ma luprov the law fbr *isating Its alo peopU." Ri6 K blo as b aftte4
his words for he arPed m r of the sehoo boUard to aoo wwa the wp.ir
te na4t awd h1hI school Lasetors on trips to satm schools that thy igLt

hban firithnd OevIdoo of arowel4 buldafetg, iqtoper Ulgtitin lek of plies,
amd umeLtary onaditiona. fHe stressed opmially the tiorfstt ocr ltaproving
the rnurt dhools* Vary ruril 4hool is," ho wrltos, a positive, argaismj

provertattL of aUfl soal wma i** He wanted every oamilty, large and nl41,
to atato a a Neih a*I t e* eohool toam no mter at what eoot beouMse it wU
his polley "o pot the s314 sbov the 4l3atf "


santher pofiqr am to 4d evwrythi in his power to benaeit toeahrso As-
eor41t y 1 Li e a o ppro ed the estabsllhm of teamraoes or ho ae tf
tnu4ahre, a mflse to get better teahoerl, because the ooat of living woul
be rnd&md. I. GW nty had oe s early as 1916. AnotbAr mans for bttpre t
of tawrm in training as the leiallative -astant grting eti nation of -a



26. Wll7iM b. Shejtt. bigezm4I S2 ort of Lthe StatorintUnmavit of Publis
iastrntion, 1916, pe 30






2B

year on eortirfmotoo upon proof thnt th holder hud attnd- d onej sa e on of

mswe~ r school a d had shared orUdit for wer tu km tJur. Thia uoffr was to

be contanuous ad, like the other ashool h aws, aebriced nro teachers alaSo It

proved vry offitoeioua for edvanoirn tho training ot teeaers. Uwn it is mma

that those woerae maOthly Iaom for male agro teaohore wane %57.IO5 and for ftal

gCro teachers only B1.:3, it boconas evident that their aittedare at sar

ahools at their mo- enmpona gLtc proof of their thrift snd of ther wbition.



?th ri noip l iroevtaita in nogro asho lra oi' this porioa .wtre brouO't about

bl tUh; Gomttutiort of 18&J uad latur ehool 1aws. Theor l nua a ohan~~ of
terminology. Common nhool reim kno as publi shoal ol| olored people are
frt l y called Begroee and are to harm npratse schools with teachers of their
om r)se. The school year is offcially beoun oa July 1. There sea to har
m a putblo-nhool *nkain. There more hmaisation of school atwhis,

mor atmnlon of adbteJentatter, better artieulatian of grad e Thewre v a ore

Uiborm finsaiag for sahoole, tlnger tra8, higher salaries to attract better

teoahers, are apeaito prVaptioa fr te t hr, nd t nd wpBervis or. TIh

mn esm hool iL ridofl was m1 ging from It poubh for in three citis--

Jemsools, Js yaville, =nd ForandimW-it had ro ahed tho four-yoU.r status

the &"al qytan hau4 a to stay.


These iupronmts in molored school sbowg mwW taetors ha4 beo at work

Im irfnt had Oom into flori4a to ettle, visitor. hl open t the witere here
brtngin and inaldUtay leaving som of their northern oultuaro, and Floril's

noolroL tndmbe had attabd Tu*ieg ad aorthem schools Ther had bor a&
iwroase in table property oad in the willikpwes of the people to be taxed

New latilatis had brouihtb State aid and amle n th asiatmma Lva i l the

mtinal anw mmtr Privan dtea4m stl were o0Ated t m tb lm.wral B4ueti


BT. ion of forida. -191. C-haptr 0ab


I






30

DBoard, tho Peabody Fund, tho lateIr ?UMr and Jones to.W hwrr, A"nro *wricn in

VZWy oountlies The auzVle of othar Statom lad to better adltiotratUim and

control, :ind theo wr rrun fes etd In tAe grti&dll I A irowin. mnork of0 the

suporintahrnst*s


- I









QCAPTrB 1z

LUER PURIODaS Z91-93t

Loemi Opti o in CaWulsry EdaNtion. Stutrrwid~ CaG ulory
8t Hftio n. atth-tggwe oole* Legal Birth fet Jun r li
Sohoolas Aocroditation of Nipro High Sthuols.

The du l swta4 4d4 ~a han pert~w reinlbt La r wq Thst a rt t

the eVfrintahdnt. of public n Lwatruaaft toward bwtternmt of all uehools
had bern lnstrswmtal in estblabhkin a Lae joa Im Laeh a d popularity

*ttabaae t mm r schools b, th. as yr ambs. of niertiftea Bett
sehlil buildl~se Or* eUrtd I a fr plaIe, Ma *aool t*ra VM l&OWe# but

there w& a great riat ion in results obtalns4 bhea asauru & b the bl *ity of
thie wfho had withdran front the asoo*lsn


tnu oror a period of w aral yoerm the qstilon of oeIPUin the hilW4rm

to aoeNpt tMhe benea ts of better ahebols nl t hers tr by r p lr at*d~u at

the oloaols bd bee agaging thie ttaioan of t p lbUa.* l t iuntfi 191, how-

ewer, was it possible for tQ state Lagisature to enset a orcpulIary iehoo

attemdaso I. Ths Iwr prorldei that thr-fiftlrs ef the i-aCfi4 voters *f

oimaty or of a district oamid eat ftor a elatln to dewtranao teth r or t

their lcoality would anforco school attendinMe. It th rto war *ettmative,

it Lshouw rwAIt in requirtn sedool atttenduie all ohldre betaso the ape

of eiOt and foqartea years tor a period of ighty das ahb year. 1 Naturally

Whkool attdmaaJm inartosed nla the die rita taktl avwntage ot tht ian n.
e*inatorw ~wr prnwiu ly reluotton to wrk for its utoption throui fwar of the

aKbf expWe n In their siWtrieats mtatii in proritng fbr Anre students how-Y

wr, bkdsd, 9 i t aned Droard CouAtism adoptsd the loaL captaOn Iw thens
wyrn at th eomtlesl most thi kly Qopulated bly egrNea, nortiles t nw ler

was foad uamt.itateory. The fllow0in ritioism fra the sapriatmt of


I Is Zf of *tjrda 1Mo, shpter Mst


I -I


- --








Brudftrd County ivens tho concgajzs of jtinion is ro;rd to 1&w loo- optical Ins.

Thia jokeor, dosar, lootl opti m axluso of a lawir i at
*at thOw frie of Samatton inD Bradfor4 Caoty =4 the
Zholo Stute mait if we- would got at the truth thro*A
other ionees than otfe holders 4 the aoftiso aakere),
but a Stato-t4ide andaory, ocpulcE-y attLdannc IUvt
ma.ted tV u an ext lgi stalt is whi tt is needed nd wanted. 2

The 4itlmatistatin with the loal option law pad throughout the State until

there wore twsry-on. eowntte phatie in their a*n4 for a stato-awde att s6

nce lw. Sinae the rural ahildra and thn be.s aoatituted tep grapQ takm

tram sohbol to blup on the tram. thqy wre the mlases. to be e sadpalUy bnfetta

t*4 by the a law. Indeed, st*ing mw the strain = school att a4 Merta

the eattom rop enao that the .hooIla *U4 sottta their greatest qezV, md

wrn engr to have tMia irrsularity of attandane orrtoot4d q the only

prastical w.yW that of eaqpuldsla by Ir.


Tbhe noessity or oamIlutonu as eqeoiUaly widaa in tho condition of the

oapes youth*. nm tUugh the tllitercyr htA eora4d trying thw fifty years of

frees trtm nAinet perest to APprciL3 atoly thirty, it as still twice as gre

ia tih r-jrl Aistriets as 1a the tome am aities We learn, too, that thV

nero soahols wro honeed in old ohuarhos or in @W buildinua malfble. Lemn

Coiaty reports the oroetion of one new building t a cost of 8 00U, ihi*h twt me

oaidoered a ftet in school atiniAetration. smitary oondiUtions woro in a t*ats

bqwtd desorIpian. There wrf only fittytOlght sohooli out of tho entire ma rc

of 318 with toilets. CWnditions were suh that to roar tha it was anesnM y


a. Wilia N. Seats, Blal meort of the orintabondat of aig
Intrratiop, 1918, p. 6*4

3. Wilii N. X talil Ricata apor oft the atSertctndanto of ?dbl5
ua..adiE 1, p. WIT
4. Ibid,* Jo6

be. L Oafl 1693bi Chblaptert 0BM


- P ---- -----


--"------ -'-~~ ---- ~~-----'








to invoklo Uv aid of thoe tin. The lesalgturiv iroviiod tfht all school tildUtag

be provjiLud wli'i maitary closetas This holps uo to roed.ie Lhe poverty of *a

laoaUtlos whreo th butdl4zs -oaru nerely IoZ houiiy. ir- box houses, vltile is

OtJur pl cus the uohnols were houod in fr-a b tdlUlnges, this latter b4rnG vrWy

fod idlaxtion of property In a looality


Ooquluor, ehu tiB ,n fotr noegrt yruth would noGsflarlly ro pire an increase

in nogro teohoro. Private sIhools h.d boee oarrylag the burden of turniglahi

teoashers, but th rao mre litita.tio2s tc oourteul thy Nre ~ blti to offer, ?ve

slia t.h Stato had boma oryloyinG tw~ohure in lsut, thuho had beo eonral

dissetiaa~ot tion .ri.h th. method of onAdaotikn tenchore' amil.atilons. The county

boards wore blenad for this irreculitv. hInoe a State Board of axwAnre w r

ppo~inte by lowr vith the hopo that woh trouble would o r3 crvvd* This ate
Board las to prqparo and hold anroALtionles grade th paiore, roort to the Itaot

Bpiwrintludafen, a realt to hUb sy foe re o~ ed for the emlnationa. These
Immaors booDow knl s acs "flying Squadrta"I Thq4 in turn proved eamti.a-

aftory and in aO iastacncs wore demnrd, probably not Trithiut reoasan to be tao

fir to the nagro teachers. tr T. 0. Stain ot Xotmaon 0- rty s a picture tf
tho oaodtion la his aconty Whh Is, no dmAnt typienl or the pm~eal situatians

Thare "ar fortys noMppo mahoole in WadisOL CeanBty. Og
nr house haL beoaen crottd in the lant .P years. In a
alber of instanns th edwhools aew oadaoted n sa mgro
aburoh in thUe oolnuai- The t agro Bohbls are at a great
diatetap -Hp a aooo, m of Lt hofrtWag orf nsro to'-ohor,
tNlh in part Is a4to to thO presat wat o of anwa;ruation
a"L the mttitbd of 1tw uiwtwrs toward the oolored
pli&ants. The Board of Qazaars ratefud to amrnami
olofred ~~iUelats in lMadism t the last ex dnaton held
arew because thmy did not viwt to be botbred 'itbt thxe at&
that ti I hawe only s al L-sTo tu~meher in th oouit
dul forty*one schools. 8


6. .-llUan N. Sh-at, Bi.atul a.port of thl Seorinten..nt of J1io.
taOj 1832, p. b71


-t I-






'-A

Aner ting to U w. EurerintwMis'sa natrloa, a ahloriL y oi Oka nazo achtala did

Wot eroll pUAlIm Above the sixtx Wra, yet tU tomekr vWas roire to pas" =C

*eight grdM aLmanation. 'it its vary difficult h* rtin inLa his rtairt of 19W

'for tho aegro AppliBents to paes the regular taahres' eania atiLon uAd for thr s

reawn Ut.e oppAy o. agro teachers is U1aktoJ.e Conseuety, the 0stablidAmmt

eC tDh*'straiunga ohnSole in oneh mtxtr WaU hall*4le as g raui banmfit.


UT1 benefit was pfovi&d hj the MOteu Logislataro in 19A An 1i maIt poop

t0bl the oWusbliatN o ao t1EhoaraoFtrtlani deprntnwab in aUo hli bOi.o .1 in

oash Sounaty na cunoaIn kL6. thbo oojtLy wruoiijo i i buildilCgi, ALu .au afle4

tebher iLn share or ues t rniwetraLnlIng ourk, Wnd onitLribt4 fada -to opal

*a 4ia2 arpproprinat by ute Stahl Board. A lawar law provided for lasin; &a

Afirt grdo martitfioate to eaiLh IruraiaW ut suh a ashuol. bettor tfiLatin

was rwerted by a raise in Sdlry, asad, taoW: twead te rain lafear at th

training oi teoheo tbhe at other toabosng posittias. 4; firot only he tit.

shools wore bIelusld in tho Iaw, b'xut La 197 thOre anna aw n ft act AIliOh D"*

buap bty p lwi tng oehar tralAng In napo seh ools (L thse saw bais me la thi

1hite lsimkwoiam, Isntna or granig first gtrada corutioates aa raiduiatia tam

thuse 9aItItS the StabS lowrWui the rVIk orf oarliiatos o wo Wcoud 9=0e Ma

UittA tie ue of it to tenaYhin thraouh :hb eighth grab.* In 1498 the sacmt

of tNI 8tate Subtl wasm rWoode to $44O tor each OtyW. At tLnt titan theAeM

er* la n thikrtLry.x tnain schools oj arirg For a total uit SbO qilas o4

mwlddbe tsaahwe ba u any six of .hW school u mre for Aevrct, Wionu bWnai

I& nanluevls*e tPacl tai0L akume, ofsla, Faort ioroo FAort 4oasu am"

tqras Lnetih. T he traatagn wtrk tAhteld ms as ma 4daft of tho hig h

aol pngrma nW pusht4 V ftwa the ntath mad trfth grA to the *elewUu sad



';;. I .+ CPPatTn :le rtJ Ieport, of th^ r:.trr41. n of tfblia
Interwtiwt, I9M), p. 1i3


I I








twofXtU caea, stime thw sumrliunte"* *r4 SA U "iB uUe b* L ; Lk ;A-l"s k

my tu ourroft L e shortqagu 1c 10tro raenlr- flc lllowr.a JaA at




Another 1 tto ovritu i ha lutLh k 1 GohGra tuasahlra r d th- lia LIAc of frund

pros=-.sd i tsMf La a Aiws to oojalf.1.gdu ulaw aJAls L1JE kc-e tranaportas

tin of oaidlren. 'o thin cand O laiF w p-aossd p puas tnaitt.l Onxi-fu.rtb Ch l h

residMIunt taw;aorta of ar : pdpad oni aelUAtod ert lAot to aL 0"1 r1l f4a M nlction

lwra. 4citirs ;unro tr bLe fDtorrzaud in thsi a al-o .rs bior, t3c achwl.s -ould

hava )h. n +' iC the ;- Thin footore bUira ,AZher cz- not th: i.striate

hloul be cb i Vzo 1td t4 illto b. v 1d ldC txatk b:; tr-.o.s -Oiuld

b& soloata4 Th& ^coip l a :-t2 hrmvru-r, oonsorar'tvo ;'d raltrqE.l it t ^ CiLt

thvir Cor-tr oruLaiiinia in 3.2 Iin *ij rt;; ou acholB wr e r.4-&jdy
aprt* Ai t4it tiao, morIover., 1he loal even soE ftur o iroh tiM dunL hk4 beIe

laroAsed ljV the WorILL rTar, =ad thiRe 1 mu &p t wC'; n thtti tWe or bu1LinJ 2I M or

aoholes Iworthloass. throuwghoutr v ... Stt itL 113 T l tf oJoltttt.n 4an 5bt 4

adwnsm to the point ahero threo wore Jo30 naijo nd 4022, *ito ohilJrun boitg

trawpyortd ta oola.oLato hcool at oe., $01 .. 'I Th:or? b@ot 2w

colored trfa.sprtt tlcn in 1312. bacs- zoC rt c.*rty LtA @-m-a the tcportiecr Or the

atvisibillity of inahrtA.a; t4,. vnture ot treaoprrttnC igro chilrmB to BahaOl?


Otior ase pa;svd at thin ttie 4eult -rti tOw t A4altacl not o? the atudeste.

The first pirovidw- for modioalcr 4 T trL r ho uupocrtsknla of the bfate

Board oer I'althJ routlrad ail l, .tL3 Is R.tdinE t;hL) 1E t: ?no1s to nIld g

plstoirJ. ami'a lon at 2 -at tino n kirri- oukivlt hvbool yoar. Tlchera 'wem w-


0. Laf o Florida: 1219, Chptoer 7&23

9. Willia Boatus, Wpe *ft y2 102

10s. Iaw of flofltra 1, hapG.ptr 6862


-E





M
ptle to btao h the V il of aleholi sase ad ma4 obtles to all p i *-
eMootl sbdtr ba bthe es of sia a4 tewlw years U Rile allM t

thm~ wm Wn sme ~mi ar for ash lnstrnutIa the rephltic itas e 4 a omm
of reshiag the .ar1ty of pof piW s sin*ea in Inw lities the 2ehools, pttime -

lacly the Ma o Moolks, *taew4d syJ to the idth trade. To direst tha te*n1m
a booft *lted analths -3 WlS muw prepared a4 otirlated throughout the




lwo$ 6oetmetd slth the nltpe of the health replati a eae thr
Mffor to prtdle pplwr t ilitem At the Arefi m Mting Of the lor4id Btia

aticasl Aswmoiatl s a M wwaer, 191a, a mr t aw wae towarnde estlihitan
a tate Athlte AMssaittot a Vith plan ftrh state thbtl6hipm in toot4Ul,
b~La*e, babll, mad so *a* Tbh ftat am to be 41iwid4 Et fa~ 4distr~l~ e

with viaors of wstio~ al oi ,tUsts mating for sata aoutete. Figure a pp

f7 w the ate doivlisio better thwo nmu the aminig ao then wote* Tbhe

plou of the tritte ShO servol as a = adl tr the mngro uahools aI4 thy

wre. qita to 9fl9 the load


Athothew r rof emoee to the hig s*oola wasf thU option at Ia W itra

swie of boe r th high whooluh a dlsa ite step tanwrt btadrdua i .

T. Zilslta're of 1917 ftiled to paw. a bill prnlntag ft a n*ore@ of ktum
fte almsbfy Gad high uhools.* B0E r, a son1fe. of eoaty iper ntBeadta

hid& hobol pyriapeleS NA4 sther Whool oftisrsm metirn in lW1, 1915, adopted
reolutio request tnhe g tte Sq>rinteaban t to ban prepared a ftats ouar
of t& Str both elementary and high ohoole of Florida. Th qaeswws wer* to
be at by owmtrbutionsi t the various aeunties d raw embers of the onMtl-

toe mred without oo aati. Th souourse of stu4 was to be u*4 it the

a egro ahools am ll M as i n the ite eMools.


I I


'- -O" f ZF igrds* 1916 Chapter 063a




































xw or naRIa


C'3 softin S 1

C:T sIwto 4


fgme a Uab.t DLvioSta ftr Athisti Cea tsts


Sc
~-hj


It'


____


__ __







N one s qp met nior a Ie*ato a Floridu tham her ao qta. in 191T
of the tut ofat the bLtbmeghe At, amtleal ablat providing aid for agri-
oulture. Florn wa the firsi Souther~ Stat to oMs pt ths ou gresioa a

fftra the essmtials of khiah re as ftol Wo
iee* 2. Thet for the pwrposo at oopwe tt r g wi the States
iL paying the paLarUt of tea her, vrmoasrs or direwors
of asiritnral liJn. there s r pperopriat@4 for ti
-m of the state.o..i a ylly thswtkr (U136) the an tf
,o000,000ooo. ald to be mUotted to the tt** lan the
proportion lwis thwir vrda p tlatona bear to the total
rural pputiatlo in thwe ltted ttes, mat indin
outlying po.msiams.-
Se. &...ia paylM the Salaries to~ star ot tWirdS hbo
**moones, uad Lm n iu rial sultjsr ... 44,0 000Jt. s4e wa to be
atts.4 to the tates in tmhe pnportbon Ihih their wsa
population bears to t ot ~L usm population A the aitea
ttes, owt tasHdugn oUtyian poesasims.

S.* 4...iUp),OOX0. n* 814 to be Jallettd to the ateibn la
the poprtioa tah their tetal pop~u olat bears to the toa
pp attca i tohe mtOd Stt, at 1id1 ng t mlying possesias.
S*. 9. Tb. aun eqenatd mdif the provilsom of this AA
in soopgartm wia the fa Bss, fbr salariesnshall be
Oanditoned that tor eah tla of Featdal momq e0c4n
for subh artie the tLate, or lo*Cl *omadt1 or bothr sha
eie aa eq4 ual munt for smah salaries a foDr me. ainta as .i
T7I the balis fbr th ppropristion for int try was to be the urtm

peptlatoai fr artialtut that of the rural popuultieon a for tesahers
trmniing, that of th hol populatioe. If a tons ma ller th Z, 600
ihabitats. it mu to be courted i the tral population instead atf ba popa

laUtimf that aro schools appUli for help thi the fsats enU flans., deit
the ned or cf a .ges im appronng th.w at ad fid's wisae aIn -epting it*

Ia 1922 ftin lrd hoa ol had e.tblimbad egrieulturnt d art .e. La this
mholse teashore r o were la d were desigated ttbltaghw s tesher, mad
thy weft ulgysd fbr the ubole year. bitb teacher la AcrAda ar.w to be
paid $1@8oo a year wad coloredd seashore S8OW in the eotm training abaoole, i*e

the ahools niaag the Federal approprittlasm


Is. BSme A. Letsi, rm atutLn to ToestioCnl 24*ation and rftrata 1
ghaaig esss 19Mpp. w 4 s5,







in aenwtlic the tn* of the atdl ghs AMt, frifdAs of Morse, ptrmian

tbAt the umq w=lU be eySwdod for nlaries of teSherm Uad suerisMr t for

lstolt J fl* srbJeetBg, tbeacrs end diroloWr of trbdes and h ao eoomdlo

*ad iakftrial s*bJwemr th my nw, s** h be set fet'fa, *mditioed Oa
the tatte.' ftoiahlac *4llar for fllar for tWe Verdal fude reel4ved. It me
fwthwr pr~ead that Mwoh **ea a ibh be of Lsae the olle a ad sat

ftb wtudQ ts ovr burtea years of ape* thew fate was reqaid Ito prorid

ames-ry blnGas and dquipsent ad to bit the ours oft tu4y Is these
sdeso. the teahwrAmtnimng fld me to be aqwly divided betbwo the thre

u*14S of Arnlts4tn, irad MA Lnibsftrlal &n6tiaMU ad Bam a=E Gmcc.eu
BdnetOfle.


In orvir to reah the oltases or people the set w. dQtpned to bh3p, there

-we thrw kitA oft uhooles aLU-4y inhoolm, is tiobh Ute studbts were giv

mais t sitae of Imsftneaion nd aineWtv aint.s In prantwi wafs de -umit
0Shooln. 0 in li wh oniy a rla n lit.' rrwe ne d in lmautruotic a la le wnl k

atd Ut owatnig s&iXols for people apaed in frming dWO* The teachers are
reapiro to be twBtq years or ge, have had tme years* eImperis~o m t frm
to be graates of buryear agriculturl ollaegus. With these quallis tti s
it me thupht thy MAid be ofa e4antiion.a aOieul, a d e sasBt to their
eon Ats. For graufat t the student wer apoete to sumt the total ot

xktema ereiLt in iLh aerilturi mw tr4 studies w r be ijnlaad4 s
el-vies.


Boe of the smulte or the mw schools are wery wma rtty. Ln Lea Go0 y

there w oMran ed a& eaBrn Coopnrati hrtetlrk ng AlaOatloat sAlhh t not twin

a wath in tgllShU-a.w 8att* ooperatrle mfrkating obaases a huptere j Jiess
the amssmetaolas. Is D.tr 4anusamt ooul be sea In

1, QSeoprattiv ar mkeb throat a regular paki g pinat
2* L0442 urt> hrAs
3. aPrttion of a mon 6ommia plat
Gp stantn project worked mon eoperative pla






40
It ia gratifyg to howw that aLU f(ar axrdbrtbfkia ware or ried an for tn4 by

fegroou DaAd wounm operated other eat market for egromo. This* 9wea

sIJn anta oand a the school graotLis a solag pant built by the aid of thl

ParmteTolnahier Asaooiatic, the ULstar Fae ad the help of ths Gm0aty Mhool4
Ber4, in a sh six thiueamd ea or vgroabis could be prepared in ma .


The amk DaIttmatib t at wadimeontd laats c s tiatlain oCf nroe

with aaiUtte netho4a With the hope that wwrybo4 eU opy tM deftl prm-

ohamre. y all Uita the sintlite aKthots I private a msa oom t l n tiis
hano nmeeod ed ol that their t=wease. proeee has a blod than to pr theLr

dts ad4 boeaos lf-supporting mdA **-realinat


rurthrir the D atrLatilo miwent shu14 popularise garomiM g tar thU

pbias orf Bt hau bee meh nogeslt*4 yet phase of gernia4at has anh

possibilities tfr haom return, s'plsenft of salary of teacher or minister, or

as introotion to agricultural pursuits. It fwtinriwre has & ntwLqp value

In the osmation of uharster by mila of the f=1iy la plati g ad alti vtim
aMw en Pad W ooprtmiam ma ma ighbors simlrly egagede 4 a by beb*th of

saving sami naaritgal firh wehoio pupll howald learn that soil Is bilated to

ouil, that ftmrasg is wLt wra 4ru4geqry, but that it mW be ona avn to eultufe

as wall as the sourno of prowerityr grarnin gives a point e seonx t for
tnehars end ainit ars wi th heir people. A twsyear gurse a In agrimutur

eurght both to prepare Indivifdal stadnt. to beaow tfftloit sail shares nd
to assist is*a stairs to IProB method. of eatit ntiao


It It eaq to sede to a people -a Lrgely rurwl as rForldia no On aOt

aOme o UIqartavt m agriculture. Teo vrk la the schools has bo~ hador4e by

insdaqaay of BSate iem4 for atehing theu P .terlr ftd, as eU as ty a desim

an thw part of tw lNegroes for Utterary s&amtia. The State Board of Shutiol

manifeota Its reoopition of the vule of preparation for rural lie in th





41
foitwinr re ~latiU pebors -e p rsbpe beane of eaornet assir to nonvr
Its though
The StatO wad of NaKOa is Sq py presrN4 with the fab that
the large maority of the Shldrea sa attadn upoaJ Lus plIUo
sbools are rhils 4r of t poorer p *p) ad wil ill the la
Mtd qortn0t UelUE eet otafnr wprlwCa, Rmhflini, and artisins
of the States oa that to ear to ath y ~ the 1a* to be
derive ftr th shool boace, mellaet mad4 aseew ry as ilt
Wtil bat 1ar q*ap the for t" qhrw of lits to tI&kh ln rort-
d me and oirmatanoes tb~a very f r to be ~l4Aa4 at ar
sti1 Mro ~urs4 wt the amee a iq m t C L ~rtti to the su Ifawledge
tto b~ys oipetaly) of the nueftl Ad aL Say toole ad i qM-at.
tsad l the arts mA trde, a to girl O m trlnltag In eia
eookery a4 nlwitNry inS geera bly aal l 1a iL tratitn Isae
or ttsu qpea thtr on a=4 m ral p leple Iaolved that a '
tufte be m ltivnte for t Tery uaste and Lpormpotat nweottis.
in Uith ad Iseaae ar td to thi, but atMAly to Isprwe
thb with a tSue at propr eaoaptio of the hor ad dia v
honest er*n .Oumy @om srq tjt amd boards of p~aUe instreati
aw urgatewy and me ally 4 ll*4 upa to giv their *rhnwt et'tIa
to thia vey ~ ~ erItjW ratt~a of ool r aw& d ialmetrtimo
tMi predsion of the eard o adteation rit Lua aMirmb~y with the mtirit a
the Mt a set A It hieA q+ ftie that la loealitlf eere tht vri fiftbe f
hbildrea peas frm regular adIol mttsAnmAn, emspt fr mstel or pb y es







aw.


In thue ase n maer salts s qt rs tads or Laaftriom AVq t am or
wam a fd tO os el ddrle o ha e eplfte4 the ret#ft gr berote beag
s ei3 n years of a. w mAe k oeir ir to leIm re bo t a e rt i
pr~ssiUon or tanwtry ad beaehrW will be proi4de&4 As a ot of thie
truainag, atbml hoaie bha bee= buiU by Isgro bys in trade earpe try etla.*



1 t t stat. Par4 .of atQ. r l...atio. 7

t aM t yo, Vat tonal AgreMlture Ila nerid 10* Tol. 40o o.e 2.,
Pow a n-'u --- "*""- ----







IThee bo e sl maordin to eLiled plans Ma a-so a Catod popearaene, the
are al& trade prparatory ohoolf i fr b ooes in a tis, Florwome Vill, Saint

AutustitL, and tallhasbf**. Thes s ohools uable the s u ats both bo rive

bWA r eervise Where they wort, ad to prQpar thaolnel for mro a~nBaCo rt

ad at the wste time keeps tham hypy and aorttntba thila they mrikt Pomaible
trades to be studied by hogr'ns in the awar atutpe arst
nuto tranor atita
artlhalg itd rVpe1ring
mital wttAg trades
C40twin an4d tsip sOrMOt
ailorin (inaldinig preltinfg lad fleansng)
printng
lttrio s ppiUmmea (inoluWinc rM4io)
beaty mltufte

theW opporttaities are within the r.ach of a grnatar aBer onah year a* of

our e asm4 ta tothe ro em oels and nagre se th s


Bosid.0 the adhools that wer helped by the ftitbdtaesh Abt other. wrfe
benftttd4 dIe it wa knee that ftrty thousad or the nm in the trlaingI

l s barneg the years X91T and 118 2 we pu Pot I "la s aod wre taught the

primary jbfljts, rwading writing, ad VelUing. Those Sdw had completed
& gre M r nsMol ealoaon hu read bpw other i n the e eqr. Fla A ~~lcar
through war ePestur that there vre two Lower. to raise ms to prodm nm*
*aetiea Me" monve the lprymBaM t had enlbt fbr tried Me, ad this tafb

Mrt4 oeaentors the retmUsab or hw little deasoat had estuauy

Maplihead the gmraUl rqnssion had bee that the publia saols
srm fatmihbing equal apportiS tiem in all parts of the Stnt and to mral -a
toae shildra. The t resin was prvea to hane bee neItowe iPPortaolUtte

fir Seantlot i mW of our rural districts had ben %minttng a er ist *a

paristam vth tih opportaitie orffotd in toans and aitieso se n below the
vriatitatn l~eth of ta msfor .a ohool yfar througbwt Irri rid s r v la
the bleaita rqporet

40 -abooI ha 4 6 Moaths
& s oboole ha4 5 natha








i0 asthool httd C 'mta he
a e bools had 7 months
142 a hn. 1m had B rmoths

Snid t y alli bvlino thA ovndi Aui n oi? a .-.utint nnd bdcln t3 in ri.od* in
the snww mys Anidet thwse 4.aTtrne nc Bond timona it is no wnidor thvI 3i., -us

i difficut to saoro nro r tenh:.yrs, for aeairioas lr Noeroos lin 117.191a r:lICed

as mr an 25 to JQ u month in ramo di"trlitas


In 1917 there wrre but four ngro ahouls offering four yestat woict, their

total wavnllItnt blnr: but ?)G. BNeoondary btjecta wAro, however, tuiLgft is

twaity-otn noero aohools., nlevroi of t-hoh ofTorod tcrth lgrar4 nrk.* This safll

mnvrar it no:t sarprisinCg tan mw lor.rn th'it theo vtilu of nearu school property

na but swT perant of the totr4 rnluation of mshool property theo senr qept

for aolorod sohouls was first. poranmt ar thu total apnt ir schools, and that this

Ia qualityy or provision remalted in a per pupil ooat of 1.75 for Begroes wa
13
. opOnod to D ': for thito ohildrst.


S Tho colored schools wro ngleoted for three reBoSnIe thu want or Iunds

I wnit of qlalfteLI tounhars, and want interest t school offloials in negro

schools Tho *orulmcry atteuLunow aid health Xm even thwoAh 1h raVtferred

primarily to young r childrLa, mre to hrwe a ftfon boeirtGn an the colored

hiGh sahoolg, eqpeoially &4tor the ftat. Dbpasritat inaludo d tho morsith mda
eighth graS In saowozbdary OaWatoan. Att4ndnou had boea botter4 in rww

*ountios, but t t was the gwernl opiatson that loosl optticam C not aert ai-

Sriolnt control. As far as negro edaoesa; n ias omonered, one Bayr without in-

Justice wpuroot thrit it ha be'a nade a matter of local option in ordor to

avoid 'the tme of *oqelnIzg mngro atteid.-jno in thickly populattod Au.se


U1. Thafne tuverette Coohrut, History of SaoNation la Florta1, 13.1, p. 25s

16. Thomas Jen9e Jo0es, Neoro Bafotimn, BRulIetin, 191*, NoH. 9, Vol. 1U.
I troa{ ci '.dho.tn, 1917, i'





44

Dis9t1fiofatlUn with Lhe luoal aopunLotrt a&ttQfU4*e Iaw cMA Ja

SotMolonal nmakmicn ouvidaoe4d by the maher of mnruIts o vt ro uare Lm l to

read, aloeg .-ith the continameu afortsa Lhus .utrintntdanit wurk wama to hav

offsot in oduoition. iho oaniltion or Av turu.ad mhoole at thi t4m" in

Flori4a Ia apty dotbribo4 amu
A lile hNou s, on a li t-lo SnLaid itiuh Utla
equippant, horo a little temahor, at a liUtle
salary, for a ljtleo tiles tenohes little ohlldrta
11 ttl thtincgs.

It was fiathor ald that tUare h AJ be~ moro exmtione
to ipnorWfm th to ll other owaseo oosblnw. Th people o arouse. to
wottson Paret teacher orgnmuations began to #at aci to Ad4 their Ia aflse

to th oeal1 tor lefislatitve mtlon. so importet in tho dbevlopnant of nsro

edaatton is tho mba*equet lr that it is hero giv a in he origtnt teits

steetan 200. that trn iad atr July 1, 1I99S every
poritn, gusrd$a or other persa having altisa shi within
the State of florida, having the easto. controll or htarge
of ary s14 or children within the stato of Florida betwoa
thU mo o ae mtad zisxte years both inoluiva, shal
oause aus ojdil4 or chdr- to uttad publ~ e or privuis
*ahool ech yer for a tmer or period of not lesa the mb-
s~tetally the md or of davs the public or private school
idach Msd hild atte"ad is beld amlJl in the distriot
in thich the school As lonatea Provided, Thut ng ahid
ma~ be toght by parat or guardiam ~ap w ritt matrity
fran tho Costy GSierintandant of Publio Lnetrotioa
of the oowmty in uhlah they resideli m4 itr m part, Guardianm
or othUr paraan having oafto*j, control, or hwrg of QVy
chilt shall fail to oa4y with the or4dr to tbh aBporinte f t
of Pi1io aItruatioa ho Ishal be i able to tho pealties
ho tlnarter provided. Provided That ia te rUllowing
inmagrato4 o aeas 1 aloJildra bsetenm thu ageo; o t sya
mad siBte tars, both ilnlsiwiw, shall be --=t frm
the provisions of this aoti
FirstE-am ohUtd -o tis ant.aly or phlamolvlk Luouaoitated
to prtOmr school 4atles..
Seeaso .Wy child tho has satisftatorily co%4kleted the
eirhft greenLr achoel rtLoa4, as preoaribed iqy -th
state Ourse of Stufy of this Staten or a our~


17. fillila t. sh*tsat Blandtml Rport of th ~peoprintw a nt or ~jolO
Ie &at.tonj 198D, p.* 54
S18. Ib6d# p. 499

___ __ I-





_______... ________ _____ t_.L..
U

of sebr acpted by aq u ty or privato nohool
or tor, or the empdteant 1f wanh l4gt crQDos
eapleted in mother ftate.

FOar otr saumes wer amaloned as being orf weaflelemt lepataie to wutrat
ao.pmtatdan ao t school. Those wer the msesLity of spportlag parents, the

tft that the hu0 mas theO miles distwf t fm the s*oool, the iabiliiy of
proridng maq for tentbookc, and asy mwsial eauso Mlhih MLdul al it the

authority to ranOi at hao frm thes CwWty 8#portntenomt*


the oonulnory law, as on be ee bty Its tornm, dos not refer to seoadauy

schools, but Itdirctly it had a geat *of~et upon the by attrsting the

attention of the oitisuary to the baflts of medoation and by rwquprin the

depletion of the eighth rad s. In ans equa the children uold be re* for
mtruu into high school there wee one for their omvenisoe.


A tow osequanwes of the lr after two yOtrs' operation will show U
ewdAr howr badlr the florida children had be.s naelotet4 Conytulsia put
iadredA or ohlldran nl school that ware naer thero before. in saom in nes

*khiltr fmifte and mixtem yews or 0mgo went to eahbo1 tor the first time.
Go1n Gotin were found so unprepared thct Saho2,s were oerarorwdod and

qualifia4 tocdhore wore soroee. foro wnt of attandadce n mis en ontes was

mbt diffloult for one att edoune oafier ouloi attend thou vole county. VolusaI

senm to have ben an aatlon for it ror~~ td aew ral hndtrod arrests during

tt ye~re itd owVla~ned that the pau.lty for non-attAnd4aMn i ot heavy

eaoNuih shao sial f i ns d short ter In the ruotratory school provd

wak detorr ntse.


A apwifi o outeao f tforremant of attedafnto was that the school had to

be opow at Various ttne for it had boe ooopertively dterIAneOA to oonsid&


219 La ot F orida 1919, Chapter MTOS







;4
the grmwvrf anL, at twtJ 0su ttnw, pruvii twhe reapuiite actor of school dYQ

Iillaboroutg for instoneo, tSto4 her mohools for egroes in July in order to

hav studo ta fr a to pick stra&berrl.o sino Plant City is '.ae ltrog t stro-

bory shippinl point in Piarida. Madi9a ba pne the saool y ar for hor Jeft

STradi Gohool in August to aow ar o wRSk i to rI tobaeO ple aing

and herveostLi throughout Mna uln County.


A further stqp in the developan of high ahoo. life O@ the State was

taken itstUt ho enoersl Idaoation Boar ar4s an apptrpriation of 48,01, the.

furnishing Florid ith a new svhol orrtn r dhowe tla tho e to be devotd t

high ashool uqurvisaone SBlma 106 the Profeseor of SBeondary diwUanii at

the Univarmit7 of laridOA had bea teauhin and uperrislnf hMi schools, but the

work had gro be/cd t the *ero of en per-oa. The ow oF'ioer, asministratively

kLow a Stanto Ascmt Lbr Seocndary idohation, was to rMeive salary, trEnling

apon eesa, d Ajds ftor sa 4sistaunt or seartary, Be man to report his ortk

mothly tu the general sadotion Board and to the Stato Deptrnnt of odneation.

He prjticipt.st in ootr8e inUS oboola by urairaihing Uie req4air4d 4ata, giving

gguwttlons, and olihr hoLps, ad it is in this latter casaili that ho iL of
poc iafl eoria oe to Lbe ahGro schools.


ho h iUgh ohoos oh re of three grfdsl, VYnrioe holding to nmbar

of pupils, toeahor fitness, siee of buiiing, laboratory, and library aijuipment

Thy wvre sti l ao theso buse d4signaLed a jnuiort intnr=44ates and Sior

hi$gh mhools. Along wi b theew qu^ai4fia..tion for eond-.ry rink there im

I oreamo dation that eflatioan ofr tudits should be le ssd from the

4oprtRumrt of F*aLetlon, ad that the dipla asr rnttd in all mailor schools

should bo or one style and Lor.m



-e __illit t huA'uO op.0t pO -ou








Evan wS th Ull this help Uie t-ouro oL noao tt3cherors e8 avrj n rtta.

In order to oorrnt thi a uanrtmainy mad wo atain thl hlfgher sta*dar or f Ltin

graU ally dwloping in Uth Stnte, i. ums snooasary for th bLtaLa t provide

bighor soarias, to mako positions o teuoichra Aoro oQo, and to miLntain a

pension z rutm, for iL haL boto t-h lwt of -dLo Ylorian tothers w;o '"work hard

live long, and die poor .


In working for theso and Florl4a *hownd that sh bhai nmw pas-ed by the

greatest doprousio sure in the dYevlomow t of hur agfro .Jhatlona CoutnalSoy

legislation ha4d bruuGht esaiL riits so 'tar as tw ls wams oonaornawd it re-

ainoad ftr the loo4L conRmitiles to take adwVntae of c the lw*. Jw Uhlt4 Sttates

given the ratiea for tlitermy of thI Negro a 249g, Atil that of Florida wMs

a21., a percent lowmf thn tin othar Southaern tates -li h thQ 6aeosptic of Ia9ul.



i.n making this oberrvation =nd In aukMrL 4e4gtU an f I rovaent, the wri rW

is fatr from uying tAht the negro sahwol wu p t-o standard for waduationLa

sports fran Colutiai Uvanrsitby tho mad the State Burv ito 1943 jive tho

outene of their findings thusg

here is me nero child ra every two tidtu ehil4ruan
of .hiool age in Forib.e Behool Ounditiams fr nagroos in
the tate of Ploridrs .re "ar itoy," u to effcal oioo aei
and Ulttl interest of Kites ina egro ashools thew nuro
sahoole of the tate as a w hol ae by no aos= a eorwit to
the State. Twhe training of the preslwt tewhar in the
acro ahools la Florida wold awt equal the race of atut
tufbltvhd by .a ftrst.alnas eghth grade. Titrty-Wo out of
sixirfour aouatis with negro sde olm had torn of lo s
thna five soths, tmfrirtm had fterm not nor thea
eighty dayne 22

Thome interested in the olor*4 people and their mahools wroe anwerUwless,

muragoauns owegh to hope for bettor results.



P1 Geor oe O. St ero, e. O&ationl Purr CS!ai amino t8 ift tort, 1 U20,
p. 381


2.O lbid* p. 47


m e






- I


To ftuther the *oap ration bet we the tno roan throue edkantlce the h1 n A
director of tho Joaos mnd slater tnmda proised aid in loutring a rural school
sgent tor meoro mehools in Florida. The first to held the position was

*suprintmSant J H1 Brim an frtm Marlon County ho anterod offiO in Jamary,
193w. Be was partiaulrly soneemrrd with the Ipplientic and ttainiutfticn of
svoraul oopearatint fInds ad worked with the Oomty boards atd oouty sperlaba*6-
nits of public instruoticas. C Represmntative of the Jumen and Blster tad.s
'of the Bosomald fted, ad of the Gonral ECnbftion Board acoperatod in loetiag
suitable nagro schools to be okalld Coarty Tra iin Sohoolse The firet school
-o Odsigpated ws" at DTlrPy, in Palm Beach Conty. In it mas inngurated tirc.
ing in ariauoture, B nual trades, ad tiouhor-trininLg.


Theo tate eporrisor of nrog d ednoatin mas trily halp to the nearo shooU
Wsin his one irberoet war to wort for their bettrommt. This was ew1idet la the
xttter at ared4ittinaf For La nwthor of yaris thfLer had baen poruitstta ftort
tartd utandardling thu orkt of th thite high saboalm of the state so that
Those ahools nettag Sertain reqariemat could be aoredted a*a tndr4d school
by Uh State Departlnat of dUtation ad by the BSouthrn Assoolation of Collegs
and Senondary $thouls. Prior to tha yorL lf19261924 thert had bee a effot rt it


43. Willima 5. Shotsatu. lil Ro4rt or' the 8worinteadnt of ti e.
of"! 19',* pv. i5
1I- = "__ ___ _______


48


bha Mr. Shasts rebtmd to Offioe In 1913 ho ht'd ro:1.lcod thh negmro
edeattai oaeuttut th weake~ t and moeb agleote phad s of school iork In the
State of FLorlida Os intaita will shww the imperative aeed for bottota nt of
ipportumity tW a1 ~Igoees in the iate. Bolhovian had boen aprwean A sd in

L ke CowtWy thre wa trouble. it was mly base. the Bafroos in that partieul
fawnty had bee firl, all dtattad und fimd worthy of trust that there as
udersftasdtng rmd fdir pliy enouh to aite their foroes with the vhtta that the
eanmity ovornawe the doenor of toreip infltueo*.






49D
this dirwctic in b*alTf of tho nlgro sohoola, for it -t.as tcitlty aojitued that

thay etr beloW thi rriirmoswrtt after mrcredMttiona. HoYvevr, in the fall of 129

throtu the cooperation of Mtr R. t. Smley ta'te hiigh school sp:)rvt sor?. and of

Uh*. irMnann, autta suporvisr at negro aedastlca, ppUlatiaon blanka wmr sent to |

all tho noro fools th.t '.ore in a postian to do any onsadorablo nseont or

high school rkt, 'with 'che hopu thut ame nhobols would qutaliy for aoreelt~titte*



Very ftow reports wro rturmod. %be or tmo eahools oname wry neat ntiag

-the riqroants, bit LIt mas found iqmpoadble to acrodiLt May of than pon the

Sboriontnne ndu. t* The roratiramntos for tooredltation aek no proviston for Inter-

-*ediato eahiols, tho fact boein. tht *hnAls of that del-ti4ona wre fast diae

w ppoartig nnwd jror ashools, comaitLn o gradee atrarm, eloht, and inne, were
I otaing Into praodneino although thbor had b*a no lewal provision for the.


Sinooe the rquirmuzt iLn 1922 nwru not vr, smaotinC, one infers from th

fiuoroe of eaholots to mmoot then th.'kt Lhqy wero vry inadwl-'wcly eptdpped.

ardnor aoolA ruinLng through thw teth grade to bo accredatod etre required



0 ec1 heir a
100 pUpipl, tioulu4ing olm9tanrtuty tajes
40L.mIlte claas Ocriodrs fir hti, soJiol agJ,:'a-*c
6 room, onmtlng; eolemrtary crn-ds
flbrnay bookz aun fixtures nuined at 4i &
laboratory brpqipamt i and vtplio.s r-uLod at .x)
trcinoipals ainti 'oa iT.h lir'- ourti.lLc1..,s
high school puile C carrying Lour nubjuats

ocior wohool raniing through th tu-mtth grame 'vora to hLvas

4 hi us"hool toSohora
D0 *rthe' tort
I 00 puptla, i6AlUdinU g lntary gr&a
6-*TtidtB. *jrioiz xh.,- hij sachool Ol&LS3Q$
3 sahool rwo ooumnting eleawtary grudea
lilrnr: boi: aiund ixtur3a valued at .4u0k


"4. I %* Ort'. 81. f rl- i:h- rtr c. 'M.ho Sujrintendonnt o.pt-zblIa
a1mtion, 13*i-, p-- 3 o


I -- _~._ ~ __ .i







laborntory ayhipmnt oiu supVlJ)s WlanJI no 5>.0
prinaipale oartifloLd with Iifo oartifiosteo
aoa& t.'tfhcor wiertIT-1 Or on3h rbbjout taught

There wma no thought of aoaredito.t ion "or the grrnar raedota onJ, cad tho abonr

prlovitons f prospposo a hic school bAuiltt on a gr5 o school Mad hbood in tho

i ae- bhdldlnB.


UIwovr, the 1924 inauiurated a vow ara for the nocro schools as there

damonrd the posibtlitq t'or aaorod.itatlai of both high ana olamntaty edtooleu

Whtm th1o tto t rr Aal Inspvoiotor mscb % tour or' the purpose of evaluatitug nd

prontlang canral aofcieanq; towards Ltadariattin in 193a1 he would rooMcaN

wOly 100 out of Lho 7010 Aiteo aahools a ovi4denty non i o thi negro 3hoolSaS


Tho tNegroos than onftituted A porntI of tho population or the State* Tht

fseinUs ias moread4in that it was neither saft nor hirani to have this poarenta e

orf the popul-atin wIltho.rt propur ouoatioa whe oapulwory at-tInoio lar had

not Eaxrtid any real jacluwoo n acogro school attoaii antoo in faota, tho tate

supervisor of noCro ooaaiwson gives tho following report diafnlc with thio periods

In maty instannas there Is mw atkaipt binGo ainO to anforos
the ooa nzilry Oattifdlio laws a4jm the Agfroes, and this iL
not acod policy tor thu r4aomn that l1 the paupl should
be taf m.t iathatr lUingly or wTillinly its az al education
is to be the established policy oX tho oountr y.

Tho leak o: eduoation for Begrous and leok of oawes In bunlM ing up their eaboaol

it further evidence in a plea for obductB- n as aoirosod by oalored ainilstera

Co4ndtions call for vrigrous aotioi or. tho pKrt a M the
oolorwd paple an their fridso....tha naber of ulhoola
offering roeligous trflning diould be jreaa&sod....**Sc
saoaols o' sooDodary grad Mhould be enlisted La ie wartk of
pnpating tini sbtro Tho oiOrse of utuA houd4 be BO
-daptod an *o aMb4 this ne4., Thlo frsat rvuiolto of howse
sBhool abhpuld be a L plan oa rk tht dmwslops onharater. The
Most fLfo'QOtivk -u4 to rtaliUt tlsa ei Lao LAi-t on -he A forn-.


1*k. :illian 1. Nthats, Mo. *t,* y. bOi0
I Ibid., p. .4





I


37, ]Iathan Mp, Vooational Agrioulture in rForida, 19J0, p. 19


.F-


==--. t-


m


51


ationof habit of h s order and puntuuality and in&atry. Iext
to knowledge of EniAsh Bible should be k~wledge of
lais and heath

Timw hua see the wishes of the miarister practically fulftlled beaause most

of the schools of the present decade do ephaaize order, punatuality, industry,
mnd health. This is part lalrly true of the voational schools for hegroes


IThe voational schools of the nation, partiularly those offering agriculture
have popum-rised their program by an association btor ma the Future Farai r otL

Amwrlos which had its beginning in Virginia in 1926. The negro organizations are
tersd eow ftmerar of Ameriea and have the me orgamiunrtiam and purposs as the
olubs for white tudeabse. Through the efforts of Geirge Waekeield, teoaher of
. A ogrult4re in Plant Olty, there has been orgnised in Florida a state chapter
r as the Florida Aseooiation of Future Farmair of Amtrles. The aibers
danes through the ranks of Green H3nd, to Florida Farr, mad then to
Florida Planter, the hiShet standing. Honorary mmbership meari se inatrtctors
school principals, sjerltten4dants t~sotrs, end other hrpaors. 3a~h school in
the state there Toational agriculture is taught has a looal aohpter.


The constitution of the New Farmers of Ameriae outlines the folloUwtg
worthy and practical purposes of the organisation
Praomte national agrloulture in high schools of Plorida
Promot*e inteest in intelligt frming
Promote and future love of country life
Provide raeroation by mnns af contents
Purnish a medium for marketing
Pronot thrift
estbhlish confidence of faom bay in himself
Proote scholarship and rura leadership
Theme purposes are aouamliahed by m~ans of otsoests in siaL, agriculture,
public peaking, displays at co uty fair, snd by social gatherings soh as
Ifther-son banquets.







The impertPle of the elUb activiti of the m Pa ersu of JArias la

the aolored shools is perhaps nt Ur tiSd t yp Pfolsneor U. A. SoIaS4t,

of the Oolored Agriultural Collego hean he say that n fa ra boy wo intend
btoa *as trminc his life wk needs training just at does the bayr iw laInted

to bem a Lawyer9, a dbotor, or a engiamer The ftrm clubs qply obh of the

trls ng that is needbtd


Voeetlounl training iA riltre ee engages the attention of Ubert

Moover who Lepress the allwing bellet

We in this ~ ontry believe that ewMiation pa for It lf
nd is worwdthile, ad if this is truo of w sort of
~*ttim n it Is certainly true of sational O&datmagl
that It pays for itIself* his is the oid toet, particularly
of seatiomal e*eationi,

The benefit of sgriultunl tnining is further eotObetit*d the tat that

Florida has the Mlaest pareentae of tarw operated by teants. This pmr
ent~ e of r ted farms o thW t Flori4d Begros tndt to om thber om ftmr

pseiibly a resmit of agric ltesre in the e-hool progrs.


Despite the mMltf t advrntagos to be derived from otlodel schools w d
qpiial aonsildratioa for the aro sohoola shoam Mr*. thotm dring thn

period of his re-rtable ainitratio at the tim of his dsath in 1924 there

Mre mly forw seot trfihn g schools ruaiVuing hl2p fr the OGorm S4aatn

Bosrd tho SBlter Fdun4, d the RooemmLL4 Fand Thoeo schools letdmda to the
aUth grad4, but did no hilg mabool Eorka Gona lidatlon of ~ihools bd Bnemwo*

tatd that tit flt naro btildre be transported at ptublio 4peaso. 'hool

buildince for eelored staewmte Inolusd only elm of briek a"L tBa -4ty of
oneorwtbe, Sile 676 were of frm m trutLure. The Stmate*s epanditure for nore


SatiWae o, rop it., p. 90

Is. Georgo Strayer, national Srm Quadsalion Satff Report, 199,
PeSO1








eW as wi e nly $4.30 for emah

of taht it should ham bee seoor
o the gaerm l nationall OtntJ

4Yp6apBamt of th nemr aoutes*
neeoety fr Wating aw bildji

I


gi14l mad the attanbe was oanl 17*86 paesl t

dia g to the e*nsa This sppartU bttebnamt
Loa n %the nero schools Nas the rait of the
in the soutbwh part of the 6tate md of the

an a ta large esies.


r* O. HG ny of Otaodssm Coaty giwe the tobllowing deoolpt of th

agtr ahooal ot this period In adasn ConAey, tere the propermal pqoplatin

of thoe >egros it grateft In the Stabes

Thao wre ftor thmeasn pupils en'lled in tht ,arty-tiV e
negro .h.Aols of the oouty, most oar hih are pntoeher
hools, owe haw only ahboit tiwmty taelmhrs, t beai mes
mzry for emh one to teah nu or thro schools aring the
ypr. It has bee XtfMiult to got tashers hero for the pat
four Or five yo*rs, aia* I of them eamt aie o.rtifleates
under the presof t qmta of muaatcn a narkt ftlotiLng teaoara.
The Board of -m t o r s no4 ft sea to apprpnte the situ atio
nad the t st that tbHn ttawr. are very rsh amood to arry
so th pil Uo Whoaol for asgroe. W hope t mab Iaislalmtur
vli uI a law that will stable u to SAt bteAhrs for allU our
eooe *T...he matr ebhool at Quian is t e ony nero eahool
that is attpting to do ay igh BSehol wr+fc ea hope to hM
it *lastUf ed as a Jutor lth B~hol the esmlang year.

mae* a i4ole omty with a nogr popultoa S of ,16X hbad in 192 l4 on e
sre hiigh ohool affern zg subjwts as hih aM thu ninth graM.


Until reeatly LAn lflda the traditional ftoeyar high school based a

eight years of e lmtiry mric as tho only Vera of orgu action found amm the

school of saR nday rank. Tho teua "J nior high shool" referr* to hLh

sabools offerwn oi or iom ynars of 'wo, ditch Ulttor toam ms sill reopsl~al 4

it being quite gmorally asweo*d4 hpwvr, that the mitiUdtratilw mlt to
se'auth, eigth m d ninth gr s oa nit.-at d jo nior high Shool. In 1298

the LIeil1stunr do possible the 6-6 ed the 8-4 oreanmi tiona. the na


30*. W. 8. OCrtho, opg olt., pp. 73,78

a3.* 1b,. p. 41


i






t


_ ----4-
5'


"r the i" J r ht 0MMOt had a legal birth, U h a-m am wUea 4apt@
by thi BorA4 ot MBt4om on 8eptebd 6, 19886. a that 4te ea the ow a h,
M6ath, m-d 4 lh aams mwere em aldoted Oa the tXTe of sndary a*lt oa,
there being sv.rth Ase s. smhools where the paeM tenahers oaotlied to
t mah Mu before with no partat tsaan or ehmaoe ot mAdejr*S


otion reei a naw i yetus s n the gislature of 195 Nr ndlt
ftr tcabbooks hfr th first iax pra4s of all the mshoolU. A three-fourths
ill w to ta no to prib th $ ,3B8.W retpired rr the first year'. book
Ub11, This 1r had the etffrt of holdLn older ildra La bool nd of fl-
tin thin for Smtr hlr ehiool sradies. This wma a boon for th, poor aegro




Regardle* of all theo Offofit brri be th& b yrs of hih s*ehool life tI
gfrtoe* the Amber f aaerMtlted sabSols resvined at wero. the twohwas r
ooan rp4, L4 for the firt f aagro seoreatd school ms na w ree4 to nt4w the
wike of stds4art sohcle. The uverintenfnt reords the ftt thA ia his


193t1936* OiMbrl Al the ptlie hih shoal f0r
Mferos at Pmalatka, a refatreuts =4 wians irsl d as
a ebahard hith nohag for repros, the first that the
State hu evor had.
Thr.o mere only thirty-Uhr pupil in twhe bifti sool division of this sdwh
Qstral Aednq, -o honored in being the first to be saoredited, nax ha4 a,
nsyneian in LLnasla HNig of 0ainosrflle, htiah school qzaifite4 the asxb ytpr.
In Septber, howter, the relations were ranhtt altered and no wor smbaoo
bean eligible for another yoear. Heatorth Aor.edited jlvnr ary schoole wor


sa. Mr or ?s4ua n 98, ) h9lta5r Joa
4&0 1409 o; Flrt 19254, Choptar 10891
53e IJas of 7ri IJBM, Ohstur 10a64
34. B. 8. QietOa, Bel ail airport of the pierin i of rtbln.
latrnabtioQj 1928, p. 165


I








to haw the sm Imgtb of tom as high ehools, ad it as plated thmf

fsordited bhiA schools should be based on ooreditt4 ealmeatary swhoolA. Th

a Otandtrd mas required of the colored schools as for the tilts shoolle.


AMaordtatim or shols had Laris in m tttmpt bLy the aolleg o to prrvi

better Wtudtuie for thimelwve yet oariin sne O* apleta d at that tim r-

vorald oaitions in the ILwer gaftdo tih were, no dobt, hiMdering hihr1 wrk

ftru bringi-ag us s. The first of theme snrMe as oawwted in unmX Qosty

arlne Laf-129t7, hix the afltitute of tisational ReA ah, DLtvision of Field
WBtAue of teathwr' Co0lee, Colatia tbitrwsity, adrs the dirnwtin of Wr

hGeao Strayw, emoand t* a eubaustive, eaxC twun .xrr of ixhools in Jm*b-
amiiU aMd DTwlM Oamft, elordA*. TM report of the Smrp eonrr 4S pages,

mei of hideh are dwtod to the flit schools. Howvonr a f w foast are sa-*

tioned relative to ngut e oelso and the mDt sipfimeat ha e be4e 1selot

ma indiestie of statsuidMd condition in aegro schools.


Aplked redarditlo mus motd in warly sLU of the *4olal **Ipeially the

ae s chool of J.asolvtflle. Bng r p upil in the first graM rtwgs in a~
tra tour mid onw mohlf to oiebtem years, In the ismoud pra ft fl to
mtleprv n yearm.1 The erag. rwbrdbtion for t itklte obhooal wa 43 parent

of &Ul ehildrf Up to and ItolMait the mSaMb gre. the aVe &rage fr Megroes

qp to and imlasding theo xtb grae was T prot, but this pereIt ms not the

r Ault of the teahlng boeamw pqdle in the beginners' grads wwe likewise

TT per*eC t ovr nw p. In #lriod angro shools the sht selas is the dosih tie
far dhildrm bel the first grad* The short trnar hbwt a it UioMOSry to

take to year to omolute on grads. u fta W IUmi ew n to the *eCe of

NMegro perrisor of schools, onewhrd of th enoled colored ehl14rn were in

the firt gradb ad ahart emsI Ho reiand the Snmbr to onw4ftO h, and it

is rpidl- doemae ng. The m ew in the tialfth grand, an the etMhe had, me

M' 3tr Pge o. Strqwr, aPort of the Burr of lunra COaty, 1927, p I. 16







nar e-tait orf oe pereMn or tf e : tire nrolamer t, there bein only niwt-
oe- e6a6 sieaore thruWa~ t thue ole s~atte ThlMs tIdlated wry poor pro-

I ~pMf tar pr np tlmra of tesahwe jft as th Liarg ar ollmub in the firt

Sgrua sh d m m om abo ta r tbo prlsry tShters rnqAlr to d l tlth
I ahildres et *mb dvers aIes


The redr mIy all mt itat this has to idt h hih sWoolms The ao w

is that atarzttion m do0ptfing the hSh mIwols of pottmial admta.e ThiM

nrardtion mw W0 perSenit ors in FloridMA them tha ida iMsi sippi iA

L W.* this oonditla al prevailed thrudhout the high shooX oluee*, for wy

te ahildra in the Itol ht hool w re a their earreot ap levn.


tI rm sy this imrtSabl rPeardation in reGard to high edoolu tho Swr |

a paert ad the ftllouiag as^uttleua
1. ProTsylto Ioud be AM fotr oaUng work dmn is
brodmed woure in the Jro h"t adool as
Sa~Nmi4 eret tommr high school prgruama
tihoe oass Io e e aleratio is d.tirUb.

20. Pils y r of aOge n the law sitah or laoir grdb
sem4A be towfwrrs to Jiier Mhieg sl.
3. Srine ftihru rag ftmro U poret to r perat it
*lmmtary gras in Dnt vml as it haed o the
po*lqy to rqpnt ao14 %ftor obsatine widmw
utht rtpStIn aiqd be bwofl ei t

4 Flares la Sjlor ad maLor hiGh smols rage tre
can to m3 poro't, ad this is absurdJy high so the ore
tfi be prtsoepstim ca rsof, nu tattuit aarmo, ma
prepamrtory oaartse n all of Aolh the* ordt hould
vry with thr kind at oofw e

In ngard to the rural aboola it was fgtm by tbe Surqr tatff that lhs.
than oa-h*lf of the oeihth prad grauat or the noo ~ols etimw an

hih ashooMl. The mastian for earin this tllin at was the ronaing of
tatorest by bringing btffor the pqpIls the pporbmaties f the Oier 0hoomie

trraoportatta wmod likely w htlp, ead t it num magt that the eomty mndht
30
i ke M ilenge paYuW ts or, if aed be, provide droatori*e lasted in the oity.

s, @jm*, pe. TT
....- .--4-.




I
I


Or. Strqor and his educational experts had prove so a ul to ial Gouwt

that the State Ie 4a ture appropriated funds to havo than oond*ut state-wid

Surnv and to mak* rsoaenodatlomn for bettor-seat or the entire school qVfst4

Ite urvy as oaopletd in 1909 at oost of P76, O. In thV sotai n of the

surve report ooncerning nagro eshastion ono finds tho following ooinnts:

It nr4ht be saiad wth safvtf that the best profosioanal
averintndanti aore als thoso Who S gi tUhe aaot attontio
to their negro schools.

Sinoe the position of the avro vtor Is virtually
angligble sad that of the offtie holder woly nogliible,
tho responsibility for the onc4tionu of the n aro ahoolm
of the State resfts rolly upon the hite officials
ead the hite voters that put tham into offimoe. 3

QO tho tole the report ftund a tok of bntoreot in the noro schools for one

riat or mother BStabe anthertlie, possibly because they vre far fr m the

lomelities in tilh the eahools were located d did not ow In e ontacwt with

tdoridination towards the MNegroes war more favrable towards givinC then

better school aflUtiLoe. Fri aUinoss was fira4 to be dsLritlyj in in rso

ratio to the maubor oat Jearo In tuhe aomanity. In raftrane to paorlilans,

the mmnLtto. reported that tfr peri sors visited the wngro ohools; that

t'mlve comlties had Joean tomeher p and that state suorvisibo mnw busy mdily

with the James and Re~CuWi4 uofdt4s and tho pror de by tho Gemorea iodation




Florid has ban uting the Rose~nal4 ftd aince 190, but it has built only

110 buildings th t h help romnived therefram n oonturt to 745 built by North

Carolmar Naethelese the ftnd has boen a great help In Palm Beaih Count

art the hurrI cn af 1929 every olaored sbool house was doetroy*A enpt On

Iiah was built aooording to plans fturteU d by th directors of the RosrmmLd


p 7. George P. Strqor, Pati nl.l surry Caststalon stfff Hport, 19,
p. T33
--t---J ..







Sa

Pad. Thia i antionod to ihow the uperiority or building oonstrued

IoVr thUose reted by the county athrons tes without mmah plans. That yer,

1927.192, Florida reoein d 83W,00 frm thu fud for nagro bulldlnCa in nlnet
aS
coucites. The help indludm the bta dinC of beeohars' home and funiAing

roam for Wcational training. Possibly no .singl. agsy has done so SmhL for

inftluntalw: seostruMain of anitary, hyfiomies safe and well- lighted whool

houses for Negroes as the Roomaald Pwd. Of spaial tportmw it the ftt tat

building p n are furi ed iL free an that a larer oonbmteLbuqtlo mae4 it the

building eaataflat~l4 t to bo of the pri anm t typem


The first colored toeashe' hoaQs that wa constructed with the aid or this
ftod onsite4 oat fiv bedroosms parlor, kitah, e a 4 dining roau. lTh protioe

of providing thoos tmuh 'raes ia oonnmotion with a colored school has aiLe

I provd co etLfX that the anagors of the KMamsald Fuad ft=rli t sookl bulm

prints md sp iftteations for tho jumt n they did for hool building.


After giving up the fnoiwing at adhool bduldings in 1931 the tumatees of
tho euIeaw i4 Ftmd unertoo helj ng i lor4ed sdtool ostabli sh librariaes It wus

I proposed that the egroes pay one-third or the oost, the omnt one-third, ad

the digebore or the tfmd *greed to pply the other mathir4 d to do Utw

I pnrsming, peaki, Mv paylai of ftri" t on all eo1tontiwn o books sat to

schools The book wreo to be seleted by the orian Ubrary Absomition at
wae to fit the fneed or mnro shlldren For a yotr toh offtr a to o mnty

training mohoolm oaly, the later it was %star ded to ws good *Lgr school. he

ibrwa seta varild in pri, tram i* to $T &, and mir than thirt Lt wehools I

aftiled thieeln of the 8aoa ld offer Closy conoted with the purahs

Sor librry books ad proites by ltA s"m f4d I m the puraha~ of ruaLo


3B. i. So Crthoan Bie*nnl RepOrt of the sueorntendat of P*uio
Slatrution, 193w, p. 13
I~ ~ 8






68

rmoa in mla Ius r 47 to 0 lthee rtdoes like tl boot wre to be

lhippod, propid eomuplet uad re to instaLl.


io dmbt the Ubraries thus provided nambled ww eools to friae ttir

ata"Iing for the yeo: 1fJ, an xt the pt for t negro ool aoeoreditatwio. That
y0 stLjbnto ashools not oz tis w applying ware ae prove L ha .n Tra st s

.roedd Into the school with tUs renlt that ew sahoolI losa their *&coreo te-

tioa La trytag to mtwoamdato the umaer s ueddnc earotl mta. Ths &hmws, hornw

emfo, a r~mrkablo imrete l th holaldi ng po oo the U ngro sebmhola a moteinm

partly e&tribdtble to mro emtable arrival, ead parLy t better prparen

tma*ars and Wto mare painting mf fate theas spying Negroes I p#1b*i

pl-luMe





CO


CEAPT3R III
PRAE t TATU 1W98

Coc tica of Mgro seBaebry sehols in u190M. Habllitatie
seats. l orl4 State BUbool fur the Daf and BUAi4. Forid
Iawaftrila Stehook for ws'o as l* 5 d l Vers sEr ms
Prifvate 8ools. egro PUe e abeels TVermas Whit Publi
8ehoolis

8l3a with tet othr state Florida ftlow*w the county organsation for
hoUe. All s4hool oft a ent Nirm a single mitv Mk hol4 k L th a the
wMlth of the aty is uard an a equal bse by all he se hooa or the eawft

bt the eoaty d eete this oteoa br tfrther dividing iteel into iool di s
trtit fro tw ea pwurpo ThLs plm has gralnly -a Mns t itn Wr antl
there ove a theasw d ok dlstrioes but tranpgerbfti and enasilitida
hmw 4eW thO waMler mat a tauM r.b.s 1aasah shuolimm rallt now be
r1wnw4. BSmi( this 4drwbe thwee ta wtht in the qrabtn inee the Bem-

parativey pi~ ter wi th of Mat of the mw tnru sttl aoati is t availt-
abl in the poowL mites. BWoDWer the W=tU qfsa9 i the nabtnl and
historical mit of e kasationa orgpantialou to Forida and asouln be lreS4
ly aift neiam the weak point.


riaifet ~nmrM her school MemW fr la titeren on 'te pemw nt ahool

t'Us wUrreTb, state, emunty, a4 d triot temeU, heaters Aioen4ess, motor e-
hisle lioenes, retail ooupation tax, thra poremb beverage taxp, Itatioal

prest ftebd, ta fndWtionl tition m noiaruldit tlaudt.i, and 90 peatt
of the ntf track tid fIro the P~rieltnWl Pool BiySemW to these is addo the
help of proborl 4a ph lUnthropla montribtbias It the A ture of rea for

alario mand for buildSin and other purpose* atiotnd in the tbrrsping pa a

this taaluds W Va A. projets Mnd Mie. A. aitL for atudite, both Inbins a"til
*able ot aro e*houls.





1


It is notinoable that the per capital Mrns for white children doeretae while

those for coloredd children inaregse with conaid rable regularity as the proportion

of negro population beaowes oller. This is partly due to the smaller were

ooale of naoro teachers, and partly due to the mall provision mde for nogro

oshools. In tho wostorn portion of the stato the valution of property vries so

greatly from that in the southern part that the taxpayers would have to pay thre

tirnmoa nuih millage for equal results. A large majority of the population ire

tax exapt, being Uegroos 'ho pey no taxos, honce the burden would ooan to han

b~on placed upon the aouthorn man to take caro of and share the fruit of his

labor with the Negro.


In this work of mediation Florida has not been remis. In atu ing her

Se ati~t al eapenditures it ie surprising to learn that she expends # 6.6 for

Sedoation out of enry I100 of ate mpendlture; the nation spends 2.74.
Furthernrre, the tin stment in school property in Florida is $2.89 ia eantrart

to the nation~ a invnlirant of $:,79. In relation to lumries, the ratio ia

74.71 poreent, and that of the United States is only 8.26 percet.e 2o lth
these eopnditures she has a long step to take to ivo up to her motto of

lorida First" in regard to negro schools.


All through this investigation the teacher ha been fLound having a great

part in the whaIl lift, and his preparation has dopmded on the oortifloata

reqtuiremts. Teaoher-training benau a part of the hie& school eurriouau,

and thea gra*tate certificates wore granted for noru sa d college greadtion.
Teacher preparation in the colored schools has improved to snh an extent that

out of 2,896 tuaherme there are no only 305 having Jmss than hish school train-


1. ~illiMan Shitats, Bianial Rort o. the Superintand tt of
Public Instrution, 1916, p. s

2 W. w Cu G YeM4i a- Rport of the Bup*rtintndnit of
Public Instruation. 1932, p. 43








Las* inae th protisia fr vgrae O*rtUtOnte mae w in 191 the
.aber of MgrO holders he. imareod uti 1i~4& a thus owertif a cn

Ta6 nego bte akrs hlad WrtiPcat by ~ -mmLatom, ad 6, are tmiLng c ithut

IertifloeAe. ZTts sha that utae shrten matice In trowr pag s arm ta

4tMppL rta, but d s d*es not rmafV *1l or the diFlfel~aes beoaue the mw

pbroLrepaMt report tole oonuta tahiaedmoamt noc negr taOthewr


the c wliwn of toah r' witinG is loan to bh orf fftl
gra qjoali tr 4 fourth m de sspnbrr.Teabere have not be a
ttbed to a rtaa thair attatat la otber elmaantW
uP ab*. 1wev'r, It In prdat*& tat and Latioan of
= r nfbowld e of raing, sr lttamea l .hi .toq, ola e,
Smame SA trt l4d hw imttmlaS t sim lar to thiLr aliwty
to Matoe*ap
Appnttwd ly 80 posntw of the aulant Ita sPO eooXs
is t frm urmd me to sx. 4

thano roarcnu a do out portsan to hi& aosl dtrnetIy, but vwe Omn e95L

deAi&" t flat that only WJ perenr of the 04nl0r olarm are In grads wna

to twml Un fr, thfe eOBplatt nt Ibu laok of prepamrion ftr the elm--tary

-hool dr te the tt that wet of the -.ll gra mbe Ix.pe ut tw&r tLu

prepania ew high t mho l tusatha& a it ltrnAe- that Uh teabsn at that
o el am poedbly bWeter prepared.


Father tqio it La the anro ehool4 is fmad In the mtter oft nem-

v tico. Three fa tiems hban it.e ~ervisors ftC the* Cro ahool aMd taty

Seq3ay Jaem tSahrs. d4*emo, m haso ma, re nso re4 toaewra traded to do

evlrrtiry nA*k a" to praomt DOMMnib spf.rt IdMs year, 1946, the

mU of s7,g0 wea reniwag to help tofirds the pqrmt of saulre. tor those

1SMV. 4 their halp has bame mo akIable that thq wre Sonadted Ludial awo
able, a"4 thiwr cm r tlU aS hbe antbe


a. Coln Muith, CAtioal Frg o rfirte 193U19 pp. 1W, ie I

4. so. Owthmn, iAept.al aert f the wartubeLt at MJ
LgnratOnM 956;j, p. 1w


I___ _____


1__








flridk ham anoWthr priviloe that .ill teA to stabilize her tatiahing

i fbro She v n"tr a pjnmioa to those yiho hca.y beea o duty aj tUee cre for
thirtyvtin year f thq ae iLnear pitted and cvoi4 or othwir Ltnan,. Uh
6
help eoMetL oa #40 La Sata. Thirt-vo f gr ieros are, In 156, on tha pnaiLs
rostro Thero is, howovor, the possibility a.4 yjerpa t Y Uc ladveabil oft

martin thin p.siloa proran ritht i thoe eiurity acft lr old ago plenslioa


RenmrianeB of theo toartifioatin and tabilising or tchaore. the aro hiA I

schools art nooding more pretteUo.l stuteLosa r tiho stu*adtat* Pesurs frm Me*
side ha bh'rat t tbout a amltiplio-ty of chane in the oarritoman, but SLBe
tIh~ a outea4id or e ar bhiefy publirewr of a booka, lamUf&OtU W or
rabcratory wpparatusj awd othor vuatid inteoraB th* chaingoe a not be the best

for nago "i tar. :fe ero that thc introagtwon of to yeeational ourase
has ben Ia grebt st%4 tomrd making the curricula bmauticil, eoseoal1ly to
eroes. It is tr tht If our Oa inruetrial life wr station, .11 mw might be

brouft to the point of maims efieaa, but we know that tra*e am rep hig
i d =storr a need M re thS*hrdlOa training, MOPO IopiD ued to be prohaswrs in
S can oecmmoial or tndustrhad Ulim. Barn datsw .Odt ara ptsOS in the

stW r ofI a trado than in a taju&a aad elassiLol subject i md aoonquatlu the
tote is @ty bmund to provide wouras sBtable tor thin a olr of stmuat as

rsau as for those whbo intnt4 goig to nflUebe


We htar ted Herbert oowvr au *tWin that uo an4d aq return nre tAh
writert for enflutiung agrioltars others aro of the n opinioR n l Ea r -
eoae to emamed.l ni ouwse and look dbioUlsj on the teahln ofr caaruiaX A*d
j*o0 artiMng businese iar, world peogrpl, booka$.ng, :d ooM e* tI
nqpo kools. Theq thUW tthat smo s la pilas tbhe o4y erteri that

jurtifies lat4eow tk in t the i owat!iaml fle14 but this it a tpUaal r |


S t ajm orf barti. i hCptcr 14f






I flowing wrd. fu la2r c. Wilbur, a euawroitwl to"ohr., are quit* partiitts
It the (the lessons) are taught with the *ame degre of
risTncyioy, t1iu utbjotsM taught la o@acwrial oourwe tmve
as simh ltmit l vus as atn of th oluaical Maubje~nt. rt
| dght just a -well *o ht EnW itudnats boeomo hibtaolanls
from tafugt history, or hor mN short story writo.
On 'thu btsala o0 hiuir hiih school ocqao&ttlua? A Aubjet
ew@ mat 60ase to be neltural bnsww it is usralU. Ho
courroo of stua is idemn unalon it, eIdaaawa the wholo atld
to the limLt of hi ability am at eu is it i owndast.mt
lioh tho tis Bqtpnt im ntu, .

In tha past trmuty-five years the *enatrr ouurriou .a or frWida has

unlS&ronr raTvSitn at i0at six tineO, Iand 1,' has oheged in that tin frcr I&*

mwst frcnl typo to one of tht most libarld in tJu country, but this Is t t

uffloiently UTideWt it the nero Shools. Thler *aho"ls ramaSa teo sabh la

tner of ooll~ g prparation. This is a weapons w wa bst probably o t he U

aise of nrr eadvrols aM to a1 or funds for prlidin~ g instflaall wdl wAtolmmU

I oursou.I


To tao to Uthrt. atc.rt tho stat is prophr.nr her ungro chtldrkn ftr ollepg

lnd for Indtrtry and to briwn tho Pfnd4ng of thd: dLseaerttion up to the pnrwmt

UtI- a 'plotta1nr re i ma t by ,Ah writer to -ho aUL aVPtive neg Mi&g Shabools

I l1; sted fr the Florida state duaoetioal iJ.actory of 1937. wo questions auked

weret

!1ate hUr abaool first woMlMGd the naith grasd
Hutear of high osbool taeihrs w24 mnbter with degroos
ameWr of *Jasetary p*Uo mhools tfeding Ito hirt school
mrter of parohtial satoolos oodling ino hiA school
Ap.protjt mber tof pilm in *btary shool
Playgfround equipait consisting of itat...
Club ork nnsirttn of what*,.
?aranatetrtaohOTr l iat ions
subjects offered in hih school
Number of gradatos continEin in ootlleg
Purwditt s the A st att ei ing college
use of gtrndLtrd tots
COoUaes attedkod by those electing college eri
most or the prinBipals or thle swior hleh s~rools reoqa4W*d to the +tostionA=rl

only wavttnm of tha jw aor high prtinappala riplil4 poisetb boeause the Oibool


6. flimr Io* Tilbur, *'le plac* of 0 CMMrlal 8taeation i the Swaonda y
ilhools," Bl sh. r. 1930 8*3 ~L--_







ae mo roeoantly orgtzenild that thSe oald anot jntah atijacutory dita.



The praoert status of the amolas oan bo no better llu-strat"i tsaw bq

tAling thd atanlris of aho Cooori?.tlo Stfay o2 rGeocnfcrry roho SLtanurda a

**fd Oby b t:7 ora ttao roi tho IudationaI4 Lteoolari ion irn tlhw puioiatvifo

onliod flh Sre.nitiyve Crituria o' 1L! inwad rftting the ftLinngs of the qpUntah

xinire rewarding ta Florida nGrao school aurriouLat inthAo be Thea first of




and "nproonttton nrr Weifl fe& r all thei othor high sobal rfdoas. iJlih isr

the anm wtud y rejIroi in cll BoasondAry Gradan of tho nmo^ schools*


The FLridA Plrolir Lanmaeg Coursi a gtu, published in 156a, Girea

the a naeso of ftorolrn learuc. *tdy for Flori4d hih sohovls. It snms the

crett ?rtentimlitifol nr mnriotiwng hild xpeariwnoo and rmorioanzda tho oilhth
grad ftr the nlitiatln of theo stir of a frnign laimguafeo It purpon" to ham

pnptla Br-Tilr th ftAbility to fra4 a itnu at tdesrstwt ding otf tao fntiosu

u*tuerts, nOd eat apprIq etAtI-irn of lteoratiure a 0a tboo ant of history, idtalso

aftd apirations. with these objectives a foraynr ore iss ofturod in Wemak,

Spanlh, and Latian. wewnr, fPreni I a the uawr onamI ta tha amsro weboola, fW

more ahools rportd Fprae h I their dnit progrL tha ltAin ad Spmiah takea

together. This 1i a pn4uliar protfreon, ainoe Frnob d&rti not 'tons theo basi

or theo khJash ltmnarse, rra.d gs1im there i$s Uittle possibility of stlndntu'

having aorwreamio atlnal or rosnprrh uno for it.


attratau3s wvrsi f l% years, with solid S0eaoatry and trismaBoatry oa-

pristi tho work of the fourth yn.r Theo qostiomaire rwflald a staf4y flu

oreaeo in the nmbr of schools offtrin gemcurtry, thile bustieas Arithmtsf maB

gearal athmentios wre rsportet as being on the program oa only olovem ohoeM .


I








'aCI&ceC rsmm t;!roujz tho% fnr yoara. iht- ordOr or prfofVnVoo rncwd to be
boleogy, gncrrnl soiMoo, Gchnistry, and phyaica. It an urg ri sing to loun

ho w ntr eo aschoole offered all Mtr sftolnca, ao OUthou steto roqurnrmat

ftr cgraation n "o or n icyr-r n sc, nc This olTenrttlo oiftCrli n Il un a t
r.21 praott'.l *r. ho lTlirr -.hl IeM n r ir-dorstf d the world in TitLch they J live a~

in tr rnrt' ?vr tc WU .


The ESccml tnaies r Co rsa o tf oa -for da l, iludvs w.rld goa~raphy,

tatrd hlMrt-, lUited Rtta hitaoryr t wooon--mlty svie s.1 'hf tO history

coren, hA crbout the swre ttrwation. here is a maost*4 talt relating to

* the Pocro in tho 1nt tod Setatas8, as a part tof jerio n and world peoblemn. bst

o f thc atjects ar e optioal, ibt Anmrlos hitory mnd o e wra rt, uIggest, a
Sfor the elTr th or twelfth gradow, is retired for gratat on.



H Hetali d phytiafl osiration are stressed in a aisal btulitlnn h id il,
a -a of fi often iuaftos a d&V it preertbhoe ftr beelth inatrutlon, but thim Is

p:lawnt'ed by thlnti c ranon fd drwettt*io ork aside or a&1oo14. r'obtbly n
othotr mnvetat hans evr struck tth4 :blio SChoolS of Florida with such fora as

the health mad physical flaBsticm projoot. The Halt Batlote rremornanda that

one period a dq in bhi t *wotei e* 4oaoted to plays and Crua. Credit vill be

allowed atar the wms c o oaf rstua shalt have bt ewbottted to the Stato Dpayrtf

snnt or EBaoattlnc anhiJ.o a tontativr juilor-.aid.or progrn oonslits at

geaos, oorrnatlve qportbs, oxraisas, rad hbitIng Sloven or tho nO'o, Aifi

school rport&ad nO ulasy spipwmtj and otihrs reported having lanen, balls 1W

SbfaWtball, wley ball, ftOWtbpll, WaUbAll, and rorpat satq, tz.lo tmiasa rnd

i plf mrfa mattiofd tnew. hida tlrlu in twntloninig =y ply eqi4ptnt wly

Shave been ut realt of thinking that nothing auld be considered oaeqt tnadar&-

It" *quipiane atd patectod wappatUrab


It poes without aying that a hildm s boalth to easentiLs to b.i progress La


-- 4 --~ --___ __







school. Thl boeoons tpnrrent -Ohen -m rosis the t1gortraoe of tx'ztr1 hViano

ai that frJlTirc in th t% one r i"pnct hbie renlated in tho numarmos boritt.ls

ftr t. nimme. Dr. TPrfay 'Over tho following' wt:-rt1!Tn t et n c. 0tof

tho Sooint Probicl* of Ghi'pldtoodt

,h ..t;,a; s.co urg -iW a.h |i thrfclteli.rr the hoO.th of
the jMario people L pot t breu o e a pueau at,
dla-.i of nth.? hnrt I6 tl aontdal t afl3 :a Toro are
aliast m4 anw patitel ia tbhe amtl boopital or this
ouontry as in all othor hospitals ao inoed. Froa one-sitl
to onawhird of edah Btatoms total qe p tditufre pos
0 thr tll'- ..:._ OZ '..a h. S...IS- **

-I ,'T ci,-1Tid t .ihis .6 oot r or."o utributJl) to.- lack of ph yicU.

i holth, irv ootl 3t b. t; piotimr of tho lose throntrh oiosrfloiet he Lth

kIrno'sl cndo.



Z'. Is (t plou o to t .nO %'I-hI J loridt r!cnfl hiXfh ln S:jrlitwnt ins1lonttiloa

I c' WIthi hrt.t,, wul th. gortt*k !o n rnoETrWdle-rts of tho Oroait which tho sebool

mey- or -, anmt Adloi. Orn: Cr.T: rr ty had a colored pro ho ol narsj "n erlyr us 19-*.

i J.ksmhl.o has n toloro4 phystolfn winr nufs, both receiving ithe uis srl2aryY

as other q'ntq nIrtuo do Y:- srn orkf It. to gr- t ln:; thit mrAty*ot It hc' la

fr!oJrte thr riro of r. onnnt: nuByre1 onm thourj verj Dfe riportod o. 11Uncit for

I gree. The negro *sholls bhrTa in the wor* of the Tdbernalo't AaMosooatlcrt, a

ainqee i has bee dioverwod thut dway oeosij kanvloVp in high nhowcl ad that

dtootln and tratnnmt *..n be had at a& Fll ost, ikb ill wmr nic ashto tih

na(go h.C aehools, ensp al14 in Drvoejf 4iutriotr vtwure tI-i 1itaot.i Is

| prevalent.


Aaeording to the Cooporatliva tuat ofl' Sondar-y SBhool fStndAdl thLoro

tshrLi4 be a vlhun 1i f.or arts and croSatB 1-m lth ichbooli, but in I'lorbiLk thear

ha tBm bor no auch asuration ir tho building of tho nawr courau of abtly for hiet

oshools. In wow or the Onoro schools hatctvrr is mdone ome under thb line of

inaserial arta or hoer eononioas.


a. Pml Baly rr~ wr oStal problems r Childhood 1939, p* 110


~C--~ -~- ---







I !la :* di ixor.o t w'L h aai, nr a has finl oind4 'o n to Itsi
r.ijtul :ltaso by 'Jiu iublicaZirn 0tn r, omowhr of stiucd streasirh; itt oontr$.
I bution- tXo frrtlvils a2sz a .wholo, o cd 115 sa cil iu t Irntor t1T ac l o oVr6t
pupils SijonE.ors ItrQ c!vIm ftor proluoirr; t grt. cr tmnbor ao: ajtcur ttai-
oiEasu : jaonrj .h-.v crxs i-not linutiE t, -Tirk rr:. a;:. ,-m *h'3 eTmnt*I
r4 olachti-, gr,.La3c, but rl^th no oradit, utf apoao4l import.lr cu In this invesnU.

L.N'3 itn the roonjdacn Giv-n to negro m4tdo In -d anato eusrsw oAf ftl
ano tfini.s
.a.rn hrr Vliri ucha3 -.ro Cnl4 aro wirpoed* Ulston to
reor of the FIfCt a4 T*oPe Stngers. Note the wan
ru1 haramny thich io prodnood am & roal+ -I* Ocnost porNat
bnleafdit of nme li.stseW theo .Ua rmia qFUtwi StV t
thu Afriaa tunas noting that .nLr is oroe predominant in
thoir nato thA in the Anrias Nero q anWae DLonas the
dlrolopmAnt or jzs f2n2 r om ro Maio,

T fu tlUtato thia stuay a: uoio, rooorda fotr $phmomeirto nou wayr bo neauro4
froo cc=a tho Gonerul astaiaon i fitcm of ,i- Lwinvearsii o. Florija. iSUtlee
schools roportod =a sia in tholr Qrogrcio but. is mastkly Clav Olutb Zork or
c;.or singnG. tany K sahoals fol tl no ol orf rWW PMtsia.


A ihool Warricrlta 1.3 nt suioaEd to be ooiplto Adthout iniustrtil awrts,
an, tiheu ar: tmnait in msie gogc schoulAo, 4lthuouw thoro tas o oLepraLBo oomro

o0 ctutV. Agrutltaro 4nd ocnwtrel stuntdl *onI to hatve ton'-n thcir place In
tha aahceX program. The aonurcial rtud.on1 hwvu a roagar wo rse in thELa t vAw
staaGruap, beokkwplng, buWinss laz, eagnoBwas, twd oamaroaci gaogrplt are

provioed in theory, but fIra school havr the equipmiat Io ofterinA- t-npLt or. thn
mnaoiona IAr aodern booknotping itho4s. It 1ia bollorvd by the writer, bwauwr
tiht rtyping bokkoooping, businme law gownuors nd ownertall r tofrVay wwuld
ha&T a bxnantal uld t ltural Lnfaloawo on thb in&LAidal hppinasu an&d woltufr
of the naCro studet regartlea of another the anter olri6al weyloyma t or


9. astao Cournw St uy for ylorid ltE BrShooal 193f, p. 07



= --4





-C

I ot BoahqdMptg atd emarain L l earn as a proteafioan in daily living, m
soamerial sgrphy give an ~ndere nding of the affairs Of tho world that *s
ussCu to amy ugaged in a -dne a l ivtin In the *sc seral ot des there
oeld l1kwma be opportalty for le ing pdile qa*1g>., fW U aw, just Ma il
thWe ds of ifeero, the is no better pqrep aratlm fr N le Idrdp th oratory


goS king or hom meIs to gin is tUsw nenth and eighth pa a 4" a @

sea4 of hom and th f a i them It ezbandtf Lat the higher grad s a f b4dyV
of foo4s, mtrion, marktistng, plaiang, prepanttion and serviao, elothlin
I oarnf ion, ahild dm mlo t, sA4 a ~nQ erel od ark AeorfdiJg to tho

I Maew La the a stiomAre it rnds in pe~alarit rleag wth g04eih ad bioeoy
I s oe of the three ost popular sourss, the writer teals that this I tily
Sme of the most reas mble nd ueful aoars that would be offered fo the
negro dehools.


Agritltar in the schools has beem *ned by the indBrtul wefk of the
tauh0wu a. Thr to room fnr nuare itoest or to r ih the present [
population of the state "ah oe the 1,64,000 people l d ho ave S sgr oft
and to eulti~tve Of Othe ltg op.+ own in the tUited States th er ae
sOity grm in inriA& o ter ies opprtidty r abolm iA 0nltitauan of

eops VWe haW lbearnd fr athme Wa tiat the *Ute noe*4 ha teds to
million or on, mshep, boewwm, hogsj and hans ordar to appply her awrmbs*
0hM .MU of thbe* n be1 prtnAsed Floria Will beaom selhspporting.


9uidanwe fe the Last hnldrting r the earrialmd. Modhr soBolA amre ta

mGrating deprwamts of ptidanae sd the aW standards eomtldtr pid me u a
qlatwatie aid to pupils a hiking ajasUtfts to warioum pes of problfte dish
thry met. in order to make th se mjuratmans oomeem of the fkLt~ neber


W10. lath My, Liath S Gith of tihe stat of YrU.j 1936, p. 1

I





TO
Sau4d aske a stuay of the oemmirat in m e frrt to lern the typ oe people,
their w*tdt0w aA titer At thr mbilitiem m their hopes fr the ~ttt
The tUirt tse fiona prega rt bweL .tbe ris d br ope rtaS*demsr tle2rOmn t
m fl et, a"d -Ls4f tet llgrI ameouanied by rnqnt fi r oTeapm d smtborltr.
T Ihi aild reo ta in pprietatia of poo eta ip, m a rea*aso to pmr
Stipat t M Tletol e aettitem howr i and B ea mtryL. 1s pite f AtU ths e
b mtitm there as no mm ta of gm& a diviLm*as beiag part of qy amo at the
a egro ihdvol pngtM.


fN1*A '. l t beaie as taustrial state ikeM toh eOctiUon fhr La UiiU-
hoo4d kea for r every. aLt mhm a a f- r the tLmhba In adbfitia tb
State has tbee mharaeertise&jy slota in dmvelopi her ms eein" i~sos
TM s has uo hati Mnbnd noridal program in the past1 t e, fat# adag
thL* a Lq f X t farty othe statesr, A* h4 nseluate.ly bpt. the best plans, toe
witlUag hruelf of escltase that t o thn abates tLlians oe do Shlare, Bha
Ularsc o 4Js th nooperatiu of w etr stalt in tLh following up of *na,
ed at ihm e w hM the oopepratlm of mmwdty wits brldis, oInt1r pe'trntIe
Mtsm, hoa 0a rMun ntrMuatte agateg health 4dpmraWtu, uIty faftlimil,
hoqpitale, o ols, mnd employer


A g i these helpers l the servl etof a erfhpede Waon on tMe te state
Board *r Ketla to ith the espir'tons or the Aelries Legio holds o ehlU. to
mtnm atta of ripples. Thb Lfion ad& a arw reporUag ,000 o ripples by
an si& giving 3X000 as a posalble total* Of these 160 are ildr tder
sxbem yJarw of gep, thereon possible stu4dte for aonnzry schools taking
the rtto to aon the writer finds that 7.0 mrld be the prspotitaal msor
for nolAed4 hlranm, but there is fItinLte dl t to uqy Lh mw of thae
rseitw rdblh taJtatta sn Pthrou at the atet bea with arl, lwant My
not follo~ w *peqa1aly iL the eae of the Iegro







I ur er puu inp for diMald pwn a ma to be eo fantiom, arb-
totbenr. rtiftuial tie pfon$tiug, pealtry ratnig rnaeg, n rptwtring
tailortig, hia* eloak ad 4gpoerflt repairings the wi rmu nt will 3.&w
help in all of theU i it eea be daom tht d mbled pw as til. ak wu of
thm. &8m 9t the ewarnw m w mw t be bhool majnets. but others me af e- 4
7ry rEnk.* egree how a mwre in them beftita if twidr ad is biwat to
th aftttion of the proper per s. It *rns to th witer, to0, wit thwe is

a gret posewbtr ty for th rWMablitA tioarn d r it a t aw o tah
oe oast. aOvi lae in the Vaivoruity ot the ese.*


It eadtIet to the q e t of state shooals that w has bea lnbriadel
i ih s~ahodls are sIeated ithia th rnh of te Vo al ~e ldle of the tm&*,
There ae tarewe elmo l sabools for r Lldrae i ae m braWna lther La pphyteal
I silltie. or in their cortaet


The first of these, ad parhqpe ths last tkna is the rehai~ utatila
elwrie for erippln adi4 permona dabled in w war easqt trou bli&nnss
and oaful *. In Om, 1W, tM e Fni t& L h latmare passed an at bly *io h the
SState ae Opo wrd to partedpate in benefits of the atinw BMekallitat

Asti bub a- m u w prepri ted ftr the aid purpose tUl 19T. In tat yewt
t* Legislature wtd 4,000 to Mstt the Amai f*ruw alUebmt to thet 8ate
i of 9,l*l a00, aD rk was abully b to Bept e ep br t of tht year


Rdutalitation art i r*aly uiplying a private teauor to help sme d1o
tbled prson to overom hi handtap in -katnr Ua i Ing. Its Mateur dpiMa am
the type of Alsablin th e f.abillt. of lesamw i o the selUtlon of iltabla
wrik, and the poslbilty of trailing to the shoon Line. The State wontrafs

I for the training oware and aotimns a f t wlowy mtil the persa teght has
ShoUn tllity to er w b nelUt. n at tln out thi pror It is s tlase

nessWr to pride Vte sbuet with beard a ll an S as tratate







L a aoUllr o tVLfO aro at prneont, 1986, six Nop-oes reoeiv]r
I rehabilitation Bervioe. The aemt have m"a attapt through ahurahoes, 01ubi,

SOnd Oa& noB to locate other n&e oa eos. Thit wal amber hea tmw
possible solutions. It aks very highly fr the indpndone o t h rtae that
there are only sit perna s ooding this axtra oare in the largo Mleg population

of JaacolStLe, or elm it i1 e Indloation that there is little artiuX~tion
baatmi 'ho govermat school ahd those to nied tho help.


The chire obstacle to th e aoooes of th we D su oo to 1e in not makin

Sprqt and efflolent ontnts with new oame au ooperative aganoloa If th
ono to bo trained is depao~mat and has to loae hone to be trl.inods it is hard

i to prove" Ki naintr moo, but the Balvatla Aro y and the Qohrty Boerd3 have helped.


IThe school fbr th d Am d bld blind has hd a longer extstmn**. Superinte6L .

ant Foster pealed to th Lglature in 1886 in their beh alf ad was gratifsd
Sby the euabl.Uahmt of a s hool for both races in st. AuMatine hor a con-
tribution of $1,00 n4 tive more of lUnd mwa the bogi nniC orf 'he hool.
Clothes, board. aa moeicol attztioa ar*. provided by the State. Any ohild be-
tvon the tjos or six and tnnty-onti who is d~ft, 4mb, or blind to the extat

of not iMking progyse in a roalar school et eligible for aattt*ano, Ihe first
otr only 0oleC 1 oildrn Wo Mrolle d yat uqwrIt ireght wre o aa to be
oligiblo, hlhdrcn t*B parents wore unwitt llin to BrrSndr thmn to the care of
other


The sohool ftoilities have ben stedi4ly improvinG. In 1X91 thero was C
appropri&tior of 13,6I00 fbr new bldti Ln for tho colored students. Hero the
blind Ajd doatf tar tauGht dosnaking, piano tuning, bead oanatraatfon, oha*-
oaning, imatitiro aking btckLt-ankfinf, brocia'akih, and oarpntry. Thia school

Sqppl~esUt tho service of tho pUbtio hool8w and is itwlf un4or the control oQ
tho Board ofr Ni&atlon of the Stato. Tho students toile th reu rilr stat

---- ____ ___ _1






73
COWr ofr tur as Ctr as iu pratioable*. All the L4c.vhara arsu ualitied For

I their qail waric Up to 1986 there have boa ton colored agrautes flrm the

blind dkpurtmat, Ailh eibteds through the twlfth Vgte, n fourtimn from the

dsat dQpy~artsnt, lh only etaeW through the junior higi school* the aepln-

ation of the greater m ar Ira th deho r division Pry be that blindness is

booonng0 g lem onon. At may rate there are ta o as mau dant negro ohildra

as blind ones enroUI in the colored depawrtme~. As ano would expect ra m the

r tid of population of the to raaoe tioe state, there are about tnw aOm

nowhtS tU e. am maty blind Aite ohtldren a blinA negro *hildre. It Is a

surpri. e, thUo to fin four t1Aes as mqy doef white uhilAron as thure are deaa

| Mgres. It ny be that deaf nagro ahildiru are more ableo i Lshift Xur thea-

selwe a4 do not, the9~ before oom to t he tnl i of thoso ta Ould secure thair

tentawnoe to the state ohool



All that can be dona towards aking eiah studmat morally soumd, intelleot
ually smI -supporting is being tonae eaohrs of normal hd ildra ou hardly

appreciate the ditfiaulties to be fomun la teaching dWt a ildru by the aurtl
oular aLOmetl With Who bMe teobUm wi th h oitLs miom equip Lant, and with

the steadciet learning it taks trom twelve to fourteen years to ecOPl t. ti e

Seqpivalant of the Jmnior high school* Thu blind ohildran use Ue Brtillo systas
Sand hae a BStaille library at their dieosal* iuro as elrawhure there Is neud

Cor nleargegumt and renewri ur thu prnsuat ftilities. who potitou oat Or.

Settle to the Laesislturo of 193 will givt eon id4ea of the mnormous wbaot

of the =itiI

1The wftaent Jor the Golored iar and Bli'nd is badly crowded.
It is lato on the south aide of tho earps and at no great
d. stanoe roma th4 dmpartat foLbr thu AMits gchildr.xi hle proper
plate for this school is probably an the school farm at Can QGol
about iv e mils noth of Ut. Augustisn. If this iahool hIould
be moved to Cams Goli, it i a oonervtively estimated that it
mill roquiro at least aj,oiAu ft aI complete now plant. This
mOWmt offr may oultad build a girls' dormitory, a boys'
doritory, Mi t nl tration and school buildings, nd a water





TI
hosting, and i rag stem ..Add tiot room f or
tUls ashbol Is an itaoratif aed tnd abfio-i.u nlskOB 3.11

Froma the ords of the presicart we can reflise thst tnure mab blu serious

a*6d for Lho solorwi dpartmaant.


The third elaB of apeonitu .ools is mJuat Lor daliunqunt boye Ltriom the

Florida Indstrial school for Boys at Mariawu bhis sadool has d4artrAts for

both Thito and colorol boys who arn fbuni itaorrigLble in thl ordinary public

so&ols. 'hae aouadl o dSpartoant Inoludsa the ninth CrL, but vIry fuw are ro-

I tivted *ho re prepared to do trk abovw Uthe oeirh r ,rad. liouwor, 5no1 tho

I lorida .cifaA IMima ty t Ijnolude thea swrwILh, eiit&L, ELLd nint ^rtLoe as

eooondry o tion the whool has a plue in UliA stus,



the presi4ont, Wllard Ibvidtde, states in a letter to the winter that
Serythin that is possible is being done to provide just me industrial s pro-

Sre m for the colored boys as ror the whit boys, aan that myn dirtereniu that

obtainU i bab.e ot o fahrvritl or disormination, but rather upon the

peoliar noods of the boy theme *s*. in his report of thw ooloroe boys there
is Another aIple of the groat ftardation that hs been prlviously notod in

this sturf. Ho seys

ur colored boys are usually mor more retar~4d tha the
Mihto boys and wv find that the otual reuirionts of
proatio1ly all of the 1olore* boys ona be nt with graws
ono to ftNr inolualve. Whilo m do not have birhokr rpfdes
for tho colored boy, we are in a position to provide
proper o0rses for Wn cO d colored students on tho swme
bfala tiat. wa provide ror white students.

thi soons to be a vry strong proof that seooondary ehamtion for Dolored boys
kspi t al o e 0tt arieu d a my WraL the retoll story ahool.


'hlo mehool Unos thf stste taxtbooks and the work is tivam on -the aotrcat


,* ctlarone- J. -ettl., n1rFed Ba ool tor the D a' .B tbho Blind, presi dw'-

Biair t ReK.ort, 1936-30, p. 57

__ ___- __-- K-






-I


I


Boys e analtted io this eohool hairr tho privilaCu of 1 .rrmir their a hortoo of
tolwo or moro trades. They are taud4t to be helpful in keouin the ground as"

building in repair wad to have a share in any project within their oeisbiU4ty.

Just rooently it has becocs posiblo for than to qualify as 11fo-~l eer They

havu tho benefit at sharing in the ptulieation of The Tallow Jackot, th ir school

paeor, tdiah noLi tho Coltahita Soholwetoi Pnrm Asaolatnon contoot nwurd in 19345

A1Ia thoro is a apoo.al of frt and min to bring theno deullnquat b':-y tC tL e

Ian honorehl~ part ii thoei onuica unty an thatr rotin hamo


| aIn oniadsrng Aduit tho Str.-ou of Florida ha sM acaocql l s:ad fu: nactro sooon4t

ary oho2ocs on do 1 not got a ooplet pioitre o of thi o rucl oondtiouns ilthot a

a:arlisaa of the ptblie nd private negro schools and of theo p blio hools fto
Alto and ngro Ohildroa. For this rasonI we now R aondr nogro public ashools

Vrsum negro Lpvnto aahoolus


It tay be uoful to eazltia hore th1at tho usa of the torms "publioa and

privateo" in teroarnma to schools is nslo4inG, for the solo disttirnAtn counsel

to be hart tax racy la available or on0a elas and not for the other* n prat

ally every othor ngy the publo hase anoea to thu private ahools; thy are just:

4 -


jL*


plan ir ibdivititl Inritrw tion. his pla ovoroo.t: s thu ffic;altiuE presented

by ^ti corntnit turmnovor o 4 thir Ior uxtLnt o: rokrs tion, ttoir vtuy7in
lonola of intolliunoe, and thoir aa;,&ty for wor:. The pujiln arc plhood In

Sgr ua in aCoordans -th the lovwls mndN an nalievnemni tosati ~ vmi t the uas
oc thoar antrrnoo, A sot o' rnulo is g:von Ino-Waint, tudanni for thoir gulidaneo

Wh Ar rarA: on the oeapus a d thoir having otowan priviTogoae depend on their

daily aondtiot aoeuring t ho tsu rulos. '.tho IndLiUvial Rating Systa to uaod

and the boys in unch o ttago vie with others in their Kork, in orn in priviles,

in possoaing hcamora, and in C. -cr. m thoir louviw; the *&hool their la ia nther

ahoak mado to moasuro thor pronrort rid g their datertion in tho rotrmatory.




I
.-.- ____________________- h--
76
Sa pttlio as any bqrinogrin n t y?.oh yu pn"y ;r aty y Vnirrelf. In t. t dlB serta

t.-in itt~~ rit hU1ftoC sonf than AS tan school amd non-fmtx schools. The na o

^ thMs ane tar-'rinrlojy -' 11 Stoa'iso tCrMd to oo rroot wry nntbon the render My

c'-tTtfdn ".op to arpet,titon bet'mrr ttre t.n clacros of schools


Tn Florida there has alworu bwen Lar fal o ClaiAonshipd botwet the ubli o

: ind prtate a*ohn*ol ystr.., TMhi l-s the belief of dokcnd*mt in a raowat Ocurt

| tricl baetawn the Stato of Florida Ond MPBIn&1c Broi,

It is not too lmeh to amy thut tth privtt anhool ie other
or the pubue vahool, nor to w *but prior the CIvil MW
the burden of ednntion was borne amirely by tho print.o wmaiool*

...That prior to tho CiO l ar theo privto sohtonl Iws in hes
am rtO and tho bocrad ot th onaati al wets was le towl
atsurtd nd S Coahargeod by the private school, m~l thst th
setrD ory provui ioins fer mttion o1 nmoesity hba rctweL
to private nosmoolu tthr th a to pblio schools i4lah we
ihen s ale enmpt s p1ite property or ticok at the etswE
did not edxit.

1hilo theao words refer to pr~emr ondoitL io neerthe le, after th civil Far

the s--m nondltonin edttled, for imnodiato2y upon the lose of the struntlo

vnaroua Torrthnnm asnoint'onr rocnt d ann conabted anhools for Noriosa Ln

Drtida, r.nolding thoso u-der tAe Fronrdfti'rs urewt. Imano the private dahools

nplidZ) j ednmetSonnl faeit tIos bthore the 8tale tin able to help herself.


In refrr-reoo to nerro schoollr thare i another roltt5.oniMp tlhat way be

turmfld thnt of mra.o and atild ftnr itw prilvto eahools ham ftarnished -n Ita

broa-n supply of tweachrs for the tiseae ported negro schools. There is aleo

tho raolt-lond Ip or g4dfmllowhip, for drtng all the en mng years th

mporinttndants or public imntruotion harmw r.ive rot ooeot 4 retnton t tthe

private schools by pbllt hin tWfir Wotrlb t onu eac y r In the manmal reports

to to fLgslaturo mt t ttho eitticaiy or the Stnto.


I!. In the ft.rwaer Court of Florida, Jase tA, A* D. IEi35, p.e 7

13. IbTld, p. T.







STheire o mso the relationhip of bnrfotor and be.ficiary, inoe the

prit te gehoole sa w to the state parmta of Swmt on the ofr n.61 14f

i ath or the 10,000 children ftt dn the *elf-muported schools of the State.

Ti Ae hould be mno ml onsid 4etion for a tatU alr*c so hery-Ladn with

I anm that teamhrs are m~ rpd od s hool tWem we left urinired or

~ bled to rmu to eoletlt by mtmo of private contributions to supply mfalaes*

T lT ref w es fwn the Beream of *mastloa L waington ill sutstantate this

It by sm ohaam, all private ahooXl boldd be closed ev
night the public nohool qystwrin T -1 nwt tb abiloe 1 tWtco ovur tk
*ddd burdm for mP y arm,, sanee qpproxtA tey aoa-taUth of the
sch-e 1 opulnT Ion oa' h aO nttIvd t/Sktos I r, ;is Zv cC c;' d rivtn
Shool pupils.l ."

The National EAactiomal Assootation is worthy of attention thi it asoertsa

The prtrte shool, fie tf frma ia hrastas restrittioue,
bc oontrtbixtz',d t to a40tion ta grvat e4LrtL.4ji l loblar&lurj
Preltically wry nar nwmveaot is m~smndry mediation hba bogus
in nao Ui -alt or scati. r vtiw i sttl luLig-, undu hea
beea only really dn iopd in the ptUe sahooXls.
Ihe rolatica M lp mtiomwd harn mot eased to exit.


In order to oaarast the taz oahoola mth the ano-tax school it will be

Sauseeatry to use a eamm m.asrnat end to use a saoona 1os~ ity. For thi s

Season a qcpstiornaire aa aot by the writer to all the negro eoondary s oglag

pblUe ad private, in eritrs. nustod ar taking ena seool for oar~ r

a s leoto has boon m4ad of one of eash, tUt and noa-tx, fnom Jacks4 amA

PaGnomola, snd T w s. In this g tho throe aentn points of the Stte are

amred thus dating variety oondition s


aJMawravill is fortr at. in havrn several print hools. The 5m4
Waters Colle~e to soloted for oyarita ts t sItahaton lig, both noero hi


16. IbI. p.
2 ti it'l.eaq. t> i iriyWVatu, aoiol a &i4 .j*dUtk3, [CwniR. :Q--.'-,, BjLUMtI
1987, No. 1'. Rvartamt or tre ntfern, W M -or IaaooatOita p. 22

leg ProcedUM of the Wh AMcaml eitn of the Sateeal Basattonal
A--laton o 9 p--------
i









tbSLX COMWARZI0 O TAX AND RE-fAX GBOWLSB IX JdACs anuL


Ita a of Qa faris Itdantoa t x mahui j arwd mterd



BgLldija 12 brdak 2 brick


Irnb ban bandsospod


Pfl *epipmat 6 b&s9ttA bwL
etbaolU Daotbll





teaihbre n rtifl4 33 out of 36 9 out or 9


01LZ4 at= e athiotto
------ ILOarsy
dramaAti darlati

aubjoctck taught someai1 --,.0--
laanaial ala steal

iho eoote asle r.. somo.


tUiro0 incoes tiroe o oiaooa

OrdAd tuds Mmo-
tOitnge in Sool 34 peret 71 pofal


SanfMrd tiutL -- -- Oe MO


Pareab-tseaher
Azccoit ODiWE


t609" otedl
baw !4 01 ....


yuoo





yog
Yoer


yoe


3. A. S. S.g*


yas


I


U


_


L ~_ _____ ___ _______ ___


-- -- ------ -- ----- ---- ~ ------ ---rr~rrrrY. ---






T7

s hoolims Table I Pag. ", givos data rominig a s priority in the oLf-

I portod or anotea school in thU better ppearanoe of urro&undg, literary

Salit offering, ontinaton of students in college, and in the ue of standard


,
I


teetaM hile the ta school git mpore enamideratio to amMroifal tu4des

lapaaoeru, and gaws other than footbaXll


In Pensaola the eowaLriLs is Lqate eaq for there Is not ne private

school in tha teit doing rEgular high ohool wmrt. The iSt ars of Mteroq w

eaOnasting a Cmol oampritar grad. m ano to sght, but in 1936 it has be

traume'rrd A* fr thLer hands to thoes of the aerole womm of aenaola. Ch the

other hand the PmAatnola high school for egmroes was in 19135 the first In the

State to be Listed &a a regular faryar hidg ehool. its preset status dhow

It still t r e but it Is not one of the ahools aoredited at this writtnt


In taqp the eodttion Is iltIar. Ld Wd let Hig becam a rowpdnid seor,

high school in 1926, mad sinoe that tin has bom sortted. W dltot Higha'

mwors to tho pattioauire Show 100 prenat ftr tfhore with degrasm, lubs in

athletles, n dramatloe, wth sate inoma d in the shool progrEa of feu4dee

It dmdnidst rs standard tests and reported 30 percent of its graduate aB ontian

L various aollegos. The peromtage for college attandw is lown thA that of

the JoLkmnrw lle sohool possibly dm to the Cultns of colleges firm Tmw ,

The privt nego schools of T'ys are grad schools or have rweenti been

raned to h nt nth grade in order to bola the oadrem mjnil they we eligble

tfr asttbwe to the tenth gr4ad of the mLor hlig h egro schools. The siol

condtot*d by the Sisters of the PHoy Iamen of Jesus mnL Mr ise junior high

wbool for Negro e, atd that a oted by the sisters of St. Joseph extana

through the eght gr-asr grwu a Childen h attend. thee, emhool hveo the

beamtit of teashoerl ho Imak a life work of tesohing, and thy ae in arrounwL-

ings that k*ep befor thm their high dostln as ohilroan of God






*0
On filndl tLher'tre, that the private seools go a step broad the t
schools* 1o realis that ahild e attending anfh ashools havo equal aevntmanu
Sin o oular training and that religion addm to and perfUot u lar knowledge
is to relish the position of the Cathol and anaatholio private schools a

their slt-aspported wrk. Theso soools hae always been and are nmw bewfit

to to the State.


The State has nat beo av ree to r~oeving this help fro meotaria ln tl-
tuttAns, for she has constantly looked to than for teachorm. wahn lorida's S4a-
atlonal Survfy Comidmlon, at a cost of T76,,00l undrtook to holp the mshools of

the State through theo .onalsiones r Aaoee niaona, the lst susestiou emphasized

afts Ito try to help the private school that are proldtng toaahors*" a~n 4"t

I alsnd a geerout measure of State financial operations" This ms not

s nt as a return for help already egnv, but a* a ms s to further sesl e fit
on behalf of the Stata.


Florida hu oted before with u tim s rrti e Thre years aftar the

Constitution of 188 was ratified the Legislature aM sE layitac aide a three.

year-a 1 lrer and granting 6,300 to the Florida fonma Sohool and Buainoes

Institute in White Springs* l ,t *Wy w oe som of the sea legislators ho

Shad three year before tade the ls restritiLu the use of school aW lvilinag
in that short tie to laegslate lan varione to ttt for the reason of sIeuring a

promise of oholarshps, in other ords to receive help.

For the soa reason the BSate 49os not hesitate to mooept m'e ftw the
Quaker, Aana Jeanes, in order to finane county agont*. B hat not refused to


IT7. Gorg0o S Bteayer, aAtionaml sa t Comdian S t% fkport. La9e,
|p 378 I
18. Ls of 1.jriP 1889, Chapter 3"8
T ihomas 3krte Conhrajn, Hiutorzy of EAobtion in in ora 1981, p. 101






81

un Jutis Roinvmld4's n~no to crest her bWldinpig sh* seooptd th PabodW

oniq s a lon as it was awvalabloe. ho 8 tn hes Fedoral ftxda dollar 1br 4dllar.

lTh Btate has n quarrel with ~ae And how a these people got in touch ilth

the Statel tha Ike an offtr to givt iaW to toh State if the State will fur-

nith an qual tmamt tbr ;. peOied4 purpose. The Stat mfloepts becine it

ntuns a ma nifioent contribution awards providing for school nrods.


Vlq owsat the State remrse the orde"rt lay senot sho ws to h private

mshool, 9W1 will give you fif fifty1" y Wnot say to the MethSodit Gburah,

"et us uee your mAoatlomal buildings for the rivo ehol drqs, and we will pay

the teahers." Thm propose to IBWrd later College In Jcsk~rwca ll*e .th

schools are ortrwed this offer, "Furnidi the room for a hundred pupil~B gn we

will pg the toaherse Your teachers are oertifio4 your buildings are soprior.

Take these Methodist holdrea, give Uta the religion you protest and that on

stount of qW being a State I aoaSt gi r The State will be helped you will

be helped, tho ohildrm will be helped" M'y rnt mko & a Lller ofror to th*

Cathofo Siators ho twha been t ahing egroes in Florida for oror seavnty years

'four schools aro aoeroditecd your tnohere qualified, your b4tldinus switabls,

so we will furnih yur ohildrca ttbmook, we will pay your teachers, wnd you

em teauh Catholic hdldr.. your religion. nothing in your teoasing in against

right morals. aId riht orals aro what we pay to ha twaght, but we are missing
the foundation on wMdLh thy rot.*, What 1i the dlftrm os b ~an o c cepting a

fifty-fifty offtr and Maidng La utlar net


LIt tho State analyac her own poliq of eelbanmiatit, nrstand that the

offer will be waarttal, that those to emo avil thoweles of It will do o,

and thoern to Am t l will not be dAprlred beoaise equal opportunity does t

man the swa opportunityL t the State realize tht the ws cial lack i ;t

sahooli if sharaoter training, nad that it will alwys be lrr in dales based

on religon.a Tho the problem of trafnin in eharncatr wil bo solved for ay






82
ehildra, ttn thyn w.ll hao the ben ft of eligia even thouhA otWere tll

oonan to b b 4spried in fnt baing elbe to atted the hurch schools. The State

Le os aw toned to thi philosophy for her state books are repltee Uith s iaetsm

I profmsin t at eqal opportaitr ast be pr vi4ed for all bat olrne otaat
peramt a uneiq provision ftr rral and a itj Siddrmn, as wl as fr those ln
the halte nd th negro ahool


This question for paying toahers ant d f~m~iri books for ohildre d e

the bAuldings arf finished by print sbseoriptions o rv s m a l nstaf e for

Ste solutica of the amir burden borne by print schools of the tate. If ofter
the postbiity that 1n~so Florti has pone so far as to support s d4 yIstca

it wold puah one stp father ad giv aid to the privat schools, ad in this

wa boeasn noted iar ita justice in having a triple ngytit the wone %hl pr*
vides for all the child. There seem to hae bee this l.tent desire on the

part of the sapertntmeamte for saah buItal report has toka eopi se of alU
I the private suhoola that have eooperatd to the btat of farnAid inaftormtian
idtabl* for inelndU in l uah a plioattan. Thee hau bwe so forw n or pwer
iedsion broU ht to bear in havin these reports msd hman their preparation

is a mte and qont lwous u laknowiemmt that the State remoopies the justio,
itf wt the nxdttooa of a triple yestam


the public oseMondary hools for egree in torit have had a long but
speatw lar growth. At first the Negro' wro potntisd tant. Uttout ragoe*

ition, thma, bens of the possbility of partly finanng the public school

by the ale of negro Ulves, thr awn* thin the loegI arws of the State, am
now ~o4jy the rifts orf edldrea of the BStat.


SM w not we the privwt. nagro shoola follow the asu evolutio? Thqy,
too, hao long been a potetiality reconbs+d by the states thuy hba e ntao

offiital resopitlon as a m msl to help the State it its distresxsig ned for





8a

tiaahers, so mrs wa hope for the time tAm thr, too, will ome into tthe righit

of abldrin.


Hafvin see the emaper boaben the ngro public and private Ohools w

oca now In ewog re the n gro pbtie schools th the state mahools for tilte

hildras. At tirst migt the rlatia aip appears to be that of the tble story

Where the *bilan of the f ree am- are preferred to thom of the bond a an,

but this eoniton is cgrfl hl ohlnging.


In this lwprovem nt of necro *Shools there is n s l so ind l at the

tUm of this waiting more denrvien of eredt than A. D8 mi i m, State Agent at

Tallahasse. In his report for the 19d5 blmial publiention he gave a a nrya

of the nC o wboole hiaoh will serv m a illusbtro ion of the onititlcasm ih

he has sot himself to better, and the a awwi t hLou hah he swPeoft to

aohio thia Es

Tbh prmtetg of e Ubllr in gra&s 1 wL M84. Fiv out
of eary f a ddldfra wore i the firut six cgre; la foar
aomt o all of thle dcldn wer in Sgr a 1-L6, In tatym*it
Other otmue more ta 90 perrt of the alcrm are la
grad* 1*68 The situation ln th thire -p*r-t a item was
probably to th fteat tat school steals halm not provided
adeato school house, materials, qualified temaherm, ade at
m fartel tbr toherm, aad higt *Nhool oppormtie for Megroeem.

Thi i Ustigction has bee rnealing elalar saoditione but there as slays

the hope that th dat wfre aerWy history, wrtte perhaps in o emaggafte

style, ma that s2ndtifs are not so f plormble ta reall ti lh report qwot4

brings the f tat to 193, bower, uid le~ es no dunt u t to he r*aliy of the

reported ditti on.


It is furthUr shoe that in 1936 196 Flord had less the ftLo percent of
the ngro chil4rea avnatll in sob ool rolled in ga raes tea, tlevmt, ad twnvj


19. R. S. Cto, Btlmial Report of the Sfpintndmnt of Puie
latroqttan. 1835-36, p. --






--4-.- __ .
84 I

; and trwty-oi~lt amrutioe had ta aildrn enrolled in those grades. Si m there

ar onl4 atzty-rm oounltes in the State this ans that about ono-third of

th~n hawd no hi eadhool erotlmmt m g ngero pupijtt in the totd axmb~r of

schools in Florida brai mgrad 7-0 there vwer 33 schools for raiteto pils

S8ad for Boerooemj mSag those Cith graius 10.12 there wro 30 for *hit

i pilsu and 3W ftr Negro.w. this statmt n not Lahe the eoplcte pietare

i less wo ac that the aber of white ahildra enlalld is 328,a 3 in eagr-

I in to 12,79 for eatroM s so there hold be three times aM wy schools

for it te an tfr onro ohildrte. The ratio is rskalw l otr tlnes an many junio

I ahools ir Ttto ohildra adL six times as msy unlor high schools.



imtn 1936 grades aimn d eiOht have bee oonelred soondary graris.

i th this dsiiantion in udnd th ro~ar d ll find herewith othe idof Ita of

the stat's spqwnditures listod for ormperisao. In vleo or the fot that the

I nbor of tct o Midrm in the six qper grM-ds is mre than six tias the a-

bhr or oalore4 oA.ldra, the xpondl~tures far whitu children mhculd be divided

by aix to e~irminat tho vriatton d,4o to e maubers onrollod. she ramber

I ulbitted aro a ooQartisn in dollars, but there i amioa to be said otherwise.

lABS; II is made frcc ract Ulti d an pages 4Gc-475 or the bhilmiSl report Lor

the year 1D3 It easily e h lri or that whito teno:era are,

in total tamont, tprMtially dtable that of the oolored tonfhers, and we knor

that the voat l nal trernah slaTrien wr really arranged on a ~oublo bats.

EvmBi wrm isl the conditio revealed from a salary soal re the largent mw

Sba or th. te achers wewr in the $1,X00 ranC ille half oC the anero ta&ohers

reotr4d less than $400 m$uaWtIt 3Y In frtUwr stauy of Table II it ill be sea

that the tm itras that hae about roeahed eqillbrim uar the xpanditure for

tatbook and for damustration asti l y mre likarise new itones nd this m

plain the proportioml sharo of funds.


TWipp 4 2-47b
2a. Mid., p. 186
*9 CM5+ _+~


- __________- ~ I


-


I
I
-- --











?s ;Drsaia FOYj*s f IwP MA RX fJ GiA[S ORA, 7 m 103-3


----~~~ ~ -- -Wf rIWCW~


"~Ldto Imboolsr


- ~a ar..~re~ L w -I

Meett. Stool.


TeWMl~pa
erttoa





Ltrry apkp

sppl as

MdtSon
CoTuty lino mupile

TrawoiWrttiMon (71,37



Fuls, oeo.

Janitor ajplionr

health, obae

DmonaLration

la~t
AMba t g


oetli t



Bwd Airks, tr
lartappray bo
Hejb&, botee


JU7,807.J7





*2,6>4.06


9,8t .097

052,14p.^3

13S,193.66

1129303.41

67,19T7.3





32b06D.77

TT'ss63.a

s36,731,0-7

49,pI3,82

31,733a.3

25,,f6. Us


(1,a,04)


i7,la






13.54
*
T,Tanw60

UO0*TS

6,435.06
nocn

'.h.~


_.,4 B3S.5



7,DaaaBJ
,0321.0






1,,. 335,i)
1,501.00



6,14.i46



l,585.46

618796

3OSP.7


* Conasair ;ig "tu rrAi~o ait siz, Cthwo itrvi ft"e .uwivnltt.


IttA


- ---


- -- -- ---- ~--~'~~----


TABLE. n1I




- .- -_ __



Another fvid tkat o ttons orf tne*latiy or opsiadotuiV rlGy .uifles

is VEmrat in th* maber of standard sehoole in Flbri4t for btt ranes. IiD1l

in morditatio in th Sohe thrn Aslsenatio of Seoondr rSe obo s ati CoUe's
ihmre Flori~ reakl Lfth in awmjrhip fur th BoutheU States, 1l1wrO ar

niNe*-ix AitI hio smthools ma o=l colored hig sohLol. Iun Statu amorxttatioa

a Lnwation he ehnpt to the abdit that ther e f nw ZTD Atle S bli eadolx

empared i ath te aeresdited laod schools, Th e olotred -sho~ s aould be
b better sLn anly temlvg wuatiles ypt in 190G for ogrpoo all of the =m-n
romiwt rfm th e St ta n bth but. o the wAt or inftrulnian alloto t.


OUmia al progrns, hwnrevr am be *an in the inoroasd enrollamt in the

eGro hidji alwaol. rca nine saltor studatsa iA 1913 thi tio first ngCro
*ihowl offered the tlfth pgrad, the wasnot Ia rea uahd WL89, an biwreos pf

114 ties that of 1912 owr a perio of tUgrty-tOur ytars. This vrmat hngec is
illustrated A In iure 3, page 7*. This wrnly Ahom tht mre or.e tmuld piro-

dAm better reoslts.


We hw re~ se thus fer blst is proTided uor tho Studlcnts L th: uesro mf"MR

ary as+haole of tlorid4. Icm aor e~aTnerlon.s nar pertinent to tho 4disoaslas
The first of thsew It theo Qjwpst of Siat bawes of pa.itos S o b t lp to

ollmeg latn the repUe o hs abt. e awttoned 'PwustiL ira atiotn to andA of
sixty-thre diTffrw t puritta =ag6ed in by rsAadatef of wnero high afLooals
all uanot be listed hre, but by olastltying thi inb si S o the rnede
w 4nasfler thel Im u evenite. ertlh-W aegro saools rporte4 that thir

namn-stlsg fLaCmta angag4d in zrk* Aich be tOmedi *11 o sorwtoe ThtVr*
nine sIoola rsorted amosteo sorvieo. the namer of killed Id utiAllle

laborer wma pratioally the s a 4 Lor in freque~ than thoSo sunteri


a3. tbi' pp. 183, 138 laS, 163

























--_ .n -- -- --.- ------- .-"-- -- -- .--- -.








tLXX3 ------------ ___-- -- -'- I


;1ru.. d ..~._ ~. ___.___.~s .. ..


;g._(,"-----.--.................-"----.U-"--,'--"- -'-L,...'--- -,-".

,lAO------ .... ... ,


:l,W-0----- -- --------i----.------...- --.




igoc '4-----------"--i--,.L- -- _" ..-""--,--.




f I


l to-------- -


-a


lEW. s. l mm>I Ii as InU4 WtI ta a I3I


---'- ----~~~- --


-'--


-- -- --'--


- ~-"-" "








daatio Serviee. Agent wero pih tjy more reu r thrn rA:6 1l marodmUs.

but both srhded le in tho group of sr. OVly ton was teaching amtiLned,

ilt h fct fits in lwth the high pOrsat that attend oollEe in order to fit

thoMolvas better sd, at tho saw timq to smour oertifeates for toaahiinP wpn

gratation fro eoeollefe. The pvtrmwunit enwles of S. T. A., the C. Co C., an4

'* P'. A. wareo setioned nly f ve tinse ollotivly. ie vway Judge from th

large num r in publlo and dom~atic sorries that high schooll graduation givws a

Mrtain standing to the colored boy or girl -hieh remlts in ma dAtate e in the

struggle tr aployMont, sina a a jority of nro graduates vwo d1 not go to

colloao ntor public or dmeetio serrvi o Shorthnd and lirpine wer mwntione

only onse eaS, The proft sonr were ne~ggible, for more traLninG is need

for them th is offrrd edby hi rshool grataition



The second ocandderati o of intetrt is MA the grauatao go t elet

to attabd oolloee The prinipals from %St Petertburg, iU Oake, ltti asd

TallQmhme reported that as hidh as 65 pera~ t of their graiatoe from nogro

hih schools attt~nui their studies in alooleg d gve the name of fifttm

o0llge attan~ dd. They ue Ulsted hee in the order of their trorqamo in

Shotoei Florida JAgrioulurl ad Meuharioal College, BUthme-Goolama, idw&rd

Wattori, Tuiskego, Florida BMonml and3 IndtraLl a tiu bzte taifeladeps and West

Virginia States hile Havpton, Atlanta Unaltrity, New York Buineass Collego,

GoufL Carolina Stats, Glark, md Gafllm4st w re r at and ooe at e This se-

Restoni of *eboole show prefuiwrn for state institutioa, and that uvs to be

epoted.*


The writer fidns, too, frame mn ,mnatiwon or the d1ermes hlId by the

prinapals of the Florida negro high school that fifty peront of the teacher

ren radantod frn Floridw A riatural a4d Mehahial College, thile Bothunxe

Gookmsa and Colt iaR are nas with troe ech The other d groev re frm

twntr-thrw differTt 'olloges. This boars out that ha bee gad in prLvioum


-4 I.


4





__ ----------- --- __ -. --- --.- -- ..~.-- ....

89

i pap here it wa shom that part of the trinimd in Florida has boon the r

nalt of inteodnp feature.


WrsiWn an a posibtillty Stbr hilt sWohool gratiates has not bot stated, In

P3ortid this etra.inr, ft nero hrt school graduates to .fumi hod by Bethua.m

ookman olleg in ayto n BDabh ad by Bmrebt HoAspital In Jtckonvtillo. Thqy

offtr trairnin of about the San stAvnlld I copy of tho arrtrtoae re airyemuts

tflt Rrowwtr ill eorrm ti both

l afpplloeaB T'sst heve sixteen e'ets froma an
aeoredilte hih school
AC mitt be betw een eit t n and thirty yonrs.
Orsdos rjst tavera 7T5% or oar.
Ritrrano fee of thirty-fiv 4ollpre to cveor
the oot of first semester books.
4 wateh with so ehon fhind tois noenFry
Reti ai muet be Protetant,a, an a ertifiast.e
from one' a Pastor must owudh NPr ohrajoteor
Recent picture of self met be sunt to the hoipitnal
Aiplount. ust h.ve bean Rncinated for smtllpox,
han typhoAd Tooine, dental oertitioat~e
tonsilfl In food oannttltn, and eya elrtlioR'lto
Applictant mat soe urnmihed with bathrobe,
house ieoon, and eatoer,
Qlrls antelnr this hbonital trc taareft by vhite doctors as well -s eoloredl an

ow hl.ao show th x th s t a allowed outside f thae pblie eeools.



This subjetq of the present status of negro hig schools ill not be oo

Spinto without a refrcane to preset Moredltation standing Of the nlne1y*'fli

*cahole a4ntiono, ttan are aeoredited by theo sftat, ani one by the souther

AsIooiation of Secondary schools and Collor,,* seasons for nosmccrodstataio

lar listed as dafioltevy in library faoilities, eaoune eqiipmont, or teacher

;I palifltoaton, msorctty of pmAlls and lack of attamdanoe. Corration for those

-.d other shortoomings will be found in tho chapter an reoac sndatio o.




24. Colin IErnliSt, Stat R oatei onal _Ltogy, 1927, p. 4.44
I^ J T -* V > .- .. '











I













I ,7- w flo" "
1 LI







a,
S-0
----





11




MAP OF FLRID DI

) Stat. Aocredited Uogro High Sohools
Southern Association Aocredited
Negro Iigh Scahool., Publio .
a southern Associ&tion Accredited
Negro High 8bhools, Privnte





Ylgure 4. ACCREDITED NEGRO RIG SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA, 1936




I
91

Tc those sahoicolon nho rcmh y bL aL.tious ftr bett-vr Oeucit-f-t und. eihop fCur-

ni it.:t 1. o o9vXiLrc0ial O:CLi ..toft ho viords of PrvsBdo:nt PrIt1hetuL .' tLe Carnegie

Pounit',i arju ir Oonsol)ti lAuna

Tha publ o scheo A mnk- its F ru)tutus eOILsribu01 tILn to traiEinnc.
in orafts hen it teaches boys and girls in the emeuntary
Eaoho:l to do uch wr L tler-. t .as VLil give .- Lhai the disciP-inee
of mind and the aoursay of lanowledge neoesary to enter a
skillod oraft. Tho grott.est ecrvioe the laSentary school oan
dp for the boy wro wants to be a arpaiter, or a awn=, or a
machiniilst, or an eleotrioian, or a plumbur, or a glaz.er will
not be sooompished by trying to teach him something about any
of thesa sekllod LtrLE-L3 It .wll do the gre.uast posalblo
servio* for him it ees to it that he knows the english
la.gte, p omll,, that lho otu reason in tormas oW- his olukt,at'
matheatila, with sharpness and toouraoy, that he und~rftands
I'ha fundiamnntal principles upon whioh hie i;gveramunt rotsE,
and that he has acquired in the process of his *wammtary
education that thlrou~iess in thsioa aiplo astbjoate am the
quality to turn hi. mind to one problem or another fhich will
qualifLy dim to o to a tri-do-sohoQl und to do the 'wrk so
ell that the trades mohool will not have to teh him
Engi sh and elm -antary n athentlos

Eo ldxttly tho Proeldaat was including seventh and eighth grades In the eletnatry

Scho~l1, rovertholoas thilt advice will belp aohoola, p&rtioalarly th4 tnaller onea,

to :oop & lavol heed amidst all the olamors fur change and inprovewaatft that may

be heard.



























Ii
~~ I~F~Ti









CHAPrat IT

RAsfMfItQos PFOR BftlO WCAma1S


ihus at thai. rcat* t ha. L tujod ihj hSitwry o" VtZ aLs bom o*aWPhlinhed

in nigro tucbatio in L loridda, Wa tw btbt.U id tawt duIugI aunn d iL roi inuaa to

mson at more -B be aamoqIsed to bwter tih nrjo pubilo whools By ames-

sit~ the daisuseloa hb bla n coand4 to tm realt ai' tnets but am it is po

*sble to soar into te retgons oLr aay ad prophsM.


ie years have paassd tlozi the ~~imraduman l Surv Ga aanon mmAW its

rwoummatahna 1a. o:' tUe h aTv bean fbollwood A 4w -ahku ha not bee

fU illted are liitod herW

1. to adequate trm nig& for efatn teachers,
8. Btronwgr lews for onsolldation and tranieortalce so
that mouatios will oel a beunfit in olhaniit diftrieta.
3. Ortwer porer oested in the State boar Of c haaton to
reire loae l uosthori Liu tu at i.d to noigatoe w rkc.
4. Apotuar o t oaf Jnt tte of iite en4 n gro
odasators to rk for tu betterant oif tw tflorlM
Afitelttral and Miehealei Colliug ftor ngro*.

the last. R rrestion wUalA directly InfloUme the nero hiprf emaool for it has

boe thoe that half of th* principals of sah sobols are trained in the

stata 0011golo


Of neo4alX ppliestlon to colored sohools 1* the follming lUst of vas

nidatins gathered trea the Rport of the Coassion of Beoondary 5Shoolsi

1. tea school. nar m itable for ll ahildran, mt uwey
colier preparatory.
at DOwaoss tportanoe of Mpartmt*llUsationa
3* lake eredLt nvalun flawbleu with the point qystmn of
thbe $nior high ahool.
4. Dreaso fstrea on *ehoLarShip iarka and stres
itisMutship rasrs.



1. J. DB l.tinson, "rnF wooded Changoe in ooondary Shouolin 5,"O5thft
Asoaeiation of QoljLgoe m an4 $omdary toboolI 1936, p. 172






1'~'--- '~ '~''' -


Ba


B 65 Dwream ~hais oan oeomo Tvan or learninA tr r
erDl, eultural, nd giritol uam s.
6. *dUil fMsubJh lad. todly teoo in at pduatng I
tIth elate and altivate fWutinC ftor beett I
Theeo weOeeNUtonm Ud taelmew sPnIally to ladhrtAril *Jmtas and ther
branuhos Suh s b*ealth, art, n dratilaw. Th Cafemie mit has serve its

purpose, mndO datla that inLtLtto4 it w ies that it should gi plac
to nres mat aLn n "reymVflg tbundards or perftrma** is new vmnluatlo

of tbudies mld likely be a presvntati ftr the d-qerdo@ hat of ribbtag
in smuiationa an or relying an othor sbau4mt fo r pr~parstion of Masn
orks

canat*d ith the aw aluaticua is the f*ta that Jameun ll buha bea
Onrying out a promr for partf-m wori ta which high ahboo stadmts meapt
positiU in ttraininE with the pprortal of the shool* Bush traAinig UtMitln
ebadata to ahool audit ona the bes of oratory wrkt The ple provw very
neooemut forr theu te stud et and it j~ possible that it ooAd be applied
in o mamnr in the **se of negro e hools, This wy be preaiae in th ab-
Sae* of bo eonwmio eqtipmat, and aain it sWy be possible to ears ftr ore
qaf ts in this wai nwea thou* sa.me e*qdpmt is pirovid4d


Peaides this pia Atereby the oam id beomes a laboratory tar Linaitrial,
weational, and other ark the are other way in tich a strong Ahooil-o*mamity;I
spirit ma be fste d, One of the to a st hool paper. Publiation ow t n
artoilat neanernig nahools It mqor pproprlate through al Mhol paew n
And eolue of lol papers, but for thls a qytmatio procramm ore a ree t o
thm anf o eadioun insert. Uowtwro pub*aston of a school paper mosts very
little. Besides the beMflit derived for the ig h NpOatw't thewe 1s posbly
no ether teprise that has vmah remlits in building up msool spit end
loyalty. A school paper any m have a finaoial return for soma partiapaste,
tfr Florida has alref prodaed aon colored writer of rzput. tSor eaet
Mrsbton a Florida colored girl, orkna her sg through C4globt Unlwrsmity







She ue rmd a tf*leaddhp by the Ouggeata youFnktion to go to Haiti Mat

Jeist ad Lmars mldtiam tare. Tw of her tbook are iUhghtftl stories
-W M tVW book nte6t.


slowly 4oBmct4e with te nwper poadbilities is the kdiLng of bfllintt
I d UqmpLe that dAow fort pupil-groth, 9J id.m thows boletAns utid in ashoco,
I others e suld be dlq d4 In utor tnadowm. This worttthilo ae of bulltina

41plw.s wmld be m mwr to interest Sdldrsa of spVerior abilities, ino there
is* ano qeal provniuo a=dM for theam


i A l-ti.es ftsm Urkwind a link betoam Mbool a4 eo-n ty. thoem in th
eolor4e sWhoolw aro rarely fund to be lustrautionl4* All seol sbort lmte
hold have definite flWational values thidh tend to integrate the learning. of

the Calaroa Te it wlotud t be Anne9 avy to use the sUt noth, as the
s eriuteat somseats, for prepartlc the calling uwroise@.


School libraries form a fourth bemd bbee hkme wid smbool t.aiy ohoolB
are rIniat n in ~bray eqipmit and gav tht condition as a eanee flor nb o
i aaoreitatiaa. Onm uggc tion tor limited ibrary twilitia woad be to hanv

a sposili romn Masipd for Negroes at the Pllba Ubhrary This was don in
J*saiaonlle until 1938, 1*hC se iparate btildin wU s a M.ld to thes in
Sile' Br'aah, a disiaon of the oi.y. Thera the colored people Ajoy the beaB-
fit. or af up-to-date library for tasuIves. The owmBad libray wantri-


budgct eirpluai ftr iehool Ubraries.


Sies legIron uem to be a rsw epeoiall blateod in ates, it Ls pathetiS
to flat w little provision made fr ate in the ptublo volms Perhaps tho
oBinwfml td ea would be aolioited to tfunidh mitoal itsUments for the Oeatie
stion of burgle and 4rum eorp, if not for oaplets bnds. Itst alit d *sail

I"- --__ ________






96

be tho mamn of mkLnc a living for sm utudr s, and there muld be a retmr

tor efort un the itorouo d prepir-tio for lai ure tim an in re lnaemnt of

I aanmers. Psra x teahr organisatiun could be cwaow0u1 od to holp in 1bo aisae

Spro~rn.


PArent-tetheor asooiatione sound to bo the oulmanating Ncture of a droegrm

for pr bting better homa whool-oomunity relations. In ipito of the gowin

n~ber of mwh uasoolstions thare ar still iny s hoole lAaIdg their aopero -

tim Hovwer they coud help in the estmbltWBtt of ftmd. for aoholaremips

to hodptals and to mhools of higher kslning. It 1 beliUmed that Wy school

that it rwthout tho aid of Ut parent-teacher association Is deprrlTlr itPslf of

a powerful tott for good.


In regard to ourriOulms hagesr n the negro sahools th* opinion of the

prinUipals in mah schools is a pot oriterlon for onstauutlvo suaMM ions.

Mamy feel the no" of maOe mntional sbj etse, other a think that alth gnrMa
sateatfos should* d be hanmgd to mre praotIoal lin, ad business srlUtjth

Iaold be offered La all grade of high school. typInL, basinse a&blish, bting

and nselln eutld be uwftl o estnro l l dbjeota. Th isro rawing pprea~idta

of egro literature, negar history, r relatiams, mad family lift* Iosa,

publio spewkng, wider use of aqmpapers, fino art, and health ou1d all be

emdpal td. Supervisod sbhtW with a s oonnqcaat chapg to oaneknUr ealms period.j

vsa thouC t ery bdsirable beanme in apy home the lighting oonvzrmenae are

mot oondaive to ntuv The writer pprovos of theme ahages in their antirwtJ

and feels that more Lnuks*frii aid tva titonal mujerts aold wU repla the

tima mpt in the audy of Frncah and hidger athammatias for in the ftwre as

more ohlldren eoatiwa to enter hith school the sress on oolleg proeration

4ill anefoarily be lossma4 In some large schools the aurrieulum is varied

eiouhI, but in sadl sahooI there is neod of % progr more salted to the rme,







Booker t. afhitngton maw a rnpost for arre demonstration tEits to be

eiqpl~ in all the Southorn ishocls and thae sare aeEootjon a~lios of urse

to nlori

there tdouL be negro teachers or dm usotratrs Int wry
oaimamty, to etrry to the kegro fmauar the infrfattan that
the geBrally are fortb ate 'dtt frow go-wr i at liteUaturn.
Theme Upeo dmontrators sheal understand their raoes
eeaetrialties, their peeallarities, their roeaaie or lack
of it, Mtat f this instarew kserld be able to reta
the with them leaonr on der.tifieatim Until ther ti
a egro agent in every county, southen A Oriculture will not
attain to the rank tdah it deserns.

From the table of aspeqm tures an p~ 65 ao$ find that the ap tures for

I dontratoln s5aus is the feond it9n rrre thre is an eq1ualit or pro ALton

fbr tho two amouea Wtahington' sulgoitimon sose to have boan oppfoved


the ned tor aTrioultural and vooatioal aeratiot Is esidno L othor

S*e. It h~a boan tnt that Florida hae zbnda t reonroom liwludLng soil,
wrter Bupply, mnarIals, end thoEs profwts dorivod frea those gol nd wuterml

namrely, th orlopt, for*ost fish, and wild life TheneL rearoor providpor p

tbble tloative openincr far colored yo-th. In 1934 thore ware 13,000,, 0 aor

I of foret land, or 3547 poraoet o* the total aroa of the stto, lying tie be

Oea oe of oorattincG 4dsrtrutive turpantinin., or ftre"t firoaIj thile oUl

2,COO000 a er* wore mlttivted Tot Plord& &e t ortinr, tmelv rmllian board

fact of h ter adah is a bou one-lehte~EnLh of the onmt uswd. u wt nato of

n]Ld and the ltportalon of lutwer sbr thU oed of forester rTngICre, towrMftaM.
wardoms, tractor operators, mad fir-figfltlni errws. The abpartmWnt of *Publi

Inutrutilon tinse pM hlets to beo nd in ad@mvood oivlos, gneralt so-noe afid

other omrteos with tho hope of oorrefting by edwatLior this lose to Florid 7


S In ftbror pagou of this stu*r thore is plea of colored mtntatore asin


S. Willimi B t heat BileamiLl Ra rt or the Swe4ritenident of ~P iat
lxattreMtti, 19M, p. 10p 6 .3.

7T Oolin lUlih, PFor try, 1930, p. 5




I I



i fad hopin for help in their miaistry through though Mondary nIhooln Just lately

in bLJW the Solution of the nreictous iastrUati problem through tohe inhol

ha bee anIde* th ay Isa me the Iw M iMot sliee the foUL law c m out.
The Ia dLrme the school .omitt me of eah tom ed
aLty to ent aLd aon bher ach week hsor rnllLoua edmstiow
Behool shildrim ho parests so d6tre it an be mnoue4
ftra their other slasmee to attean th roUglous Ulass of
th&er am faith. Thl pupilt wil ree vt reader leredts
for their ork in this special elAss.

oe aiy or ttona ooarding to the law, is to insu the
eqpons of the rWUeigous eGlses. They met bo s pportod
by tWh people oC emah Gsls.

If FloriLd L*a4 a" her Wy to aept t his pla and let her high school dhildr

e ttead religo .s instrmoeton she apb ht be thl first to fallr the pod maple

of Miren. This would ba of special co*no to GathoUes br the Satal high
Bhools take ure oa 0ll C tholio negro obLldru above the nabih cgrs. lottery

Syet tould be Uk plm aattioed in th ohoapt4r treating or t a nd mno-tlax ahools
ier. it w wa egsted that the Stat*e srrang to MaGqpt thi banatits o th 1 price

i e sotools and the ian 0in a ons be allowed a portion or the ta nPmy thi

they give standard trai nLge 'Syv a*nt Flori follow the UeU of dzimaiana

by g Ling free tatbooks to all the aildrwp f ot.a ai a by letting all oblAL
ran ride bhr busses, and of Maine by tltting her pUtpls p to their rpeaotive
charahes to reaoivw rUelirious inutrutian? Th u thW ohrohes nuld again ftrnimh

aoro toemhere thsre voZA be relief and UItual help for all aosernide for
there i. @a Sarniou poteat al ty for help alroer exi iang in rthe aptd flet

buildings now rPsiL int itke the fv, s hool 4a at01 the wekL, Vhile the On*a-
ationa leaeWr arae mrryiAn their h s4a about a solution at their very ore.


This provision for religious t.eahin ie partL .mzlrly appliScble to t

high sOhools, for at high school le a soordinG to oe wcrd of thoes 8.
Brigge, nrote.sor of 'loachrg Qollege, OQeluipia UTivorsityp high ahool stuebt
erL wus*e.tL0blo to religious infiul'wos






99

Adlavucaoe is the ported at tfLih thn majority of those to
join a chu eek 5m aerhip %he h Um ofr onvursion' is
hirhost at L rteon, 'd tl.eo gr*.t ri40ion- of the) wrld
knowing the iJaprtmdonbllty of youat hba alway roglnied
theo vodm of St n adaantgL of this period for seourin
formal oJiernoe to oehurh or cre4 and for rllgtoms
instreotion At no other tite of life is cno O likely to
oarn for thef Inflat and fbr opportunities to sauorfie
~himlef for others.

He turthsr sttes tiathinker@t hwua ftit that tho rit4k.t surrioe to thee

ohil~lden iiul bo to keo a tr~ uital n of amdlosent love of isel into lowo of

nakdin4 ad to dirt their atlivit a cooorditnrly The ritoer ao oes that this

is very gzod as far as it gooe, but the love a f raiia isd to rest out Ma be-

yo=d ~a to his Creator. Thoe tat belitloes likewi, ~st. fr t other .M i ; is

there fbto tho rrds "Ul D a s T 'ItrT' lnocrTportaNi in tho trfte soalT


lHavir natliond the aloaoecnt period as a time of specatl generosity on the

pArt of Tyr-fl psopio, It owas iPaLttblo to &U a thought frO ArmhbiubOp Spalding

t :o a jY that a life of sud ito not far rasw d frcn a 11fo of holiness B Th~

concept of holiae.. for youth is ftirthr UI ItrgthJ4l by vrds of Festialasi

In *ilch h eqpreasIn thoVi thonft of both Brias mad Spald'i*n

Porenaitylly, hiah i canrotou of itself before God,
before =o aui hbor and before 4est lft, md hi o
nourishes at tho was time in It its it beart true lo"
o f Gd ad of sibor is the sole batsi of te royal
inoblamortt of haun naturo r.d to all national cmitur
that is wvrWtfable
I Will omes ntlli Curt h&r in wing his idxoe relutinLl r-olcgiu o wdca&ti CIa

ahon he auy that 'rtjigion is fimud at Lht o6radt oli' aioc of art, oi' Jrals

end or laS. If thoe ftUi ow a normal divrulopant, these oniaus~sa o,' reason,

soaking, oroating un4 acting prosuri thkuir aonrcmtion rwiU roiliucma* 'ais is

our hope.



9. J. eutamloast, An at UnJabul4, sftrmrth, Vol. Al, p. 90 Ak,1i h
translation Philogphy Md bBt&ttoMa by tdemrd B* Jordan, sa Yorkt, 1n1,
p'a'e 213




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